ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1017.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: plant endophytic fungi; rhizospheric soil fungi; isolation; cucumber; cultural media
Online: 14 June 2023 (08:51:38 CEST)
Plant endophytic fungi and rhizosphere soil fungi are often reported as biocontrol agents against plant pathogens or with plant growth promotion potential. Four treatments were performed in field and greenhouse experiments where cucumber plants were inoculated with Trichoderma harzianum and Fusarium oxysporum in 2022. The roots, stems and leaves of cucumber plants and their rhizosphere soil were collected twice individually from the field and greenhouse for isolation of cucumber endophytic and rhizosphere soil fungi. All 74 genera and 1275 fungal strains were sequenced by rDNA ITS. The PDA media yielded the highest number of genera isolated from cucumber plants, rhizosphere soil and both compared to other media. There were no significant differences among the 4 media for the isolation of cucumber endophytic fungi. The best media for isolating fungi from roots and stems were MRBA and PDA, respectively. PDA and CZA had higher isolation efficiency for the rhizosphere soil fungi than MRBA. The 28 fungal genera had high isolation efficiency, and the endophytic Trichoderma strains were best isolated by MEA. It is suggested that PDA can be used as a basic medium, and different media can be considered for specific fungal genera.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1919.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Orchids; microorganisms; fungi; bacteria
Online: 26 May 2023 (10:37:30 CEST)
Orchids are often a mystery because of their close and complex relationships with various microorganisms in the natural environment. Orchids rely on microorganisms to obtain nutrients, affecting their seed germination, protocorm, and adult plant growth. Currently, the majority of relevant research is concentrated on isolating and identifying environmental microorganisms that support orchid development and growth. With the development of metagenomic technology, our understanding of orchid mycorrhizal fungi (OMF) and root-associated bacteria (RAB) has been expanded. New research results and discoveries have emerged, which require a comprehensive assessment to provide a reference for studying microorganisms related to orchids. Therefore, we present a comprehensive summary, identifying significant inadequacies of present methodologies while providing ideas for further research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0223.v1
Online: 4 May 2023 (08:01:04 CEST)
Luminous fungi have long attracted public attention in Japan, from old folklore and fiction to current tourism, children’s toys, games and picture books. At present, 25 species of luminous fungi have been discovered in Japan, which correspond to approximately one-fourth of the globally recognized species. This species richness is arguably thanks to the abundant presence of mycophiles looking to find new mushroom species and the tradition of night-time activities, such as firefly watching, in Japan. Bioluminescence, a field of bioscience focused on luminous organisms, has long been studied by many Japanese researchers, including the biochemistry and chemistry of luminous fungi. A Japanese Nobel Prize winner, Osamu Shimomura (1928-2018), has primarily focused on the bioluminescence system of luminous fungi in the latter part of his life, and the total elucidation of the mechanism was finally accomplished by an international research team with representatives from Russia, Brazil, and Japan in 2018. In this review, we focused on multiple aspects related to luminous fungi of Japan, including myth, taxonomy, and modern sciences.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0303.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Fungi; Bacteria; Holobionts; Delivery
Online: 11 March 2021 (10:12:39 CET)
Abstract Bacteria and fungi are both used in biological seed treatments. While all have potential uses, some organisms are more widely and successfully used than others. Shelf life is an important consideration. For this reason, organisms that lack cell walls are more difficult to use than ones with long-lasting spores. Bacillus and Trichoderma are both widely effective, have good shelf life, and are frequently used. However, Rhizobiacae lack cell walls, which is a limitation; they are widely used because their symbiosis with legumes facilitates nitrogen fixation which is an important factor that provides economic, agricultural and environmental sustainability. For all organisms, proper formulation is critical for success; this is especially true for Rhizobiacae and other gram-negative bacteria. There are several specialized processes to deliver microbial agents or to enhance their biological activity, such as solid matrix priming and hydroseeding. Biorational chemicals derived from microorganisms are also frequently used. Both living organisms and biorationals provide benefits to plant agriculture. They can control diseases and increase resistance to abiotic stresses such as drought, temperature, salt, and flooding. They also can enhance mineral nutrition and photosynthesis. For these applications, the most effective ones colonize roots internally and provide season-long benefits. These endophytes induce systemic changes in plants’ gene expression and encoding of proteins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1524.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Ascomycota; asexual fungi; marine fungi; multi-locus phylogeny; new taxa; taxonomy; ultrastructure
Online: 22 May 2023 (12:25:58 CEST)
The genus Amphichorda has been recently re-erected as an independent linage from Beauveria, circumscribed within Cordycipitaceae. However, its phylogenetic relationships with other members of this family remain obscure. In our on-going efforts to expand the knowledge on the diversity of culturable ascomycetes from the Mediterranean Sea, we isolated several specimens of Amphichorda. Preliminary sequence analyses revealed great phylogenetic distance with accepted Amphichorda species and a close relation to Onychophora coprophila. Onychophora is a monotypic genus of enteroblastic conidiogenous cells, presumably related to Acremonium (Bionectriaceae); while Amphichorda exhibits holoblastic conidiogenesis. Here, we examine representative strains of Amphichorda species to resolve the taxonomy of the genus and the above-mentioned fungi combining morphological, ultrastructure and multi-locus phylogenetic analyses (ITS, LSU, tef1, BenA). The results revealed Amphichorda as a member of the Bionectriaceae, where its asexual morphs represent a transition between enteroblastic and holoblastic conidiogenesis for this group of fungi. We also describe and illustrate Amphichorda littoralis sp. nov., and propose the new combination Amphichorda coprophila. In addition, we stablish key phenotypic features to distinguish Amphichorda species and demonstrate the higher salt tolerance degree of A. littoralis, consistent with its marine origin. This work provides a comprehensive framework for future studies in the genus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1886.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: fungi; gastrointestinal parasites; ruminants; pasture
Online: 2 August 2023 (07:42:43 CEST)
Verminosis causes great damage to the producer, with reduced milk production and decreased development of young animals. The use of bioproducts are an alternative to control worms. This study evaluated the effects of oral administration of one commercial formulations, based on the fungus Duddingtonia flagrans (Bioverm®) and experimental formulations D. flagrans associated with Pochonia chlamydosporia, on the control of worms in naturally infected cattle on February pasture to October 2021. Eighteen Holstein x Zebu cattle were divided into groups of six animals (group 1 Bioverm®, group 2 Association and control), separated into paddocks naturally infected with helminth larvae (L3). The parasite load was by means of fecal samples and pasture collection to determine L3 infestation. The study demonstrated low recovery of L3 in the pasture due to low rainfall during the experiment. The EPG was lower in groups 1 and 2 compared to the control in April, May and July, while in March the values were lower only in treatment 1 compared to the control. Individual or combined administration of fungal products reduced the presence of eggs and larvae in pastures at certain months of the year, indicating their effectiveness in the strategic control of gastrointestinal parasites in cattle.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0357.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Fungi; Eichhornia crassipes; Temprature; Humidity
Online: 30 June 2020 (08:04:57 CEST)
Eichornia crassipes is one of the most dangerous aquatic weeds for Lake Tana and other water Bodies of Ethiopia .Use of natural enemies of the weed to discourage its propagation and impact is one of the best recommended options by scientific society.Among them, there are more fungi naturally a pathogen for water hyacinth and other plants. To use those pathogens to manage the highly water hyacinth infestation area of Lake Tana specfically Gondar Zuria woreda , Lemeba Kebela , infected water hyacinth plant material by fungi were collected from Goregora side of Lake Tana. The collection was done from infected water hyacinth leaves by fungi.All isolated fungi(Zygomycota .,Candidaalbicanaa,Trichoderma ,Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium s,Aspergillus niger,Pencillium and Rhizocotosolani spp) were attempted to infect the healthy water hyacinth in Lemeba Kebela by spraying 2ooo ml cultured mixed fungi in 20 metre square areas and after three weeks of exprement the fungi were severely affected the weeds and expanded in all wetland areas of lemba kebala that infested by water hyacinth but in some exprement areas the leaf of water hyacinth show disease symptoms after 7 days of fungi releasd on targeted area.This observational research shows that the fungi were high potential to attack healthy water hyacinth at high enviroment temprature and at less humidity
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Fungi; Mycology; Canada; Research; Community
Online: 3 June 2020 (13:45:17 CEST)
Fungi critically impact the health and function of global ecosystems and economies. In Canada, fungal researchers often work within silos defined by sub-discipline and institutional type, complicating the collaborations necessary to understand the impacts fungi have on the environment, economy, and plant and animal health. Here, we announce the establishment of the Canadian Fungal Research Network (CanFunNet, https://fungalresearch.ca) whose mission is to strengthen and promote fungal research in Canada by facilitating dialogue among scientists. We summarize the challenges and opportunities for Canadian fungal research that were discussed at CanFunNet’s inaugural meeting in 2019, and identify four priorities for our community: 1) increasing collaboration among scientists; 2) studying diversity in the context of ecological disturbance; 3) preserving culture collections in the absence of sustained funding; and 4) leveraging diverse expertise to attract trainees. We have gathered additional information to support our recommendations, including a survey identifying underrepresentation of fungal-related courses at Canadian universities, a list of Canadian fungaria and culture collections, and a case study of a human fungal pathogen outbreak. We anticipate that these discussions will help prioritize fungal research in Canada, and we welcome all researchers to join this nationwide effort to enhance knowledge dissemination and funding advocacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1164.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Autopsy; Postmortem; Azoles; Antifungal; Fungi; Referral-autopsy rooms; autopsy; autopsy suites; autopsy rooms; postmortem; autopsy fungi; airborne fungi; autopsy air; azoles; antifungals; antimicrobials; aspergillus
Online: 16 August 2023 (07:44:09 CEST)
