ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0247.v1
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; Logistic Growth Curve; prediction; evaluation; Movement Control Order
Online: 15 May 2020 (03:47:36 CEST)
This study presents a prediction model based on Logistic Growth Curve to evaluate the effectiveness of Movement Control Order (MCO) on COVID-19 pandemic spread. The evaluation assesses and predicts the growth models. The estimated model is a forecast-based model that depended on partial data from the COVID-19 cases in Malaysia. The model is then studied together with the effectiveness of the three phases of MCO implemented in Malaysia. Evidence from this study suggests that results of the LGC prediction model match with the progress and effectiveness of the MCO to flatten the curve, thus helped to control the spike in number of active COVID-19 cases and spread of COVID-19 infection growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0264.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Reproduction number; COVID-19; movement control order; epidemic curve
Online: 14 January 2021 (09:41:02 CET)
To quantify the time-varying reproduction number (Rt) for Malaysia using the COVID-19 incidence data., we used data the from the Johns Hopkins University Center for Systems Science and Engineering (JHU CCSE) Coronavirus repository. Day 1 was taken from the first assumed local transmission of COVID-19. Data was split into four intervals: a) Interval 1: from Day 1 to Day 10 MCO 1, b) Interval 2: from Day 1 to Day 10 MCO 2, c) Interval 3: from Day 1 to Day 10 MCO 3 and d) Interval 4: from Day 1 to Day 10 MCO 4. We estimated the Rt using the EpiEstim package. The means for Rt at Day 1, Day 5 and Day 10 for all MCOs ranged between 0.665 to 1.147. The average Rt gradually decreased in MCO 1 and MCO 2. However, Rt increased in MCO 3 before stabilized around 0.8 in MCO 4. MCO 1 and MCO 2 which were stricter coincide with the gradual reduction of Rt. However, the more relaxed MCO 3 and MCO 4 correspond to a slight increase in the Rt before it stabilized.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0478.v1
Subject: Keywords: Gamma oscillations; beta oscillations; subthalamic nucleus; globus pallidus; movement control
Online: 18 March 2021 (12:19:11 CET)
In humans, finely tuned gamma synchronization (60-90 Hz) rapidly appears at movement onset in a motor control network involving primary motor cortex, the basals ganglia and motor thalamus. Yet the functional consequences of brief movement-related synchronization are still unclear. Distinct synchronization phenomena have also been linked to different forms of motor inhibition, including relaxing antagonist muscles, rapid movement interruption and stabilizing network dynamics for sustained contractions. Here I will introduce detailed hypotheses about how intra- and inter-site synchronization could interact with firing rate changes in different parts of the network to enable flexible action control. The here proposed cause-and-effect relationships shine a spotlight on potential key mechanisms of cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical communication. Confirming or revising these hypotheses will be critical in understanding the neuronal basis of flexible movement initiation, invigoration and inhibition. Ultimately, the study of more complex cognitive phenomena will also become more tractable once we understand the neuronal mechanisms underlying behavioural readouts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0687.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: FMSTM; functional movement screen; pubescence; maturation; fundamental movement patterns; functional movement; gender difference
Online: 27 November 2020 (12:46:43 CET)
This study aimed to investigate sex differences in the functional movement in the adolescent period. Seven hundred and thirty adolescents (365 boys) aged 16–17 years participated in the study. The participants performed standardized Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS™) protocol and a t-test was used to examine sex differences in the total functional movement screen score while the chi-square test was used to determine sex differences in the proportion of dysfunctional movement and movement asymmetries within the individual FMS tests. Girls demonstrated a higher total FMS™ score compared to boys (12.7 ± 2.3 and 12.2 ± 2.4, respectively; F=8.26, p=0.0054). Also, sex differences were present in several individual functional movement patterns where boys demonstrated a higher prevalence of dysfunctional movement compared to girls in patterns that challenge mobility and flexibility of the body, while girls underperformed in tests that have higher demands for upper-body strength and abdominal stabilization. Findings of this study suggest that sex dimorphism exists in functional movement patterns in the period of mid-adolescence. The results of this research need to be considered while using FMS™ as a screening tool as well as the reference standard for exercise intervention among the secondary school-aged population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0464.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: Adsorption water movement; adsorption hypothesis; plant long-distance water transport; thermodynamic water movement; not-hydraulic movement
Online: 26 January 2023 (03:02:38 CET)
Ad- and desorption forces move water in living xylem/wood from the root to the leaf thermodynamically. The doctrine of plant water transport, the so-called cohesion- or cohesion-tension theory, postulates however that the process is physically based on a hydraulic fluid flow with negative pressure in water conducting tubes originating from the leaves. Lower pressure (suction) driven volume flow is physically a branch of mechanics. Moisture absorbed from the soil via the root is thought to be pulled up the stem by the leaves in continuous and tensioned threads of water. It is assumed that the hydraulic Hagen/Poiseuille flow law, derived for tubes, applies in the xylem. In a textbook of botany you can find the opinion: "Just as the pipes of a water pipe supply necessary water to each household, leaf nerves supply water and nutrient salts to each individual cell.” (Translated from German). Many plant physiologists consider this hydraulic principle to be correct, but it does not remain unchallenged. Doubts are repeatedly expressed. The question arises: How does water transport actually take place? It is shown how the diffusive/adsorption transport principle works. The partial dehydration (desorption) of the plant, driven by the diffusive process of transpiration, forms a combined concentration and adsorption-site gradient for water in the xylem matrix. Especially with open stomata the lowest moisture concentration and the highest number of adsorption-sites for water (sites with free van der Waals forces), can be found in the mesophyll cell walls at the liquid/vapor boundary in the leaf. The water taken up by the root moves spontaneously in the direction of this boundary and can thus partially or completely compensate for the existing concentration- and adsorption-site- differences for water. Thus, a thermodynamic overlapping diffusive/adsorptive movement of moisture along the stationary xylem/wood takes place. After the introduction and a review of some controversies with cohesion theory, the physiology of the processes associated with long-distance water displacement is mentioned below. A thermodynamic adsorption hypothesis of the natural water transport in plants, based on known facts, is presented.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0089.v1
Subject: Keywords: Ageing; CaReMoOC; Biomechanics; Motor Control; Rehabilitation; movement limitations; movement impairments
Online: 9 January 2020 (14:00:26 CET)
In healthy ageing, capacity declines in the neural, muscular, and skeletal systems, and each system decline has its effect on the execution of complex motor tasks. This decline in capacity can result in the inability to stand up (sit-to-stand, sit-to-walk), which is a key movement for independence. The mechanisms leading to mobility limitations or inabilities are complex, overlapping, and interdependent and the complementary fields of biomechanics, motor control, and physiology need to be combined to understand these mechanisms. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of age-related compensation in standing up and to consider the limitations of these results when analysing standing up in daily life using the Capacity, Reserve, Movement Objectives, and Compensation (CaReMoOC) framework that combines biomechanics, motor control, and physiology. A literature search was performed in the search engine Scopus, using the keywords and their synonyms: strateg*(approach, technique, way) AND, sit-to-walk OR sit-to-stand OR rise (raise, arise, stand, stand-up) AND chair (seat). Inclusion criteria were: biomechanics or motor control on sit-to-stand or sit-to-walk in healthy and/or frail adults (<60y) and elderly (>60y), and/or osteoarthritis patients as a specific case of ageing related decline. The review shows that movement compensations in standing up manifest as changes in planned trajectory (Compensation by Selection) and in muscle recruitment (Compensation by Reorganisation). However, as most studies in the literature typically use standardized experimental protocols where movement compensation is restricted, these studies cannot be directly translated to functional tasks, such as the mobility of the elderly in their homes, communities, and clinic. Compensation must be included in future studies in order to facilitate clinical translation. Specifically, future studies in the standing up task should 1) determine the effect of varying arm use strategies (e.g., armrests, knees, chair, cane) on trunk and both lower limb and upper limb joint loading, 2) analyse control strategies in elderly people, 3) determine the biomechanical implications of asymmetry, and 4) incorporate assessments of age-related physical and neural decline as well as changes in psychological priorities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0158.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: biomechanics; kinetics; kinematics; angulation; movement
Online: 16 September 2019 (04:08:13 CEST)
The injury rate in agility dogs is relatively high compared to the general population. No study to date has considered the biomechanical effects of the dog walk obstacle in agility trials, highlighting a research need. The aim of this study was to test for correlation between dog age, weight, speed, contact training method and agility experience and forelimb joint angulation and peak ground reaction forces (GRFs) over this obstacle. Dogs were filmed running across a Kennel Club (KC) standard dog walk whilst wearing reflective markers attached to specific anatomical points. A Tekscan Comformat and a Tekscan Walkway pressure mat were secured to the dog walk contact area and the ground at the end of the dog walk respectively. Joint angulation and peak forelimb GRFs were recorded and analysed. A key finding is that the way a dog will move across the obstacle changes depending on their level of experience, with experienced dogs showing increased flexion of the elbow joints and decreased extension of the carpus compared to inexperienced competitors. Higher speeds over the dog walk also resulted in significantly increased elbow joint flexion. Increased joint angulation and higher GRF’s are associated with a higher risk of injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0253.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: eye tracking; calibration; eye movement; optimization
Online: 12 November 2018 (05:02:54 CET)
Proper calibration of eye movement signal registered by an eye tracker seems to be one of the main challenges in popularizing eye trackers as yet another user input device. Classic calibration methods taking time and imposing unnatural behavior of users have to be replaced by intelligent methods that are able to calibrate the signal without conscious cooperation with users. Such an implicit calibration requires some knowledge about the stimulus a person is looking at and takes into account this information to predict probable gaze targets. The paper describes one of the possible methods to perform implicit calibration: it starts with finding probable fixation targets (PFTs), then uses these targets to build a mapping - probable gaze path. Various possible algorithms that may be used for finding PFTs and mapping are presented in the paper and errors are calculated utilizing two datasets registered with two different types of eye trackers. The results show that although for now the implicit calibration provides results worse than the classic one, it may be comparable with it and sufficient for some applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0084.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: urban beggars; spatial movement; socio-religious
