ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0036.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Arduino; Bluetooth; load cell; monitoring system; temperature sensor; weight sensor
Online: 1 March 2021 (17:27:36 CET)
: This paper presents a couple of meal monitoring systems for senile dementia patients by using electronic weight and temperature sensors. These monitoring systems enable to convey the information of the amount of meal taken by the patients in real-time via wireless communication networks onto the mobile phones of their families or nurses in charge. Thereby, the nurses can easily spot the most desperate patient to take care of while the families can have relief to see the crucial information for survival of their parents at least three times a day. Meanwhile, the senile dementia patients tend to suffer the burn of their tongues because they can hardly recognize the temperature of hot meals served and therefore avoid the burn of tongues. This phenomenon can be discarded by utilizing the meal temperature monitoring system which displays alarm to the patients when the meal temperature is above the reference. These meal monitoring systems can be easily implemented by utilizing low-cost sensor chips and Arduino UNO boards so that elder-care hospitals and nursing homes can afford to exploit them with no additional cost. Hence, we believe that the proposed monitoring systems would be a potential solution to provide a great help and relief not only for the professional nursing nurses working in elder-care hospitals and nursing homes, but also for the families of the dementia patients.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: HIV viral load; external quality assessment; verification; quality; thermostable; PrimeStore MTM
Online: 18 January 2021 (12:24:31 CET)
The tiered laboratory framework for HIV viral load monitoring accommodates a range of HIV viral load testing platforms, with quality assessment critical to ensure quality patient testing. HIV plasma viral load testing is challenged by the instability of viral RNA. An approach using an RNA stabilizing buffer is described for the Xpert® HIV-1 Viral Load (Cepheid) assay and was tested in remote laboratories in South Africa. EDTA-plasma panels with known HIV viral titres were prepared in PrimeStore molecular transport medium for per-module verification and per-instrument external quality assessment. The panels were transported at ambient temperatures to 13 testing laboratories during 2017 and 2018, tested according to standard procedures and uploaded to a web portal for analysis. A total of 275 quality assessment specimens (57 verification panels and two EQA cycles) were tested. All participating laboratories met study verification criteria (n=171 specimens) with an overall concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) of 0.997 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.996 to 0.998) and a mean bias of -0.019 log cp/mL (95% CI: -0.044 to 0.063). The overall EQA ρc (n=104 specimens) was 0.999 (95% CI: 0.998 to 0.999), with a mean bias of 0.03 log cp/mL (95% CI: 0.02 to 0.05). These panels are suitable for use in quality monitoring of Xpert® HIV-1 VL and are applicable to laboratories in remote settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0241.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: load flow analysis; load voltage deviation; plug-in electric vehicles load; power-flow analysis; static load models
Online: 17 May 2018 (10:24:09 CEST)
This paper proposes the impact of plug-in electric vehicles integrated into power distribution system based on voltage dependent control. The plug-in electric vehicles was modeled as the static load model in power distribution systems under balanced load condition. The power flow analysis is determined by using the basic parameters of the electrical network. The main point of this study are compare with voltage magnitude profiles, load voltage deviation, and total power losses of the electrical power system. There are investigating the affected from constant power load, constant current load, constant impedance load and plug-in electric vehicles load, respectively. The IEEE 33 bus test system is used to test the proposed method by assigning each load type to a balanced load in steady state and applied the solving methodology based on the bus injection to branch injection matric, branch current to bus voltage matrix, and current injection matrix to solve the power flow problem. The simulation results showed that the plug-in electric vehicles load had the lowest impact compared to other loads. The lowest plug-in values for the electric vehicle loads were 0.062, 119.67 kW and 79.31 kVar for the load voltage deviation, total active power loss and total reactive power loss, respectively. Therefore, this study can be verified that the plug-in electric vehicles load were affected to the lowest of the electrical power system in condition to same sizing and position. So that, in condition to the plug-in electric vehicles load added into the electrical power system with the conventional load type or complex load type could be considered that the affected from the plug-in electric vehicles load in next study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0085.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Accelerometer; throwing velocity; inertial measurement unit; throwing load; shoulder load
Online: 4 August 2020 (11:03:03 CEST)
Understanding the shoulder-specific load in handball is important for both prevention and rehabilitation of shoulder injuries. The shoulder-specific load is largely a result of the number and speed of throws. However, it is difficult to quantify number and speed of throws in handball due to limitations in the current technology. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a novel method to estimate throwing speed in handball using a low-cost accelerometer-based device. Nineteen experienced handball players each performed 25 throws of varying types while we measured the acceleration of the wrist using the accelerometer and the throwing speed using 3D motion capture. Using cross-validation, we developed four prediction models using combinations of the logarithm of the peak total acceleration, sex and throwing type as the predictor and the throwing speed as the outcome. We found that all models were well-calibrated (mean calibration of all models: 0.0 m/s, calibration slope range: 0.99-1.00) and precise (R2 = 0.71-0.85, mean absolute error = 1.32-1.82 m/s). We conclude that the developed method appear to provide practitioners and researchers with a feasible and cheap method to estimate throwing speeds in handball.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0169.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: non-intrusive load monitoring; load disaggregation; linear classifier; demand response
Online: 18 June 2019 (06:06:23 CEST)
Non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) is a core technology for demand response (DR) and energy conservation services. Traditional NILM methods are rarely combined with practical applications, and most studies aim to decompose the whole loads in a household, which leads to low identification accuracy. In this paper, an NILM approach based on multi-feature integrated classification (MFIC) is explored, which combines some non-electrical features such as ON/OFF duration, usage frequency of appliances, and usage period to improve load differentiability. The implementation of MFIC algorithm is consistent with traditional event-based method. The uniqueness of our algorithm is that it designs an event detector based on steady-state segmentation and a linear discriminant classifier group based on multi-feature global similarity. Simulation results using an open-access dataset demonstrate the effectiveness and high accuracy of MFIC algorithm, with the state-of-the-art NILM methods as benchmarks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0571.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: 1D-CNN; fault diagnosis; rolling bearing; vibration signal; single load; different load
Online: 23 November 2020 (09:22:43 CET)
The diagnosis of a rolling bearing for monitoring its status is critical for maintaining industrial equipment using rolling bearings. The traditional method of diagnosing faults of the rolling bearing has low identification accuracy, which needs artificial feature extraction to enhance the accuracy. 1D-CNN method not only can diagnose bearing faults accurately but also overcome shortcomings of the traditional methods. Different from machine learning and other deep learning models, the 1D-CNN method does not need pre-processing one-dimensional data of rolling bearing’s vibration. Thus, it enhances the processing speed and improves the network structure to have a reasonable design for small sample data sets. This study proposes and tests a 1D-CNN method for diagnosing rolling bearings. By introducing the dropout operation, the method obtains high accuracy and improves the generalizing ability. The experimental results show 99.52% of the average accuracy under a single load and 98.26% under different loads.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0634.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: genetic load; purging; drift load; pseudo-overdominance; heterozygosity-fitness correlation; genomic architecture
Online: 30 October 2020 (10:18:40 CET)
Upon inbreeding, the architecture of the inbreeding load shifts as selection purges strongly deleterious recessive mutations and drift fixes many milder ones. Most small inbred populations show limited genetic variation while crosses between such populations commonly express pronounced heterosis, confirming fixation. In contrast, purging appears to be limited in that inbred populations often retain substantial inbreeding depression. In addition we have the enigma Darwin noted: purely selfing taxa are unknown. Because both purging and fixation reduce inbreeding depression and load, another mechanism must exist to sustain these. Background selection and the associations that develop among alleles in small inbred populations will shift the architecture of the load potentially creating blocks of recessive mutations linked in repulsion. This would generate pseudo-overdominance that could sustain these “PODs” and inbreeding load. Recombination and crosses between lineages could erode PODs. Crosses between populations fixed for different mutations would generate high pseudo-overdominance, enhancing heterosis and potentially POD formation. New recessive mutations arising within PODs would reinforce overdominance. PODs should generate clear genetic signatures including genomic hotspots of heterozygosity and linkage disequilibrium containing alleles at intermediate frequency generating segregating load. Results from several simulation and empirical studies match these predictions. Further simulations and comparative genomic analyses are needed to rigorously test whether PODs exist in sufficient strength and number to generate persistent inbreeding depression and load in inbred lineages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0221.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: quasi-static load; abutment screw; dental implant; finite element method; dynamic load; mesiodistal
Online: 13 September 2021 (15:55:30 CEST)
Variations in the implant thread shape and occlusal load behavior may result in significant changes in the biological and mechanical properties of dental implants and surrounding bone tissue. Most previous studies consider a single implant thread design, an isotropic bone structure, and a static occlusal load. However, the effects of different thread designs, bone material properties, and loading conditions are important concerns in clinical practice. Accordingly, the present study performs Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulations to investigate the static, quasi-static and dynamic response of the implant and implanted bone material under various thread designs and occlusal loading directions (buccal-lingual, mesiodistal and apical). The simulations focus specifically on the von Mises stress, displacement, shear stress, compressive stress and tensile stress within the implant and the surrounding bone. The results show that the thread design and occlusal loading rate have a significant effect on the stress distribution and deformation of the implant and bone structure during clinical applications. Overall, the results provide a useful insight into the design of enhanced dental implants for an improved load transfer efficiency and success rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0617.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Hexagon joint, Helical pile, Bearing capacity, Static pile load test, Dynamic pile load test
Online: 31 July 2018 (10:07:54 CEST)
This study aims to improve the shaft with hexagon joints to be a type not requiring welding or bolts in the static load test . In order to evaluate the bearing capacity of helical piles, two sites were selected to conduct pile installation for the field test and the pile load test. For the pile load test, the static pile load test and the dynamic pile load test were carried out, and torque was measured during pile installation for the field test to compare and analyze expected bearing capacity and thus assess the feasibility of the method for estimating the bearing capacity. The field pile load test revealed the bearing capacity of the gravity grout pile was the same or greater than 600kN in the static pile load test in accordance with AC 358 Code. The non-grout pile showed the bearing capacity the same or smaller than 600kN, suggesting gravity grouting is required. Moreover, the field pile load test was used to establish the bearing capacity equation considering the torque in pile installation, and a small number of samples were used to establish the equation which can be used as a basic data.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0421.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: non-intrusive load monitoring; load disaggregation; NILM; review; deep learning; deep neural networks; machine learning
Online: 15 April 2021 (15:05:09 CEST)
This paper reviews non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) approaches that employ deep neural networks to disaggregate appliances from low frequency data, i.e. data with sampling rates lower than the AC base frequency. We first review the many degrees of freedom of these approaches, what has already been done in literature, and compile the main characteristics of the reviewed publications in an extensive overview table. The second part of the paper discusses selected aspects of the literature and corresponding research gaps. In particular, we do a performance comparison with respect to reported MAE and F$_1$-scores and observe different recurring elements in the best performing approaches, namely data sampling intervals below 10\,s, a large field of view, the usage of GAN losses, multi-task learning, and post-processing. Subsequently, multiple input features, multi-task learning and related research gaps are discussed, the need for comparative studies is highlighted, and finally, missing elements for a successful deployment of NILM approaches based on deep neural networks are pointed out. We conclude the review with an outlook on possible future scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0281.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: load-carrying capacity; wood connection; dowel
Online: 16 November 2021 (09:09:16 CET)
This work presents the results of three connection types in double-shear with dowel fasteners, using the simplified equations from the Eurocode 5. All design parameters were established and compared using three different wood strength and density properties, which constitute the members connections. Eighty-one connections were obtained, allowing to conclude about the number of fasteners needed to the applied tensile load. An increase in the number of dowels was obtained with the increased applied tensile load, lower dowel diameter, lower wood density, and lower strength material in all connection types in the study. The design characteristic load-carrying capacity per shear plane and fastener also decrease with the previously considered parameters.