The public health risk associated with the autopsy unit is high and information on indoor microbial air contamination is limited. Airborne pathogenic fungi thrive in moist indoor environments similar to autopsy room conditions. They spread through spores, cause infections in immunocompromised patients, and exhibit resistance to antimicrobials, making them a public health threat. This study profiled fungi circulating in the indoor air of a referral autopsy unit in Accra, Ghana. The different sections of the unit were sampled using the standard open plate technique. Fungal isolates obtained were phenotypically and molecularly characterized. The resistance to fluconazole and itraconazole, as well as a germicide used in routine cleaning of the unit, was tested using broth microdilution assays. Fungi isolated include species of clinically relevant strains of Candida and Aspergillus; also, Penicillium spp. and Mucor spp. They exhibited high levels of resistance to fluconazole and itraconazole, as well as Denzal® germicide used in routine cleaning of the autopsy unit. This study is the first to profile the fungal diversity of an autopsy unit in Ghana, and the findings suggest that workers might be exposed to fungi with high pathogenic potential that could cause infections.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1092.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Antarctica; High Arctic; fungi; climate change
Online: 17 July 2023 (09:48:48 CEST)
The Antarctica and High Arctic regions are extreme environments, with average maximum temperatures below 0 °C for most days of the year. Interestingly, fungi inhabit these regions. This review describes the history of fungal surveys near the Syowa Station and the fungal diversity in this region. In the High Arctic region, I summarized the changes in fungal communities in glacial retreat areas of Ny-Ålesund, Norway and Ellesmere Island, Canada in response to climate change. In addition, growth and enzyme secretion ability of Antarctic and Arctic fungi at sub-zero temperatures are presented. Finally, I have also provided the future directions of Antarctic and Arctic fungal research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0895.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: antifungal; bacteria; cyanobacteria; cyclic peptides; fungi
Online: 13 June 2023 (09:26:10 CEST)
Fungal infections pose a significant threat to human health, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Due to several factors, such as the inappropriate use of antimicrobial drugs, the emergence of resistance in microorganisms, and increasing demand for less cytotoxic antifungal agents for immunocompromised patients, antifungal research has gained significant attention in recent years. Antifungal peptides, and among them, cyclic peptides, are a class of antifungal agents that have been under development since the 1960s. Using cyclic peptides as a promising approach for combating antifungal resistance in pathogenic fungi has gained significant attention in recent years. The identification of antifungal cyclic peptides from various sources has been possible due to the widespread interest in peptide research in recent decades. It is increasingly important to evaluate the narrow to broad-spectrum antifungal activity and the mode of action of synthetic and natural cyclic peptides for both synthesized and extracted peptides. This short review aims to highlight some of the antifungal cyclic peptides isolated from bacteria, fungi, and plants, taking into consideration the progress made in peptide research. Additionally, it provides a summary of synthetic cyclic peptides with antifungal activity and discusses the potential future of utilizing combinations of antifungal peptides from different sources. The review underscores the need for further exploration of the novel therapeutic applications of these abundant and diverse cyclic peptides.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0373.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Fungi; ergosterol pathway; dermatophytes; chelerythrine; sanguinarine
Online: 19 October 2020 (11:10:30 CEST)
The ergosterol pathway is a prime antifungal target. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay is a simple research tool that determines the lowest concentration at which a novel antimicrobial with limited scope to determine the mechanism of action for a drug. In this study, we show that by adding hydrogen peroxide, an oxidative stressor, or glutathione (GSH), an antioxidant, to modify a commonly performed MIC assay allowed us to screen selectively for new antifungal drugs that target ergosterol biosynthesis in fungi. A human pathogen, Microsporum gypseum, was used as a test organism. When exposed to ergosterol targeting drugs, the hydrogen peroxide treatment significantly decreased fungal survival by reducing ergosterol in the cell wall, whereas GSH increased survival of M. gypseum. Further, by performing a series of experiments with M. gypseum, it was determined that the oxidative stress from hydrogen peroxide causes cell death at different developmental stages. These findings allow us to describe a simple, high-throughput method for simultaneously screening new antifungal drugs for activity and effects on the ergosterol pathway. By using this tool, two isoquinoline alkaloids were discovered to be potent inhibitors of ergosterol biosynthesis by reducing the amount of ergosterol without affecting the expression of 1,3-β-glucan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0204.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Mucorales; phylogeny; rare fungi; undiscovered taxa
Online: 7 May 2018 (10:29:56 CEST)
The order Mucorales, the largest in number of species within the Mucoromycotina, comprises typically fast-growing saprotrophic fungi. During a study of the fungal diversity of undiscovered taxa in Korea, two novel mucoralean strains, CNUFC-GWD3-9 and CNUFC-EGF1-4, were isolated from specific habitats including freshwater and fecal samples, respectively, in Korea. On the basis of their morphological characteristics and sequence analyses of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) of 28S ribosomal DNA regions, the CNUFC-GWD3-9 and CNUFC-EGF1-4 isolates were confirmed to be Gilbertella persicaria and Pilobolus crystallinus, respectively. It is ecologically, pathologically and mycologically significant to find such rare zygomycetous fungi in such specific habitats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0270.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: filamentous fungi; bioactive substances; antibiosis; phytopathogenic
Online: 29 January 2018 (08:34:07 CET)
Native strains of Trichoderma, isolated from mangrove sediments of PE, Brazil were determining their morphological and molecular characterization, and were investigated to assess of their biocontrol potential over the phytopathogenic Fusarium strains isolated from Caatinga soil, PE, Brazil. The Trichoderma strains were characterized by polyphasic approach, which combined their morphological characteristics, macro- and microculture results, growth evaluation by Tukey test, with significance of 5%. The DNA was extracted and the product was amplified with primers ITS 1 and 2, and sequenced. Trichoderma strains were compatible morphologically with the description of the genus. The molecular identification of Trichoderma, sequences of 500 bp were amplified, deposited in GenBank and used for phylogenetic analysis. The growth rate analysis showed rate of 0.1207 cmh-1 to Trichoderma strains and Fusarium spp. lower growth rate (0.031 cmh-1) was observed. The antibiosis tests showed the best antagonistic level of effectiveness to T. asperellum UCP 0149 against F. solani UCP 1395(82.2%) and F. solani UCP 1075(70.0%), followed of T. asperellum UCP 0319 against F. solani UCP1083 (73.4%), and T. asperellum UCP 0168 against F. solani UCP1098 (71.5%), respectively. The data obtained could serve as the basis for developing several biotechnological processes of safe use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2008.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: Microbial inoculant; inoculum infectivity; inoculum effectivity; arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, dark septate fungi; inoculum adapted to salinity
Online: 29 June 2023 (03:22:55 CEST)
Soil salinity is a limiting factor in crop productivity. Inoculating crops with microorganisms adapted to salt stress is an alternative to increasing plant salinity tolerance. Few studies have simultaneously propagated arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate fungi (DSF) using different sources of native inoculum from halophyte plants, and evaluated their effectiveness. This study selected, in alfalfa plants as trap culture, the infectivity of 38 microbial consortia native from rhizospheric soil (19) or roots (19) coming from six halophyte plants, as well as their effectiveness in mitigating salinity stress. Inoculation with soil resulted in 26%-56% colonization by AMF and 12%-32% by DSF. Root inoculation produced 10%-56% and 8%-24% of colonization, respectively. There was no difference in the number of spores of AMF produced with both inoculum types. The effective consortia were selected based on low Na but high P and K shoot concentrations which is relevant for plant nutrition but more for salt stress mitigation. The microbial consortia selection is presented in a more novel and applicable context, which would allow for the production of native microbial inoculants adapted to salinity to diminish the harmful effects of salinity stress in glycophyte plants in the context of sustainable agriculture.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0514.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Macrophage; polarization; receptor; bacteria; virus; fungi; parasites
Online: 8 December 2023 (07:39:15 CET)
An event of increasing interest during host-pathogen interactions is the differentiation of patrolling monocytes (MOs) and the polarization of naive MOs into macrophage subsets (MФs). Therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating this event are under investigation. This review focuses on the mechanisms of induction, development, and profile of MФs polarized toward classically proinflammatory (M1) or alternatively anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotypes in response to bac-teria, fungi, parasites, and viruses. It highlights nuclear (PPARγ), cytoplasmic, and cell surface receptors (pattern recognition receptors/PPRs), microenvironmental mediators, and immune signaling. MФs polarize into phenotypes: M1 MФs, activated by IFN-γ, pathogen-associated mo-lecular patterns (PAMPs, e.g. LPS)/DAMPs and membrane-bound PPRs ligands (TLRs/CLRs lig-ands); or M2 MФs (a, b, c and d), induced by IL-4, -10 and -13, antigen-antibody complexes, and helminth PAMPs. The kinetics of M1 and M2 polarization evolve in a pathogen-specific manner, with or without canonicity, and can vary widely. Ultimately, this can result in varying degrees of host protection or more severe disease outcome. While the host is driving an effective MФs po-larization, pathogens are attempting to shift it to increase pathogenicity. The latter results from a bias toward an ineffective M1 or M2 response due to microbial virulence factors, culminating in pathogen evasion of host defenses. Plasticity of M1/M2 phenotypes is also ensured by cellu-lar/genomic reprogramming. Because modulation of this event can occur at multiple points, providing a therapeutic/vaccine design target to boost microbicidal (M1) or tissue repair (M2) response during the inflammation-to-resolution transition; new insights and emerging perspec-tives may have clinical implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1980.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; bio-fertilizer; vetiver; intercropping
Online: 28 September 2023 (09:34:23 CEST)
In this study, a field experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth and yield responses of Sri Lankan lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) with the application of beneficial Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculum, and inter-cropping with highly mycorrhizal dependent vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides L.) under two different soil nutrient management systems (NMSs): conventional/chemical (CNMS) and organic (ONMS). The experiment was designed as a split plot with three blocks. Each CNMS and ONMS experiment included untreated control (T0), and three treatments—AMF inoculation (T1), vetiver intercropping (T2), and the combination of AMF and vetiver (T3). According to the results, colonization of rice roots with AMF was not affected significantly by the treatments and ranged from 0‒15.8%. The effect was very low or absent in the early stage and then higher in the later stages of the rice plant. Furthermore, plant growth was not significantly different between the two NMSs, although grain yield was significantly higher (P < 0.05), with the order T1 (0.45 kg/m2) >T2 (0.42 kg/m2) >T3 (0.41 kg/m2) in CNMS and T2 (0.44 kg/m2) >T1 (0.41 kg/m2) >T3 (0.40 kg/m2), in ONMS than for the respective controls (T0), thus suggesting beneficial utilization of AMF and vetiver in the lowland rice farming system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1261.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Fungi; Diversity; Western Himalayan region; PCA; ANOVA