Online: 9 May 2017 (11:04:35 CEST)
Urban beggars are social problems that are related to the poverty of citizen. In Denpasar City Bali Province, particularly in West Denpasar District, the beggars have specificity in activities of begging. Studies in this article demonstrate their specificity begging activity which can be evaluated from the spatial movement of beggars based on the place, time and the distance. Through the method of grounded research with qualitative analysis showed that: (1) the beggars have permanent objects to visit, which consist of shops, settlement and places of worship of the Muslim community, (2) begging activities performed every Friday for 6 hours from 08.00 to at 14.00, and (3) beggars not only walking, but also using public transportation to visiting the object that is relatively far from beggars lane. The findings of this study reinforces that begging has become a profession that is conducted in a structured and well-organized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0022.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: decision-making; plant movement; kinematics; plant behavior
Online: 1 March 2023 (11:04:12 CET)
Finding a suitable support is a key process in the life history of climbing plants. Climbers that find a suitable support have greater performance and fitness than those that remain prostrate. Numerous studies on climbing plant behavior have elucidated the mechanistic details of support searching and attachment. Far fewer studies have addressed the ecological significance of support-searching behavior and the factors that affect it. Among these, the diameter of supports influences their suitability for twining plants. When support diameter increases beyond some point climbing plants are unable to maintain tensional forces and therefore lose attachment to the trellis. Here we further investigate this issue by putting pea plants in the situation to choose between supports of different diameters while their movement was recorded by means of a three-dimensional motion analysis system. The results indicate that the way climbing plants move can vary depending on whether they are presented with one or two potential supports. Furthermore, when presented with a choice between a thin and a thick support, the plants showed a distinct preference for the former than the latter. The present findings shed further light on how climbers make decisions as far as support search is concerned, and provide evidence that plants adopt one of several alternative plastic responses in a way that optimally corresponds to environmental scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0222.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: plant movement; circumnutation; machine learning; classification; kinematics
Online: 12 January 2023 (09:34:31 CET)
Climbing plants require an external support to grow vertically and enhance light acquisition. Climbers that find a suitable support have greater performance and fitness than those that remain prostrate. Support search is characterized by oscillatory movements (i.e., circumnutation), in which plants rotate around a central axis during their growth. Numerous studies have elucidated the mechanistic details of circumnutation, but how this phenomenon is controlled remains unclear. Here, we use supervised machine learning algorithms to generate models that learn to discriminate between the presence/absence of a support in the environment. Results indicate that there is a difference in the pattern of circumnutation, depending on the presence of a support, that can be learned and classified rather accurately. We also identify distinctive kinematic features that contribute to the classification tasks. Overall, machine learning approaches appear to be powerful tools for understanding the movement of plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0164.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: rowing; feedback training; movement analysis; surface EMG
Online: 9 January 2023 (13:19:12 CET)
The rowing technique is a key factor in the overall rowing performance. Nowadays the athletes’ performance is so advanced that even small differences in technique can have an impact on sport competitions. To further improve the athletes’ performance, individualized rowing is necessary. This can be achieved by intelligent measurement technology that provides direct feedback. To address this issue, we developed a novel wireless rowing measurement system (WiRMS) that acquires rowing movement and measures muscle activity using electromyography (EMG). Our measurement system is able to measure several parameters simultaneously: the rowing forces, the pressure distribution on the scull, the oar angles, the seat displacement and the boat acceleration. WiRMS was evaluated in a proof-of-concept study with seven experienced athletes performing a training on water. Evaluation results showed that WiRMS is able to assess the rower’s performance by recording the rower’s movement and force applied to the scull. We found significant correlations (p<0.001) between stroke rate and drive-to-recovery ratio. By incorporating EMG data, a precise temporal assignment of the activated muscles and their contribution to the rowing motion was possible. Furthermore, we were able to show that the rower applies the force to the scull mainly with the index and middle fingers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0318.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Wheelchair; climbing stairs; dynamics of movement; sensors
Online: 21 December 2021 (08:59:36 CET)
The article presents the stages of modeling and simulation of a new design of a wheelchair with the option of moving up and down stairs. These analyzes were aimed at the synthesis of the de-sign parameters and parameters of the sensor and control systems. The simulation results were verified by experimentally testing the prototype.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0542.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Smartwatches, Artificial Intelligence, Movement Disorders, Parkinson’s Disease
Online: 22 March 2021 (15:37:13 CET)
Smartwatches provide technology-based assessments in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We present results for sensor validation and disease classification via Machine Learning (ML). A comparison setup was designed with two different series of Apple smartwatches, one Nanometrics seismometer and a high-precision shaker to measure tremor-like amplitudes and frequencies. Clinical smartwatch measurements were acquired from a prospective study including 450 participants with PD, differential diagnoses (DD) and healthy participants. All participants wore two smartwatches and within a 15-min examination. Symptoms and medical history were captured on the paired smartphone. A broad range of different ML classifiers were cross-validated. Amplitude and frequency differences between smartwatches and the seismometer were under the level of clinical significance. The most advanced task of distinguishing PD vs DD was evaluated with 74,1% balanced accuracy, 86,5% precision and 90,5% recall by Multilayer Perceptrons. Deep Learning architectures significantly underperformed in all classification tasks. Smartwatches are capable of capturing subtle-tremor signs with low noise. This study provided the largest PD sample size of two-hand smartwatch measurements and our preliminary ML-evaluation shows that such a system provides powerful means for diagnosis classification and new digital biomarkers but it remains challenging for distinguishing similar disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0075.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: high frequency; acceleration; vibration; orthodontics; tooth movement
Online: 6 April 2018 (10:57:40 CEST)
Evaluation of the effect of a high frequency acceleration device on clear aligner exchange intervals and treatment time required to achieve prescribed tooth movements. Sixteen subjects with similar Class I malocclusions, 5mm or less crowding, and treated with Invisalign were divided into two groups. Group 1 (experimental; N=8) underwent aligner treatment in conjunction with daily use of the high frequency acceleration device and exchanged aligners every 5 days. Group 2 (controls; N=8) underwent aligner treatment without use of the device and exchanged aligners every 14 days according to the manufacturer's recommended interval. All subjects were treated by one investigator, and results were evaluated by both; total number of aligners used, and number of refinements required, prior to final Vivera retention scan. A significant decrease in both treatment time, and number of aligners required to complete treatment was observed by experimental subjects as compared to controls. In addition, no refinements were required by experimental subjects, whereas 6 of 8 of the control subjects required 1 or more refinements. Use of the high frequency acceleration device in conjunction with Invisalign treatment resulted in more predictable tooth movement and a significant decrease in the length of treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0188.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Bitcoin price movement; machine learning; crypto price prediction
Online: 12 December 2022 (03:36:10 CET)
With the rise of Blockchain technology, the cryptocurrency market has been gaining significant interest. In particular, the number of cryptocurrency traders and the market capitalization have grown tremendously. However, predicting cryptocurrency price is very challenging and difficult due to the high price volatility. In this paper, we propose a classification machine learning approach in order to predict the direction of the market (i.e., if the market is going up or down). We identify key features such as Relative Strength Index (RSI) and Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD) to feed the machine learning model. We illustrate our approach through the analysis of Bitcoin close price. We evaluate the proposed approach via different simulations. Particularly, we provide a backtesting strategy. The evaluation results show that the proposed machine learning approach provides buy and sell signals with more than 86% accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0176.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Lateral Movement; Sysmon; Dataset; Attacks; Network Security; Hacking
Online: 12 July 2022 (08:23:10 CEST)
This work attempts to answer in a clear way the following key questions regarding the optimal initialization of the Sysmon tool, towards the identification of Lateral Movement in the MS Windows ecosystem. First, from an expert’s standpoint and with reference to the relevant literature, what are the criteria of determining the possibly optimal initialization features of the Sysmon’s event monitoring tool, which are also applicable as custom rules within the config.xml configuration file? Second, based on the identified features, how can a functional configuration file, able to identify as many LM variants as possible, be generated? To answer these questions, we relied on the MITRE ATT&CK knowledge base of adversary tactics and techniques, and focused on the execution of the nine commonest LM methods. The conducted experiments, performed on a properly configured testbed, suggested a great number of interrelated networking features, that were implemented as custom rules in the Sysmon’s config.xml file. Moreover, by capitalizing on the rich corpus of the 870K Sysmon logs collected, we create and evaluate in terms of TP and FP rates an extensible Python .evtx file analyzer, dubbed PeX, which can be used towards automatizing the parsing and scrutiny of such voluminous files. Both the .evtx logs dataset and the developed PeX tool are provided publicly for further propelling future research in this interesting and rapidly evolving field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0570.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Out of school activities (OSA); students' needs for movement.