Online: 24 December 2019 (11:36:03 CET)
VHF Data Exchange System (VDES) is considered as an important component of the future maritime communication system by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). On the basis of existing Automatic Identification System (AIS), VDES adds the other two higher capacity subsystems: Application Specific Message (ASM) and VHF Data Exchange (VDE). The Random Access Channel (RACH) of VDE was first introduced in the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Recommendation M.2092-0. As the slot planning of RACH in VDE is interval, which is significantly different from the continuous slot map for access algorithms in AIS, the existing slot access algorithms cannot meet the requirements of VDE. The simulation results show that the VDE slot map can reduce the normalized throughput of the existing algorithm by 39%. A novel random access algorithm called Adaptive Traffic Load Contention Resolution Diversity Slotted ALOHA (ATL-CRDSA) is proposed in this paper. The algorithm combines the load control strategy and contention resolution scheme to overcome the challenges of the new RACH of VDE. Simulation results show that ATL-CRDSA has remarkable improvement on RACH, and makes RACH very efficient and provides low latency of the packets. The insights gained from this study may be of assistance to the Media Access Control (MAC) layer design for upcoming versions of VDES standard.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0058.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: load forecast; short term; probabilistic; Gaussian processes
Online: 4 April 2019 (16:01:54 CEST)
We provide a comprehensive framework for forecasting five minute load using Gaussian processes with a positive definite kernel specifically designed for load forecasts. Gaussian processes are probabilistic, enabling us to draw samples from a posterior distribution and provide rigorous uncertainty estimates to complement the point forecast, an important benefit for forecast consumers. As part of the modeling process, we discuss various methods for dimension reduction and explore their use in effectively incorporating weather data to the load forecast. We provide guidance for every step of the modeling process, from model construction through optimization and model combination. We provide results on data from the PJMISO for various periods in 2018. The process is transparent, mathematically motivated, and reproducible. The resulting model provides a probability density of five-minute forecasts for 24 hours.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0219.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Waterbomb structure; Origami pattern; Quasi-static load; Critical axial buckling load-to-weight ratio; Radial stiffness-to-weight ratio
Online: 12 January 2021 (12:20:55 CET)
Waterbomb structures are origami-inspired deformable structural components used in new types of robots. They have a unique radially deployable ability that enables robots to better adapt to their environment. In this paper, we propose a series of new waterbomb structures with square, rectangle, and parallelogram base units. Through quasi-static axial and radial compression experiments and numerical simulations, we prove that the parallelogram waterbomb structure has a twist displacement mode along the axial direction. Compared with the square waterbomb structure, the proposed optimal design of the parallelogram waterbomb structure reduces the critical axial buckling load-to-weight ratio by 55.4% and increases the radial stiffness-to-weight ratio by 67.6%. The significant increase in the radial stiffness-to-weight ratio of the waterbomb structure and decrease in the critical axial buckling load-to-weight ratio make the proposed origami pattern attractive for practical robotics applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0526.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: VP28; WSSV; real-time PCR; viral load; apoptosis
Online: 29 November 2021 (11:55:17 CET)
White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) has emerged as one of the most prevalent and lethal viruses globally, and infects both shrimps and crabs in the aquatic environment. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of WSSV in different ghers of Bangladesh and the virulence of the circulating phylotypes. We collected 360 shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and 120 crab (Scylla sp.) samples from the South-East (Cox’s Bazar) and South-West (Satkhira) coastal regions of Bangladesh. The VP28 gene-specific PCR assays and sequencing revealed statistically significant (p < 0.05, Kruskal Wallis test) differences in the prevalence of WSSV in shrimps and crabs between the study areas (Cox’s Bazar and Satkhira), and over the study periods (2017-2019). The mean Log load of WSSV varied from 8.40 (Cox’s Bazar) to 10.48 (Satkhira) per gram of tissue. The mean values for salinity, dissolved oxygen, temperature and pH were 14.71±0.76 ppt, 3.7±0.1 ppm, 34.11±0.38˚C and 8.23±0.38, respectively in the WSSV-positive ghers. The VP28 gene-based phylogenetic analysis showed an amino-acid substitution (E→G) at 167th position in the isolates from Cox’s Bazar (referred to as phylotype BD2) compared to the globally circulating one (BD1). Shrimp PL artificially challenged with BD1 and BD2 phylotypes with filtrates of tissue containing 0.423 X 109 copies of WSSV per mL resulted a median LT50 value of 73 hrs and 75 hrs, respectively. The in-vivo trial showed higher mean Log WSSV copies (6.47±2.07 per mg tissue) in BD1 challenged shrimp PL compared to BD2 (4.75±0.35 per mg tissue). Crabs infected with BD1 and BD2 showed 100% mortality within 48 hrs and 62 hrs of challenge, respectively with mean Log WSSV copies of 12.06±0.48 and 9.95±0.37 per gram tissue, respectively. Moreover, shrimp antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) penaeidin and lysozyme expression was lower in BD1 challenged group compared to BD2 challenged shrimps. These results collectively demonstrated that relative virulence properties of WSSV based on mortality rate, viral load and expression of host immune genes in artificially infected shrimp PL could be affected by single aa substitution in VP28.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0140.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Expansive soils; Pavement; Geosynthetics; Inverse analysis; Virtual load
Online: 8 January 2021 (10:43:43 CET)
Sometimes a pavement deflects only because of seasonal volume change of expansive soils in the pavement subgrade. Engineering practitioners expect an implementable and straightforward analysis method for a geosynthetic-reinforced pavement subjected to the swelling/shrinkage issue of expansive clayey subgrade, in an effort to find the bending moment, shear force and tension force distributions through the reinforced pavement, which are induced from the volumetric changes of subgrade soils. The virtual load method (VLM) was proposed in the past following the Timoshenko beam theory to analyze geosynthetic-reinforced pavement on expansive soils. In the VLM, the unknown virtual distributed load was obtained in the way by applying the inverse theory for the identification of material parameters of the pavement-foundation system. It was seen that the selection of the number of material parameters to obtain virtual load significantly affects the accuracy of the structural properties of the pavement and tensile properties of the geosynthetics if the linear least square method is used. In this paper, a unique numerical scheme was proposed in the hopes of solving the issue. After a forward problem was solved numerically, the Timoshenko beam deflection was taken as a start-up for the inverse problem to back analyze the load applied to the pavement. Solutions from forward/backward examples have explicitly shown the accuracy achieved related to the bending moment in the pavement and tension in the geosynthetic reinforcements. The proposed methodology can be applied for an in-depth understanding of the geosynthetic function for the mitigation of longitudinal cracks on pavements caused by heave/shrinkage of expansive soils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0405.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: nonlocal nanobeam; rotation; thermoelasticity; temperature-dependent; varying load
Online: 19 August 2020 (08:57:49 CEST)
A theoretical nonlocal thermoelastic model for studying the effects of the thermal conductivity variability on a rotating nanobeam has been described in the present article. The theory of thermal stress is employed using the Euler–Bernoulli beam model and generalized heat conduction with phase lags. It is believed that the thermal conductivity of the current model varies linearly according to temperature. Due to variable harmonic heat, the considered nanobeam excited and was subjected to a time-varying exponential decay load. Using the Laplace transform process, the analytical solutions for displacement, deflection, thermodynamic temperature and bending moment of rotating nanobeams are provided in final forms and a numerical example has been taken to address the problem. A comparison of the stated results was displayed and additionally, the influences of non-local parameters and varying load were analyzed and examined. We also investigate how the linear changes in the temperature of physical properties can influence both the static and dynamic responses to the rotating nanobeam.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0367.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; viral load; children
Online: 23 May 2020 (10:15:07 CEST)
Background: The question of whether children are less likely to pass on SARS-CoV-2 is important for planning society’s response to the pandemic. A document available on the Charité hospital website has not been formally published but is frequently referred to as supporting the notion that viral loads are similar in children and adults. Methods: The summary data from this document was extracted and used to produce summary statistics for three age groups: younger children (ages up to 11), older children (ages 12 to 19) and adults (ages 20 and above). Viral loads between the two children’s groups and the adult group were compared using Welch’s t test, which only requires group means and standard deviations and which is robust against moderate departures from normality. Findings: Viral loads were significantly lower than in adults for both younger children (p=0.04) and older children (p=0.04). Overall, viral loads were lower in children than adults (p=0.005). Interpretation: For both younger and older children, on average those with detectable SARS-CoV-2 have significantly lower viral loads than adults. Funding: No funding was received for this analysis.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: COVID-19; recovery rate; case load rate; India
Online: 4 May 2020 (02:17:29 CEST)
Background: World Health Organization (WHO) declared that COVID-19 as a pandemic on March 11, 2020. There is sudden need of statistical modeling due to onset of COVID-19 pandemic across the world. But health planning and policy requirements the estimates of disease problem form clinical data. Objective: To predict recovery rate, cases load rate on the basis of cumulative confirmed Novel Corona virus (NCV) cases, recovered cases and deaths form COVID-19 in India. Methods: The reported COVID-19 cases in the country were obtained from website (https://datahub.io/core/covid-19#resource-covid-19_zip/). The cumulative NCV confirmed cases; recovery cases and deaths were used for estimating recovery rate, cases load rate and death rate till date 24 April 2020. Results: A total of 24530 NCV confirmed cases were reported nationwide in India on 24 April 2020. It is found that the recovery rate increased 22% and case load rate decreased 74%. Death rate is found to be very low 3%. The difference of cases load rate and recovery rate (delta) coincide at 50 % then NCV cases expected would be declined. Conclusion: The epidemic in the country was mainly caused by the importation of India. Lockdown as restricting the migration of population and decided to quarantine of population may greatly reduce the risk of continued spread of the epidemic in India. This study predicts that by 20 May 2020, the cases load rate lesser than recovery rate there after COVID-19 patients would be started to reducing.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0469.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: aerobic capacity, graded‑exercise test, total work-load
Online: 27 August 2018 (16:31:45 CEST)
The aim of this study was to clarify effects of 3-week work-matched high-intensity intermittent cycling training (HIICT) with different cadences on VO2max in university athletes. Eighteen university athletes performed HIICT with either 60 rpm (n = 9) or 120 rpm (n = 9). HIICT consisted of eight sets of 20-s exercise with a 10-s passive rest between each sets. The initial training intensity was set at 135% of VO2 max and was decreased by 5% every two sets. Athletes in both groups performed 9 sessions of HIICT during 3-week. The total work-load and achievement rate of the work load calculated before experiments in each group were used for analysis. VO2max was measured pre and post-training. After 3-week of training, no significant differences in the total work-load and achievement rate of the work load were found between the two groups. VO2max similarly increased in both groups from pre to post training (p = 0.016), with no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.680). These results suggest that cadence during HIICT is not training variable affecting effect of VO2max.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0404.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: cloud computing; reliability; load balancing; Sufferage; task dispatching
Online: 22 July 2018 (11:43:32 CEST)
Due to the rapid development and popularity of the Internet, cloud computing has become an indispensable application service. However, how to assign various tasks to the appropriate service nodes is an important issue. Based on the reason above, an efficient scheduling algorithm is necessary to enhance the performance of system. Therefore, a Three-Layer Cloud Dispatching (TLCD) architecture is proposed to enhance the performance of task scheduling. In first layer, the tasks need to be distinguished to different types by their characters. Subsequently, the Cluster Selection Algorithm is proposed to dispatch the task to appropriately service cluster in the secondly layer. Besides, a new scheduling algorithm is proposed to dispatch the task to a suitable server in a server cluster to improve the dispatching efficiency in the thirdly layer. Basically, the TLCD architecture can obtain better task completion time than previous works. Besides, our algorithm and can achieve load-balancing and reliability in cloud computing network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0156.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Hydrostatic bearings; Journal bearings; Static load characteristics; Measurements; Predictions
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:57:53 CEST)
Hydrostatic bearings for liquid rocket engine turbopumps provide distinctive advantages including high load capacity even with low viscosity cryogenic fluid and extending a life span by minimizing friction and wear between rotor and bearing surfaces. Application of hydrostatic bearings into turbopumps demands reliable test data base with well-quantified operating parameters and experimentally validated accurate performance predictive tools. The present paper shows the comprehensive experimental data and validation of predicted static load characteristics of hydrostatic journal bearings lubricated with air, water, and liquid nitrogen. Extensive experiments for static load characteristics of hydrostatic bearings are conducted using a turbopump rotor-bearing system simulator while increasing supply pressure (Ps) into the test bearings. The test results demonstrate notable effects of the test fluids and their temperatures, as well as Ps, on the bearing performance. In general, the measured bearing flow rate, rotor displacement, and stiffness of the test bearings steadily increase with Ps. The static load bearing characteristics predictions considering flow turbulence and compressibility matched well with the experimental results. The work with an independent test data and engineering computational programs will further the implementation of hydrostatic bearings in high performance turbopump shaft systems with improved efficiency and enhanced reusability of liquid rocket engine sub-systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0411.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Energy performance; Cooling load prediction; Neural network, Metaheuristic optimization.