Online: 19 September 2023 (08:28:18 CEST)
The western Himalayan region is a biodiversity hotspot. Although many of the flora and fauna are documented, there are very few studies of the fungal diversity. Here, we present the statistical analyses of the specimen collections from the past 150 years of data in the fungarium of the Forest Research Institute. We found that the host tree species, pine, oak, deodar, and spruce, had very high Shannon diversity (SD) and species richness (SR), while Dalbergia and Rhododendron showed moderate to low SD, SR; Sal, although found at lower altitudes has high SD, SR. Among the fungal families, the highest SD, SR was found in Polyporaceae. Hymenochaetaceae, Peniophoraceae, Coleosporiaceae, and Stereaceae also showed SD with moderate SR. Fomitopsidaceae, Cronartiaceae, Ganodermataceae, and Thelephoraceae have low species diversity and species. Thelesporaceae are distributed above 2000 m altitude, and Ganodermateceae and Hymenochaetaceae have broader ranges, namely 0 - 3500 m and 0 - 5000 m, respectively. The Polyporaceae show diverse variations in species distribution, occurring between 0 and 4500 m; Colesporaceae and Cronartiaceae around 2000 m; and, Stereaceae, Meruliaceae, Peniophoraceae, and Fomitopsidaceae occur between 1700 and 1800 m, with all Stereaceae and Fomitopsidaceae having different distribution ranges up to 5000 m. We found that areas with relatively low rainfall had lower species richness, and vice versa, and high solar radiation also negatively impacted fungal density and SR. Similar studies must be undertaken in other parts of the Himalayas, and the importance of fungi in ethnobotanical needs to be understood for ensuring sustainable use.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1686.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Biotechnology; microorganisms; bacteria; fungi; vector control; mosquitoes
Online: 27 June 2023 (14:18:14 CEST)
Mosquitoes transmit pathogens that cause human diseases such as malaria, Dengue fever, Chikungunya, yellow fever, Zika fever, and filariasis. Chemical pesticides are effective instruments for reducing disease transmission and managing mosquito populations. However, these chemicals have drawbacks such as high production costs and negative effects on the environment and non-target organisms. Furthermore, as mosquitoes develop resistance to chemical insecticides, they become less effective. As a result, researchers are investigating novel insecticides. Advances in microbial biotechnology have resulted in a wide range of value-added products, including biopesticides for agricultural and public health purposes. In this review, we highlight the mainly untapped biotechnological potential of microorganisms for vector mosquito control and disease transmission reduction. Also, we underline the importance of more basic research and improved translational research methodologies, encouraging efforts to bridge the gap between academic research on biopesticides and public health interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0103.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: oil spill; bioremediation; sorption; hydrophobic sorbent; fungi
Online: 1 June 2023 (14:12:51 CEST)
The study investigates the effects of immobilizing the fungi on the straw's performance as an oil sorbent. The buoyancy of the straw with fungi was found to be unaffected by the immobilization process. Even when sorbed with oil, the straw floated on the water’s surface throughout the 14-day test period. The sorption kinetics of the oil appeared similar in straw with and without immobilized fungi, regardless of beaker shaking. However, the fraction of non-extractable oil was higher in the straw with fungi and shaking compared to the straw without shaking. This observation suggests the potential initiation of oil mining. Based on these results, it is suggested that instead of leaving the straw with fungi and oil in the water, removing it may be beneficial and allow for oil degradation and straw decomposition on land.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0951.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Magonia pubescens; biopesticides; phytopathogenic fungi; Chrysodeixis chalcites
Online: 12 May 2023 (13:32:35 CEST)
Botanical biopesticides have emerged as sustainable and eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic pesticides, whose indiscriminate use leads to several drawbacks to human and environment health. The present study reports on the evaluation of the roots extract from Magonia pubescens, species from the Cerrado (Brazilian savannah), on the phytopathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, and Fusarium oxysporum. In addition, its insect antifeedant effect was assayed against Chrysodeixis chalcites. Thus, an in vitro test-assay was used to determine the fungicide potential (percentage growth inhibition, % GI) of the ethanolic extract of this plant species, whereas a leaf-disk bioassay on the 5th instar larvae of C. chalcites was performed to evaluate the insecticide potential. The ethanolic extract was further fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction, using organic solvents of increasing polarity. The hexane/dichloromethane fraction exhibited a moderated potency, and similar to the ethanolic extract on the three assayed fungi (around % GI 30 at 1 mg/mL), whereas the n-butanol fraction showed a slight improvement of the fungicide effect against B. cinerea (% GI 39.18 at 1 mg/mL). Moreover, the etanolic extract exhibited a strong antifeedant activity, with a refusal rate (FR) higher than 90% in both choice and non-choice assays against C. chalcites, while the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions behaved as appetite suppressors. These results highlight M. pubescens as a promising source of biopesticides and deserve further investigations to optimize extraction procedures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0106.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Oligosaccharides; Fructooligosaccharides; Inulooligosaccharides; Fructosyltransferase; Coprophilous fungi.; Inulinases
Online: 4 November 2021 (16:22:55 CET)
Functional foods are essential food products that possess health-promoting properties for the treatment of infectious diseases. In addition, they provide energy and nutrients, which are required for growth and survival. They occur as prebiotics or dietary supplements, including oligosaccharides, processed foods, and herbal products. However, oligosaccharides are more efficiently recognized and utilized, as they play a fundamental role as functional ingredients with great potential to improve health in comparison to other dietary supplements. They are low molecular weight carbohydrates with a low degree of polymerization. They occur as fructooligosaccharide (FOS), inulooligosaccharadie (IOS), and xylooligosaccahride (XOS), depending on their monosaccharide units. Oligosaccharides are produced by acid or chemical hydrolysis. However, this technique is liable to several drawbacks, including inulin precipitation, high processing temperature, low yields, high production costs, etc. As a consequence, the application of microbial enzymes for oligosaccharide production is recognized as a promising strategy. Microbial enzymatic production of FOS and IOS occurs by submerged or solid-state fermentation in the presence of suitable substrates (sucrose, inulin) and catalyzed by fructosyltransferases and inulinases. Incorporation of FOS and IOS enriches the rheological and physiological characteristics of foods. They are used as low cariogenic sugar substitutes, suitable for diabetics, and as prebiotics, probiotics & nutraceutical compounds. In addition, these oligosaccharides are employed as anticancer & antioxidant agents and aid in mineral absorption, lipid metabolism, immune regulation etc. This review, therefore, focuses on the occurrence, physico-chemical characteristics, and microbial enzymatic synthesis of FOS and IOS from coprophilous fungi. In addition, the potential health benefits of these oligosaccharides were discussed in detail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0418.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Fungi; hydrolases; cellulases; biodiesel by-products; wastes
Online: 15 April 2021 (13:16:44 CEST)
As β-glucosidases represent the major bottleneck for industrial degradation of plant biomass, great efforts are being devoted both to discover novel and robust versions of these enzymes, as well as to develop efficient and inexpensive ways to produce them. In this work, raw glycerol from chemical production of biodiesel was tested as carbon source for the fungus Talaromyces amestolkiae with the aim of producing enzyme cocktails rich in this activity. Approximately 11 U/mL β-glucosidase were detected in these cultures, constituting the major cellulolytic activity. Proteomic analysis revealed BGL-3 as the most abundant protein and the main β-glucosidase. This enzyme crude was successfully used to supplement a basal commercial cellulolytic cocktail (Cellu-clast 1.5L) for saccharification of pretreated wheat straw, corroborating that even hardly exploitable industrial wastes, such as glycerol, can be used as secondary raw materials to produce valuable enzymatic preparations in a framework of circular economy
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0192.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: bacteria; fungi; livestock; microbiome; next generation sequencing
Online: 14 February 2020 (10:32:54 CET)
Ruminal microorganisms play a pivotal role in cattle nutrition. The discovery of the main microbes responsible for enhancing the gain of weight in beef cattle might be used in therapeutic approaches to increase animal performance and cause less environmental damages. Here, we examined differences in bacterial and fungal composition of rumen samples of Braford heifers raised in a natural grassland from Pampa Biome in Brazil. We aimed to detect microbial patterns in the rumen that could be correlated with the gain of weight. 16S and ITS1 genes were amplified from ruminal samples and sequenced to identify the closest microbial relatives within the microbial communities. A predictive model based on microbes responsible for the gain of weight was build and further tested using the entire dataset. The model detected a set of microorganisms associated with animals in the high gain of weight group, including the bacterial taxa RFN20, Prevotella, Anaeroplasma and RF16 and the fungal taxa Aureobasidium, Cryptococcus, Sarocladium, Pleosporales and Tremellales. Most of these organisms have been correlated to the production of substances that improve the ruminal digestion process. These findings provide new insights about cattle nutrition and suggest the use of these microbes to improve beef cattle breeding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0113.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: biosurfactant; Rhodotorula glutinis; antifungal activity; saprophytic fungi
Online: 11 March 2019 (07:50:52 CET)