Online: 23 December 2020 (07:24:19 CET)
This study aims to introduce out of school activities (OSA) to high school PJOK teachers in Padang Pariaman District, West Sumatra Province, Indonesia. As is known, OSA is an alternative for students in fulfilling their movement needs, especially during the COVID 19 pandemic. Currently, students mostly stay at home, such as studying from home, to doing activities from home. So that there is minimal possibility of carrying out the movement activities recommended by WHO. The research method used is action research. This method gets a problem, then arranges problem-solving, conducts treatment, and finally evaluates. The research results show no teachers who have ever carried out of school activities (OSA); understanding, implementation, and evaluation are also not understood by the teachers. After being given the treatment, the teachers became more aware and understood about out of school activities, starting from understanding, implementing to evaluating what had to be done.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0618.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: coronavirus; COVID-19; neurology; movement disorders; ataxia; Parkinson disease
Online: 27 August 2020 (12:24:18 CEST)
It is not established whether SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) patients with movement disorders, are at greater risk for more serious outcomes than the larger COVID-19 population beyond the susceptibility associated with greater age. We reviewed electronic health records and conducted telephone interviews to collect the demographics and clinical outcomes of patients seen at our Movement Disorders Center who tested positive for COVID-19 from 8 March 2020 through 6 June 2020. Thirty-six patients were identified, 23 men and 13 women, median age of 74.5 years. They primarily carried diagnoses of idiopathic Parkinson disease (n=22; 61%) and atypical parkinsonism (n=7; 19%) with the balance having other diagnoses. Twenty-seven patients (75%) exhibited alteration in mental status and fifteen (42%) had abnormalities of movement as common manifestations of COVID-19; in 61% and 31%, these were the presenting symptoms of the disease. 67% of patients in our cohort required hospitalization, and the mortality rate was 39%.. These data demonstrate that in patients with movement disorders, the likelihood of hospitalization and death after contracting COVID-19 was substantially greater than in the general population. Patients with movement disorders frequently presented with altered mental status, generalized weakness, or worsening mobility but not anosmia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0287.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wheelchair; hybrid manual-electric drives; drives supporting the movement
Online: 24 January 2020 (15:00:13 CET)
Overcoming terrain obstacles presents a major problem for people with disabilities or with limited mobility who are dependent on wheelchairs. An engineering solution designed to facilitate the use of wheelchairs are assisted propulsion systems. The objective of the research described in this article is to analyse the impact of the hybrid manual-electric wheelchair propulsion system on the kinematics of the anthropotechnical system when climbing hills. The tests were carried out on a wheelchair ramp with an incline degree of 4°, using a prototype wheelchair with a hybrid manual-electric propulsion system in accordance with the patent application P.427855. The test subjects were three people whose task was to propel the wheelchair in two assistance modes supporting manual propulsion. The first mode is hill climbing assistance, while the second one is assistance with propulsion torque in the propulsive phase. During the tests, a number of kinematic parameters of the wheelchair were monitored. An in-depth analysis was performed for the amplitude of speed during a hill climb and the number of propulsive cycles performed on a hill. The tests performed showed that when propelling the wheelchair only using the hand rims, the subject needed an average of 13 pushes on the uphill slope, and their speed amplitude was 1.8 km/h with an average speed of 1.73 km/h. The climbing assistance mode reduced the speed amplitude to 0.76 km/h, while the torque assisted mode in the propulsive phase reduced the number of cycles required to climb the hill from 13 to 6. The tests were carried out at various values of assistance and assistance amplification coefficient, and the most optimally selected parameters of this coefficient were presented in the results. The tests proved that electric propulsion assistance has a beneficial and significant impact on the kinematics of manual wheelchair propulsion when compared to a classic manual propulsion system when overcoming hills. In addition, assistance and assistance amplification coefficient were proved to be correlated to operating conditions and the user's individual characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0264.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: road tunnel; fire; Ansys Fluent; smoke movement; temperature distribution
Online: 28 January 2018 (17:10:18 CET)
This paper presents the results of hot smoke tests, conducted in a real road tunnel. The tunnel is located within the expressway S69 in southern Poland between cities Żywiec and Zwardoń. Its common name is Laliki tunnel. It is a bi-directional non-urban tunnel. The length of the tunnel is 678 m and it is inclined by 4%. It is equipped with the longitudinal ventilation system. Two hot smoke tests have been carried out according to Australian Standard AS 4391-1999. Hot smoke tests corresponded to a HRR (Heat Release Rate) equal to respectively 750 kW and 1500 kW. The fire source was located in the middle of the road lane imitating an initial phase of a car fire (respectively 150 m and 265 m from S portal). The temperature distribution was recorded during both tests using a set of fourteen thermocouples mounted at two stand poles located at the main axis of the tunnel on windward. The stand poles were placed at distances of 5 m and 10 m. The recorded data were applied to validate of a numerical model built and solved using Ansys Fluent. The calculated temperature distribution matched the measured values.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0015.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: movement disorders; mitochondria; energy metabolism; synaptic plasticity; basal ganglia; calcium
Online: 1 February 2023 (11:53:47 CET)
Much evidence suggests a correlation between degeneration and mitochondrial impairment. Typical cases of degeneration can also be observed in physiological phenomena (aging) as well as in neurological neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. All these pathologies have as a common denominator the dyshomeostasis of mitochondrial bioenergy. Even neurodegenerative diseases show a bioenergetics imbalance in their pathogenesis or progression. Huntington's chorea and Parkinson's disease are both neurodegenerative diseases, but while Huntington's disease is a genetic, and progressive disease with early manifestation and severe penetrance, Parkinson's disease is a pathology with a multifactorial aspect. Indeed, there are different types of Parkinson/Parkinsonism. Many forms are early onset diseases linked to gene mutation, others can appear in young adults and senescent only post-injury, and a final group is idiopathic. Huntington's was defined as a hyperkinetic disorder, while Parkinson's is a hypokinetic disorder; but in the middle, there are a lot of similarities as well as neuronal excitability, the loss of striatal function, psychiatric comorbidity, etc. In the review, we would embrace the theories that both diseases start and develop in light of mitochondrial dysfunction. These dysfunctions act on energy metabolism and reduce the vitality of neurons in many different brain areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0311.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Wearable Sensors; Interpersonal Movement; Pervasive Technology; Social Computing; Public Space
Online: 20 June 2022 (10:23:37 CEST)
Within the field of movement sensing and sound interaction research, multi-user systems have gradually gained interest as a means to facilitate an expressive non-verbal dialogue. When tied with studies grounded in psychology and choreographic theory, we consider the qualities of interaction that foster an elevated sense of social connectedness, non-contingent to occupying one’s personal space. In reflection of the newly adopted social distancing concept, we orchestrate a technological intervention, starting with interpersonal distance and sound at the core of interaction. Materialised as a set of sensory face-masks, a novel wearable system was developed and tested in the context of a live public performance from which we obtain the user’s individual perspectives and correlate this with patterns identified in the recorded data. We identify and discuss traits of the user’s behaviour that were accredited to the system’s influence and construct 4 fundamental design considerations for physically distanced sound interaction. The study concludes with essential technical reflections, accompanied by an adaptation for a pervasive sensory intervention that’s finally deployed in an open public space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0380.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: locomotion disorder; cadence; gait oscillation; speed of movement; neurodegenerative disease
Online: 15 December 2020 (12:39:34 CET)
Understanding the motor patterns underlying the movement of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) is fundamental to the effective targeting of non-pharmacological therapies. This study aims to analyze the gait pattern in relation to the evolutionary stage between I-II and III-IV according to the Hoehn and Yahr scale (H&Y) in people affected by PD. The study was conducted with the participation of 37 PD patients, with a mean age of 70.09±9.53 years, and of whom 48.64% were women. The inclusion criteria were: 1. To be diagnosed with PD; 2. To be in an evolutionary stage of the disease of between I and IV and; 3. To be able to walk independently and without any assistance. Kinematic and spatial-temporal parameters of the gait were analyzed. The results show differences in speed of movement, cadence, stride length, support duration, swing duration, step width, walking cycle duration and double support time between the stages analyzed. These results confirm the differences in PD gait pattern between stages I-II and III-IV. Different behaviors of the same variable were recorded depending on whether the right or left sides were affected by PD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0056.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: Low accuracy CDRs; Group movement pattern; Data mining; Travel behaviors
Online: 4 December 2018 (10:02:30 CET)
Identifying group movement patterns of crowds and understanding group behaviors is valuable for urban planners, especially when the groups are special such as tourist groups. In this paper, we present a framework to discover tourist groups and investigate the tourist behaviors using mobile phone call detail records (CDRs). Unlike GPS data, CDRs are relatively poor in spatial resolution with low sampling rates, which makes it a big challenge to identify group members from thousands of tourists. Moreover, since touristic trips are not on a regular basis, no historical data of the specific group can be used to reduce the uncertainty of trajectories. To address such challenges, we propose a method called group movement pattern mining based on similarity (GMPMS) to discover tourist groups. To avoid large amounts of trajectory similarity measurements, snapshots of the trajectories are firstly generated to extract candidate groups containing co-occurring tourists. Then, considering that different groups may follow the same itineraries, additional traveling behavioral features are defined to identify the group members. Finally, with Hainan province as an example, we provide a number of interesting insights of travel behaviors of group tours as well as individual tours, which will be helpful for tourism planning and management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0028.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: stomatal movement; calcium sensing receptor; phosphorylation; abiotic stress; calcium signaling
Online: 3 December 2018 (14:02:28 CET)
The calcium-sensing receptor (CAS), as a chloroplast thylakoid membrane protein, involved in the process of [Ca2+] ext-induced [Ca2+]cyt increase (CICI) in the plant. However, the underlying mechanism regulating this process is lacking. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that CAS may perform additional roles in the plant. Here, we provide an update covering the multiple roles of CAS in stomatal movement regulation and calcium signaling in the plant. We also analysis the possible phosphorylation mechanism of CAS by light and discuss the role of CAS in abiotic stress (drought, salt stress) and biotic stresses (plant immune signaling). Finally, we provide a perspective for future experiments which are required to fill gaps in our understanding of the biological function of CAS in the plant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0055.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Brazil, agrarian reform policy, land less movement, rural social movements.
Online: 10 April 2017 (07:49:04 CEST)
In Brazil, during the four last administrations of Worker’s Party (PT) 2003-2015, the support to the agrarian reform seems to have stagnated, even with the influence of landless workers' movements. Thus in 2016, the impeachment President Dilma Roussef have marked a brutal stop in the agrarian reform process. How to explain that which seems at first to be a contradiction and has become a decadence of an important federal public policy?. Furthermore, how can we evaluate the debates within Brazilian society and the federal government on this theme? The article analyzes the tensions, debates, advances and impasses of the past fifteen years of agrarian reform policy in Brazil looking at the interaction between social movements and public policies. The method associates bibliography, official statistic synthesis and research results in Northeast, Amazônia and Cerrado regions among several projects. The first part results put on evidence the crescent reduction of agrarian reform settlements and beneficiary families since 2006. The second part presents the main reasons offering an analysis of government and society debates in Brazil about land reform. The analysis conclude to the less of power and representation in the society of the pro agrarian reform large and popular coalition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0446.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Eye movement; Image registration; Optical coherence tomography; Optical coherence tomography angiography
Online: 23 December 2022 (06:27:02 CET)