Online: 21 January 2021 (09:23:04 CET)
Regarding the high efficiency of metaheuristic techniques in energy performance analysis, this paper scrutinizes and compares five novel optimizers, namely biogeography-based optimization (BBO), invasive weed optimization (IWO), social spider algorithm (SOSA), shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA), and harmony search algorithm (HSA) for the early prediction of cooling load in residential buildings. The algorithms are coupled with a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) to adjust the neural parameters that connect the CL with the influential factors. The complexity of the models is optimized by means of a trial-and-error effort, and it was shown that the BBO and IWO need more crowded spaces for fulfilling the optimization. The results revealed that the internal parameters (i.e., biases and weights) suggested by the BBO generate the most reliable MLP for both analyzing and generalizing the CL pattern (with nearly 93 and 92% correlations, respectively). Followed by this, the IWO emerged as the second powerful optimizer with mean absolute errors of 1.8632 and 1.9110 in the training and testing phases. Therefore, the BBO-MLP and IWO-MLP can be reliably used for accurate analysis of the CL in future projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0565.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: pelvic organ prolapse (POP); uterine prolapse; heavy load carrying
Online: 8 January 2021 (11:34:54 CET)
Heavy load carrying of water, firewood, and sand/stones is a ubiquitous activity for women living in developing countries. Although the intra-abdominal pressure associated with heavy load carrying is hypothesized to increase the risk of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) among women, relevant epidemiologic data are lacking. We conducted a comparative study involving two exploratory cross-sectional studies among convenience samples of women carrying heavy loads, with different characteristics: (1) as part of their activities for daily living, in Shinyanga region, Tanzania; and (2) working as sand miners in Pokhara, Nepal. Women were categorized has having “low” or “high” load-carrying exposures based on the measured weights of the loads being carried at the time of the survey, as well as on self-reported duration and frequency of load carrying. A summary score for lower abdominal discomfort suggestive of POP was generated using questions from the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory (POPDI-6). Women with higher load carrying exposures had on average higher discomfort scores in both Tanzania (adjusted prevalence difference (PDa)=3.7; 95% CI: -3.8-11.3; p=0.33) and Nepal (PDa=9.3; 95% CI: -4.9-23.6; p=0.18). We identified trends suggestive of an association between increasing heavy load carrying exposures and symptoms of lower abdominal discomfort. Our findings underscore the need for larger epidemiologic studies of the potential adverse reproductive health effects of heavy load carrying activities on women in developing countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0201.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: reinforced concrete; columns; confinement; CFRP; load bearing capacity; standards
Online: 20 June 2019 (11:50:22 CEST)
Reinforced concrete (RC) columns are often placed under confinement to increase their strength and ductility. Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) materials have recently been recognized as favorable confinement systems. At present, a number of national standards and codes dedicated to the design of concrete components strengthened with CFRP in general and CFRP confinement in particular are available. These sets of rules provide design equations for confined reinforced concrete columns with circular and rectangular cross sections. Most of the standards and codes exhibit significant differences, including the used predictive models limitations, observed effects, and covered loading conditions. In this paper, five international standards and design guidelines are introduced and discussed. The purpose is to present a constructive and critical assessment of the state-of-the-art design methodologies available for CFRP confined RC columns and to discuss effects not previously considered properly. Therefore, some recent research efforts and findings from the Leipzig University of Applied Sciences are also introduced. The obtained data is used for a comparative study of the guideline predictive equations. Furthermore, it is shown that some new findings concerning the rupture strength and the maximum strength plus accompanying axial strain of a CFRP confined column are suitable to improve the current guidelines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0046.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: blast load; concrete-filled steel columns; finite element analysis
Online: 13 October 2016 (05:11:20 CEST)
Concrete-filled steel columns have been extensively used in the world due to having all suitable characteristics of concrete and steel, more ductility, increasing concrete confinement using steel wall, large energy-absorption capacity and appropriate fire behavior. In present paper, concrete-filled steel square columns have been simulated under the influence of blast load using ABAQUS software. These responses will be compared for scaled distances based on the distance to source and weight of explosive material. As result, it can be seen that although concrete deformation has been restricted using steel tube, but inner layer of concrete has been seriously damaged and column displacement will be decreased by increasing scaled distance. We also concluded that concrete-filled steel columns have high ductility and blast resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0063.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Spherical weave structure; In-plane curvatures; Buckling; Test; Buckling load
Online: 2 August 2022 (10:22:30 CEST)
Weaving technology can convert two-dimensional structures such as ribbons into three-dimensional structures by specific connections. However, most of the 3D structures fabricated by conventional weaving methods using straight ribbons have some topological defects. In order to obtain smoother continuous 3D surface structures, Baek et al. proposed a novel weaving method using naturally curved (in-plane) ribbons to fabricated three-dimensional curved structures and using this method to weave new spherical weave structures that are closer to perfect spheres. We believe that this new spherical weave structure with smooth geometric properties must correspond to new mechanical properties. To this end, we investigated the buckling characteristics of different types of spherical weave structures by the combination of test and finite element method. The results of calculations and experiments show that the failure mode of the spherical weave structure under vertical loading can be divided into two stages: a flat contact region forms between the spherical weave structure and the rigid plate and inward dimple of ribbons. The spherical weave structures using naturally curved (in-plane) ribbon weaving have better buckling stability than those woven with straight ribbons. The vertical buckling load of spherical weave structures using naturally curved ribbon increases with the width and thickness of the ribbon. In addition, this paper combines test, theoretical and finite element analysis to propose the buckling load equation and buckling correction factor equation for the new spherical weave structure under vertical compression load.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0385.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: fuzzy theory; heuristic search; stochastic economic load dispatch; risk analysis
Online: 26 July 2022 (05:21:14 CEST)
A thermal load dispatch problem minimizes the number of objectives viz operating cost and emission of gaseous pollutants together while allocating the power demand among the committed generating units subject to physical and technological system constraints. A stochastic thermal load dispatch problem is undertaken while taking into consideration, the uncertainties, errors in data measurements and nature of load demand which is random. Owing to uncertain load demand, variance due to mismatch of power demand termed as risk, is considered as another conflicting objective to be minimized. Generally multiobjective problems generate a set of non-inferior solutions are generated and supplied to a decision maker to select the best solution from the set of non-inferior solutions. This paper proposes opposition-based greedy heuristic search (OGHS) method to generate a set of non-inferior solutions. Opposition-based learning is applied to generate initial population to select good candidates. Migration to maintain diversity in the set of feasible solutions is also based on opposition-based learning. Mutation strategy is implemented by perturbing the genes heuristically in parallel and better one solution is sought for each member. Feasible solutions are achieved heuristically by modifying the generation-schedules in such a manner that violation of operating generation limits are avoided. The OGHS method is simple to implement and provides global solutions derived from the randomness of the population generated without tuning of parameters. Decision maker exploits fuzzy membership functions to decide the final decision. Validity of the method has been demonstrated by analysing systems in different scenarios consisting of six generators and forty generators.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0261.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 variants; transmissibility; viral load; sensitivity to antisera
Online: 22 February 2022 (02:59:33 CET)
Novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOC) are constantly threatening global public health. With no end date, the pandemic still persists with the emergence of novel variants that threaten the effectiveness of diagnostic tests and vaccines. Mutations in the Spike surface protein of the virus are regularly observed in the new variants, potentializing the emergence of novel viruses with different tropism from the current ones, which may change the severity and symptoms of the disease. Growing evidence has shown that mutations are being selected in favor of variants that are more capable of evading the action of neutralizing antibodies. In this context, the most important factor guiding the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 is its interaction with the host’s immune system. Thus, as current vaccines cannot block the transmission of the virus, measures complementary to vaccination, such as the use of masks, hand hygiene, and keeping environments ventilated remain essential to delay the emergence of new variants. Importantly, in addition to the involvement of the immune system in the evolution of the virus, we highlight several chemical parameters that influence the molecular interactions between viruses and host cells during invasion and are also critical tools making novel variants more transmissible. In this review, we dissect the impacts of the Spike mutations on biological parameters such as (1) increase of Spike binding affinity to hACE2; (2) bound time for the receptor to be cleaved by the proteases; (3) how mutations associate with increase of RBD up-conformation state in the Spike ectodomain; (4) expansion of uncleaved Spike protein in the virion particles; (5) increment of Spike concentration per virion particles; and (6) evasion of the immune system. These factors play key roles in the fast spreading of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, including the Omicron.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: flexible tower; nacelle attitude feedback (NAF); dynamic response; aerodynamic load
Online: 6 September 2021 (12:45:31 CEST)
Based on the two-node Euler-Bernoulli beam, the tower system is discretized by finite element method, and the cubic Hermite polynomial is taken as the shape function of the beam element, and the structural characteristic matrix of the tower system is calculated, and the wind turbine-nacelle-tower multi-degree of freedom is established Finite element numerical model. The aerodynamic load calculation formula for any nacelle attitude angle is deduced. The influence of the vibration feedback of the flexible tower on the aerodynamic load of the wind turbine is studied. The results show that when the rigidity of the tower is large, the impact of tower vibration feedback on the aeroelastic load of the wind turbine is small. For a tower system with greater flexibility, the time-varying feedback of wind-induced vibration will cause greater aeroelastic load changes, especially the overturning moment of the tower top, which will cause a greater impact on the dynamic behavior of the tower in the downwind and crosswind directions. As the flexibility of the tower system increases, the interaction between tower vibration and aerodynamic load is gradually increasing. Taking the impact of the flexible tower on the aeroelastic load of the wind turbine into account, on the one hand, helps to predict the wind more accurately. The aerodynamic load of the wind turbine improves the efficiency of wind energy utilization. On the other hand, it can more accurately analyze the dynamic behavior of the flexible structure of the wind turbine, which is extremely beneficial to the structural optimization design of the wind turbine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0224.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: energy-efficient building; heating load; neural computing; biogeography-based optimization
Online: 12 January 2021 (14:46:29 CET)
: The significance of heating load (HL) accurate approximation is the primary motivation of this research to distinguish the most efficient predictive model among several neural-metaheuristic models. The proposed models are through synthesizing multi-layer perceptron network (MLP) with ant lion optimization (ALO), biogeography-based optimization (BBO), dragonfly algorithm (DA), evolutionary strategy (ES), invasive weed optimization (IWO), and league champion optimization (LCA) hybrid algorithms. Each ensemble is optimized in terms of the operating population. Accordingly, the ALO-MLP, BBO-MLP, DA-MLP, ES-MLP, IWO-MLP, and LCA-MLP presented their best performance for population sizes of 350, 400, 200, 500, 50, and 300, respectively. The comparison was carried out by implementing a ranking system. Based on the obtained overall scores (OSs), the BBO (OS = 36) featured as the most capable optimization technique, followed by ALO (OS = 27) and ES (OS = 20). Due to the efficient performance of these algorithms, the corresponding MLPs can be promising substitutes for traditional methods used for HL analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0133.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Energy-efficiency; HVAC system; Neural network; Cooling load; Metaheuristic search.
Online: 8 January 2021 (10:20:07 CET)
Early prediction of thermal loads plays an essential role in analyzing energy-efficient buildings' energy performance. On the other hand, stochastic algorithms have recently shown high proficiency in dealing with this issue. These are the reasons that this work is dedicated to evaluating an innovative hybrid method for predicting the cooling load (CL) in buildings with residential usage. The proposed model is a combination of artificial neural networks and stochastic fractal search (SFS-ANN). Two benchmark algorithms, namely the grasshopper optimization algorithm (GOA) and firefly algorithm (FA), are also considered to be compared with the SFS. The non-linear effect of eight independent factors on the CL is analyzed using each model's optimal structure. Evaluation of the results outlined that all three metaheuristic algorithms (with more than 90 % correlation) can adequately optimize the ANN. In this regard, this tool's prediction error declined by nearly 23, 18, and 36 % by applying the GOA, FA, and SFS techniques. Also, all used accuracy criteria indicated the superiority of the SFS over the benchmark schemes. Therefore, it is inferred that utilizing the SFS along with ANN provides a reliable hybrid model for the early prediction of CL.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0139.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: Cognitive load theory; dynamic visualizations; design techniques; learning; team sports
Online: 5 September 2020 (10:41:11 CEST)
Dynamic visualizations have been developed to exchange information that transforms over time across a broad range of professional and academic contexts. However, these visual tools may impose substantial demands on the learner’s cognitive resources that are very limited in current knowledge. Cognitive load theory has been used to improve learning from dynamic visualizations by providing certain design techniques to manage learner cognitive load without adding any oral/written explanations. This systematic review examined a series of experimental studies assessing the roles of these design techniques in learning tactical scenes of play through dynamic visualizations. Electronic databases PubMed and Google Scholar were used to search relevant articles. Eleven studies were eventually included for the systematic review based on the eligibility criteria. The present review revealed that adapting design techniques to the level of learners’ expertise, type of depicted knowledge, and level of content complexity is a crucial part of effective learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0353.v1
Subject: Keywords: sleep disorders; socioeconomic status; mediator; allostatic load; health; scoping review
Online: 29 May 2019 (14:48:06 CEST)
The variations in socioeconomic status (SES) between different social classes of a population correspond to differences in accessibility to all resources available and able to improve global health. SES can influence global health trajectory for an individual or a community, depending if SES is low or high. Sleep is sensitive to environmental stimuli, as well as living conditions. Plenty of studies linked sleep complaints with mood disorders, allostatic load or circadian disruption; but very few or none investigated deeply what happened earlier to sleep depending of SES. While SES is now known as one of the main determinants for a good health and a good aging, its influence on sleep disorders (SD) is not well understood. SES is a concept, not directly observable but estimated using indicators like income, education, occupational status and area of living. Even if recent evidence suggested that few of SES indicators like occupational status are linked with sleep disturbances, the relation between SES and health in general with sleep as an outcome or a mediator is not well documented. This scoping review synthetized studies which investigated physiological and psychological mechanisms resulting from a low SES and linked them with sleep disturbances as consequences or as mediators. This review also explore a possible role played by sleep in the relation between socioeconomic status and health inequalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0249.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: resistance projection welding; nugget size; maximum failure load; welding parameter
Online: 22 October 2018 (11:32:18 CEST)
The aim of this paper is to at first evaluate the influence of three key parameters including weld current, weld time and electrode force on nugget diameter and tensile strength in resistance projection welding. Then, a 2-D axis-symmetric finite element model is developed to simulate the projection welding and predict the nugget diameter. Finally, the FEM results are compared to experimental data to verify the simulation model and simulated results. In the finite element model, the temperature-dependent material properties were taken into account.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0315.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: light armour; personal protective equipment; load; law enforcement; occupational tasks
Online: 24 April 2018 (09:47:48 CEST)
Policing duties may inherently be dangerous due to stab, blunt trauma and ballistic threats. The addition of individual light armour vests (ILAVs) has been suggested as a means to protect officers. However, the addition of the extra load of the ILAV may affect officer ability to conduct occupational tasks. The purpose of this study was to determine if wearing any of 3 different ILAVs (ILAV A, ILAV B, & ILAV C) affected occupational task performance when compared to that in normal station wear. A prospective, within-subjects repeated measures design was employed, using a counterbalanced randomization in which each ILAV was worn for an entire day while officers completed a variety of occupationally relevant tasks. These tasks included a victim drag, car exit and 5 meter sprint, step down and marksmanship task. Results showed that performance in each task did not vary between any of the ILAV or normal station wear conditions. There was less variability in the marksmanship task with ILAV B, however. The results suggest that none of the ILAVs used in this study were heavy enough to significantly affect task performance in the assessed tasks when compared to wearing normal station wear.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0054.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: exergy; destruction; efficiency; exergoeconmic; exergy cost rates; part-load; probabilistic
Online: 18 September 2016 (08:02:54 CEST)
In this study, the probabilistic exergoeconomic analysis was performed for four industrial gas turbine (GT) units comprising of two (GT16 and GT19) units of 100MW GE engine and two (GT8 and GT12) units of 25MW Hitachi engine at Transcorp Power Limited, Ughelli. These four industrial GT engine units were modelled and simulated using natural gas as fuel. The design point (DP) simulation results of the modelled GT engines were validated with the available DP thermodynamic data from original equipment manufacturer (OEM). This was done before the off-design point (ODP) simulation was carried out which represents the plant operations. The results obtained from exergy analysis at full load operation show that the turbine has the highest exergy efficiency followed by compressor and combustion having the least. For turbines these were 96.13% for GT8 unit, 98.02% for GT12 unit, 96.26% for GT16 unit, and 96.30% for GT19 unit. Moreover, the combustion chamber has the highest exergy destruction efficiency of 55.16% GT8 unit, 56.58% GT12 unit, 43.90% GT16 unit, and 43.30% GT19 unit respectively. The exergy analysis results obtained from the four units show that the combustion chamber (CC) is the most significant exergy destruction with lowest exergy efficiency and highest exergy destruction efficiency of plant components. The exergoeconomic analysis results from four units showed combustion chamber energy destruction cost of 531.08 $/h GT8 unit, 584.53 $/h GT12 unit, 2351.81$/h GT16, and 2315.93$/h GT19 unit. The probabilistic results analysis based on the input parameters distributions evaluated and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0573.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Combinatorial optimization; Ant Colony Optimization (ACO); Buckling load factor; Composite laminate.