Background: Biosurfactants are amphiphilic surface active compounds that produced by several microorganisms, including, bacteria and fungi. Biodegradability, low toxicity, applications diversity and functionality under extreme conditions are characterized them from chemically biosurfactants. It is found that, Rhodotorula species, read yeasts, have high potency for biosurfactant producing. Recently, antimicrobial activities of biosurfactants have been subjected for new antibiotic therapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate biosurfactant production by the different strains of Rhodotorula species in laboratory conditions. In addition, antifungal activity of produced biosurfactant was assessed against several saprophytic fungi. In the present study 54 strains of Rhodotorula including, R. glutinis (48 strains), R. minuta (2 strains), R. mucilaginosa (2 strains) and Rhodotorula species (2 strains) were screened for biosurfactant production. The biosurfactant was produced using the Sabouraud dextrose broth medium and confirmed by specific tests. Antifungal assay was also evaluated by disk diffusion method and the serial dilutions of biosurfactant. In the present study, although all tested strains were capable to produce biosurfactant in vitro, the degree of biosurfactant production was varied among stains. 7.4% strains had the highest (+5) biosurfactant activity followed by 16.7%, 29.5%, 25.8% and 20.4% had +4, +3, +2 and +1, respectively. In the present study, all tested fungi were inhibited at 40 µl of biosurfactant. Rhodotorula species are appropriate organisms for the production of biosurfactants and R. glutinis strains have the greatest ability to producing biosurfactant than another species. Furthermore, our results were demonstrated that the produced biosurfactant by R. glutinis presented a valuable potential for biopharmaceutical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0375.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: endophytic fungi; sesterterpene; cytotoxic activity; pancreatic cancer
Online: 17 October 2018 (06:39:51 CEST)
As a part of our ongoing research on endophytic fungi, we have isolated a sesterterpene mycotoxin, fusaproliferin (FUS), from Fusarium solani strain associated with the plant Aglaonema hookerianum Schott. FUS showed rapid and sub-micromolar IC50 against pancreatic cancer cell lines. Time dependent survival analysis and microscopy imaging showed rapid morphological changes in cancer cell lines 4 hours after incubation with FUS. This provides a new chemical scaffold that can be further developed to obtain more potent synthetic agents against pancreatic cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Amazon fungi; Fungus extract; Trichoderma asperellum; Melanogenesis; Zebrafish
Online: 8 March 2023 (08:48:58 CET)
Endophytic fungi are those that present part of their life cycle in healthy tissues of different plant hosts in symbiosis without causing harm. At the same time, fungus-plant symbiosis makes it possible for microorganisms to synthesize their own bioactive secondary metabolites while in stationary stage. Such microorganism-derived secondary metabolites contribute. Therefore, this work aimed to. To accomplish this, the endophytic fungus Trichoderma asperellum was isolated from Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut) almonds. The fungus was cultivated and extracted with ethyl acetate, obtaining AM07Ac. Then, using HPTLC (High-performance thin-layer chromatography) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR), β-amyrin, kaempferol, and brucine were identified as major compounds. Further in vivo assays in Zebrafish demonstrated the activity of AM07Ac on melanogenesis by producing a concentration-response inhibitory effect, which, through an in silico study, proved to be related to the noted major compounds known to inhibit tyrosinase activity. The inhibition of tyrosinase prevents melanin accumulation in skin. Therefore, these results imply the importance of investigating microorganisms and their pharmacological activities, in particular the endophytic fungus Trichoderma asperellum as a generator of active metabolites for melanogenesis modulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0381.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Endophitic Fungi; Phylopgeny; Biodiversity; Molecular Biology; Growth experiments
Online: 22 August 2022 (11:00:55 CEST)
Antarctica is one of the most inhospitable continents on the planet, with lichens and mosses being the most common terrestrial organisms in ice-free areas. Antarctica is represented by only two species of Angiosperms, Deschampsia antarctica Desv. (Poaceae) and Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. (Caryophyllaceae). In this study, we characterized fungi isolated from the leaves of this grass species. The fungi were isolated from 4 individual plants from Half Moon Island (246 leave fragments investigated), and 7 from King George Island - Keller Peninsula (with 111 leave fragments investigated) Antarctica. Neoascochyta paspali, Phaeosphaeria elongata, Pyrenophora cf. chaetomioides and Alternaria sp. were associated with the plant and identified through analysis of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of the rDNA and nuclear ribosomal large subunit rRNA gene (LSU) as well as macro and micro-morphological characteristics. The isolates showed a better growth rate ranging from 10–20°C. An interesting result was that the fungi are already recognize as both plant pathogens and endophytic fungi. The results demonstrate that D. antarctica is an interesting fungal source. Those species might provide important information about the relationship on the endemic Antarctic biota.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0583.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Itaconic acid; U. maydis; Metabolic engineering; Fungi; Yeast
Online: 23 November 2020 (13:47:27 CET)
Ustilago maydis, member of the Ustilaginaceae family, is a promising host for the production of several metabolites including itaconic acid. This dicarboxylate has great potential as a bio-based building block in the polymer industry, and is of special interest for pharmaceutical applications. Several itaconate overproducing Ustilago strains have been generated by metabolic and morphology engineering. This yielded stabilized unicellular morphology through fuz7 deletion, reduction of by-product formation through deletion of genes responsible for itaconate oxidation and (glyco)lipid production, and the overexpression of the regulator of the itaconate cluster ria1 and the mitochondrial tricarboxylate transporter encoded by mttA from Aspergillus terreus. In this study, itaconate production was further optimized by consolidating these different optimizations into one strain. The combined modifications resulted in itaconic acid production at theoretical maximal yield, which was achieved under biotechnologically relevant fed-batch fermentations with continuous feed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0266.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: hypogenous ectomycorrhizal fungi; truffles; soil nutrient; fungal community
Online: 12 September 2020 (08:04:07 CEST)
Truffles contribute to crucial dynamics in the soil systems, being involved in plentiful ecological functions important for ecosystems. Despite this, the interactions between truffles and surrounding mycobiota remain unknown. Here, we aimed to shed light on how much truffle species could affect its surrounding soil mycobiota. Using traditional chemical analysis and Illumina ITS amplicon sequencing, we compared soil nutrients and mycobiota surrounding two truffle species: Tuber indicum (Ti) and T. pseudohimalayense (Tp) inhabit in the same Pinus armandii forest in southwestern China. Tp soil was more acidic and had higher nutrients (total C, N, P contents) than Ti soil. Fungal richness and diversity of truffle ascomata and surrounding soils were significantly higher in Tp than in Ti. Redundancy analysis showed relationships between soil fungal taxa and soil properties had changed from negative (Tp) to positive (Ti) and shifted from a moisture-driving (Tp) to a total N-driving (Ti). Overall, our results showed that the interactions between truffle and soil system had been altered with species variation, although the causative peculiarity of these associations needs to be further studied.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0601.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: traffic; endocytosis; sorting; Aspergillus nidulans; UapA; Golgi; fungi
Online: 25 July 2020 (11:00:02 CEST)
Eukaryotic plasma membrane (PM) transporters face critical challenges that are not widely present in prokaryotes. The two most important issues are proper subcellular traffic and targeting to the PM, and regulated endocytosis in response to physiological, developmental or stress signals. Sorting of transporters from their site of synthesis, the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER), to the PM has been long thought, but not formally shown, to occur via the conventional Golgi-dependent vesicular secretory pathway. Endocytosis of specific eukaryotic transporters has been studied more systematically and shown to involve ubiquitination, internalization, and sorting to early endosomes, followed by turnover in the MVB/lysosomes/vacuole system. In specific cases internalized transporters have been shown to recycle back to the PM. However, the mechanisms of transporter forward trafficking and turnover have been overturned recently through systematic work in the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans. In this review we present evidence that shows that transporter traffic to the PM takes place through Golgi-bypass and transporter endocytosis operates via a mechanism that is distinct from that of recycling membrane cargoes essential for fungal growth. We discuss these findings in relation to adaptation to challenges imposed by cell polarity in fungi as well as in other eukaryotes and provide a rationale why transporters and possibly other housekeeping membrane proteins ‘avoid’ routes of polar trafficking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0066.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: parasite, fungi, finned eel, Anguilla marmorata, Central Sulawesi
Online: 7 June 2019 (15:52:41 CEST)
Parasitic infections are often not the direct cause of death of fish but the presence of wounds in the fish's body due to parasitic attacks is a trigger factor for secondary infection. Secondary infections can be caused by fungi, bacteria or viruses, which ultimately cause the death of fish. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of parasites and fungi that infected eel (Anguilla sp.) in the waters of Poso, Buol, Toli-toli and Donggala, Central Sulawesi as an important part of the diagnosis of fish disease in the framework of teraupetic strategies. Eel were taken as many as 30 individuals / location for observation of parasites and fungi. Parasitological examination was carried out for external and internal parasites on the mucous layer of the body, gills, intestines and stomach, while fungal isolations were carried out on muscles, skin and tissues that have abnormalities. After identification, the prevalence and intensity were carried out. The results showed that the highest prevalence of parasites were Camallanus sp (70%), Proteacephalus sp (50%) and Gyrodactylus sp (40%), and the nematode Camallanus sp the tapeworm Proteocephalus sp had the highest intensity of 57.5 and 30.8 respectively. Fungal prevalence were found highest in Saprolegnia sp (36%), and Fusarium sp (32%).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0236.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: keratinophilic fungi, non-dermatophytes, fungal flora, hair, nails
Online: 18 September 2018 (15:13:05 CEST)
Background: The presence of fungal species on the surface skin and hair is a known finding in many mammalian species and humans are no exception. Superficial fungal infections are sometimes a chronic and recurring condition that affects approximately 10-20% of the world’s population. However, most species that are isolated from humans tend to occur as co-existing flora. This study was conducted to determine the diversity of fungal species isolated from the hair and nails of workers in the central region of Saudi Arabia where there are not many observational studies on the mycological species. Materials and Methods: Male workers from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were recruited for this study and samples were obtained from their nails and hair for mycological analysis which was done using Saboraud’s agar and sterile wet soil. Fungal isolates were examined microscopically. Results: Twenty four hair samples yielded a total of 26 species from 19 fungal genera. Chaetomiumglobosum was the most commonly isolated fungal species followed by Emericellanidulans, Cochliobolusneergaardii, and Penicilliumoxalicum. Three fungal species were isolated from nail samples, namely, Alternariaalternata, Aureobasidiumpullulans, and Penicilliumchrysogenum. Most of the isolated fungal species (17 of the 26 or 65.38% of the isolated fungal species) have not been thoroughly characterised nor morphologically classified. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the presence of previously undescribed fungal species that contribute to the normal flora of the skin and its appendages and may have a role in their pathogenies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0002.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: gold nanoparticle; fungi; nanoparticle shape; nanoparticle size; nanotoxicology