Accurate image registration is essential for eye movement compensation in optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA). The spatial resolution of an OCT instrument is typically anisotropic, i.e., different resolutions in the lateral and axial dimensions. When OCT images have anisotropic pixel resolution, residual distortion (RD) and false translation (FT) were always observed after image registration for rotational movement. In this study, RD and FT were quantitively analyzed over different degrees of rotational movement and various lateral and axial pixel resolution ratio (RL/RA) values. The theoretical analysis confirmed that the RD and FT increase significantly with the rotation degree and RL/RA. An image resizing assisting registration (RAR) strategy was proposed for accurate image registration. The performance of direct registration (DR) and RAR for retinal OCT and OCTA images were quantitatively compared. Experimental results confirmed that unnormalized RL/RA causes RD and FT, RAR can effectively improve the performance of OCT and OCTA image registration and distortion compensation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0332.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Biomechanics; Orthodontic force; Torque; Tooth Movement; Removable Thermoplastic Appliance; Aging; Aligners
Online: 19 December 2022 (09:10:51 CET)
The aim of this study is to study the effect of aging in different media (deionized water and artificial saliva) on the force/torque generation by thermoplastic orthodontic aligners. Ten thermoformed aligners made of Essix ACE® thermoplastic sheets were aged in deionized water and in artificial saliva over two weeks at 37 C, five in each medium. The force/torque generated on upper second premolar (Tooth 25) of a resin model was measured at day 0 (before aging), 2, 4, 6, 10, and 14, using a biomechanical test set-up. The results showed that the thermocycling of aligners has no significant impact on their force/torque decay. No significant differences were also found in force/torque between the aligners stored in deionized water nor artificial saliva. The vertical extrusion-intrusion forces were measured in the range of 1.4 to 4.6 N, the horizontal oro-vestibular forces were 1.3 to 2.5 N, while the torques on mesio-distal rotation were 5.4 to 41.7 Nmm. It could be concluded that the influence of saliva on the mechanical properties can be classified as insignificant, and no significant difference between artificial aging in deionized water or artificial saliva was observed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0171.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Shoulder impingement syndrome; Scapula; Exercise therapy; Exercise movement techniques; Musculoskeletal pain
Online: 6 August 2021 (17:21:21 CEST)
Exercises for lower trapezius (LT) often use overhead positions, causing compressive forces to the subacromial space. Scapular retraction would be an alternative to activate LT muscle. Electromyography of infraspinatus (IS), upper (UT) and LT was recorded during scapular retraction under progressive adduction loads of 42 participants, divided in 2 groups: with (SP, n=26) and without shoulder pain (nSP, n=16). The adduction loads of 20, 30, 40 and 50% of the maximal voluntary contraction were applied using a load cell. Normalized electromyography and the ratio between UT and LT (UT:LT) were used for statistical analysis. No differences were observed between groups, but a condition effect occurred for all muscles: UT showed higher values at 50% vs. 20% (p=0.004); LT showed higher values on 40% and 50% (p=0.001; 0.006). Higher values for IS were noted at 40% (vs 20%; p=0.04), and at 50% (vs. 20%; p=0.001, vs. 30%, p=0.001; vs. 40%; p=0.001). UT:LT showed lower values at 50% (vs. 20%; p=0.001, and vs. 30%; p=0.016). Scapular retraction with adduction loads at 40-50% is an alternative to overhead exercises aiming to activate the LT and the IS muscles. The exercise ensures higher levels of LT and IS excitation, without increasing UT excitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0422.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Depression; anxiety; stress; university healthcare workers; COVID-19; post–movement lockdown
Online: 16 November 2020 (13:46:33 CET)
This study investigated the prevalence and severity of depression, anxiety, and stress and determined the association between various factors, social support, and depression and anxiety among university healthcare workers in Malaysia after the government lifted the movement control order (MCO) put in place to curb the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This online, cross-sectional survey recruited 399 participants from two university hospitals, and they were administered a self-reported questionnaire on demographic, personal, and clinical characteristics; COVID-19-related stressors; and coping. In addition, they completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) to measure perceived social support, as well as the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) to assess depression, anxiety, and stress. We found that the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress were 21.8%, 31.6%, and 29.1%, respectively. Participants with moderate to extremely severe depression, anxiety, and stress made up 13.3%, 25.8%, and 8.1% of the sample, respectively. Being single or divorced, fear of frequent exposure to COVID-19 patients, those who agreed that their area of living had a high prevalence of COVID-19 cases, and uncertainty regarding the prevalence of COVID-19 cases in the area of living were associated with higher odds of depression and anxiety. Conversely, having more than three children and greater perceived friend support were associated with lower odds of depression and anxiety. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress remained elevated even after the MCO was lifted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0346.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: obesity; pediatric exercise; motor control; motor coordination; motor competence; movement competence
Online: 12 November 2020 (12:16:12 CET)
This study investigated the relationship between functional movement (FM) and adiposity in adolescents (16-17 years). This research is a part of the CRO-PALS study conducted in a random sample of adolescents (n=652, mean age±SD: 16.6±0.4). Body mass index (BMI), a sum of four skinfolds (S4S), waist and hip circumference were measured, and FM was assessed via Functional Movement Screen™ (FMSTM). Multilevel analysis were employed to determine the relationship between different predictors and total FMS score. After controlling for age, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and socioeconomic status, relationship between variables of adiposity and total FMS score was significant and negative among boys (BMI:β=-0.18, p<0.0001; S4S:β=-0.04, p<0.0001; waist circumference:β=-0.08, p<0.0001; hip circumference:β=-0.09, p<0.0001). However, among girls, in adjusted models, only S4S showed a significant and negative effect on total FMS score (β=-0.03, p<0.0001), while other coefficients failed to reach significance (BMI:β=-0.05, p=0.23; waist circumference:β=-0.04, p=0.06; hip circumference:β=-0.01, p=0.70). Results showed that the effect of adiposity on FM in adolescence is sex-specific, suggesting that boys with overweight and obesity could be more prone to develop dysfunctional movement patterns. Therefore, exercise interventions directed toward correcting dysfunctional patterns should be sex-specific, targeting more boys with overweight and obesity rather than adolescent girls with overweight and obesity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0344.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: entomology; foraging; movement; migration; behaviour; morphology; mating; reproduction; fecundity; range expansion
Online: 29 January 2020 (04:09:55 CET)
Dispersal represents a key life-history trait with several implications for the fitness of organisms, population dynamics and resilience, local adaptation, meta-population dynamics, range shifting and biological invasions. Plastic and evolutionary changes of dispersal traits have been intensively studied over the past decades in entomology, in particular in wing-dimorphic insects for which literature reviews are available. Importantly, dispersal polymorphism also exists in wing-monomorphic and wingless insects, and except for butterflies, fewer syntheses are available. In this perspective, by integrating the very last research in the fast moving field of insect dispersal ecology, this review article provides an overview of our current knowledge of dispersal polymorphism in insects. After having provided a definition of the main terms characterising insects’ movements, some of the most often used experimental methodologies for the separation of dispersers and residents in wing-monomorphic and wingless insects are presented. The existing knowledge on the morphological and life-history trait differences between resident and disperser phenotypes is then synthetized. The fourth part examines the effects of range expansion on dispersal traits and performance, in particular for insects from range edges and invasion fronts. Finally, some research perspectives are proposed in the last part of the review.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0033.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: DNA nanotechnology; DNA origami; self-assembly; molecular devices; mechanical movement; robotics
Online: 3 July 2018 (10:03:21 CEST)
Structural DNA nanotechnology provides an excellent foundation for diverse nanoscale shapes that can be used in various bioapplications and materials research. From all existing DNA assembly techniques, DNA origami has proven to be the most robust one for creating custom nanoshapes. Since its invention in 2006, building from the bottom up using DNA has drastically advanced, and therefore, more and more complex DNA-based systems have become accessible. So far, vast majority of the demonstrated DNA origami frameworks are static by nature, but interestingly, there also exist dynamic DNA origami devices that are increasingly coming into view. In this review, we discuss DNA origami nanostructures that perform controlled translational or rotational movement triggered by predefined DNA strands, various molecular interactions and/or other external stimuli such as light, pH, temperature and electromagnetic fields. The rapid evolution of such dynamic DNA origami tools will undoubtedly have a significant impact on molecular scale precision measurements, targeted drug delivery and diagnostics, but they can also play a role in development of optical/plasmonic sensors, nanophotonic devices and nanorobotics for numerous different tasks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0301.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Dentistry; Orthodontics; Biomechanics; Torque; Force; Tooth Movement; Removable Thermoplastic Appliance; Thermoforming; Aging.
Online: 17 February 2023 (07:07:06 CET)
The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of artificial aging by thermocycling and mechanical loading on force/torque delivery by thermoplastic orthodontic aligners. Ten thermoformed aligners made of Zendura™ thermoplastic polyurethane sheets were aged over two weeks in deionized water by thermocycling alone (n=5) and by both thermocycling and mechanical loading (n=5). The force/torque generated on upper second premolar (Tooth 25) of a plastic model was measured before aging (as control), and after 2, 4, 6, 10, and 14 days of aging, using a biomechanical set-up. Before aging, the extrusion-intrusion forces were in the range of 2.4 to 3.0 N, the oro-vestibular forces were 1.8 to 2.0 N, and the torques on mesio-distal rotation were 13.6 to 40.0 Nmm. Pure thermocycling had no significant effect on the force decay of the aligners. However, there was a significant decrease in force/torque after 2 days of aging for both thermocycling and mechanical loading aging group, which is no longer significant over 14 days of aging. In conclusion, artificial aging of aligners in deionized water with thermocycling and mechanical loading results in a significant decrease in force/torque generation. However, the mechanical loading of aligners has a greater impact than thermocycling alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0422.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Parkinson’s Disease; Neurorehabilitation; exergames; Azure Kinect; UPDRS; Movement Analysis; body tracking; telemedicine
Online: 27 September 2022 (10:27:37 CEST)
Motor impairments are among the most relevant, evident, and disabling symptoms of Parkinson’s disease that adversely affect quality of life, resulting in limited autonomy, independence, and safety. Recent studies have demonstrated the benefits of physiotherapy and rehabilitation programs specifically targeted to the needs of Parkinsonian patients in supporting drug treatments and improving motor control and coordination. However, due to the expected increase of patients in the coming years, traditional rehabilitation pathways in healthcare facilities could become unsustainable. Consequently, new strategies are needed, in which technologies play a key role in enabling more frequent, comprehensive, and out-of-hospital follow-up. The paper proposes a vision-based solution using the new Azure Kinect DK sensor to implement an integrated approach for remote assessment, monitoring, and rehabilitation of Parkinsonian patients, exploiting non-invasive 3D tracking of body movements to objectively and automatically characterize both standard evaluative motor tasks and virtual exergames. Preliminary results show the system’s ability to quantify specific features of motor performance, easily monitor changes and disease progression over time, and the possibility of using exergames to support motor condition assessment and training. The main innovation relies precisely on the integration of evaluative and rehabilitative aspects, which could be used as a closed loop to design new protocols for remote management of patients tailored to their actual conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0321.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Periodontitis; Tooth movement; Obesity; Palmitic Acid; Histone Modification; Inflammation; COX2/PGE2; IL10
Online: 21 January 2022 (12:50:31 CET)