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:55:51 CEST)
Many combinatorial optimization problems are hard to solve within the polynomial computational time or NP-hard problems. Therefore, developing new optimization techniques or improving existing ones still grab attention. This paper presents an improved variant of the Ant Colony Optimization meta-heuristic called Enhanced Hyper Cube Framework ACO (EHCFACO). This variant has an enhanced exploitation feature that works through two added local search movements of insertion and bit flip. In order to examine the performance of the improved meta-heuristic, a well-known structural optimization problem of laminate Stacking Sequence Design (SSD) for maximizing critical buckling load has been used. Furthermore, five different ACO variants were concisely presented and implemented to solve the same optimization problem. The performance assessment results reveal that EHCFACO outperforms the other ACO variants and produces a cost-effective solution with considerable quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0363.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Yukon River; sediment load; surface sediment plume; density underflow; MODIS image
Online: 17 August 2021 (10:48:38 CEST)
Sediment plumes, released to the Bering Sea from the delta front of the Yukon River, Alaska, are initiated mainly by glacier-melt sediment runoffs in the glacierized regions of the Yukon River drainage basin. The surface sediment plumes are extended around the fan-shaped Yukon River delta, which is followed by the northwestward dispersion. During continuous measure-ments of the Yukon River discharge and sediment load, behaviors of the sediment plumes were explored by shipboard observations in the Bering Sea offshore from the Yukon delta. At the high river sediment load of ca. 3000 kg/s, the plume partially plunged into the sea bottom layer. The plunging probably originated in the nepheloid-layer formation from the flocculation of river-suspended sediment, of which more than 90 %wt. is silt and clay (grain size d < 0.063 mm). In order to numerically obtain the area of the surface sediment plumes, a satellite image analy-sis was performed by using three near-infrared bands in MODIS/Aqua or MODIS/Terra. The plume area was significantly correlated (R2=0.735, p<0.01) to the sediment load averaged for the two days with time lags of 20 days and 21 days to the date of a certain satellite image. Hence, the dispersion of plume-suspended sediment appears to be controlled by the sediment runoff events in the Yukon River rather than the northward “Alaskan Coastal Water”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0619.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Adaptive Island; Minimum spanning tree; Load forecasting; Controllable switches; Distributed generations
Online: 24 December 2020 (12:35:42 CET)
The power system vulnerability leads to faults and the severity of the fault may lead to prolonged load-shedding. The power system needs to be configured in extreme failure scenarios for protecting the network from further contingencies and prolonged load-shedding. Distributed generation resources (DGs) can be useful to form intentional islands after faults to maintain the continuity of power supply to loads based on their weightage during faulty periods and to reduce overall load shedding duration. Power system is bound to collapses and secondary collapse in the formed island is possible. This research represents a novel method of impedance based path finding for intentional islanding, which adapts itself with the changes in the demands, DGs outputs or further severities during restoration period. In this adaptive islanding approach, network adjusts itself with the changes in either the load demands or renewable DGs outputs and rearranges the restoration plan by curtailing or adding some of the loads through controllable switches. Further a secondary collapse in the existing island is studied by injecting multiple faults at various positions of the network to validate the system resilience to cope with severities. A short-term load forecasting approach is used to predict changes in load demands and variations in DG outputs during the islanding scheme. During the restoration period, these variations are tracked and the islands are modified accordingly. In order to minimize the overall generation cost by using less fuel, an economical approach is used in the selection of controllable DGs. The proposed approach is formulated as a multi-objective, that incorporates several operational constraints and simulation is carried out using the modified IEEE 69-bus distribution system to assess the efficacy of the proposed model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0576.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Linear/nonlinear load; power quality; four leg VSC; neutral current compensation
Online: 23 December 2020 (09:33:56 CET)
An adaptive control technique has been implemented for DSTATCOM for power quality enhancement in three phase four wires(3P4W) distribution system. The reference source currents are extracted from active components of load current for each phase by using this technique. It has also been used for load balancing, harmonic suppression, power factor improvement and reactive power compensation in distribution system. The adaptive control technique has been tested at varying load in steady state and dynamic conditions. This technique is developed using MATLAB/Simulink and source side harmonics are mitigated under different load conditions which are acceptable in accordance with IEEE standard.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0079.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Stretch-shortening cycle; Peak power; Plyometric with load; Team sports; Throwing.
Online: 5 October 2020 (12:11:13 CEST)
This study examined the effects of incorporating 8 weeks of biweekly upper limb loaded plyometric training (elastic band) into the in-season regimen of handball players. Trial participants were assigned between control (n = 15, age: 18.1±0.5 years, body mass: 73.7±13.9 kg) and experimental (n = 14, age: 17.7±0.3 years, body mass: 76.8±10.7 kg) groups. Measures obtained pre- and post- included a cycle ergometer force-velocity test, ball throwing velocity in three types throw, 1-RM bench press and pull-over, and anthropometric estimates of upper limb muscle volumes. Gains in the experimental group relative to controls included absolute muscle power (W) (Δ23.3%; t-test p<0.01; d=0.083), relative muscle power (W.kg-1) (Δ22.3%; t-test p<0.01; d=0.091), and all 3 types of ball throw (Δ18.6%, t-test p<0.01, d=0.097 on jumping shot; Δ18.6%, t-test p<0.01; d=0.101 on 3-step running throw; and Δ19.1%, t-test p<0.01, d=0.072 on standing throw). Furthermore, a significant improvement by time interactions was observed in both groups on 1-RM bench press and pull-over performance. However, upper limb muscle volumes remained unchanged in both groups. We conclude that adding biweekly elastic band plyometric training to standard training improves measures important to game performance. Accordingly, such exercises can usefully be adopted as a part of handball training.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: air conditioning group load; grid friendly; active demand; storage; coordinated control
Online: 9 September 2020 (09:31:05 CEST)
The growing number of the accessed energy-eﬀicient frequency conversion air conditioners is likely to generate a large number of harmonics on the power grid. The following shortage in the reactive power of peak load may trigger voltage collapse. Hence, this conflicts with people’s expectations for a cozy environment. Concerning the problems mentioned above, an active management scheme is put forward to balance the electricity use and the normal operation of air conditioning systems. To be specific, schemes to suppress the low voltage ride through (LVRT) and harmonic are designed firstly. Then to deaden the adverse effects caused by nonlinear group load running on the grid, and to prevent the unexpected accidents engendered from grid malfunction, the dynamic sensing information obtained by an online monitor is analyzed, which can be seen as an actively supervise mechanism. The combined application of active and passive filtering technology is studied as well. Thirdly, the new energy storage is accessed reliably to cope with peak-cutting or grid breaking emergencies, and the fuzzy control algorithm is researched. Finally, system feasibility is verified by functional modules co-operation simulation, and active management target is achieved under scientific and reasonable state-of-charge (SOC) management strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0510.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Aerated concrete; ultimate load; finite element analysis and rice husk ash
Online: 22 July 2020 (09:56:53 CEST)
Aerated concrete, which is manufactured from binding material, sand, foaming agent and water, is currently being utilized in the construction industry because of its lightweight and durability. The binding material, cement, along with other materials used in the concrete produces huge carbon footprints during its fabrication. The utilization of natural aggregates name as coarse aggregates depletes the natural resources of the country. Therefore, huge amounts of agricultural wastes have led scholars to investigate the effectiveness of replacing conventional materials used in concrete with agricultural wastes. In the current study, rice husk ash (RHA) was used as supplementary cementing material, thereby reducing the amount of cement used in aerated concrete (AC) mixture will reduce carbon footprints. The experimental and numerical analysis were conducted to investigate structural behavior of reinforced RAC- B beams subjected to flexural load. Parametric study on structural performance of RAC- B beam under flexure were conducted using finite element analysis (FEA). From the experiment and FEA. Results from the parametric study showed that RAC-10%RHA-B with higher depth structurally performed better compared to RAC-B under flexure with greater load carrying capacity, lesser maximum deflection, and less cracks developing in the tension area.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0506.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: circadian rhythm; sleep disorders; socioeconomic status; stress; allostatic load; health outcome
Online: 10 December 2018 (14:18:30 CET)
The variations in socioeconomic status (SES) between different social classes of a population correspond to differences in accessibility to all resources available and able to improve global health. While SES is now known as one of the main determinants for a good health and a good aging, its influence on sleep disorders (SD) is not well understood. SES is a concept, not directly observable but estimated using indicators like income, education, occupational status and area of living. This theoretical review explores some theories linking environment of people with occurrence of SD, with different patterns associated to SES. A model of interaction is proposed to summarize and conceptualizes these interactions and to promote more research on the topic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0066.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Active Distribution Network; delta connection; Holomorphic Embedding Load Flow; three-phase
Online: 8 March 2018 (15:16:43 CET)
With large-scale distributed generators (DGs) in an active distribution network (ADN), conventional load flow convergence failure is incurred by heavy power transmission. The Holomorphic Embedding Load Flow Method (HELM) has proven to be more robust than the Newton–Raphson method under heavy power transmission. At present, HELM is mainly designed for balanced transmission networks. In this study, we developed a three-phase HELM model to accommodate DGs, delta connection loads, and ZIP loads for ADN. The effectiveness and better performance of the proposed method under heavy load situations were validated using modified unbalanced IEEE 13, 34, 37, and 123 test feeders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0072.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: pay load adapter; robotic arm; no-cooperation spacecraft; suitable docking port
Online: 18 September 2017 (07:39:03 CEST)
In this work is represented conceptual model of robot-manipulator for capture and holding no-cooperation client spacecraft, which has Payload Adapter interface PAS 1666 S, PAS 1194 C, PAS 1666 MVS, PAS 1184 VS, when there are dynamic errors of linear and angular position of client spacecraft in the interval +/-5 deg. per minute and +/-0.1 meters per minute respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0014.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: emergency control; load shedding; artificial neural network; dynamic power system stability
Online: 5 September 2017 (05:02:18 CEST)
Emergency control load-shedding is a key solution to prevent blackouts in the power system. This paper proposed a new model of emergency controls load shedding based on the fast identification of the unstable state of the power system. K-means clustering algorithm divided the instability mode into the clusters. The results of analysis of this cluster were used as the basis for classification control. Building load shedding strategies is consisted of the pre-designed rules based on AHP algorithm. When the recognition of the power system “instability” is detected, the signal of load shedding control is triggered immediately, therefore the decision time is greatly shortened comparing to the traditional methods. The effectiveness of the proposed method was tested on the IEEE 39-bus to overcome the limitations of the last traditional methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0082.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: islanding 1; load management 2; power distribution 3; voltage fluctuations 4
Online: 9 May 2017 (10:56:23 CEST)
Distribution systems can form islands when faults occur. Each island represents a subsection with variable boundaries subject to the location of a fault(s) in the system. A subsection with variable boundaries is referred to as island in this paper. For operation in autonomous mode, it is imperative to detect the island configurations and stabilize these subsections. This paper presents a novel scheme for the detection of islanding boundaries and stabilizing the system during autonomous operation. In the first stage, a boundary detection method is proposed to detect the configuration of the island. In the second stage a dynamic voltage sensitivity factor (DVSF) is proposed to assess the dynamic performance of the system. In the third stage, a wide area load shedding program is adopted based on DVSF to shed the load in weak busbars and stabilize the system. The proposed scheme is validated and tested on a generic 18-bus system using a combination of EMTDC/PSCAD and MATLAB softwares.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0235.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: social determinants; epigenetics; exposome; public health policy; resilience; allostatic load; adaptation
Online: 31 March 2017 (11:35:57 CEST)
Globally, humans are struggling with the double threat of communicable and non-communicable diseases, which are presenting new challenges to public health. Public health problems are generally studied and addressed at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. Most effective results are seen with primary interventions. Public health is becoming more aware of the importance of environment-gene interactions in the ontology of health and disease using epigenetics. Epigenetics is the study of altered gene expression without change in base pairs. Be it physical, social, behavioral, or economic factors; they all influence quality of life and health of individuals and populations. That environments are changing the human health phenotype and these changed phenotypes are heritable is of concern for the future of the human race. Knowing the causes of non-communicable human diseases using epigenetics will contribute to the development of new policies to encourage prevention using primary public health initiatives. Research and application of epigenetics shows great promise for improving population health. Continued advances in epigenetics will enhance how we understand and address the way environments are affecting the human health phenotype. For some time, health systems have been and continue to be tertiary in nature. Epigenetic changes can provide information necessary to better understand how social determinants of health can be used to build societies focused on equitable health for all people, rather than continuing to focus on treatment of diseases in the tertiary phase that leads to health disparities. Understanding mechanisms of social determinants of disease, will allow society to evolve in a health-oriented rather than a disease-oriented world. For this reason, we must enhance and apply epigenetics (physical, social, behavioral, economic) research to policy development. We will discuss how bringing social determinants together with biology can be used as new tools for public health policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: load profiles; electricity; heat; industry; correlation; machine learning; LSTM; prediction; anomaly detection
Online: 8 March 2022 (09:23:34 CET)
The accurate prediction of heat load profiles with a daily resolution is required for a broad range of applications such as potential studies, design, or predictive operation of heating systems. If the heat demand of a consumer is mainly caused by (production) processes independent of the ambient temperature, existing load profile prediction methods fail. To close this gap, this study develops two ex post machine learning models for the prediction of the heat demand with a daily resolution. The selected input features are commonly available to each consumer connected to public natural gas and electricity grids or operating an energy monitoring system: Ambient temperature, weekday, electricity consumption, and heat consumption of the last seven days directly before the predicted day. The study’s database covers electricity and natural gas consumption load profiles from 82 German consumers over a period of two years. Electricity and heat consumption correlate strongly with individual patterns for many consumers. Both, shallow and deep learning algorithms are evaluated. The highest accuracy is achieved by a Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) model with a median of R² of 0.94. The ex post model architecture makes the model suitable for automated anomaly detection in energy monitoring systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0214.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: PCM; fiberglass; destruction; cyclic load; fatigue damage; AE; clusterization; fiber-optical sensors
Online: 13 December 2021 (16:08:21 CET)
The work is devoted to the study of the mechanisms of damage accumulation in a polymer composite material (PCM) during fatigue loading. Mechanical testing of a fiberglass sample was carried out by cyclic tension accompanied by registration of acoustic emission (AE). For the recorded AE signals, the Fourier spectra were calculated and used for clustering with Kohonen self-organizing map. Relations between clusters and types of damage in the PCM structure were established. The analysis of the peak frequencies of the Daubechies D14-wavelet components of AE signals was carried out. Obtained results has allows one to describe the processes of destruction in the PCM sample. It has been established that, on the base of local formation of microdamages in the matrix and the fracture of the fibers detected during recording of the AE data, it is possible to predict the destruction of the polymer composite material, while the beginning of a material destruction can be registered if the damage identified as an adhesion failure is observed. Perspectives of application of adaptive fiber-optic AE sensors for structural monitoring of PCMs on the base of preliminary experimental results are considered and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0187.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: solar air heater; passive ventilation; ventilation load; residential house; actual measurement; simulation
Online: 9 November 2021 (15:12:24 CET)
This paper, we examined the technology to maximize the use of renewable energy. The passive ventilation system is expected to reduce the energy consumption of the fan power and the maintenance burden. In addition, the wall-mounted solar air heater can supply thermal energy without using any energy at all. Therefore, we propose a "passive ventilation system with a solar air heater" that combines a passive ventilation system with solar air heater to preheat the air supply and reduce the ventilation load. To evaluate the solar air heater performance in a real environment, we developed a simulation for calculating the heat collection capacity of the solar air heater, and then implemented the system in a real building for verification. Based on the measurement results, the effects of heating load reduction and prediction methods are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0624.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Internet of Things; Load aware; Energy-efficient; Gray System Theory; Multipath protocol
Online: 24 November 2020 (16:23:43 CET)
Internet of things (IoT) is a network of smart things. This indicates the ability of these physical things to transfer information with other physical things. The characteristics of these networks, such as topology dynamicity and energy constraint, challenges the routing problem in these networks. Previous routing methods could not achieve the required performance in this type of network. Therefore, developers of this network designed and developed specific methods in order to satisfy the requirements of these networks. One of the routing methods is utilization of multipath protocols which send data to its destination using routes with separate links. One of such protocols is RPL routing protocol. In this paper, this method is improved using composite metrics which chooses the best paths used for separate routes to send packets. We propose Energy and Load aware RPL (ELaM-IoT) protocol, which is an enhancement of RPL protocol. It uses a composite metric, calculated based on remaining energy, hop count, Link Expiration Time (LET), load and battery depletion index (BDI) for the route selection. In order to evaluate and report the results, the proposed ELaM-IoT method is compared to the ERGID and ADRM-IoT approaches with regard to average remaining energy, and network lifetime. The results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed ELaM-IoT compared to the ERGID and ADRM-IoT approaches.