Online: 25 April 2018 (07:47:04 CEST)
The possibility of releasing gold nanoparticles (GNP) into the environment has been rapidly increasing with the wide spread and flourishing application of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in a wide range of areas. Consequently, environmental effects of GNP, especially toxicities to living organisms have drawn great attention. However, their toxicological characteristics still remain unclear. Fungi, as the decomposers of the ecosystem, interact directly with the environment and critically control the overall health of the biosphere. Thus, their sensitivity to GNP toxicity is particularly important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of shape and size of GNPs on their toxicities to fungi, which could help reveal the ecotoxicity of GNPs. Aspergillus niger, Mucor hiemalis and Penicillium chrysogenum were chosen for toxicity assessment, and spherical and star/flower-shaped GNPs sized from 0.7 nm to large aggregates of 400 nm have been synthesised. After exposure to GNPs and their corresponding reaction agents and incubation for 48 hours, the survival rates of each kind of fungus was calculated and compared. The results indicated that fungal species was the major determinant of the variation of survival rates, whereby A. niger was most sensitive and M. himalis was least sensitive to GNP exposure. Additionally, larger and non-spherical GNPs had relatively stronger toxicities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0021.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Skin diseases, exosome, plants, humans, medicinal algae, fungi, treatment
Online: 1 December 2023 (05:29:59 CET)
Annually, millions of people worldwide are affected by skin diseases, and current therapeutic approaches have limited efficacy. Advances in the treatment of exosomes have led to the development of new therapeutic methods that hold promising potential for improving the treatment options for skin diseases. The aim of this study is to produce pharmaceutical and cosmetic compounds based on exosomes for the treatment of skin conditions such as eczema, pigmentation disorders, skin sagging and aging, cellular skin regeneration, increased skin moisture, and prevention of skin shedding, among others. This study examines the effects of exosomes derived from plants, humans, medicinal algae, and fungi to treat skin diseases. Spectrophotometric analysis reveals the presence of nucleic acids and proteins in exosome samples, indicating their cargo composition. TEM micrographs demonstrate that the exosome isolation process preserves the integrity of the membrane and the crucial spherical structure for their functionality. DLS analysis confirms that isolated exosomes have a size similar to typical exosome dimensions. MTT assays indicate concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects of exosomes on skin cells, with a calculated IC50 representing a significant decrease in cell viability. Real-time PCR shows higher gene expression levels of collagen I and collagen III, indicating the potential of exosomes to enhance collagen synthesis. Tyrosinase enzyme expression analysis demonstrates the influence of exosome treatments on pathways related to melanin production. The use of exosomes derived from various sources provides a promising platform for developing new drugs in the treatment of skin diseases. Additionally, exosomes can be utilized in the treatment of autoimmune diseases and cancer, transforming them into a hopeful field of research. Plant-derived exosomes are environmentally friendly and can serve as the next generation of drug delivery systems for treating various diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0906.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: maize; wheat; mycotoxigenic fungi; AFB1; ELISA; Albania; Southeastern Europe.
Online: 15 November 2023 (13:02:11 CET)
Today, given the paramount importance of food safety to human health, mycotoxins are considered especially important contaminants of foodstuffs. Among the mycotoxins, aflatoxins are potent food contaminants which are present in maize and wheat. Invasions of toxigenic fungi in the field and during storage are directly affected by climate and other environmental factors. A total of 129 samples of maize and grain harvested in 2022 were surveyed for mycological contamination. Aflatoxin B1 contamination was investigated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method.Our study revealed the presence of fungi from five genera: Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Alternaria, and Cladosporium. We also found that maize was more frequently contaminated than wheat. Fungi of the Penicillium genus were the most abundant (77.89%), followed by Fusarium (74.73%) and Aspergillus (72.63%). Samples originating from the Korça region (104 units) exhibited a higher fungal load on the three genera. AFB1 contamination is a more critical issue in maize than wheat. The incidence of AFB1 in maize was 88.23%, with a maximum concentration of 69.12 μg/kg; in contrast, the incidence of AFB1 in wheat was only 4.91%. In wheat, no samples had AFB1 concentrations above the EU Maximum Residue Level (MRL) of 2 μg/kg; in maize, 41.18% of samples exceeded the AFB1 MRL of 5 μg/kg for human food, and 32.25% exceeded the MRL for animal feed. These findings, together with other research results from the last decade, suggest that relevant information should be made available to farmers, and good agriculture practices encouraged, as a matter of priority.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1075.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; iron toxicity soil; non-Host plant
Online: 18 September 2023 (02:45:51 CEST)
Brassicaceae are well known as non-arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) host plants. This study was aimed to examine effects of two Brassica; cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. cv. cabitata) and mustard (B. juncea Coss.) on three AM species (Acaulospora, Entrophospora and Glomus) and to examine effect of root incorporation into soil on root AM infectivity in maize growing in iron toxicity soil. Experiment 1, cabbage and mustard crop reduced spore density of Acaulospora, but there was no effect on spore density of Entrophospora. While, mustard crop had more effect on Glomus spore density than cabbage crop. Experiment 2, AM spore from two conditions; without and with 6 weeks of root residues (cabbage, mustard and maize) incorporation was examined for its infectivity in maize roots. At D21, without root incorporated, the infectivity of Acaulospora, Entrophospora and Glomus were not different. By contrast, cabbage and mustard root incorporation depressed infec-tivity of Acaulospora but, there was no effect on Entrophospora. Whereas, cabbage root incorporation only depressed infectivity of Glomus. However, AM infectivity was recovered at D42. These results suggested that Brassica root incorporated into soil was the actual effect on the viability of AM spore resulting in reduction of AM infectivity at the early stage.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0666.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: Blastomycosis; Blastomyces dermatitidis; Endemic Fungi; Axe Throwing; Occupational Exposure
Online: 9 June 2023 (04:32:25 CEST)
Blastomycosis is an endemic fungal disease seen prominently in the northern regions of North America, manifested as pulmonary disease, however also with dissemination to the skin, bones, and genitourinary tract. We describe a case of a patient in Southern California diagnosed with disseminated blastomycosis due to a novel occupational exposure of axe throwing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2095.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: biocontrol; natural products; phytopathogens; microbial metabolites; entomopathogens; endophytic fungi.
Online: 30 May 2023 (09:02:51 CEST)
The genus Beauveria include important entomopathogenic and endophytic fungi, among them, Beauveria bassiana is the most studied species. However, there are few knowledge regarding their antimicrobial activity. The current research has been conducted to evaluate in vitro antagonistic activity of B. bassiana and the antimicrobial efficacy of its Exo and Endo metabolites against Bacillus cereus, B. megaterium, Clavibacter michiganensis (gram positive bacteria, G+ve), Xanthomonas campestris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. fluorescence (gram negative bacteria, G-ve). In addition, Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was coupled to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) to qualitatively measure the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) metabolic profile of the most efficient studied isolate of B. bassiana. The obtained results showed that, the isolate UniB2439-3 has promising antibacterial effect against most of studied target bacteria. SPME-GC/MS analysis of VOCs revealed the presence of ethanol; butanal,2-methyl; 2,4-dimethyl-1-heptene; octane, 4-methyl and β-elemene as the main dominant bioactive compounds. The outgoing results explicated that the efficient isolate of B. bassiana can be potentially used as a biocontrol agent against several bacteria especially G+ve ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0134.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: biocontrol; natural products; phytopathogens; microbial metabolites; entomopathogens; endophytic fungi
Online: 10 April 2023 (03:06:01 CEST)
The genus Beauveria include important entomopathogenic and endophytic fungi, among them, B. bassiana is the most studied species. However, there are few knowledge regarding their antimicrobial activity. The current research has been conducted to evaluate in vitro antibacterial efficacy of five isolates of B. bassiana against Bacillus cereus, B. megaterium, B. mojavensis, Clavibacter michiganensis (gram positive bacteria, G+ve), Xanthomonas campestris, X. vesicatoria, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. fluorescence (gram negative bacteria, G-ve). In addition, chemical composition of the principal diffusible metabolites and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the most efficient studied isolate of B. bassiana has been carried out using GC-MS analysis. The obtained results showed that, the isolate UniB2439-3 has promising antibacterial effect against most of studied target bacteria. GC-MS analysis of diffusible metabolites detected the presence of hexanedioic acid, bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester as the main compound in the cell-free culture filtrate. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis of VOCs revealed the presence of ethanol; butanal,2-methyl; 2,4-dimethyl-1-heptene; octane, 4-methyl and β-elemene as the main dominant bioactive compounds. The outgoing results explicated that, the isolates of B. bassiana have promising antibacterial activity which could be correlated to their diffusible and VOCs metabolites. Therefore, the selected isolate can be potentially used as a biocontrol agent against several bacteria especially G+ve ones. Taking in consideration that the antibiotics are forbidden in agriculture in many countries worldwide, search for possible natural alternatives as efficient antimicrobial agents are highly interesting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0216.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: glacial retreat; Walker Glacier; endangered fungi; climate change; mycoflora
Online: 14 January 2022 (15:02:53 CET)