The interrelationship between periodontal disease, obesity-related hyperlipidemia and mechanical forces as well as their modulating effects on the epigenetic profile of periodontal ligament (PdL) cells are assumed to be remarkably complex. The PdL serves as connective tissue between teeth and alveolar bone for pathogen defense and inflammatory response to mechanical stimuli occurring during tooth movement. Altered inflammatory signaling could promote root resorption and tooth loss. Hyperinflammatory COX2/PGE2 signaling was reported for human PdL fibroblasts (HPdLF) concomitantly stressed with P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharides and compressive force after exposure to palmitic acid (PA). The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent this is modulated by global and gene-specific changes in histone modifications. Quantitative expression of epigenetic key players and global H3Kac as well as H3K27me3 levels were evaluated in dual stressed HPdLF exposed to PA revealing a decreased force-related reduction in repressive H3K27me3. UNC1999-induced H3K27me3 inhibition reversed the hyperinflammatory response of dual-stressed PA-cultures characterized by COX2 expression, PGE2 secretion and THP1 adhesion. Reduced expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL10 and increased association of H3K27me3 at its promoter-associated sites were reversed by inhibitor treatment. Thus, the data highlight an important epigenetic interplay between different stimuli to which the PdL is exposed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: resting state functional MRI; effective connectivity; dystonia; movement disorders; subcortical; basal ganglia
Online: 8 December 2021 (11:55:16 CET)
AbstractIn the evolving modern era of neuromodulation for movement disorders in adults and children, much progress has been made recently characterizing the human motor network (MN) with potentially important treatment implications. Herein is a focused review of relevant resting state fMRI functional and effective connectivity of the human motor network across the lifespan in health and disease. The goal is to examine how the transition from static functional to dynamic effective connectivity may be especially informative of network-targeted movement disorder therapies, with hopeful implications for children.Impact StatementWhile functional connectivity has elucidated much MN properties with relation to age, disease, and behavior, effective connectivity has been shown to be useful in MN-informed therapies in adults. Thus, effective connectivity may have potential to impact childhood movement disorder therapies, given the lower to no patient demand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0129.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Plant behavior; root-to-shoot-signaling; plants movement; kinematics; climbing plants; circumnutation
Online: 8 November 2021 (11:53:30 CET)
Plants characterized by a soft or weak steam, such as climbing plants, need to find a potential support (e.g., wooden trunk) to reach greater light exposure. Since Darwin’s research on climbing plants, several studies on their searching and attachment behaviors have demonstrated their unique ability to process different support features to modulate their movements accordingly. Nevertheless, the strategies underlying this ability are yet to be uncovered. The present research tries to fill this gap by investigating how the interaction between above- (i.e., stem, tendril, …) and belowground (i.e., the root system) plant organs influence the kinematics of the approach-to-grasp movement. With three-dimensional (3D) kinematical analysis, we characterized the movement of pea plants (Pisum sativum L.) towards a support with different thicknesses above and belowground (i.e., thin below, thick aboveground, or the opposite). As a control condition, the plants were presented to supports with the same thickness below- and aboveground (i.e., either entirely thin or thick). The results suggest an integration between the information from below- and aboveground for driving the reach-to-grasp behavior of the aerial plant organs. Information about the support conveyed by the root system seems particularly important to fulfil the end-goal of the movement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0032.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: ecovillage movement; eco-discourses; ethnic traditions; innovation; intentional community; social media, Romania
Online: 1 February 2021 (13:27:35 CET)
This case study explores social media discourses of a virtual ecovillage community based in Central Romania, in a Hungarian speaking region of Transylvania. The investigated virtual community embraces the idea of ecovillage as a local constructive answer to the challenges of the global ecological crisis, based on strategies of revitalizing local ethnic traditions, promoting sustainable development solutions, and innovations. Our key question is the relationship between tradition and innovation—as revealed by the discursive practices of the ecovillage Facebook group most active members. Using ecolinguistic as a frame of reference, the investigation unveiled the role social media played in fostering the formation of a virtual intentional community, and in clarifying the shared values of the group. We found that the local ecovillage is part of a larger regional and global movement, unfolding the organic connection between the Hungarian and the Romanian intentional communities, and the reframing of traditional values within innovative, sustainable everyday practices.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0090.v1
Subject: Keywords: Biomechanics; Ageing; Human Movement; Mobility Impairments; Capacity; Reserve; Compensation; Geriatrics; Modelling; Rehabilitation
Online: 9 January 2020 (14:03:05 CET)
To prevent, mitigate and treat movement impairments, we need to recognize early signs of decline and understand how to best compensate for limitations. The mechanisms leading to movement impairments are complex, overlapping, and interdependent and the fields of biomechanics, motor control, and physiology must be combined to understand these mechanisms. This article introduces CaReMoOC, a framework incorporating neuromusculoskeletal capacity (accumulation of neuromusculoskeletal resources over the lifespan), reserve (task-specific difference between capacity and task demand), movement objectives (considerations made to plan a movement), and compensation (use of NMSK resources to respond to the task demand). The framework is demonstrated for healthy ageing, providing an overview of age-related capacity decline (neural, skeletal, muscular system) and shifted weighting of movement objectives (energy, pain, stability, speed) relevant for biomechanics and motor control. Two forms of compensation are Compensation for Capacity, when capacity does not meet the task demands, and Compensation for Movement Objectives, when the movement is changed due to for example a fear of falling. Understanding the interrelationships between decline in the variables within capacity and the effect on compensation strategies will provide benefit in preventing mobility impairments and will support clinicians in their rehabilitation practice.
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: gross domestic product; medical expenditures; Wavelet analysis; co-movement relationship; health insurance
Online: 7 November 2019 (04:09:11 CET)
The universal health insurance system in Taiwan was formed with good intentions to help vulnerable groups. However, the possibility of bankrupting the system due to wasted medical resources. In this study, using the medical expenditures of the Taiwanese Government and gross domestic product (GDP) as variables, the wavelet analysis method was used to empirically study the correlations and leading-lagging relationships in quarterly data in the period from 1996 to 2016. In addition, the dependent population of the insured was used as the control variable. This population had no income and had high medical demands. Results: After the dependent population was included as a control variable, there was a period of low-frequency (one to four years short-term) linkage correlation, as well as a period of high-frequency (four to eight years long-term) linkage correlation. In addition, for more than eight years, there was also a high degree of linkage correlation, indicating that the linkage between medical expenditures and GDP occurred over the long term. Moreover, since medical expenditures positively affected GDP, one-way causality was observed. However, after 2008, regardless of whether a long or short term was examined, there was almost no linkage correlation. Before 2008, the medical expenditures of the government were positively correlated with economic growth; i.e., they enhanced economic growth. But, after 2008, this effect had already disappeared. The universal health insurance system has long been denounced as a waste of medical resources, and the waste must be immediately stopped. The government urgently needs to find a new solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0085.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: molecular dynamics; matrix metalloproteinase; domain movement; zinc binding protein; calcium binding protein
Online: 4 July 2019 (18:07:55 CEST)
Matrix Metaloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is an extracellular Zn2+ protease specific to type I and IV collagens. Its expression is associated with several inflammatory, degenerative, and malignant diseases. Conformational properties, domain movements, and interactions between MMP-2 and its associated metal ions were characterized using a 1.0 µs molecular dynamics simulation. Dihedral principle component analysis revealed 10 families of conformations with the greatest degree of variability occurring in the link region connecting the catalytic and hemopexin domains. Dynamics cross correlation analysis indicated domain movements corresponding to opening and closing of the hemopexin domain in relation to the fibronectin and catalytic domains facilitated by the link region. Interaction energies were calculated using the MMPBSA-interaction entropy analysis method and revealed strong binding energies for the catalytic Zn2+ ion 1, Ca2+ ion 1, and Ca2+ ion 3 with significant conformational stability at the binding sites of Zn2+ ion 1 and Ca2+ ion 1. Ca2+ ion 2 diffuses freely away from its crystallographically defined binding site. Zn2+ ion 2 plays a minor role in conformational stability of the catalytic domain while Ca2+ ion 3 is strongly attracted to the highly electronegative sidechains of the Asp residues around the central β-sheet core of the hemopexin domain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0317.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: COVID-19; DASS-21; mental well-being; movement control order; open distance learning.
Online: 17 March 2023 (03:56:38 CET)
The global Covid-19 crisis has seen the push for many education institutions substituting traditional classroom learning to online platforms. This change in the learning experience has been expected to cause major and likely unequal interruption not only in students’ learning, but their well-being overall. Given this, the present study aims to investigate how online or open distance learning, implemented during times of a health crisis, impacted the mental well-being of UiTM students. The study was conducted via an online survey and an online group discussion during the last week of online classes between 29th June to 1st July 2020. Following research on negative emotional states, the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) was included in the survey. Results indicate that students experienced varying levels of negative emotions, specifically feeling anxious over situations that might cause panic, feeling emotionally sensitive as well as feeling less motivated to do things. Discussions include how the government of Malaysia needs to ensure for students to be equipped with the right amenities that will offer a smoother ODL experience and that educational institutions provide their stakeholders with clear information so that students can make a more informed choice about their education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0536.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: open-pit coal mine; dewatering; groundwater level; vadose zone; moisture movement; capillary water
Online: 24 February 2021 (09:55:58 CET)
Long-term dewatering of groundwater is a necessary operation for mining safety in open-pit coal mines, while extensive dewatering might cause ecological problems due to dramatical changes of moisture movement in the soil, especially in ecological-fragile areas. This paper presents a quantitative methodology to evaluate the impact of the coal mining operation on moisture movement in the vadose zone by taking the Baorixile open-pit coal mine as an example. A long-term in-situ experiments（from 2004 to 2018), laboratory analysis and numerical modelling were conducted to analyse the mechanisms and relationship among the dropping groundwater level, the vadose-zone moistures, and the ecological responses in the grassland area. The experiment data and modelling results suggest that groundwater level dropping during open-pit mining operation has limited influence on the vadose zone, exhibiting a variation of capillary water zone within a depth of 3 m while the vadose zone and soil water zone were at least 16 m deep. The critical evaporation depth of ground water is 8 m. The long-term influence radius of groundwater dewatering is about 2.72 km during the Baorixile mining operation, and the groundwater level change mainly influences the lower part of the intermediate vadose zone and the capillary water zone below 16 m, with little influence on the moisture contents in the soil water zone where the roots of shallow vegetation grow. The results from this study provide useful insight for sustainable development of coal mining in ecological-fragile areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0038.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: physical activity; sedentary behaviour; sleep; active play; outdoor time; movement behaviours; COVID-19
Online: 1 December 2020 (16:08:08 CET)
The aim was to examine the sociodemographic predictors associated with changes in movement behaviours (physical activity, screen time and sleep) among toddlers and pre-schoolers during the early stages of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Chile. Caregivers of 1- to 5-year-old children completed an online survey between March 30th and April 27th, 2020. Information about the child's movement behaviours before (retrospectively) and during the pandemic, as well as family characteristics were reported. In total, 3,157 participants provided complete data (mean children age: 3.1±1.38 years). During early stages of the pandemic, time spent in physical activity decreased, recreational screen time and sleep duration increased, and sleep quality declined. Toddlers and pre-schoolers with space to play at home and living in rural areas experienced an attenuated impact of the pandemic restrictions on their physical activity levels, screen time, and sleep quality. Older children, those whose caregivers had a higher educational level, and children living in apartments had greater changes, mainly a decrease in total physical activity and increase in screen time. This study has shown the significant impact of the pandemic restrictions on movement behaviours in toddlers and pre-schoolers in Chile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0368.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: family; infantile hemiplegia; modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy; Physical Therapy modalities; upper extremity.