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: cu-zr; ecap; ultrafine-grained; deformation; dynamic recovery; transient; load change tests
Online: 26 September 2019 (03:02:40 CEST)
During quasi-stationary tensile deformation of ultrafine-grained Cu-0.2 mass%Zr at 673 K and a deformation rate of about 10−4 s−1 load changes were performed. Relative load reductions by more than about 25% to relative loads R < 0.75 initiate anelastic back flow. Subsequently the creep rate turns positive again and goes through a relative maximum. This is interpreted by a strain rate contribution ε ̇− from recovery of dislocations. Back extrapolation indicates that ε ̇− contributes about (20 ± 10)% to the quasi-stationary strain rate. The stress dependences of the recovery-strain rate ε ̇− and the rate ε ̇+ related with generation and storage of dislocations are discussed in terms of thermally activated processes characterized by different kinetics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0641.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: sleep, socioeconomic status, stress, circadian rhythm, allostatic load, mood disorder, social class
Online: 26 October 2018 (16:32:56 CEST)
Sleep disorders (SD) have a complex aetiology, and socioeconomic status (SES) as determined by social class, household income, ethnicity and education plays an important role in their development. As SD are associated with cognitive impairment and mood disorders, they in turn impact SES. Socioeconomic status also influences allostatic load caused by chronic accumulation of stress throughout life. Environmental and psychological stressors have a direct effect on SD, and they are modulated by SES, in combination with comorbidities like obesity and cardiovascular disease. This review explores the recent theories about the influence of SES on the development of SD in the general population, whether or not occurring with comorbidities, and also focusses on the interplay between socioeconomic status, circadian rhythms, aging and clinical outcomes like metabolic diseases and cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0028.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: bed load transport; shear Reynolds number; mixed-size bed material; complex morphodynamics
Online: 1 August 2018 (19:56:03 CEST)
The aim of this study is to introduce a novel method which can separate sand or gravel dominated bed load transport in rivers with mixed-size bed material. In engineering practice, the Shields-Parker diagram could be used for such purposes, however, the method has certain applicability limits, due to the fact that it is based on uniform bed material and provides information rather on river-scale, instead of reach or local scale. When dealing with large rivers with complex hydrodynamics and morphodynamics the bed load transport modes can also indicate strong variation even locally, which requires a more suitable approach to estimate the locally unique behavior of the sediment transport. Here, we suggest that the decision criteria utilizes the shear Reynolds number (Re*). The method was verified against field and laboratory measurement data, both performed at non-uniform bed material compositions. The comparative assessment of the results show that the shear Reynolds number based method operates more reliably than the Shields-Parker diagram and it is expected to predict the sand or gravel transport domination with a < 5% uncertainty. The introduced results can greatly contribute to the improvement of numerical sediment transport modeling as well as to the field implementation of bed load transport measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0368.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: CFRP; double layers of CFRP; concrete repair; flexural behavior; load deflection curve
Online: 20 July 2018 (03:49:56 CEST)
Concrete is a very common construction material. As time prevails, cracks often appear in structures that pose a threat to strength and durability, which ultimately affect the structural integrity of concrete. Extensive work has been carried out in past on utilization of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) as a repair material. But, this research particularly focuses on: multiple fiber layers i.e. single and double, traditional concrete mix ratio with locally available materials and varying flexural reinforcement. Furthermore, this work presents an experimental analysis to strengthen the Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams using SikaWrap- 230 C as a CFRP wrap, and Sikadur-330 as a bonding material. The comparison between single and double layers of CFRP is of major interest in this research. Six reinforced concrete beams were repaired with CFRP and tested under three-point bending test. For these specimens, load deflection behavior along with crack propagation and failure of beams were studied. Experimental results show that beams repaired using CFRP wrapping achieved higher flexural capacity and ductility as compared with reference beam. Moreover, results reveal that introduction of second layer of fiber caused around 4-5.2% increment in flexural strength and resulted in higher ductility of RCC beam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0024.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: HIV-1; quasispecies; minority resistance mutations; HAART; drug resistance; undetectable viral load
Online: 4 December 2017 (09:34:16 CET)
Increased access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) by HIV+ individuals has become a reality worldwide. In Brazil, ART currently reaches over half of the HIV-infected subjects. In the context of a remarkable HIV-1 genetic variability, highly related variants, called quasispecies, are generated. HIV quasispecies generated during infection can influence virus persistence and pathogenicity, representing a challenge to treatment. However, the clinical relevance of minority quasispecies is still uncertain. For this study, we have determined the archived proviral sequences, viral subtype and drug resistance mutations from a cohort of HIV+ patients with undetectable viral load undergoing HAART as first-line therapy using next-generation sequencing for near full-length virus genome (NFLG) assembly. HIV-1 consensus sequences representing NFLG were obtained for eleven patients, while for another twelve varying genome coverage rates were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis showed the predominance of subtype B (83%; 19/23). Considering the minority variants, 18 patients carried archived virus harboring at least one mutation conferring antiretroviral resistance; for six patients, the mutations correlated with the current ARVs used. These data highlight the importance of monitoring HIV minority drug resistant variants and their clinical impact, to guide future regimen switches and improve HIV treatment success.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0066.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: ventricular transmural heterogeneity; cellular mechanics; load dependency; calcium transient; mechano-calcium feedback
Online: 13 December 2016 (09:49:15 CET)
Mechanical properties of cardiomyocytes from different transmural regions are heterogeneous in the left ventricular wall. The cardiomyocyte mechanical environment affects this heterogeneity because of mechano-electric feedback mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of load upon transmural differences in contraction of subendocardial (ENDO) and subepicardial (EPI) single cells isolated from the murine left ventricle. Various loads were applied to the cells using carbon fiber techniques for single myocytes. To simulate experimentally obtained results and to predict mechanisms underlying the cellular response to change in load, our mathematical models of the ENDO and EPI cells were used. Extent of the transmural gradient in the time course of contractions was independent of the loading conditions where unloaded and heavy loaded (isometric) contractions were examined, but the regional gradient of the relaxation time characteristics tended to decrease when the load decreased. Under auxotonic contractions, time to peak contraction (Tmax) was significantly longer in ENDO cells than in EPI cells at low preload. An increase in preload (axial stretch) prolonged Tmax in both cell types; however, the prolongation was greater in EPI cells, resulting in a decrease in transmural gradient in Tmax at high preload. The [Ca2+]i transient decay time constant was consistent with the greater preload dependency in Tmax of EPI cells. Our modified mathematical models reproduced experimental results, suggesting that differences in cooperativity of cross bridges and calcium troponin C complex interactions between the ENDO and EPI cardiomyocytes may contribute to the different cellular responses to stretch, which may provide a decrease in transmural dispersion of cellular shortening in the intact heart.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0281.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: autism; autistic burnout; social camouflaging; early life stress; suicidality; psychopathology; mitochondrial allostatic load
Online: 5 September 2022 (03:35:24 CEST)
Molecular autism research is evolving towards a biopsychosocial framework that is more informed by autistic experiences. In this context, research aims are moving away from correcting external autistic behaviors and towards alleviating internal distress. Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASCs) are associated with high rates of depression, suicidality and other comorbid psychopathologies, but this relationship is poorly understood. Here, we integrate emerging characterizations of internal autistic experiences within a molecular framework to yield insight into the prevalence of psychopathology in ASC. We demonstrate that descriptions of social camouflaging and autistic burnout resonate closely with the accepted definitions for early life stress (ELS) and chronic adolescent stress (CAS). We propose that social camouflaging could be considered a distinct form of CAS that contributes to allostatic overload, culminating in a pathophysiological state that is experienced as autistic burnout. Autistic burnout is thought to contribute to psychopathology via psychological and physiological mechanisms, but these remain largely unexplored by molecular researchers. Building on converging fields in molecular neuroscience, we discuss the substantial evidence implicating mitochondrial dysfunction in ASC to propose a novel role for mitochondrial allostatic load in the relationship between autism and psychopathology. An interplay between mitochondrial, neuroimmune and neuroendocrine signaling is increasingly implicated in stress-related psychopathologies, and these molecular players are also associated with neurodevelopmental, neurophysiological and neurochemical aspects of ASC etiology. Together, this suggests an increased exposure and underlying molecular susceptibility to ELS that increases the risk of psychopathology in ASC. This article describes an integrative framework shaped by autistic experiences that highlights novel avenues for molecular research into mechanisms that directly affect the quality of life and well-being of autistic individuals. Moreover, this framework emphasizes the need for increased access to diagnoses, accommodations, and resources to improve mental health outcomes in autism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0320.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: load monitoring; IoT; IoS; Wireless Networks; SatCom; Zigbee; maritime services; logistic and transport
Online: 17 August 2022 (10:17:09 CEST)
Maritime transport has become very important due to its ability to internationally unite all continents. In turn, during the last two years, we have observed that the increase of consumer goods has resulted in global shipping deadlocks. In addition, the future goes through the role of ports and efficiency in maritime transport, with the aim of decarbonizing its impact on the environment. In order to improve the economy and people's lives, in this work, we propose to enhance services offered in maritime logistics. To do this, a communications system is designed on the deck of ships to transmit data through a constellation of satellites using interconnected smart devices based on IoT. Among the services, we highlight the monitoring and tracking of refrigerated containers, the transmission of geolocation data from GPS, and security through AIS. This information will be used for a fleet of ships to make better decisions and help guarantee the status of the cargo, as well as maritime safety on the routes. The system design, network dimensioning, and a communications protocol for decision-making will be presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0318.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: HIV; cryptococcal meningitis; HIV-1 viral load; cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral escape; Botswana
Online: 24 May 2022 (04:20:08 CEST)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral escape has been poorly described among people with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. We determined the prevalence of CSF viral escape and HIV-1 viral load (VL) trajectories in individuals treated for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. A retrospective longitudinal study was performed using paired CSF and plasma collected prior to and during the antifungal treatment of 83 participants recruited at the Botswana site of the phase-3 AMBITION-cm trial (2018-2021). HIV-1 RNA levels were quantified then CSF viral escape (CSF HIV-1 RNA ≥ 0.5 log10 higher than plasma) and HIV-1 VL trajectories were assessed. CSF viral escape occurred in 20/62 (32.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21.9%-44.6%), 13/52 (25.0%; 95% CI: 15.2%-38.2%) and 1/33 (3.0%; 95% CI: 0.16%-15.3%) participants at days 1, 7 and 14 respectively. CSF viral escape was significantly lower on day 14 compared to days 1 and 7, p=0.003 and p=0.02, respectively. HIV-1 VL de-creased significantly from day 1 to day 14 post antifungal therapy in the CSF but not in the plasma (OR, 0.56; 95% CI: 0.41-0.77; p<0.001). CSF viral escape is high among individuals presenting with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis; however, antifungal therapy may reverse this, highlighting the importance of rapid initiation of antifungal therapy in these patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0302.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: load forecasting; extreme learning machine (ELM); ant lion optimization (ALO) ；parameter optimization; model.
