Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Why do Inbreeding Depression and Load Resist Both Purging and Fixation?

Version 1 : Received: 29 October 2020 / Approved: 30 October 2020 / Online: 30 October 2020 (10:18:40 CET)

How to cite: Waller, D. Why do Inbreeding Depression and Load Resist Both Purging and Fixation?. Preprints 2020, 2020100634 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0634.v1). Waller, D. Why do Inbreeding Depression and Load Resist Both Purging and Fixation?. Preprints 2020, 2020100634 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0634.v1).

Abstract

Upon inbreeding, the architecture of the inbreeding load shifts as selection purges strongly deleterious recessive mutations and drift fixes many milder ones. Most small inbred populations show limited genetic variation while crosses between such populations commonly express pronounced heterosis, confirming fixation. In contrast, purging appears to be limited in that inbred populations often retain substantial inbreeding depression. In addition we have the enigma Darwin noted: purely selfing taxa are unknown. Because both purging and fixation reduce inbreeding depression and load, another mechanism must exist to sustain these. Background selection and the associations that develop among alleles in small inbred populations will shift the architecture of the load potentially creating blocks of recessive mutations linked in repulsion. This would generate pseudo-overdominance that could sustain these “PODs” and inbreeding load. Recombination and crosses between lineages could erode PODs. Crosses between populations fixed for different mutations would generate high pseudo-overdominance, enhancing heterosis and potentially POD formation. New recessive mutations arising within PODs would reinforce overdominance. PODs should generate clear genetic signatures including genomic hotspots of heterozygosity and linkage disequilibrium containing alleles at intermediate frequency generating segregating load. Results from several simulation and empirical studies match these predictions. Further simulations and comparative genomic analyses are needed to rigorously test whether PODs exist in sufficient strength and number to generate persistent inbreeding depression and load in inbred lineages.

Subject Areas

genetic load; purging; drift load; pseudo-overdominance; heterozygosity-fitness correlation; genomic architecture

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