Online: 17 July 2020 (08:04:27 CEST)
Objective: To assess the functionality of the affected upper limb in children diagnosed with hemiplegia aged between 4 and 8 years after applying low-intensity modified constraint-induced movement therapy(mCIMT). Methods: Prospective case series study. A mCIMT protocol was applied for five weeks, with two hours of containment per day. The study variables were: quality of movement of the upper limb, spontaneous use, participation of the affected upper limb in activities of daily living, dynamic joint position, grasp-release action, grasp strength, supination and extension elbow movements. Four measurements were performed, using the QUEST scale, the SHUEE Evaluation, a hand dynamometer and a goniometer. Results: The sample was composed of 8 children with moderate manual ability. Statistically significant differences were detected in all the studied variables (p<0.05). The greatest increase occurred in spontaneous use from assessment 1-4 (p = 0.01), reaching 88.87% active participation in bimanual tasks. The quality of movement of the upper limb obtained a significant value due to the increase in dissociated movements and grasp (p = 0.01). Conclusion: A low dose (50 hours) of mCIMT increased the functionality of children diagnosed with congenital hemiplegia between 4 and 8 years of age with moderate manual ability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0409.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: residential relocation distance; residential movement; machine learning; decision tree regression; Seoul metropolitan region
Online: 23 July 2018 (10:03:10 CEST)
This study aimed to ascertain the applicability of a machine learning approach to the description of residential mobility patterns of households in the Seoul metropolitan region (SMR). The spatial range and temporal scope of the empirical study were set to 2015 to review the most recent residential mobility patterns in the SMR. The analysis data used in this study involve the microdata of Internal Migration Statistics provided by the Microdata Integrated Service of Statistics Korea. We analysed the residential relocation distance of households in the SMR by using machine learning techniques such as ordinary least squares regression and decision tree regression. The results of this study showed that a decision tree model can be more advantageous than ordinary least squares regression in terms of the explanatory power and estimation of moving distance. A large number of residential movements are mainly related to the accessibility to employment markets and some household characteristics. The shortest movements occur when households with two or more members move into densely populated districts. In contrast, job-based residential movements have relatively longer distance. Furthermore, we derived knowledge on residential relocation distance, which can provide significant information on the urban management of metropolitan residential districts and the construction of reasonable housing policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0178.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: art history; Nordic countries; life reform movement; Ellen Key; 19th Century; 20th Century
Online: 28 November 2017 (05:29:23 CET)
In the second half of the 19th century a wave of modernisation, industrialisation and urbanisation swept the Nordic countries, catapulting what had until then been lagging and primarily rural countries into modernity. These major upheavals, however, also plunged the Nordic countries into a profound social and cultural crisis resulting from their consciousness of their own backwardness vis-a-vis the countries on the European continent, as well as the recognition that a nostalgic nationalism recalling a mythical past had become obsolete in the industrial age. In response to this crisis, a life reform movement emerged that was based on Arts and Crafts movements as well as various artistic and literary reform movements and—equally absorbing rural traditions and progressive social ideas—tried to establish a new national everyday culture. In this article, the two key terms coined by Ellen Key, “Festive Customs” (‘festvanor’) and “Everyday Beauty” (‘vardagsskönhet’)—the programmatic core of the Nordic life reform movement—are analysed and illustrated in various typical manifestations. It also examines to what extent the Nordic life reform movement with these two key concepts as its core agenda found expression in arts and crafts, in painting as well as in the architecture of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century and contributed to the progress of social and cultural renewal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0083.v3
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: air waves; falling rock; semi-empirical model; uniform motion phase; acceleration movement phase
Online: 25 January 2017 (03:46:33 CET)
In this paper, a semi-empirical model of air waves induced by falling rock is described. The model is composed of a uniform motion phase (velocity close to 0 m·s-1) and an acceleration movement phase. The uniform motion phase was determined based on experimentally and the acceleration movement phase was derived by theoretical analysis. A series of experiments were performed to verify the semi-empirical model and elucidated the law of the uniform motion phase. The acceleration movement phase accounted for a larger portion with a greater height of the falling rock. Experimental results of different falling heights of the goaf showed close agreement with theoretical analysis values. The semi-empirical model could accurately and conveniently estimate the velocity of air wave induced by falling rock. Thus, the semi-empirical model can provide a reference and basis for estimating the speed of air waves and designing protective measures in mines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0752.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Mixture toxicity; Neurotoxicity; Antagonism; Organophosphate; Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; GABA; Behavior; Risk assessment; Spontaneous movement activity
Online: 31 March 2021 (07:52:05 CEST)
Risk assessment of chemicals is usually conducted for individual chemicals whereas mixtures of chemical are occurring in the environment. Considering that neuroactive chemicals are a group of contaminants that dominate in the environment, it is then imperative to understand the combined effects from mixtures. The commonly used models to predict mixture effects, namely concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA), are thought suitable for mixtures of similarly or dissimilarly acting components, respectively. For mixture toxicity prediction, one important challenge is to clarify whether to group neuroactive substances based on similar mechanisms of action, e.g. same molecular target or rather similar toxicological response, e.g. hyper- or hypoactivity (effect direction). We addressed this by using the spontaneous tail coiling (STC) of zebrafish embryos, which represents the earliest observable motor activity in the developing neural network, as a model to elucidate the link between mechanism of action and toxicological response. Two questions were asked: 1.) Can the mixture models CA or IA be used to predict combined effects for neuroactive chemical mixtures when the components share a similar mode of action (i.e. hyper- or hypoativity) but show different mechanism of action? 2.) Will a mixture of chemicals where the components show opposing effect directions result in an antagonistic combined effect? Results indicate that mixture toxicity of chemicals such as propafenone and abamectin as well as chlorpyrifos and hexaconazole that are known to show different mechanisms of action but similar effect directions were predictable using CA and IA models. This could be interpreted with the convergence of effects on the neural level leading to either a collective activation or inhibition of synapses. We also found antagonistic effects for mixtures containing substances with opposing effect direction. Finally, we discuss how the STC may be used to amend risk assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0273.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Low level laser therapy; diode laser; Orthodontic tooth movement; Pain; Split-mouth clinical trial
Online: 15 September 2018 (18:18:29 CEST)
This study evaluated the effect of low-level laser irradiation induces by diode laser on the speed of orthodontic tooth movement of canines submitted to initial retraction. Twenty-four mandibular canines were retracted by using NiTi spring (force of 150 g/side). Thirteen of those were irradiated with a diode laser 980-nm diode laser (Wiser Laser Doctor Smile, Lambda) operating at an 810-nm wavelength (1 W of output power, continuous wave of 66.7 J/cm2) that was equipped with a 0.6-mm optical fiber in continuous-wave mode. The canine retraction was accomplished by using prefabricated coil springs. The right of the mandible was chosen to be irradiated with the laser, whereas the left side was considered the control without laser irradiation. The laser was applied with 0-, 3-, 7-, and 14-day intervals. The amount of canine retraction was measured with a digital electronic caliper while the pain level was prompted by a patient questionnaire. The speed of tooth movement was significantly greater in the laser group than in the control group. The pain intensity was also at a lower level in the laser group. Our findings suggest that diode laser therapy can highly accelerate tooth movement during orthodontic treatment and can also effectively reduce pain level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0087.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: physical model test; rock joint; strata and surface movement; final slope mining; surface settlement
Online: 19 September 2017 (07:30:14 CEST)
Strata and surface movement induced by mining under open-pit final slope is a huge threat to mine safety. Physical model test is an important method to study mining-induced strata and surface movement laws. Because of rock joints predominantly control rock mass deformation and failure, thus physical model test leaving out of consideration of rock joints is difficult to reflect the influence of rock joints on rock mass deformation. Therefore, this paper presents a three-dimensional physical model test considering simplified dominant rock joints. This test process includes the design of testing equipment, the construction of physical model with dominant rock joint sets, conduction of mining and deformation monitoring. And mining under eastern final slope of Yanqianshan iron mine was selected as a case to study the behavior of mining-induced strata and surface movement.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0152.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: suicide; suicidal mental imagery; flash-forwards; intrusions; preventive intervention; eye movement dual task (EMDT)
Online: 24 April 2017 (11:59:53 CEST)
Suicide and suicidal behavior are major public health concerns and affect 3-9% of the population worldwide. Despite growing evidence, there are still few effective interventions available to reduce suicide risk. In this article, we describe theoretical models of suicide ideation and behavior and propose to examine the possible effectiveness of a new and innovative preventive strategy. A model of suicidal intrusion (mental imagery related to suicide, also referred to as suicidal flash-forwards) is presented describing one of the assumed mechanisms in the etiology of suicide and the mechanism of therapeutic change. We provide a brief rationale for an Eye Movement Dual Task (EMDT) treatment for suicidal intrusions describing techniques that can be used to target these suicidal mental images and thoughts to reduce overall behavior. Based on the available empirical evidence for the mechanisms of suicidal intrusions, this approach appears to be a promising new treatment to prevent suicidal behavior as it potentially targets one of the linking pins between suicidal ideation and suicidal actions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0039.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: generative model; human movement; conditional Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Network; GAN; spatio-temporal pseudo-image
Online: 2 November 2020 (12:55:22 CET)
Generative models for images, audio, text and other low-dimension data have achieved great success in recent years. Generating artificial human movements can also be useful for many applications, including improvement of data augmentation methods for human gesture recognition. The object of this research is to develop a generative model for skeletal human movement, allowing to control the action type of generated motion while keeping the authenticity of the result and the natural style variability of gesture execution. We propose to use a conditional Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Network (DC-GAN) applied to pseudo-images representing skeletal pose sequences using Tree Structure Skeleton Image format. We evaluate our approach on the 3D-skeleton data provided in the large NTU RGB+D public dataset. Our generative model can output qualitatively correct skeletal human movements for any of its 60 action classes. We also quantitatively evaluate the performance of our model by computing Frechet Inception Distances, which shows strong correlation to human judgement. Up to our knowledge, our work is the first successful class-conditioned generative model for human skeletal motions based on pseudo-image representation of skeletal pose sequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0325.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: sleep; anesthesia; rapid eye movement (REM) sleep; NREM sleep; sharp-wave ripples (SWRs); dreaming; consciousness
Online: 30 April 2019 (11:12:47 CEST)
Sleep is still considered a mystery, despite intense scientific investigation. Here we present the first complete biological theory of sleep. The role of sleep is to restore the optimal homeostatic state, which is essential for tissue performance and health. Non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) restores cortical and most other brain neurons, via relaxed global activity managed by thalamocortical circuits. The role of REM sleep is to restore acetylcholine (ACh) neurons, which support focused responses and hence cannot participate in global oscillations. Sleep enhances learning and memory via state restoration and ACh-affected paths. NREMS induces a lack of consciousness because global synchronous activity prevents focused responses, which are essential for consciousness. Dreams result from focused neural firing during sharp-wave ripples and REMS, and have a sense of reality because they involve the same neurons representing focused perceptual responses during wake. Anesthetics utilize a variety of mechanisms that prevent focused responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0647.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: electromyography; hand movement; health monitoring; maximum entropy reflection coefficients; classification algorithms; machine learning; feature selection
Online: 29 October 2018 (04:01:22 CET)
Classification of electromyographic signals has a wide range of applications, from clinical diagnosis of different muscular diseases to biomedical engineering, where their use as input control of prosthetic devices has become a hot topic of research. Challenge of classifying this signals relies on the accuracy of the proposed algorithm and the possibility of its implementation on hardware. This paper consider the problem of electromyography signal classification, solved with the proposed signal processing and feature extraction stages, with focus lying on the signal model and time domain characteristics for better classification accuracy. The proposal considers a simple preprocessing technique that produces signals suitable for feature extraction, and the Burg reflection coefficients to form learning and classification patterns. These coefficients yield a competitive classification rate compared to used time domain features. Sometimes, the feature extraction from electromyographic signals showed that procedure can omit less useful traits for machine learning models. Using feature selection algorithms provides a higher classification performance with as fewer traits as possible. Algorithms achieved a high classification rate up to 100% with low pattern dimensionality, with other kinds of uncorrelated attributes for hand movement identification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0578.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Oxygen Saturation (SpO2); Green and Orange Illuminations; Optoelectronic Patch; Sensor (mOEPS); Pulse Oximetry; Physical Movement.