Online: 21 October 2021 (09:34:56 CEST)
The load of power system changes with the development of economy, short-term load forecasting play a very important role in dispatching and management of power system. In this paper, the Ant Lion Optimizer (ALO) is introduced to improve the input weights and hidden-layer Matrix of extreme learning machine (ELM), after the parameters of ELM are optimized by ALO, then input nodes, hidden layer nodes and output nodes are determined, so a load forecasting model based on ALO-ELM combined algorithm is established. The proposed method is illustrated based on the historical load data of a city in China. The results show that the average absolute error of short-term load demand predicted by ALO-ELM model is 1.41, while that predicted by ELM is 4.34, the proposed ALO-ELM algorithm is superior to the ELM and meet the requirements of engineering accuracy, which proves the effectiveness of proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0182.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Electricity peak load; Taoussa’s energy sources; Long-term electricity demand planning; Scenarios simulation
Online: 12 October 2021 (12:53:37 CEST)
A long-term forecast study on the electricity demand of Taoussa of Mali is conducted in this paper, with various scenarios of socioeconomic and technological conditions. The analysis tool, which is applied in scenarios simulation, is the Model for Analysis of Energy Demand from the International Atomic Energy Agency. The analysis results are annual electricity demand and peak load forecast for the electrification from the period 2020 to 2035. During the planning period, the analysis results show that the electricity demand will increase to 49.40 MW (332.57 GWh) for the low scenario (LS), 66.46 MW (472.61 GWh) for the reference scenario (RS), and 89.47 MW (635 GWh) for the high scenario (HS). In addition, the total electricity demand increased at an average rate of 8.13% in the LS, 10.31% in the RS and 12.56% in the HS in all sectors. The electricity peak demand is expected to grow at 7.92%, 10.53% and 12.91% corresponding to the three scenarios; in this case, the system peak demand in 2035 will increase to 64.88 MW for the LS, 92.2 MW for the RS and 126.22 MW, the days of peak load are between 17th -23rd in May. The Industry sector will be the biggest electricity consumer of Taoussa area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0611.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Within-host modeling; Dengue fever; immune response; antibodies; viral load; Antibody-Dependent Enhancement
Online: 25 June 2021 (09:21:23 CEST)
Dengue fever is a viral mosquito-borne infection, a major international public health concern. With 2.5 billion people at risk of acquiring the infection around the world, disease severity is influenced by the immunological status of the individual, seronegative or seropositive, prior to natural infection. Caused by four antigenically related but distinct serotypes, DENV-1 to DENV-4, infection by one serotype confers life-long immunity to that serotype and a period of temporary cross-immunity (TCI) to other serotypes. The clinical response on exposure to a second serotype is complex with the so-called Antibody-Dependent enhancement (ADE) process, a disease augmentation phenomenon when pre-existing antibodies to previous dengue infection do not neutralize but rather enhance the new infection, used to explain the etiology of severe disease. In this paper, we present a minimalistic mathematical model framework developed to describe qualitatively the dengue immunological response mediated by antibodies. Three models are analyzed and compared: i) primary dengue infection, ii) secondary dengue infection with the same (homologous) dengue virus and iii) secondary dengue infection with a different (heterologous) dengue virus. We explore the features of viral replication, antibody production, and infection clearance over time. The model is developed based on body cells and free virus interactions resulting in infected cells activating antibody production. Our mathematical results are qualitatively similar to the ones described in the empiric immunology literature, providing insights on the immunopathogenesis of severe disease. Results presented here are of use for future research directions to evaluate the impact of dengue vaccines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0584.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: controlled atmosphere (CA) storage; crop load; internal browning disorders; receiver operating characteristic (ROC)
Online: 25 February 2021 (13:45:54 CET)
Physiological storage disorders continue to cause sizable economic losses in a range of commercially important pomefruit cultivars. Given similar storage regimes, the incidence and severity of browning disorders in the apple cultivar ‘Braeburn’ can vary in different years in a way that can be explained by the interaction of preharvest seasonal and orchard factors. Over a three-year period (2016 to 2019) at the Kompetenzzentrum Obstbau-Bodensee (KOB) in Southwest Germany a range of orchard and storage treatments were conducted for: air temperature during cell division for three weeks post petalfall or during four weeks preharvest, calcium orchard sprays, crop load and harvest timings. Following controlled atmosphere (CA) storage, the disorder incidence for internal browning and cavity formation varied markedly over the three different growing seasons. Crop load treatments strongly influenced the expression of browning disorders in all years. Differences in air temperatures (△ +/- 2 °C compared to ambient) during the cell division period showed little effect on browning incidence. Warm night temperatures (>10 °C) prior to harvest can reduce internal browning in ‘Braeburn’ apples during CA storage and shelf-life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0226.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: microgrids; phase load balancing; consumers’ selection criterion; switching devices; unbalance factor; energy-saving.
Online: 9 December 2020 (12:26:52 CET)
In the last years, the Distribution Grid Operators (DGOs) assumed transition strategies of the distribution grids towards an active area associated with the "Smart Grids" concept. They are considering the use of Artificial Intelligence techniques, combined with advanced technologies and real-time remote communication solutions of the enormous data amounts, to develop smart solutions into the small size distribution grids, also called microgrids (μGs). These solutions will provide support for the DGOs to ensure an optimal operation of the technical infrastructure of the μGs. In this context, a bi-level methodology for solving the phase load balancing problem in the μGs with complex topologies and a high number of single-phase consumers, considering a clustering-based selection criterion of the consumers for placement of the switching devices, was proposed in the paper. A real μG from a rural area, with 114 consumers integrated into the Smart Metering System (SMS), belonging to the DGO from Romania, was considered in testing the proposed methodology. An implementation degree of 17.5%, corresponding to the phase load balancing equipment installed to only 20 consumers from the μG, led to a faster computational time with 43% and reducing the number of switching operations by 92% than in the case of a full implementation degree (100%). The performance indicators related to the unbalance factor and energy-saving used in the evaluation of the technical benefits highlighted the efficiency of the proposed methodology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0613.v3
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: infective dose; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; respiratory viruses; viral load; viral dynamics
Online: 7 December 2020 (11:36:05 CET)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is pandemic. Prevention and control strategies require an improved understanding of SARS-CoV-2 dynamics. We did a rapid review of the literature on SARS-CoV-2 viral dynamics with a focus on infective dose. We sought comparisons of SARS-CoV-2 with other respiratory viruses including SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV. We examined laboratory animal, and human studies. The literature on infective dose, transmission, and routes of exposure was limited specially in humans, and varying endpoints were used for measurement of infection. We propose the minimum infective dose of COVID-19 in humans, is higher than 100 particles, possibly slightly lower than the 700 particles estimated for H1N1 influenza. Despite variability in animal studies, there was some evidence that increased dose at exposure correlated with higher viral load clinically, and severer symptoms. Higher viral load measures did not reflect COVID-19 severity. Aerosol transmission seemed to raise the risk of more severe respiratory complications in animals. An accurate quantitative estimate of the infective dose of SARS-CoV-2 in humans is not currently feasible and needs further research. Further work is also required on the relationship between routes of transmission, infective dose, co-infection, and outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0508.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: XPS plates; composite subgrade structure; vibration isolation; impact load test; freeze-thaw cycles
Online: 29 April 2020 (12:40:37 CEST)
Silty clay modified by fly ash and crumb rubber is a kind of sustainable subgrade filler which has good anti-freeze-thaw resistance stability but wake vibration isolation performance. The objective of this study was to improve the vibration isolation of the modified soil and investigate the vibration isolation effect of the composite subgrade structure of XPS plates and the modified soil by indoor impact test. First, the vibration isolation performance of silty clay, modified soil and composite subgrade structure was respectively evaluated. Second, the effect of XPS plate’s thickness and vibration intensity on the vibration performance of the composite subgrade structure were evaluated. Third, the vibration isolation performance of the test groups under the condition of freeze-thaw cycles was assessed. The results show that the vibration isolation performance of subgrade can be effectively improved by setting XPS plates. The composite subgrade structure has certain vibration isolation effect, especially in vertical direction. Considering vibration isolation performance and costs, 5cm is the optimum XPS plates thickness. The composite subgrade structure has great vibration isolation performance under the condition of freeze-thaw cycles, so it is suitable to be applied in road subgrade in seasonal frozen regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0339.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: distributed generator; load balancing; network reconfiguration; optimization; power loss minimization; soft open points
Online: 30 September 2019 (04:58:28 CEST)
In this paper, a recent meta-heuristic optimization algorithm called the discrete-continuous hyper-spherical search algorithm is used to solve the mixed-integer nonlinear problem of soft open points (SOPs) and renewable distributed generators allocation along with new network reconfiguration methodology under different loading conditions to minimize the total power loss in balanced distribution systems. Multi-scenario studies, which aim to improve the investigation of the overall performance of the strategies, are conducted on IEEE 33-node and 83-node balanced distribution systems. The contributions of SOP losses to the total active losses, as well as the effect of increasing the number of SOPs connected to the system, are investigated to determine the real benefits gained from their allocation. The results obtained validate, with proper justifications, the effectiveness of allocating both SOPs and renewable distributed generators with the proposed network reconfiguration methodology to provide the best operation of distribution networks with minimum losses and enhanced power quality performance. It was also shown that SOPs successfully assist the growing integration plans of the renewable distributed generators units and can address issues related to voltage violations and network losses efficiently.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0158.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Hepatitis C virus, Genotyping, Mixed infection, Fluorescence melting curve analysis, Viral Load, Quantification
Online: 8 October 2018 (16:08:48 CEST)
Hepatitis-C is one of the most common viral diseases caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV). It is responsible for millions of deaths each year in the developing world. The common dissemination paths of HCV include the use of contaminated water and transfusion of infected blood. Control of this virus has become a challenge for scientists and health professionals due to its versatility and adaptability in different host environments. Along with other problems, lack of efficient diagnosis, quantification and genotyping of viral strains are the major hindrances in a management of this notorious epidemic. The knowledge of HCV genotype and an amount of virus in patient’s blood are pre-requisites to determine the duration and method of treatment. In this review, we discuss the implications of HCV molecular diagnostic methods and their clinical applications. We conclude that while, several commercial and home-brewed methods are available for this purpose, and there is a visible vacuum for cost effective, robust, sensitive assays that can detect multiple viral genotypes in a single reaction. We are of the view that the level of sensitivity offered by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) technique is unequivocal as compared to other techniques. Therefore, researchers may explore further possibilities using this technique in the management of HCV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0283.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: fuzzy linear programming, direct load control, scheduling optimization, chillers, air condition, demand response
Online: 30 January 2018 (13:12:58 CET)
A real-time two-way direct load control (TWDLC) of central air-conditioning chillers in wide area is proposed to provide demand response. The proposed TWDLC scheme is designed to optimize the load shedding ratio of every customer under control to ensure the target load to be shed is met at every scheduling period. In order to overcome the load reduction uncertainties of TWDLC, an innovative solution is proposed by applying a certain degree of loosening on the constraint of the actual shed load. Fuzzy linear programming is utilized to solve the optimization problem with fuzzy constraints. The proposed fuzzy linear programming problem is solved by delicately transforming it into a regular liner programming problem. A selection scheme used to obtain the feasible candidates set for load shedding at every sampling interval of TWDLC is also designed along with the fuzzy linear programming.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0069.v1
Subject: Keywords: game theory; smart grid; energy storage; battery modelling; demand-side management; load-shaping
Online: 10 November 2017 (10:08:01 CET)
Energy storage systems will play a key role for individual users in the future smart grid. They serve two purposes: (i) handling the intermittent nature of renewable energy resources for a more reliable and efficient system, and (ii) preventing the impact of blackouts on users and allowing for more independence from the grid, while saving money through load-shifting. In this paper we investigate the latter scenario by looking at a neighbourhood of 25 households whose demand is satisfied by one utility company. Assuming the users possess lithium-ion batteries, we answer the question of how each household can make the best use of their individual storage system given a real-time pricing policy. To this end, each user is modelled as a player of a non-cooperative scheduling game. The novelty of the game lies in the advanced battery model, which incorporates charging and discharging characteristics of lithium-ion batteries. The action set for each player comprises day-ahead schedules of their respective battery usage. We analyse different user behavior and are able to obtain a realistic and applicable understanding of the potential of these systems. As a result, we show the correlation between the efficiency of the battery and the outcome of the game.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0050.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: non-load-bearing lightweight blocks; lightweight aggregates; density; compressive strength; water absorption volume
Online: 13 October 2016 (12:01:40 CEST)
Today, the style of light construction materials used in building is one of the most important factors in reducing building's dead load and better performance of the structures in the earthquake. One of the ways to reduce the structure weight is to use lightweight blocks instead of using traditional materials. The main purpose of this research is to compare density, compressive strength and water absorption volume of non-load-bearing lightweight blocks made of natural and artificial lightweight aggregates. Scoria lightweight aggregates of Sanandaj, Ghorveh mine, pumice in Tabriz, Bostanabad mine, and Leca in Leca enterprise have been used to make the samples. Given the importance of the materials used, grading of coarse-grained materials has been conducted based on the standard of 7657 and grading of fine materials have been conducted based on the standard of 302.The experiments' results show that Scoria blocks due to hard texture, and high mechanical resistance of their lightweight aggregates, have had higher compressive strength, and density and lower water absorption volume compared to pumice and Lika lightweight aggregate blocks. Pumice blocks despite having desirable compressive strength and lower density compared to the two other blocks have higher water absorption volume, and do not meet the standard conditions. This same factor causes it faces with less interest. Among these Lika blocks with density of 1151.94 (kg per cubic meter) below 2000 kilograms per cubic meter of Iran density standard of 7782 (28-day compressive strength of 2.57 MPa), higher than 2.5 MPa of Iran compressive strength standard of 7782 (and water absorption volume of 282.92 kg per cubic meter) below 288 kilograms per cubic meter of Iran water absorption volume standard of 7782 (as a non-load-bearing lightweight block) have been diagnosed desirable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Very short term load forecasting; VSTLF; Short term load forecasting; STLF; deep learning; RNN; LSTM; GRU; machine learning; SVR; random forest; extreme gradient boosting, energy consumption; ARIMA; time series prediction.