Walker Glacier near the northern coast of Ellesmere Island in the High Canadian Arctic (terrestrial margin of the ‘Last Ice Area’) is undergoing rapid ice attrition in response to climate change. We applied culture and molecular methods to investigate fungal diversity in sediments at the terminus of this glacier. Analysis of the mycoflora composition showed that the Walker Glacier isolates separated into two clusters: the surface of the glacier ice and the glacier foreland. The recently exposed soils of the foreland had a lower fungal diversity and different species from those on the ice, with the exception of five species that occurred in both habitats. This loss of glacial ice in the Arctic is therefore resulting in the loss of habitats for cold-dwelling fungal species. Fungal diversity is a potentially rich biological resource of glacial ecosystems, with unique taxa. The rapid loss of these glacial habitats underscores the urgency for more detailed surveys of fungal diversity in the High Arctic, and the need for further isolation of strains as well as cryopreservation of environmental microbiome samples for future research and conservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0333.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Anaerobic gut fungi; sequence-guided isolation; Neocallimastigomycota SK4 lineage
Online: 15 October 2020 (16:25:34 CEST)
We report on the isolation of the previously uncultured Neocallimastigomycota SK4 lineage by two independent research groups from a wild aoudad sheep rumen sample (Texas, USA) and an alpaca fecal sample (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Isolates from both locations showed near identical morphological and microscopic features, forming medium-sized white filamentous colonies with a white center of sporangia on agar roll tubes and a heavy biofilm in liquid media. Microscopic analysis revealed monocentric thalli, and spherical polyflagellated zoospores with 7–20 flagella. Zoospore release occurred through an apical pore as well as by sporangial wall rupturing, a duality that is unique amongst described AGF strains. Isolates were capable of growing on a wide range of mono-, oligo-, and polysaccharides substrates. Phylogenetic assessment based on the D1-D2 large rRNA subunit (D1-D2 LSU) and internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) regions demonstrated high sequence identity (minimum identity of 99.07% and 96.96%, respectively) between all isolates; but low sequence identity (92.4% and 86.7%, respectively) to their closest cultured relatives. D1-D2 LSU phylogenetic trees grouped the isolates as a new monophyletic clade within the Orpinomyces-Neocallimastix-Pecoramyces-Feramyces-Ghazallamyces supragenus group. D1-D2 LSU and ITS-1 sequences from the obtained isolates were either identical, or displayed extremely high sequence similarity to sequences recovered from the same Aoudad sheep sample on which isolation was conducted, as well as several sequences recovered from domestic sheep and few other herbivores. Interestingly, members of the SK4 clade seem to be encountered in animals grazing on summer pasture. We hence propose accommodating these novel isolates in a new genus, Aestipascuomyces (derived from the Latin word for “summer pasture”), and a new species, A. dupliciliberatus. The type strain is Aestipascuomyces dupliciliberatus strain R4.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0696.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Beauveria bassiana; cuticle degrading enzymes; entomopathogenic fungi; pathogenesis; virulence
Online: 29 September 2020 (08:57:33 CEST)
Intensive crop production and extensive use of harmful synthetic chemical pesticides create numerous socio-economic problems worldwide. Therefore, sustainable solutions are needed for insect pest control, such as biological control agents. The fungal insect pathogen Beauveria bassiana has shown considerable potential as a biological control agent against a broad range of insects. The insights into virulence mechanism of B. bassiana is essential to show the robustness of its use. B. bassiana has several determinants of virulence, including the production of cuticle-degrading enzymes (CDEs), such as proteases, chitinases, and lipases. CDEs are essential in the infection process as they hydrolyze the significant components of the insect's cuticle. Moreover, B. bassiana has evolved effective antioxidant mechanisms that include enzyme families that act as ROS scavengers, e.g., superoxide dismutases, catalases, peroxidases, and thioredoxins. In B. bassiana, the number of CDEs and antioxidant enzymes characterized in recent years. The enzymatic activities are crucial for the biological control potential and significantly advanced our understanding of the infection mechanism of B. bassiana. This review focuses on the progress detailed in the studies of these enzymes and provides an overview of enzymatic activities and their contributions to virulence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0417.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: schizophrenia; stress; drug policy; environment; contaminants; pesticides; fungi; prohibition
Online: 18 September 2020 (04:21:43 CEST)
Background: Most modern studies about human marijuana use have been made under a set of arbitrary cultural standards and policies not related to drug harm potential, loosely called Prohibition. Here we asked if potential health hazards generated by Prohibition are addressed in research design and analysis. Methods: For this, we have searched PubMed database (from inception to December 2017) for citations of prevalent contaminants of illegal street cannabis: fungi and pesticides. In addition, we performed full text evaluation of 23 studies selected from, and including, 2 meta-analysis reviews investigating potential health hazards from cannabis use. Results: Different combinations of the keywords cannabis, prohibition, pesticides, fungi, contaminants, cancer, schizophrenia, psychosis, show that these words coincide in less than 1% of the cannabis human studies within the database. In the scope of 141 abstracts in which the terms, cannabis and pesticides coincide, none is directed to distinguish cannabis and pesticide adverse effects on CNS. A similar picture emerges when fungi is the paired word. Full text evaluation shows that all but one of the studies analyzed, completely neglect or comment on the nature of cannabis source, legal status, or contamination as a confounding factor. Discussion: Our results show a potential bias on scientific investigation that may affect data reliability in informing about the health hazards of cannabis use. This finding suggests that other aspects of the Prohibition environment may also go unacknowledged. Conclusion: Prohibition related health risks usually go unacknowledged and unaccounted for in biomedical research on Cannabis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0494.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: bioethanol; cassava peels; substrate; onsite enzyme; optimization; cassava-degrading fungi
Online: 8 November 2023 (03:38:38 CET)
In light of the hazardous effects of global warming brought on by climate change, bioethanol production is one of the key alternatives in which the world has expressed a great deal of interest. Two factors—indigenous production and price—are crucial for bioethanol to be appealing in Africa and, for that matter, Ghana. The objective of this research is to produce bioethanol from cheap lignocellulosic materials using onsite enzymes produced from cassava peels degrading fungi. Due to Ghana's prominent position as one of the leading cassava producers in the world, the study focused on utilizing cassava peels, which are underutilized in the country. The research was conducted in multiple stages. In the first stage, the peels were prepared by washing, drying, and manually crushing them using mortar and pestle. The second stage involved analyzing the chemical composition of the peels, including starch and insoluble fibre, which were determined as Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), and Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL). The results showed significant levels of cellulose (39.78%) and starch (31.21%), indicating that cassava peels are valuable raw materials for bioethanol production. The content of hemicellulose (21.11%) and lignin (3.84%) were also determined. In the third stage, using a Petri dish, three fungi (ICPF1, ICPF2, and ICPF3) were isolated from two different cassava peels. ICPF1 was only identified from fresh cassava peels (FCP), while all three fungi were identified from decayed cassava peels (DCP). Morphologically, these fungi were identified as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, and Rhizopus stolonifer. The fourth stage focused on optimizing the enzyme activity of the three isolates for potential applications, with A. niger demonstrating the highest enzyme activity with a diameter of zone of clearance of 16 mm. Stage five involved optimizing the production of the onsite enzyme in a 50ml flask using A. niger, basal salt medium (BSM), and cassava peels as a substrate. The DNSA method was used to measure the absorbance of maltose and glucose at 540 nm for various substrate concentrations (1%, 3%, 5%, 8%, and 10%) at specific intervals of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 days with a spore concentration of 2.1 x 105 cells/ml. The maltose and glucose concentrations were calculated as 7.138mg/ml and 6.398 mg/ml, respectively, and the corresponding enzyme activity was determined as 4.759U/ml and 4.265U/ml. The optimal conditions of Day 4 and a substrate concentration of 10%, along with a fixed temperature of 30°C and a pH of 5.5, were used to prepare the onsite enzymes in a 500 ml flask for the fermentation process. The onsite enzymes were used for saccharification and Saccharomyces cerevisiae for fermentation under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. A mixture of 20 ml of onsite enzymes and 1.5 g of S. cerevisiae were added to substrate concentrations of 5%, 10%, and 20%, and the ethanol concentration was analyzed daily for 7 days using Gas Chromatography (GC). The highest ethanol concentration (1.316%) was observed on Day 5 with a substrate concentration of 20%, while the lowest concentration (0.123%) was recorded on Day 1 with a substrate concentration of 5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1928.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Aphelida; fungi; holomycota; osmotrophy; MFS-proteins; evolution; genome; sugar porters
Online: 28 July 2023 (03:24:13 CEST)
Aphelids are a holomycotan group, represented exclusively by parasitoids infecting algae. They form a sister lineage to Fungi in the phylogenetic tree and represent a key group for reconstruction of the evolution of Holomycota and for analysis of the origin of Fungi. The newly assembled genome of Aphelidium insullamus (Holomycota, Aphelida) with a total length of 18.9Mb, 7820 protein-coding genes and a GC percentage of 52.05% was obtained by a hybrid assembly based on Oxford Nanopore long reads and Illumina paired reads. In order to trace the origin and the evolution of fungal osmotrophy and its presence or absence in Aphelida, we analyzed the set of main fungal transmembrane transporters, which are proteins of the Major Facilitator superfamily (MFS), in the predicted aphelid proteomes. This search has shown an absence of a specific fungal protein family Drug:H+ antiporters-2 (DAH-2) and specific fungal orthologs of the sugar porters (SP) family, and the presence of common opisthokont's orthologs of the SP family in four aphelid genomes. The repertoire of SP orthologs in aphelids turned out to be less diverse than in free-living opisthokonts, and one of the most limited among opisthokonts. We argue that aphelids do not show signs of similarity with fungi in terms of their osmotrophic abilities, despite the sister relationships of these groups. Moreover, the osmotrophic abilities of aphelids appear to be reduced in comparison with free-living unicellular opisthokonts. Therefore, we assume that the evolution of fungi-specific traits began after the separation of fungal and aphelid lineages, and there are no essential reasons to consider aphelids as a prototype of the fungal ancestor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1515.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: 6 new taxa; ascomycetes; asexual morph; filamentous fungi; phylogeny; taxonomy
Online: 21 June 2023 (09:44:52 CEST)