Online: 24 October 2018 (14:12:21 CEST)
Photoplethysmography (PPG) based pulse oximetry devices normally use red and infrared illuminations to obtain oxygen saturation (SpO2) readings. In addition, the presence of motion artefacts severely restricts the utility of pulse oximetry physiological measurements. In the current study, a combination of green and orange illuminations from a multi-wavelength optoelectronic patch sensor (mOEPS) was investigated in order to improve robustness to subjects’ movements in the extraction of SpO2 measurement. Two experimental protocols with 31 healthy subjects were designed to determine SpO2 measurement. The datasets for the first protocol were collected from 15 subjects at rest, with the subjects free to move their hands. The datasets for the second protocol with 16 subjects were collected during cycling and running exercises. The results showed good agreements with SpO2 measurements (r = 0.98) in the both protocols. The outcomes promise a robust and cost-effective approach of physiological monitoring with the prospect of providing health monitoring that does not restrict user physical movements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0276.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Diffusion, Random walks, Brownian motion, Levy walks, Stable laws, Individual movement, Trap counts, Pest monitoring.
Online: 30 March 2018 (16:19:52 CEST)
Many empirical and theoretical studies indicate that Brownian motion and diffusion models as its mean field counterpart provide appropriate modelling techniques for individual insect movement. However, this traditional approach has been challenged and conflicting evidence suggests that an alternative movement pattern such as Lévy walks can provide a better description. Lévy walks differ from Brownian motion since they allow for a higher frequency of large steps, resulting in a faster movement. Identification of the ‘correct’ movement model that would consistently provide the best fit for movement data is challenging and has become a highly controversial issue. In this paper, we show that this controversy may be superficial rather than real if the issue is considered in the context of trapping or, more generally, survival probabilities. In particular, we show that almost identical trap counts are reproduced for inherently different movement models (such as the Brownian motion and the Lévy walk) under certain conditions of equivalence. This apparently suggests that the whole ‘Levy or diffusion’ debate is rather senseless unless it is placed into a specific ecological context, e.g. pest monitoring programmes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0012.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: traffic-rules; traffic-regulations; crowdsourcing; GPS-trace; trajectories; classification; movement patterns; clustering; collective-behaviour; smart city
Online: 1 July 2022 (10:00:55 CEST)
In this paper, a new method is proposed to detect traffic regulations at intersections using GPS traces. The knowledge of traffic rules of regulated locations can help various location-based applications in the context of Smart Cities, such as the accurate estimation of travel time and fuel consumption from a starting point to a destination. Traffic regulations as map features, however, are surprisingly still largely absent from maps, although they do affect traffic flow which in turn affects vehicle idling time at intersections, fuel consumption, CO_2 emissions and arrival time. In addition, mapping them using surveying equipment is costly and any update process has severe time constraints. This fact is precisely the motivation for this study. Therefore, its objective is to propose an automatic, fast, scalable and inexpensive way to identify the type of intersection control (e.g. traffic lights, stop signs). A new method based on summarizing the collective behavior of vehicles crossing intersections is proposed. A modification of a well-known clustering algorithm for detecting stopping and decelerating events is presented. These detected events are then used to categorize vehicle crossing of intersections into four possible traffic categories (p1: free flow, p2: deceleration without stopping events, p3: only one stopping event, p4: more than one stopping event). The percentages of crossings of each class per junction arm, together with other speed/stop/deceleration features, extracted from trajectories, are then used as features to classify the junction arms according to their traffic control type dynamic model). The classification results of the dynamic model are compared with those of the static model, where the classification features are extracted from OpenStreetMap. Finally, a hybrid model is also tested, where a combination of dynamic and static features is used, which outperforms the other two models. For each of the three models, two variants of the feature vector are tested: one where only features associated with a single junction arm are used (one-arm model) and another where features also from neighbouring junction arms of the same junction are used to classify an arm (all-arm model). The methodology was tested on three datasets and the results show that all-arm models perform better than single-arm models with an accuracy of 94\% to 97\%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0378.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; impact; healthcare; lockdown; movement control order; Malaysia; medical services; dental services; pharmacy services
Online: 29 March 2022 (09:45:10 CEST)
Malaysia implemented a movement control order (MCO) to curb the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in March 2020. Despite healthcare services remaining operational, rising COVID-19 infections and MCO restrictions have forced healthcare professionals to seek a compromise between service capacity and standard operating procedure compliance. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among public and private sector doctors, dentists and pharmacists to determine how lockdown measures impacted healthcare services. Responses from 413 doctors, 193 dentists, and 163 pharmacists were analysed. Pharmacy services remained mostly unaffected throughout the MCO. In contrast, operational capacities for surgical and dental services were severely affected during the MCO. All service sectors reported restricting patients or accompanying individuals at the workplace, reductions in staffing capacity, and shortened patient contact time at various degrees. Many pharmacy and medical participants reported supplying extended medication supplies to patients. Adoption of virtual healthcare services was generally poor. All private service sectors suffered financial losses ranging between 59 to 75%. Periodic assessments of the healthcare system throughout the pandemic are required to identify which patients have their treatment compromised so that healthcare managers and policy makers can plan and implement appropriate interventions that help alleviate pressure within the health system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0505.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Sharing Economy; Category Formation; Emergence; Social Movement; Similarity Clustering; Truce; Radial Category; Identity Legitimation; Stakeholders; Business Models.
Online: 26 October 2020 (08:50:38 CET)
The Sharing Economy (SE) has dawn great attention from several stakeholders in society in the last five years. While business actors are interested in financial opportunities to meet consumer needs, new business models, the academia and governmental organizations are concerned with potential unintended effects on the society and environment. In the process of making a clearer comprehension of the SE phenomenon, researchers have identified that, despite its notable global growth, there still persists a lack of a more solid ground in understanding its origins and respective mechanisms under which it has been evolving over time as a category. In this research, we address the problematics of the origins and ascendency of the SE by examining the process by which the SE is arising as a new category, searching for conceptual clarification and pinpointing the legitimacy granted by key stakeholders. Our guiding research questions are: (1) how the SE was formed and evolved as a market category; and (2), as a market category, is the SE legitimate? Additionally, we attempt to identify the nature of the SE as a category. To answer these questions, we conducted an historical analysis of the expression SE and its equivalents. This paper deepens the discussion about the nature of the SE by providing evidence that (i) the SE has predominantly been formed by emergence processes, comprising social movement, similarity clustering and truce components. It is the combination of all these aforementioned processes that renders the SE a special case of market category formation, which, in turn, has been allowing communication, entrepreneurship, regulation and research about what really is the SE, and despite the evident lack of agreements regarding both the label and its content; (ii) there is a generalized legitimacy granted to the SE by a vast number of stakeholders, even though still lacking on the consolidation of socio-political legitimation, and (iii) the nature of the SE seems to fall in a metaphorical approach, particularly, the notion of radial categories.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0577.v1
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; Coronavirus; SARS-CoV2; Random walks; Population dispersal; Diffusion; Lockdown; Confinement; Movement restrictions; Disease spread; Kuwait
Online: 24 July 2020 (10:57:04 CEST)
To mitigate the spread of the COVID-19 coronavirus, some countries have enforced more stringent non-pharmaceutical interventions in contrast to those widely adopted (for e.g. the state of Kuwait). In addition to standard practices such as enforcing curfews, social distancing, and closure of non-essential service industries, other non-conventional policies such as the total confinement of highly populated areas has also been implemented. In this paper, we model the movement of a host population using a mechanistic approach based on random walks, which are either diffusive or super-diffusive. Infections are realised through a contact process, whereby a susceptible host may be infected if in close spatial proximity of the infectious host. Our focus is only on the short-time scale prior to the infectious period, so that no further transmission is assumed. We find that the level of infection depends heavily on the population dynamics, and increases in the case of slow population diffusion, but remains stable for a high or super-diffusive population. Also, we find that the confinement of homogeneous or overcrowded sub-populations has minimal impact in the short term. Finally, we discuss the possible implications of our findings for total confinement in the context of the current situation in Kuwait.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0010.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: affect; embodied ways of knowing; inter-corporality; interspecies intimacy; sensory ethnography; movement; rhythm; canine and equine interactions
Online: 2 October 2019 (03:22:40 CEST)
Children’s beneficial relationships with animals are well known. Companion animals, particularly dogs have become an integral part of family life and children’s material culture. Aside the proven physiological benefits there is little research about what children say about their relationships with animals and how they describe them. In this paper we bring together both horse-human and dog-human interactions, finding common ground for understanding the complexity of human development, well-being and flourishing. Dogs in schools are fast becoming a trend in helping support and enhance children’s learning as well as their social and emotional well-being. Studies have shown that the very presence of a dog can increase children’s concentration, executive function and behavior. Also, equine therapy is gaining momentum and empirical studies are showing noteworthy benefits to children and young people. However, the lack of children’s voices means that the mechanisms for these benefits are somewhat unknown and unclear. In seeking to explore this, the authors utilize a visual, sensory and diffractive ethnographic approach to illuminate and illustrate, experiment and re-enact, how the children relate, share spaces and multiple subjectivities with their classroom canine, “Ted” and companion horse “Henry”. ”Henry” is part of a programme in which youngsters care for and engage in activities with horses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0283.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: fish-like movement; underwater robotics; undulating propulsion; Biomimetic Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (BUUV); energy efficiency; Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI)
Online: 20 October 2021 (09:17:07 CEST)
This paper describes research on a unique propulsion system design for a low-speed Biomimetic Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (BUUV). It is biomimetic in the sense that it mimics the movement of aquatic organisms. The undulating propulsion system has numerous advantages over the rotary impeller and is becoming more popular in underwater robotics. The analysis of an artificial seal’s propulsion system with two tail fins is described here. The contrast between the previous undulating propulsion system and the new one is detailed using mathematical analysis and experimental data. The experimental comparison was carried out on a laboratory test stand equipped with specialist sensor equipment to determine the energy efficiency of various types of propulsion systems. Due to a patent procedure, the innovative propulsion system presented in this work has never been published previously. The fins have extra joints, which is the subject of patent claims. The extra joint is intended to improve energy efficiency and reduce fatigue wear on the fins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0321.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: MicroRNA; osteoprotegerin (OPG); orthodontic tooth movement (OTM); miR-3198; mechanical stresses; periodontal ligament cells (PDL cells); compression; tension