Online: 10 January 2022 (12:17:35 CET)
Commercial buildings are a significant consumer of energy worldwide. Logistics facilities, and specifically warehouses, are a common building type yet under-researched in the demand-side energy forecasting literature. Warehouses have an idiosyncratic profile when compared to other commercial and industrial buildings with a significant reliance on a small number of energy systems. As such, warehouse owners and operators are increasingly entering in to energy performance contracts with energy service companies (ESCOs) to minimise environmental impact, reduce costs, and improve competitiveness. ESCOs and warehouse owners and operators require accurate forecasts of their energy consumption so that precautionary and mitigation measures can be taken. This paper explores the performance of three machine learning models (Support Vector Regression (SVR), Random Forest, and Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost)), three deep learning models (Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), and Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU)), and a classical time series model, Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) for predicting daily energy consumption. The dataset comprises 8,040 records generated over an 11-month period from January to November 2020 from a non-refrigerated logistics facility located in Ireland. The grid search method was used to identify the best configurations for each model. The proposed XGBoost models outperform other models for both very short load forecasting (VSTLF) and short term load forecasting (STLF); the ARIMA model performed the worst.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0522.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: lithium battery; electrochemical power sources; diagnostics; battery management system; load variation; in situ method
Online: 31 December 2021 (12:59:15 CET)
The relaxation process of lithium batteries caused by load variation is considered. It is shown that such processes have strong dependence on internal physical and chemical processes and battery technical conditions. Theoretical expressions of the relaxation process caused by a step-like load variation have been obtained for 1st and 2nd order equivalent electrical circuits. The experimental investigations show that the obtained models fit the real relaxation processes and the behavior of the identified parameters could be explained by specific features of physical and chemical processes within the lithium battery. It should be noted that the obtained results can be generalized for a different type of electrochemical power source. The proposed approach makes it possible to provide means for electrochemical power source characterization and diagnostic, the main advantages of which are good time localization of measurement procedures and inexpensive apparatus implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0442.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: active electric distribution networks; phase load balancing; coordinated control; smart switching devices; end-users
Online: 27 September 2021 (10:22:56 CEST)
In the paper, a coordinated control methodology of single-phase (1-P) end-users switching oper-ations on the phases of an active electric distribution network (AEDN) has been proposed to ob-tain a minimum unbalance degree at the coupling common point (CCP) level with the main dis-tribution system. The phase load balancing (PLB) process considers the smart devices that switch from one phase to another phase the 1-P end-users (consumers and prosumers) to compensate for the phase load unbalance. The proposed methodology has been tested successfully in an AEDN belonging to a Romanian Distribution Network Operator (DNO) containing 114 end-users (104 consumers/10 prosumers) integrated into the Smart Metering System (SMS). The op-timal solution leads to a value of the objective function by 1.00004, represented by the unbalance factor, very close to the ideal target, 1.00. A comparative analysis was conducted considering other possible PLB cases (the consumer-level PLB and prosumer-level PLB), obtaining similar values of the UF (1.027 vs. 1.028), slightly higher than in the hybrid-level PLB. Also, the signifi-cant technical benefits were quantified through an energy-saving of 58.73% and decreasing the phase voltage unbalance rate by 91 % compared to the initial case (without PLB). These results emphasized the positive impact of the proposed coordinated control methodology on the PLB process and evidenced its effectiveness and applicability in the AEDNs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0660.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Debonding load; CFRP plate; RC beams; flexural strengthening; simple statistical analysis; fiber element method
Online: 29 July 2021 (13:57:58 CEST)
In this study, experimental work was carried out on reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) plates. This study aims to examine the effect of the reinforcement ratio on the flexural behavior of these beams and propose a new model for predicting the debonding moment. Six RC beams consisting of three control beams and three beams strengthened with CFRP plates were tested. The beams were simply supported and loaded with four-point bending. The test variable was the tensile reinforcement ratio (1%, 1.5%, and 2.5%). Analytical prediction using the fiber element method was also carried out to obtain the complete theoretical response of the beam due to flexural loads. The test results show that the reinforcement ratio affected the bending performance of RC beams with CFRP plates. Following this, the experimental data from 60 beam test results from published literature and this study were analyzed. From these data, it was found that the ratio of tensile reinforcement, the ratio of modulus of elasticity of concrete, the modulus of elasticity of the plate, and plate thickness all affect the value of debonding moment. A parametric study using fiber element and two-dimensional finite element method was also carried out to confirm the effect of these parameters on debonding failure. These parameters were then used to develop an equation to predict the debonding moment of RC beams strengthened with CFRP plates using simple statistical analysis. This analysis resulted in a simple model for predicting the debonding moment. Then the model is entered into a computer program, and the complete response of the cross-section due to debonding failure can be obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0027.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Beaufort West; drought; Gamka Dam; boreholes; water load-shedding; reclamation plant; municipality; bottled water
Online: 1 July 2021 (13:17:32 CEST)
Increasing and prolonged droughts have become a feature of the South African environmental landscape. This article investigates the sustainability of water procurement to the rural town of Beaufort West and the reasons for the town’s water provision crises during the droughts of 2009-2011 and 2017-2019. Innovative solutions were reached to alleviate the serious water-shortages during these droughts. Data to illustrate population increases and precipitation decreases, which impacted on the town’s water resources, was collected from census records of Statistics South Africa and from the Department of Water and Sanitation, respectively. A number of risk factors contributed to the town’s water crises, e.g. unsustainable water extraction at times of serious droughts, poor water monitoring, metering and attention to leakages, an expansion of informal settlements within the municipal boundaries of Beaufort West, as well as annual rainfall patterns that became increasingly unpredictable. The article concludes that water resource development had not kept pace with demand, therefore water infrastructure should be built with enough capacity to cope with regular dry periods. Equilibrium should be reached between the water expectations of the community and water availability to avoid future social instability in water-stressed towns such as Beaufort West.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0506.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Structural health monitoring; bridge load testing; dynamic testing; operational modal analysis; experimental modal analysis
Online: 19 April 2021 (15:59:50 CEST)
The Sei Dareh Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge located in West Sumatra Province, Indonesia. The bridge, has a main span of 123 meters length and 9 meters wide, crosses the Batanghari River. Traffic load is transmitted through 4 prestressed cables to a 42.4 meter high pylon made of concrete. Bridge deck and traffic loads are directly supported by steel box girders as main beams that are reinforced laterally with cross beams IWF 800.300.16.24 and stringers IWF 350.350.12.19. This paper discusses static and dynamic testing on the bridge which aims to assess the feasibility before it is opened for public. Based on the test, it was concluded that the 73% static load could not be achieved because the deflection that occurred was beyond the allowable deflection. This is exacerbated by the sound of a loud clanging sound on the ST2-X1 prestressed cable when loading to 240 tons or 58% of the targeted load. In addition, this bridge is included in the "lazy bridge" category because it takes 24 hours to return to an undeformed condition after loading. As a recommendation for this bridge, it is necessary to carry out a structural health monitoring system (SHMS) regularly on the vehicle floor and cables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0236.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Electromagnetic Frequency Regulator; Hydrostatic transmission; Wind turbines; Feedback linearization; Variable load; Induction machine; Slip
Online: 6 November 2020 (09:26:11 CET)
This work presents an alternative to harnessing wind energy with an Electromagnetic Frequency Regulator (EFR) coupled to a hydrostatic transmission and associated with a horizontal axis wind turbine, a bidirectional frequency inverter and a secondary energy source, in a hybridized system. The hydrostatic transmision is composed by a fixed displacement axial piston pump and a variable displacement, swash plate, axial piston motor. Feedback linearization was used as a technique to control the motor geometric displacement, and a prediction algorithm for the steady state rotations of the armature and the electromagnetic field has been developed. A 5\,kW project was simulated on a Scilab platform, with combinations of constant or variable load, and constant or variable wind speed. The results indicated that the system was able to supply the generator load, adapting to fluctuations in wind speed. The possibility of storing wind energy through the inverter has also been proven. The system can accumulate energy in batteries during the fastest wind regimes, to use it when the turbine power is lower than the load.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0409.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Demand Side Management; Demand Response; Cyber-Physical Systems; Dynamic Pricing; Load Forecasting; Attack Detection
Online: 19 July 2020 (11:14:01 CEST)
Demand-Side Management (DSM) is an essential tool to ensure power system reliability and stability. In future smart grids, certain portions of a customer’s load usage could be under the automatic control of a cyber-enabled DSM program, which selectively schedules loads as a function of electricity prices to improve power balance and grid stability. In this scenario, the security of DSM cyberinfrastructure will be critical as advanced metering infrastructure and communication systems are susceptible to cyber-attacks. Such attacks, in the form of false data injections, can manipulate customer load profiles and cause metering chaos and energy losses in the grid. The feedback mechanism between load management on the consumer side and dynamic price schemes employed by independent system operators can further exacerbate attacks. To study how this feedback mechanism may worsen attacks in future cyber-enabled DSM programs, we propose a novel mathematical framework for (i) modeling the nonlinear relationship between load management and real-time pricing, (ii) simulating residential load data and prices, (iii) creating cyber-attacks, and (iv) detecting said attacks. In this framework, we first develop time-series forecasts to model load demand and use them as inputs to an elasticity model for the price-demand relationship in the DSM loop. This work then investigates the behavior of such a feedback loop under intentional cyber-attacks. We simulate and examine load-price data under different DSM-participation levels with three types of random additive attacks: ramp, sudden, and point attacks. We conduct two investigations for the detection of DSM attacks. The first studies a supervised learning approach, with various classification models, and the second studies the performance of parametric and nonparametric change point detectors. Results conclude that higher amounts of DSM participation can exacerbate ramp and sudden attacks leading to better detection of such attacks, especially with supervised learning classifiers. We also find that nonparametric detection outperforms parametric for smaller user pools, and random point attacks are the hardest to detect with any method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0546.v2
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; face masks; aerosol; infection transmission route; weather conditions; viral load; exposure; dose
Online: 21 May 2020 (04:05:50 CEST)
Effects of the convection flow, atmospheric diffusivity and humidity on evolution and travel distances of exhaled aerosol clouds by an infected person are considered. The aim of this work is to evaluate the importance of aerosol transmission routes and the effectiveness of the 2-metre separation distance policy. A potential impact of use of face masks on the infection transmission rate, and an opportunity to reduce infection in hospitals, care homes and other public spaces by appropriate monitoring and filtering of air are also considered. The results obtained demonstrate that aerosol particles generated by coughing and sneezing can travel over 30 m. Modelling of the evolution of aerosol clouds generated by coughing and sneezing enables us to evaluate the deposition dose of aerosol particles in healthy individuals. For example, a person in a public place (e.g. supermarket or car park) can accumulate in the respiratory system up to 200 virus copies in 2 min time by breathing in virus laden aerosols. Wearing face mask considerably reduces the deposited load down to 2 virus copies per 2 min. The modelling also suggests that it should be possible to measure virus causing COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) within aerosol particles in hospitals and public places, e.g. care homes and supermarkets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0200.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: smart meters; low voltage distribution networks; energy losses; three-stage algorithm; typical load profiles
Online: 24 June 2019 (10:43:32 CEST)
In the paper, an improved smart meter data-based three-stage algorithm to calculate the power/energy losses in the three-phase networks with the voltage level below 0.4 kV (low voltage - LV) is presented. In the first stage, a loading function of input data was built having as main feature the working at the same time with files from the database of smart metering system (SMS) containing the hourly electricity records, and files including the characteristic load profiles established by the Distribution Network Operator (DNO) for the consumers with standard energy meters depending the following factors: consumption class, day and season. In the second stage, a function which is based on the work with the structure vectors was implemented to identify easy the configuration of analysed networks. In the third stage, an improved version of forward/backward sweep-based algorithm was proposed to calculate fast the power/energy losses to three-phase LV distribution networks in balanced and unbalanced regime. A real LV rural distribution network from a pilot zone belonging to a Distribution Network Operator (DNO) from Romania was used to confirm the accuracy of the proposed approach. The comparison with the results obtained using the DigSilent PowerFactory Simulation Package certified the performance of the algorithm, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) being 0.94%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0012.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SHIV; Macrobrachium rosenbergii; Macrobrachium nipponense; Procambarus clarkii; white head; Histopathology; Susceptible species; Viral load
Online: 1 March 2019 (12:49:53 CET)
Macrobrachium rosenbergii is a valuable freshwater prawn in Asian aquaculture. In recent years, a new symptom that was generally called as ‘white head’ caused high mortality in M. rosenbergii farms in China. Samples of M. rosenbergii, M. nipponense, Procambarus clarkii, M. superbum, Penaeus vannamei, and Cladocera from a farm suffering from ‘white head’ in Jiangsu Province were collected and analyzed in this study. Pathogen detection showed that all samples were positive for Shrimp hemocyte iridescent virus (SHIV). Histopathological examination revealed dark eosinophilic inclusions and pyknosis in hematopoietic tissue, hepatopancreas and gills of M. rosenbergii and M. nipponense. Blue signals of in situ DIG-labeled LAMP (ISDL) appeared in hematopoietic tissue, hemocytes, hepatopancreatic sinus, and antennal gland. TEM of ultrathin sections showed a large number of SHIV particles with a mean diameter about 157.9 nm. The virogenic stromata and budding virions were observed in hematopoietic cells. Quantitative detection by TaqMan probe based real-time PCR of different tissues in natural infected M. rosenbergii showed that hematopoietic tissue contained the highest SHIV load with a relative abundance of (25.4±16.9)%. Hepatopancreas and muscle contained the lowest SHIV load with a relative abundance at (2.44±1.24)% and (2.44±2.16)%, respectively. Above results verified that SHIV is the pathogen causing ‘white head’ in M. rosenbergii, and M. nipponense and Pr. clarkii are also the susceptible species of SHIV.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0193.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: agricultural machinery; load sensing; independent metering; digital flow control; displacement control; constant pressure systems.
Online: 9 October 2018 (15:56:08 CEST)
A fluid power industry powering the agricultural machinery faces big challenges nowadays. An issue of energy saving has become important due to increasing fuel costs and more stringent emissions regulations impacting vehicle development. A recent study conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy shows that the efficiency of fluid power averages 21 percent. This offers a huge opportunity to improve the current state-of-the-art of fluid power machines, in particular to improve the energy consumption of current applications and create innovative solutions. To increase energy efficiency of fluid power systems reduction of throttling losses and potential energy recovery strategies are needed. Aim of this work is to present classification of current energy saving architectures and aid the development of new techniques for mobile fluid power machines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0146.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: communication time delays; delay margin; delay dependent stability; load frequency control system; sweeping test
Online: 8 October 2018 (12:43:20 CEST)
The open communication is an exigent need for future power system where the time delay is unavoidable. In order to secure the stability of the grid, the frequency must remain within its limited range which is achieved through the load frequency control. The load frequency control signals are transmitted through communication networks which induces time delay that could destabilize the power systems. So, in order to guarantee the stability the delay margin should be computed. In this paper, we present a new method for calculating the delay margin in load frequency control systems. The transcendental time delay characteristics equation is transformed to frequency dependant equation. The spectral radius is used to find the frequencies at which the roots crosses the imaginary axis. The crossing frequencies are determined through the sweeping test and the binary iteration algorithm. A one-area load frequency control system is chosen as case study. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been proved through comparing with the most recent published methods. The method shows its merit with less conservativeness and less computations. The PI controller gains are preferable to be chosen large to reduce the damping, however, the delay margin decreases with increasing the PI controller gains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0551.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Non-intrusive Load Monitoring; Machine Learning; Deep Modeling; Extreme Learning Machine; Data Driven Approach.