Helicosporous hyphomycetes is a class of filamentous fungi that shows promising application prospects in metabolizing bioactive natural compounds. During a study of helicosporous fungi in China, six new helicosporous taxa were collected and isolated from decaying wood in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Morphological comparisons with multi-gene phylogenetic analyses revealed that these six taxa belong to Helicosporium (Tubeufiaceae, Tubeufiales), and they can be recognized as three novel species, named Helicosporium liuzhouense, H. multidentatum and H. nanningense. Detailed descriptions and illustrations of the newly discovered taxa and comparisons with similar fungi are provided. In addition, a list and a key to accepted Helicosporium species are provided.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0586.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Nanotechnology; Pest management; Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles; Entomopathogenic fungi; Toxicity mechanism
Online: 9 May 2023 (07:46:55 CEST)
Citation: To be added by editorial staff during production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1252.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: windthrow; organic Carbon; dehydrogenase activity; number of fungi; natural regeneration
Online: 30 April 2023 (03:45:06 CEST)
Windthrows in the forestry fund, which have become more frequent due to the increase in extreme weather events, have had and continue to have negative economic and ecological effects, making them a pressing issue in forestry research. Their urgency has been amplified in light of the need to develop sustainable forest management systems. The main objectives of this study are to evaluate the effects of windthrows on some microbiological properties of forest soils and to monitor the evolution of the degraded tree regeneration, 4 years after the event, for three tree species: Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), sessile oak (Quercus petraea), and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). The experimental plot used is arranged in dispersed blocks and subdivided plots, with three repetitions, bifactorial, factor A representing the tree species, and factor B the windthrows: in two situations: affected (AW) and not affected by felling (WW). Three representative soil profiles were studied for each tree species, including dehydrogenase activity (DA) and the number of fungi (NF) in the organic horizon at the soil surface. Dehydrogenase activity was determined by the extraction of triphenylformazan, and NF was evaluated using the Plate Count Method (Petri plates) and the Sabouraud Agar culture medium. The values of Current Dehydrogenase Activity (CDA) and Potential Dehydrogenase Activity (PDA) did not show significant statistical differences in relation to the windthrow factor, but were distinctly significant (p < 0.01) for the tree species factor. On the other hand, NF showed statistical significance for both tree species and windthrows factors, at a level of p < 0.01. Correlations were highlighted between the differences in AW and WW of CDA, PDA, and NF with the number of naturally regenerated seedlings (NRS), and the type of soil. The regressions established between NRS and the differences in CDA and PDA, the dependence of the differences in PDA on the differences in NF, and the regression between the differences in NF and the type of soil demonstrate the importance of soil characteristics in the natural regeneration process of the main tree species - Norway spruce, sessile oak, and European beech. Stimulating NRS in AW forests and increasing the volume of terrestrial organic carbon (TOC) biomass is directly dependent on soil fertility, primarily determined by soil organic carbon (SOC), which accumulates in the soil as a result of organic matter, deposited on the surface. Sustainable forest management of AW plots should stimulate the accumulation of SOC, including the partial or total preservation of dead trees, provided that the attack of specific diseases and pests is avoided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1040.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: honey bee; nosemosis; Nosema ceranae; Apis mellifera; entomopathogenic fungi; metabolite
Online: 27 April 2023 (04:43:22 CEST)
This study aimed to select the most effective metabolites for controlling honey bee nosemosis using culture extracts from 342 entomopathogenic fungi of 24 species from 18 genera. The germination inhibitory activity of the fungal culture extract against Nosema ceranae spores was evaluated using an in vitro germination assay method. Among 89 fungal culture extracts showing germination inhibitory activity of approximately 80% or more, 44 culture extracts that maintained their inhibitory activity even at a concentration of 1% were selected. Finally, the honey bee nosemosis inhibitory activity was evaluated using the cultured extracts of 5 fungal isolates having a Nosema inhibitory activity of approximately 60% or more even when the extract was removed after treatment. As a result, the proliferation of Nosema spores was reduced by all fungal culture extract treatments. However, only the treatment of the culture extracts from Paecilomyces marquandii 364 and Pochonia bulbillosa 60 showed a reduction in honey bee mortality due to nosemosis. In particular, the extracts of these two fungal isolates also increased the survival of honey bees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0661.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Olive mill wastewater; antifungal activity; phytopathogenic fungi; phenolic compounds; storage
Online: 21 April 2023 (03:01:05 CEST)
Olive mill wastewater (OMW) has serious environmental problems considering its high organic matter, especially its phenolic compounds. The OMW application in crop protection is an alternative environmentally eco-friendly method reducing the chemicals pesticides impact on human health and environment. The present work aimed to study the antifungal activity of fresh and stored OMW and its ethyl acetate extract against phytopathogenic fungi: Syncephalastrum racemosum (S. racemosum), Paramyrothecium roridum (P. roridum), Fusarium oxysporum (F. oxysporum) and Verticilium dahlia (V. dahlia). The OMW was stored at 25 and 45 °C for 3 months. Fresh and stored OMW were used non-sterile, sterile and centrifuged. Phenolic and flavonoid compounds were extracted and identified by HPLC analysis. High inhibition of studied fungi was shown by fresh OMW and its derivative compounds, while OMW storage, sterilization, and centrifugation increased mycelium growth of studied fungi, especially S. racemosum that showed a relative resistance against stored OMW effect and its ethyl acetate extract. Under storage conditions, some phenolic and flavonoid compounds disappeared (resorcinol and vanillic acid), while the concentration of other compounds increased (gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and quercetin). This work highlighted the ability to use fresh OMW as a bio-agent to protect plants from fungi diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0094.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Beauveria bassiana; Biological control; Entomopathogenic fungi; Spodoptera frugiperda; Zea mays
Online: 5 January 2021 (13:48:53 CET)
Spodoptera frugiperda is a widely distributed insect pest that causes major economic losses in various crops, particularly maize. On the other hand, Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogenic fungus that establishes symbiotic associations with many plants and contributes to tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present work, under field conditions, 1x106 (first trial) and 1x10⁸ (second trial) of B. bassiana (GHA strain) blastospores were used for corn’s seed inoculation. In the first field trial, a higher number of larvae were present in the negative control plants in comparison with those in B. bassiana-treated plants. No larvae were found in negative control and B. bassiana-treated plants in the second field trial. In further laboratory experiments, the effects of the B. bassiana strains GHA, in addition to a native strain (PTG4) also delivered via seed treatment in maize seedlings, on S. frugiperda growth, development, and mortality were evaluated. 1x10⁶ B. bassiana blastospores were used to inoculate maize seeds, which were germinated and grown to seedlings under growth chamber conditions. Third-instar S. frugiperda larvae were allowed to feed on B. bassiana-treated and -untreated (negative control) seedlings until reaching 6th instar and transferred to artificial diet until reaching adult stage. Results showed that larvae feeding on B. bassiana strain PTG4 prolonged their larval stage. Furthermore, feeding with plants treated with B. bassiana strains yielded fewer S. frugiperda male moths and the female moths emerged with altered wings, compared with the untreated control. In conclusion, seed treatment with B. bassiana in maize reduced S. frugiperda infestation of maize plants in field trials. Besides S. frugiperda development was affected in laboratory trials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0681.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Fungi; oomycetes; resistance; susceptibility; molecular mechanisms; quantitative trait loci; mapping
Online: 28 December 2020 (11:12:35 CET)
Root rot diseases remain a major global threat to the productivity of agricultural crops. They are usually caused by more than one type of pathogen and are thus often referred to as a root rot complex. Fungal and oomycete species are the predominant participants in the complex, while bacteria and viruses are also known to cause root rot. Incorporating genetic resistance in cultivated crops is considered as the most efficient and sustainable solution to counter root rot; however, resistance is often quantitative in nature. Several genetics studies in various crops have identified quantitative trait loci associated with resistance. With access to whole genome sequences, the identity of the genes within the reported loci is becoming available. Several of the identified genes have been implicated in pathogen response. However, it is becoming apparent that at the molecular level, each pathogen engages a unique set of proteins to either infest the host successfully or be defeated or contained in doing so. In this review, a comprehensive summary of the genes and potential mechanisms underlying resistance or susceptibility against the most investigated root rots of important agricultural crops is presented.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0379.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: hormone; quorum sensing; receptor; bacteria; fungi; metazoa; plants; microbiota; evolution
Online: 25 September 2020 (10:40:10 CEST)
Cellular communications play pivotal roles in multi-cellular species, but they do so also in uni-cellular species. Moreover, cells communicate with each other not only within the same individual but also with cells in other individuals belonging to the same or other species. These communications occur between two unicellular species, two multicellular species, or between unicellular and multicellular species. The molecular mechanisms involved exhibit diversity and specificity, but they share common basic features which allow common pathways of communication between different, and sometimes very different species. These interactions have been made possible by the high degree of conservation of the basic molecular mechanisms of interaction of many ligand-receptor pairs in evolutionary remote species. These inter-species cellular communications played crucial roles during Evolution and must have been positively selected, particularly when collectively beneficial in hostile environments. We think that communications between cells did not arise after their emergence but was part of the very nature of first cells. Synchronization of populations of non-living protocells through chemical communications may have been a mandatory step towards their emergence as populations of living cells and explain the large commonality of cell communication mechanisms among microorganisms, plants, and animals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0333.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Insects, Forest, Fungi, ITS1, metagenomics, NGS, Oomycete, Phytopathogens, Phytophthora, vectors
Online: 15 October 2018 (18:52:27 CEST)