Online: 18 July 2018 (08:58:19 CEST)
Background: Osteoclastic bone resorption in the compression zone of periodontal ligament (PDL) plays a role in orthodontic tooth movement, and is regulated by the balance of RANKL and OPG. Compression downregulates OPG, conversely, tension upregulates OPG in PDL cells. However, the regulatory mechanism of OPG expression in PDL cells under different mechanical stresses remains unclear. Methods: To study microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles, compression (2g/cm2) or tension (15%-elongation) was applied to immortalized human PDL (HPL) cells, and miRNA was extracted. The miRNA expression was analyzed using a human miRNA microarray, and the changes of the miRNA expression were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. In addition, miR-3198-mimic and -inhibitor were transfected into HPL cells to understand the resulting OPG expression and production. Results: Certain miRNAs were expressed differentially under compression and tension. Some miRNAs including miR-3198 were upregulated only by compression. Real-time RT-PCR confirmed that compression induced miR-3198, but tension reduced it, in HPL cells. miR-3198-inhibitor upregulated and miR-3198-mimic reduced OPG in HPL cells. miR-3198-inhibitor rescued the compression-mediated downregulation of OPG. On the other hand, miR-3198-mimic reduced OPG expression under tension. Conclusion: We conclude that miR-3198 is upregulated by compression and is downregulated by tension, suggesting that miR-3198 downregulates OPG in response to mechanical stress.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0015.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: RGSV; movement proteins; gene silencing; transgenic mechanism; virus-induced small interfering RNA; RNA silencing pathway; antiviral plant defenses
Online: 2 November 2017 (03:05:04 CET)
Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV) a member of Tenuivirus family, is very potent and destructive which effects rice crop in many countries, particularly China. Non coding RNAs have important functions in development and epigenetic regulation of gene expression in numerous organsisms. There is three type of small non coding RNAs have been found in eukaryotes, which are small interferring RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs) and piwi interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Small RNAs (sRNAs) origination is from the infecting virus which is known as virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs), has responsibility for RNA silencing in plants. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is mainly dependent on RNA silencing (RNAi). Interestingly, RNA silencing happens in plants during viral infections. RNAi technique showed significant results in Nephotettix cincticeps. RNAi technique demonstrated the gene silencing of planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. The proteins P5, pcf4, Dnj, psn5, and pn6 act as potential movement proteins and serve as silencing suppressors for RGSV. VsiRNAs originate from dsRNA molecules which require Dicer-like (DCL) proteins, RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) proteins, and Argonaute (AGO) proteins. RdRP uses ssRNA for perfect RNA amplification process and can also be used for DCL dependent secondary vsiRNA formation. VSRs interfere with the movement of signals during silencing mechanism. Moreover, intercellular movement of viruses is facilitated by virus-encoded movement protein. RNAi is found in many eukaryotes which are related to transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation by gene suppression. Transcription is bidirectional in ssDNA viruses which are originated from dsRNA molecules. In this review, we highlighted the biology of Rice grassy stunt virus and its insect vector and its silencing suppressors. This work will be helpful for plant virologists to understand the whole biogenesis mechanism for rice viruses especially RGSV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0476.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Religion; migration; Political Economy; demographic economic policies; sanctuary movement; persecution; civil disobedience; The United States of America (USA/US).
Online: 28 September 2021 (21:27:59 CEST)
This is a study of Political Economy on religion and migration management in the United States of America (USA). This paper offers a review of migrants-citizens relations in the USA, with attention to the pendulum effect, moving from integration policies (open doors and melting pot agenda) to official persecution (raids and deportations), with a high social opportunity cost. There has been a split between the State and civil society, causing civil disobedience and sanctuary network across the country. Also, it is paid attention to the American post-modern paradox, as a result of culture wars and identity politics that imply a violation of American constitutional principles (i.e. religious liberty, freedom of movement, to pursuit the happiness). Special attention is paid to the development of the Sanctuary Movement, as an ongoing example of the sociocultural upheaval bringing grassroots society into confrontation with powerful elites by promoting resistance and offering help to the needy, even if this results in sanctions. This movement was revitalized after the values crisis of 2008, but it has also been polarized between those who follow the traditional approach to socio-religious action in the form of peaceful civil disobedience, and those who follow the ideological anti-system and communitarian approach, which causes greater tension for the immigrants themselves
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0087.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: 3D motion capture; full-body biomechanical modeling; X-factor; hip flexibility; whip-like movement; dispersion of impact load during falling
Online: 5 May 2020 (16:01:29 CEST)
Jumping side volley has created breathtaking moments and cherished memories for us. Regrettably, a scientific study on the skill has not been found in literature. Relying on talent of athletes to improvise on the fly can hardly be considered a viable learning strategy. This study targets to fill the gap by quantifying factors contributing to develop its coaching method. Using 3D motion capture (12-cameras, 200Hz) and full-body biomechanical modeling, our study aimed to identify elements that govern entrainment of the skill by examining jumping, kicking and falling phases of its execution. Given the rarity of players who have acquired this skill, we found five subjects for the study. Twenty-three trials were captured and quantified. The results unveil the following key elements: 1) the control of trunk rotation during the jumping, 2) the angle between thighs upon take-off, 3) the whip-like control of the kicking leg during airborne, 4) timing between ball motion and limbs’ coordination, and 5) damping mechanism during falling. An accurate kick can only be achieved through repetitive training. This underlines the need for athletes to master a safe landing technique that minimizes risk of injury during practice. Therefore, training should begin with learning a safe falling technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0310.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: behavioral analysis; COVID-19; governmental intervention; mask adoption; movement change; vaccine participation; non-pharmaceutical interventions; policy recommendations; social physics; social behavior
Online: 20 October 2022 (11:41:27 CEST)
Since its emergence, COVID-19 has caused a great impact in health and social terms. Governments and health authorities have attempted to minimize this impact by enforcing different mandates. Recent studies have addressed the relationship between various socioeconomic variables and compliance level to these interventions. However, little attention has been paid to what constitutes people's response and whether people behave differently when faced with different interventions. Data collected from different sources show very significant regional differences across the United States. In this paper, we attempted to shed light on the fact that a response may be different depending on the health system capacity and each individuals’ social status. For that, we analyzed the correlation between different societal variables (i.e. education, income levels, population density, etc.) along with healthcare capacity related variables (i.e. hospital occupancy rates, percentage of essential workers, etc.) with regards to people's level of compliance with three main governmental mandates in the United States: mobility restrictions, mask adoption, and vaccine participation. Our aim was to isolate the most influential variables impacting behavior in response to these policies. We found that there was a strong relationship between individuals' educational levels and political preferences with respect to compliance with each of these mandates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0323.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Multiscale Sample Entropy; Refine Composite Multiscale Entropy; Cerebellar Ataxia; Parkinson’s disease; Trunk acceleration time series; Complexity index; Gait variability; Gait complexity; Gait pattern; Movement disorders
Online: 17 March 2023 (10:11:42 CET)
The aim of this study was to assess the ability of multiscale sample entropy (MSE), refined composite multiscale entropy (RCMSE), and complexity index (CI) to characterize gait complexity through trunk acceleration patterns in subjects with Parkinson's disease (swPD) and healthy subjects, regardless of age or gait speed. The trunk acceleration patterns of 51 swPD and 50 HS were acquired using a lumbar-mounted magneto-inertial measurement unit during their walking. MSE, RCMSE, and CI were calculated on 2000 data points, using scale factors (τ) 1-6. Differences between swPD and HS were calculated at each τ, and the area under the receiver operating characteristics, optimal cutoff points, post-test probabilities, and diagnostic odds ratios were calculated. MSE in the antero-posterior direction at τ 4 and τ 5, and MSE in the ML direction at τ 4 outperformed the other entropy measures in terms of discriminative ability and characterized the gait of swPD with 79%, 82%, and 78% probabilities, respectively, and correlated with the motor disability, pelvic kinematics, and stance phase. Using a time series of 2000 data points, a scale factor of 4 or 5 in the MSE procedure can be considered as a marker of gait variability and complexity in swPD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: older adults; cognitive impairment; tango-therapy; quality of life; well-being; physical performance; walking performances; abilities of daily living; dance movement therapy; arts with therapeutic intent
Online: 16 January 2023 (01:11:39 CET)
Cognitive impairment in older adults is associated with poor gait performance, physical decline, falls and poor quality of life. This paper analyzes the feasibility and efficacy of a tango-based in-tervention in older people with cognitive impairment living in nursing homes. A multicenter study, with pre and post-test, was carried out. Intervention attendance, well-being, physical abilities (Short Physical Performance Battery), walking performance, functional capacities (Katz Index), and quality of life (Quality of Life in Alzheimer’s Disease) were assessed. Fifty-four participants (84.9 ± 6.7 years, Mini Mental State Examination 14.5 ± 7.4) completed the protocol. Intervention attendance was 92%, and the mean subjective well-being after each session was 4.5 ± 0.5 (on a five-point scale). Statistically significant improvement was found in the quality of life (p = 0.030). Non statistically significant changes were found in walking performance, physical abilities, or in functional capacities. The study shows feasibility and suggests evidence for the effects of Tango therapy on well-being and quality of life. Further studies are necessary to contrast these findings and to verify the role of Tango interventions as a holistic approach to prevent functional decline in older people with cognitive impairment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0803.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: educational concept; green business school; new green deal; interdisciplinary capacity and movement building; green failure; young generation collaboration network; prevent big ideas from failure, theory U, science and action-based research, design thinking
Online: 31 December 2020 (12:44:11 CET)
This article addresses the question why initiatives in the field of green business and sustainable development often fail. Therefore, it dismantles some typical patterns of failure and shows – as a case study – how these patterns can be challenged through an innovative educational concept: the green business and sustainable development school. The applied methodology is a real-life project that is designed through blended, interdisciplinary elements from business model canvas, Theory U, participation and design thinking. The results of the school initiative are discussed and evaluated by four distinctive stakeholder groups and outline the school’s supporting potential to overcome typical patterns of failure by the younger generation in the future. This article concludes with ideas to enhance the school concept reaching out to even more stakeholder-groups to increase its reliability and viability.