Online: 31 August 2018 (15:44:51 CEST)
Power disaggregation aims at determining the appliance-by-appliance electricity consumption leveraging upon a single meter only, which measures the entire power demand. Data-driven procedures based on Factorial Hidden Markov Models have been proven remarkable results on energy disaggregation. Nevertheless, those procedures have various weaknesses: there is a scalability problem as the number of devices to observe raises and the algorithmic complexity of the inference step is severe. DNN architectures, such as Convolutional Neural Networks, have demonstrated to be a viable solution to deal with FHMMs shortcomings. Nonetheless, there are two significant limitations: a complicated and time-consuming training system based on back-propagation has to be employed to estimates the neural architecture parameters, and large amounts of training data covering as many operation conditions as possible need to be collected to attain top performances. In this work, we aim to overcome those limitations by leveraging upon the unique and useful characteristics of the extreme learning machine technique, which is based on a collection of randomly chosen hidden units and analytically defined output weights. Experiment evaluation has been conducted using the UK-DALE corpus. We find that the suggested approach achieves similar performances to recently proposed ANN-based methods and outperforms FHMMs. Besides, our solution generalises well to unseen houses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0206.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: storage and retrieval processes; load-balancing; fault tolerance; energy efficiency; memory efficiency; data loss
Online: 11 July 2018 (14:47:31 CEST)
Load balancing, energy efficiency and fault tolerance are among the most important data dissemination issues in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). In order to successfully cope with the mentioned issues, two main approaches (namely, Data-centric Storage and Distributed Data Storage) have been proposed in the literature. Both approaches suffer from data loss due to memory and/or energy depletion in the storage nodes. Even though several techniques have been proposed so far to overcome the mentioned problems, the proposed solutions typically focus on one issue at a time. In this paper, we integrate the Data-centric Storage (DCS) features into Distributed Data Storage (DDS) mechanisms and present a novel approach, denoted as Collaborative Memory and Energy Management (CoMEM), to overcome both problems and bring memory and energy efficiency to the data loss mechanism of WSNs. We also propose analytical and simulation frameworks for performance evaluation. Our results show that the proposed method outperforms existing approaches in various WSN scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0099.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: double strap joint; failure load prediction; finite element analysis; steel; stress-based failure criterion.
Online: 21 June 2017 (03:26:57 CEST)
In the current study, the failure behavior of retrofitted steel structures was studied experimentally and theoretically with steel/CFRP double strap joints (DSJs) under quasi-static tensile loading. A series of DSJs with different bonding lengths are also considered and examined to experimentally assess the effective bond length. To predict the failure load values of the tested specimens, a new stress-based criterion, namely the point stress (PS) criterion is proposed. Although some theoretical predictive modelling for the strength between steel/CFRP joints under various loading conditions has been presented, in this work by using the new proposed approach, one can calculate rapidly and conveniently the failure loads of the steel/CFRP specimens. Furthermore, to assess the validity of the new proposed criterion, further experimental data on steel/CFRP DSJs available in the open literature are predicted using the PS criterion. Finally, it was found that a good agreement exists between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions based on the PS criterion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0512.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Contact Mechanics; Cross-Country Skiing; Cross-Country Ski; Load Conditions; Ski-Camber Profile; Sports Equipment
Online: 31 August 2022 (02:26:22 CEST)
In cross-country skiing the time difference between a race winner and the person coming second is typically very small. Since much of the energy is spent on overcoming resistive forces, a relatively small reduction of these can have a significant impact on the results. The resistive forces come partly from the friction in the tribological interface, between the ski and the snow, and as with many tribological applications the characterisation of its origin, plays an important role in determining the frictional properties. Also in cross-country ski friction, there are several scales impacting the frictional performance, with the major contributors being the ski-camber profile and ski-base structure. Macro-scale measurements of the ski's camber profile under load, are often used to determine how adequate the ski is for a specific condition. The characteristic properties usually obtained are, the force required to collapse the ski to a certain camber height, the topography of the kick-wax zone, and by simple means a determined lengths of the frictional interface, i.e., the apparent contact length. To this date, there are some mathematical models, but there is no robust way of determining the macro-scale contact properties between a cross-country ski and a counter surface using simulations. In the present paper an Artificial neural networks (ANN) is trained to predict the ski-camber profile for various loads placed at different positions, and a well established deterministic approach is used to simulate the contact between the ANN-predicted ski-camber profile and a linearly elastic body with a flat surface, representing the snow. The results suggest that this method is feasible for the determination of the apparent contact characteristics of different skis. Moreover, we show that the apparent contact area does not linearly depend on the load, and that the elastic properties of the counter surface also has a large impact on the apparent contact area and the average apparent contact pressure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0140.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Non-ordinary state-based Peridynamics; Compression-compression fatigue load; Multiple Cracks; Aircraft wing corner box
Online: 10 May 2022 (11:43:03 CEST)
In this work, we have developed a non-ordinary state-based peridynamic model for multiple crack initiation and propagation due to compression-compression fatigue load. In each loading cycle, the fatigue loading is redistributed among the peridynamic solid body, leading to the progressive fatigue damage initiation and propagation in an autonomous fashion. The proposed fatigue model parameters are firstly validated by 3D numerical benchmark tests, and then it is applied to simulate widespread fatigue damage evolution of the aircraft wing corner box. The modified constitutive damage model has been implemented into the peridynamics framework at finite strain. Furthermore, the criterion algorithm from multiple initiation to propagation is discussed. It is shown that the numerical results obtained from peridynamics simulations are in general agreement with those from the experiment data. The comparison of experimental and numerical results indicates that the proposed non-ordinary state-based peridynamics fatigue model has the ability to capture the multiple crack initiation and propagation and other features of the aluminium alloy material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0688.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: droplet digital PCR; real time RT-PCR; SARS-CoV-2; false negative; viral load; diagnosis
Online: 26 April 2021 (20:09:26 CEST)
Background: The reference test for SARS-CoV-2 detection is the reverse transcriptase real time PCR (real time RT-PCR). However, evidences reported that real time RT-PCR has a lower sensitivity compared with the droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) leading to possible false negative in low viral load cases. Methods: We used ddPCR for viral genes N1 and N2 on 20 negative (no detection) samples from symptomatic hospitalized COVID-patients presenting fluctuating real time RT-PCR results and 10 suspected samples (Ct value>35) from asymptomatic not hospitalized subjects. Results: ddPCR performed on RNA revealed 65% of positivity for at least one viral target in the hospitalized patients group of samples (35% for N1 and N2, 10% only for N1 and 20% only for N2) and 50% in the suspected cases (30% for N1 and N2, while 20% only for N2). On hospitalized patients’ samples, we applied also a direct ddPCR approach on the swab material, achieving an overall positivity of 83%. Conclusion: ddPCR, in particular the direct quantitation on swabs, shows a sensitivity advantage for the SARS-CoV-2 identification and may be useful to reduce the false negative diagnosis, especially for low viral load suspected samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0314.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: phase load balancing; smart meters; dynamic optimization; on-line implementation; low voltage electric distribution networks
Online: 23 February 2020 (10:14:51 CET)
In the electric distribution systems, the “Smart Grid” concept is implemented to encourage energy savings and integration of the innovative technologies, helping the Distribution Network Operators (DNOs) in choosing the investment plans which to lead the optimal operation of the networks and increasing the energy efficiency. In this context, a new phase load balancing algorithm was proposed to be implemented in the low voltage distribution networks with hybrid structures of the consumption points (switchable and non-switchable consumers). It can work in both operation modes (on-line and off-line), uploading information from different databases of the DNO which contain: the consumers’ characteristics, the real loads of the consumers integrated into the Smart Metering System (SMS), and the typical load profiles for the consumers non-integrated in the SMS. The algorithm was tested in a real network, having a hybrid structure of the consumption points, on a time interval by 24 hours. The obtained results were analyzed and compared with other algorithms from the heuristic (Minimum Count of Loads Adjustment algorithm) and the metaheuristic (Particle Swarm Optimization and Genetic Algorithms) categories. The best performances were provided by the proposed algorithm, such that the unbalance coefficient resulted in the smallest value (1.0017). The phase load balancing led to the following technical effects: decreasing the average current in the neutral conductor with 94% and for the energy losses with 61.75 %, and increasing the minimum value of the phase voltage at the farthest pillar with the 7.14 %, compared to the unbalanced case.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0217.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Intelligent Load Forecasting; Demand-Side Management; Pattern Similarity; Hierarchical Forecasting; Feature Selection; Weather Station Selection
Online: 18 December 2018 (10:38:10 CET)
Electricity demand forecasting has been a real challenge for power system scheduling in the different levels of the energy sectors. Various computational intelligence techniques and methodologies have been employed in the electricity market for load forecasting; although, scant evidence is available about the feasibility of each of these methods considering the type of data and other potential factors. This work introduces several scientific, technical rationale behind intelligent forecasting methods, based on the work of previous researchers in the field of energy. The fundamental benefits and main drawbacks of the aforementioned methods are discussed in order to depict the efficiency of each approach in various situations. In the end, a proposed hybrid strategy is represented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0053.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: effective discharge; suspended sediment load; magnitude–frequency analysis; sub-bankfull flow; temporal variation; geomorphic threshold
Online: 4 September 2018 (04:54:01 CEST)
Effective discharge, which represents the flow, or range of flows, that transport the most sediment over long term, was determined based on the mean daily flow discharge and mean daily suspended sediment discharge recorded between 1994 and 2014 at four gauging stations along the Trotuș River. This study proposes an efficient method for the estimation of effective discharge based on observed values of the suspended sediment load. By employing this method the suspended sediment load is no longer either under- or overestimated as in the cases when the assessment is based on sediment rating curves. The assessment on effective discharge was performed at two distinct levels: for the entire data series during the investigated time spans and, subsequently, for flows less than the bankfull discharge. The effectiveness curves of the suspended sediment transport characteristics revealed highly multimodal characteristics with many peaks, indicating ample ranges for the effective discharges. The main effective discharge corresponded to large flood events, which are typical for the upper end of the discharge range, whereas the secondary effective discharges corresponded to sub-bankfull flows, which are more frequent. The changes that occurred in the channel bed are reflected by the temporal variations in the effective discharge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0151.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Sensitivity Analysis; DC distribution networks; DC vs. AC; efficiency; load modeling; Renewable Energy Sources; Monte Carlo
Online: 11 May 2022 (09:03:24 CEST)
The new millennium has witnessed a pervasive shift of trend from AC to DC in residential sector. The shift of trend is predominantly due to independent residential solar PV systems at rooftops and escalating electronic loads with better energy saving potential integrated with diminishing prices as well as commercial availability of DC based appliances. DC has ousted AC in generation, transmission, and utilization sectors with the advent of DC based generating systems (e-g solar PV), high voltage DC (HVDC) transmission and the utilization of DC based loads respectively. However, the war of currents (AC vs DC) is still ON as regards to distribution sector. Efficiency is the parameter that once wiped DC out of the power systems scenario as compared to AC-at the time of Tesla and Edison. Therefore, the same parameter is utilized to determine which is better for distribution sector under current conditions; AC or DC? A comprehensive sensitivity analysis considering real load profile is missing in the present body of knowledge. In order to fill that gap, this paper is an attempt to include comprehensive sensitivity analysis of DC distribution system and its simulation-based comparison with AC counterpart considering real load profile. The paper uses Monte Carlo technique and probabilistic approach to add diversity in residential loads consumption and in turn to obtain instantaneous load profile. The paper also presents a futuristic perspective of power electronic converter (PEC) efficiency variation on the efficiency comparison of both AC and DC distribution systems. Since the present body of knowledge generally compares AC and DC distribution based upon assumptions and limited scenarios which results in conflicting outcomes; in contrast, the discoveries of the current examination are useful to reduce the confusions and conflictions regarding which is better at distribution scale; AC or DC?
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Ideal fluid; deep water; ice cover; moving cylinder; hydrodynamic load; added mass; wave resistance; damping coefficient
Online: 21 January 2021 (15:21:49 CET)
We calculate the hydrodynamic forces exerted on an oscillating circular cylinder when it moves translationally perpendicular to its axis in the infinitely deep water covered by compressed ice. The cylinder can oscillate both horizontally and vertically. In the linear approximation, we find a solution for the steady wave motion generated by the cylinder within the hydrodynamic set of equations for the incompressible ideal fluid. We show that depending on the rate of ice compression, the normal and anomalous dispersion can occur in the system. In the latter case, the group velocity can be opposite to the phase velocity in a certain range of wavenumbers. We investigate the dependences of the hydrodynamic loads (added mass, damping coefficients, wave resistance, and lift force) exerting on the cylinder on the translational velocity and frequency of oscillation. It is shown that there is a possibility of the appearance of negative values for the damping coefficients at the relatively big cylinder velocity; then the wave resistance decreases with increasing of cylinder velocity. The theoretical results are underpinned by the numerical calculations for the real parameters of ice and cylinder motion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0017.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: microwave photonic sensor system; numerical simulation; addressed fiber Bragg structures; load sensing bearings; vehicle dynamics control
Online: 1 September 2020 (12:11:45 CEST)
The work presents an approach to instrument the load sensing bearings for automotive applications for estimation of the loads acting on the wheels. The system comprises fiber-optic sensors based on addressed fiber Bragg structures (AFBS) with two symmetrical phase shifts. A mathematical model for load-deformation relation is presented, and the AFBS interrogation principle is described. The simulation includes (i) modeling of vehicle dynamics in a split-mu braking test, during which the longitudinal wheel loads are obtained, (ii) the subsequent estimation of bearing outer ring deformation using a beam model with simply supported boundary conditions, (iii) the conversion of strain into central wavelength shift of AFBS, and (iv) modeling of the beating signal at the photodetector. The simulation results show that the estimation error of the longitudinal wheel force from the strain data acquired from a single measurement point was 5.44% with root-mean-square error of 113.64 N. A prototype load sensing bearing was instrumented with a single AFBS sensor and mounted in a front right wheel hub of an experimental vehicle. The experimental setup demonstrated comparable results with the simulation during the braking test. The proposed system with load-sensing bearings is aimed at estimation of the loads acting on the wheels, which serve as input parameters for active safety systems, such as automatic braking, adaptive cruise control, or fully automated driving, in order to enhance their effectiveness and safety of the vehicle.