Understanding ecological interactions is a key in managing phytopathology. Although entomologists rely mostly on both traditional molecular methods and morphological characteristics to identify pests, next-generation sequencing is becoming the go-to avenue for scientists studying fungal and oomycete phytopathogens. These organisms sometimes infect plants together with insects. There are many relationships yet to be discovered and much to learn about how these organisms interact with one another. Considering the growing number of exotic insect introductions in Canada, a high-throughput strategy for screening those insects is already implemented by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). However, no plan is deployed to investigate the phytopathogenic fungal and oomycete species interacting with insects. Metagenomics analysis was performed on the preservation fluids from CFIA’s insect traps across Canada. Using the Ion Torrent PGM technology and fusion primers for multiplexing and indexing, community profiling was conducted on the different semiochemicals used in the insect traps and the various areas where these traps were placed. Internal transcribed spacer 1 (fungi and oomycetes) and adenosine triphosphate synthase subunit 9-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 9 spacer amplicons were generated. Although direct links between organisms could not be established, moderately phytopathogenic fungi (e.g., Leptographium spp. and Meria laricis) and oomycetes (mainly Peronospora spp. and Pythium spp.) unique to every type of semiochemical were discovered. The entomopathogenic yeast Candida michaelii was also detected. This project demonstrated our ability to screen for unwanted species faster and at a higher scale and throughput than traditional pathogen diagnostic techniques. Additionally, minimal modifications to this approach would allow it to be used in other phytopathology fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0199.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: amplicon-based metagenomics; Maritime Antarctica; microbial domains antagonism; Archaea; Fungi; Bacteria
Online: 5 October 2023 (14:35:52 CEST)
Within an amplicon-based metagenomic study of Archaea, Fungi, and Bacteria in Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctica, in many of the samples antagonisms between these three super kingdoms were observed under the form of an inversely proportional dependence of the richnesses of the three types of microorganisms. This was quantified - based on the observed numbers of the total tags and the numbers of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs), as well as based on four alpha diversity parameters – the Shannon, the Simpson, the Chao1, and the ACE indices. We found that the most discriminative results in the antagonism measuring were observed in the comparison of the numbers of the OTUs and the ACE community richness estimator. The antagonism between Archaea and Fungi was strongest, followed by that of Archaea and Bacteria. The Fungi-Bacteria antagonism was slightly detectable. Pearson and Spearman correlation analysis also showed a statistically significant negative correlation between the fungal and archaeal effective tags, while the correlation between archaeal and bacterial diversity was positive. Indications of the order of primary microbial succession in barren ecological niches were also observed, demonstrating that Archaea and Bacteria are the pioneers, followed by Fungi which in time would displace Archaea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0520.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Edible mushrooms; Fungi; Plant-based protein; Chickpea; Sensory attributes; Alternative meat
Online: 8 May 2023 (10:35:20 CEST)
A growing number of health conscious consumers are looking for animal protein alternatives with similar texture, appearance, and flavor. There has been a lot of interest in meat analogs as potential meat substitutes. However, research and development still needs to find any alternative non-meat materials. The objective of the current research was to develop fungi minced meat alternative (FMMA) from edible mushrooms. Pleurotus Sajor-caju (SC) was used as the starting material. SC mushroom was selected for starting materials based on high protein content (41.99%.) and sensory attributes. Chickpea flour was used to improve the textural properties by mixing with SC mushroom at a ratio of 0:50, 12.5:37.5, 25:25, 37.5:12.5, and 50:0 (w/w). Textural and sensory attributes suggest that SC mushroom to chickpea at a ratio of 37.5:12.5, shows higher acceptability of FMMA with the protein content up to 47%. Beetroot extract 0.2% (w/w), and 5% (w/w) canola oil showed the most acceptable color parameters and consumer acceptability. This research suggested that SC mushroom with 12.5% chickpea flour, 0.2% beetroot extract and 5% canola oil could be suitable ingredients for the mushroom-based FMMA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0563.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Prunus dulcis; almond agroecosystem; sustainable management; metabarcoding; phytopathogenic fungi; organic farming.
Online: 29 December 2022 (15:04:13 CET)
A comparative study of organic and conventional farming systems was conducted in almond orchards to determine the effect of management practices on their fungal and bacterial communities. Soils from two orchards under organic (OM) and conventional (CM), and nearby nonmanaged soil (NM) were analyzed and compared. Several biochemical and biological parameters were measured (soil pH, electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, organic material, total phosphorous, total DNA, and fungal and bacterial DNA copies). Massive parallel sequencing of regions from fungal ITS rRNA and bacterial 16S genes was done to characterize their diversity in the soil. We report a larger abundance of bacteria and fungi in soils under OM, with a more balanced fungi:bacteria ratio, compared to bacteria-skewed proportions under CM and NM. The fungal phylum Ascomycota corresponded to around the 75% relative abundance in the soil, whereas for bacteria, the phyla Proteobacteria, Acidobacteriota and Bacteroidota integrated around 50% of their diversity. Alpha diversity was similar across practices, but beta diversity was highly clustered by soil management. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSE) identified bacterial and fungal taxa associated to each type of soil management. Analyses of fungal functional guilds revealed 3-4 times larger abundance of pathogenic fungi under CM compared to OM and NM treatments. Among them, the genus Cylindrocarpon was more abundant under CM and Fusarium under OM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0155.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Nitrate; Potassium; Necrotrophic fungi; Plant – Pathogen relation; CBL/CIPK; Jasmonic Acid
Online: 11 October 2022 (10:48:52 CEST)
In this opinion article, we have analyzed the relevancy of a hypothesis which is based on the idea that in Arabidopsis thaliana jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated defense system against necrotrophic fungi is weakened when NO3- supply is high. Such hypothesis is based on the fact that when NO3- supply is high, it induces an increase in the amount of bioactive ABA which induces the sequestration of the phosphatase ABI2 (PP2C) into the PYR/PYL/RCAR receptor. Consequently, the Ca sensors CBL1/9 - CIPK23 are not dephosphorylated by ABI2, thus remaining able to phosphorylate targets such as AtNPF6.3 and AtKAT1, a NO3- and K+ transporters respectively. Therefore, the impact of phosphorylation on the regulation of these two transporters, could 1) reduce NO3- influx as in its phosphorylated state AtNPF6.3 shifts to low capacity state and 2) increase K+ influx, as in its phosphorylated state KAT1 becomes more active. It is also well known that in the roots K+ loading in the xylem and its transport to the shoot is activated in the presence of NO3-. As such, the enrichment of plant tissues in K+ can impair jasmonic acid (JA) regulatory pathway and the induction of the corresponding biomarkers. The latter are known to be up-regulated under K+ deficiency and inhibited when K+ is resupplied. We therefore suggest that increased K+ uptake and tissue content induced by high NO3- supply modifies JA regulatory pathway, resulting in weakened JA-mediated plant’s defense system against necrotrophic fungi.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0266.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Mycotoxins; Agricultural Practices; Mycotoxigenic Fungi; Fusarium; Oats; Cereals; Statistical Analysis; Agronomic
Online: 19 October 2021 (10:18:56 CEST)
Seven agronomic factors (crop season, farming system, harvest date, moisture, county, oat variety, and previous crop) were recorded for 202 oat crops grown across Ireland, and samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS for four major Fusarium mycotoxins: deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin. Type A trichothecenes were present in 62% of crops, with 7.4% exceeding European regulatory limits. DON (6.4%) and ZEN (9.9%) occurrences were rela-tively infrequent, though one and three samples were measured over their set limits respectively. Overall, the type of farming system and the previous crop were the main factors identified to significantly influence mycotoxin prevalence or concentration. Particularly, adherence to an organic farming system and growing oats after a previous crop of grass were found to decrease contamination by type A trichothecenes. These are important findings and may provide valuable insights for many other types of cereals crops as Europe moves towards a much greater organic based food system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0026.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Halotolerant/halophilic fungi; Hortaea werneckii; Wallemia ichthyophaga; HOG signal transduction Pathway
Online: 1 October 2021 (14:52:54 CEST)
Sensing and responding to changes in NaCl concentration in hypersaline environments is vital for cell survival. We have identified and characterized key components of the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signal transduction pathway, which is crucial in sensing hypersaline conditions in the extremely halotolerant black yeast Hortaea werneckii and in the obligate halophilic fungus Wallemia ichthyophaga. Both organisms were isolated from solar salterns, their predominating ecological niche. The identified components included homologous proteins of both branches involved in sensing high osmolarity (SHO1 and SLN1) and the homologues of mitogen-activated protein kinase module (MAPKKK Ste11, MAPKK Pbs2, and MAPK Hog1). Functional complementation of the identified gene products in S. cerevisiae mutant strains revealed some of their functions. Structural protein analysis demonstrated important structural differences in the HOG pathway components between halotolerant/halophilic fungi isolated from solar salterns, salt-sensitive S. cerevisiae, the extremely salt-tolerant H. werneckii, and halophilic W. ichthyophaga. Known and novel gene targets of MAP kinase Hog1 were uncovered particularly in halotolerant H. werneckii. Molecular studies of many salt-responsive proteins confirm unique and novel mechanisms of adaptation to changes in salt concentration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0119.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Endophytic fungi, Leptosphaerulina chartarum; Curvularia trifolii; mitogenomes; gene content; phylogenetic implications
Online: 8 July 2019 (12:44:35 CEST)
In tobacco plants, symbiont endophytic fungi are widely distributed in all tissues where they play important roles. It is therefore important to determine the species distribution and characteristics of endophytic fungi in tobacco. Here, two parasitic fungi Leptosphaerulina chartarum and Curvularia trifolii were isolated and identified from normal tobacco tissue. We sequenced the mitogenomes of these two species and analysed their features, gene content, and evolutionary histories. The L. chartarum and C. trifolii mitochondrial genomes were 68,926 bp and 59,100 bp long circular molecules with average GC contents of 28.60% and 29.31%, respectively. The L. chartarum mitogenome contained 36 protein coding genes, 26 tRNA genes, and 2 rRNA genes (rrnL and rrnS), which were located on both strands. The C. trifolii mitogenome contained 26 protein coding genes, 29 tRNA genes, and 2 rRNA genes (rrnL and rrnS). The L. chartarum 26 tRNAs ranged from 70 bp to 84 bp in length, whereas the 29 tRNAs in C. trifolii ranged from 71 bp to 85 bp. L. chartarum and C. trifolii mtDNAs had an identical mitochondrial gene order and orientation and were phylogenetically identified as sisters. These data therefore provide an understanding of the gene content and evolutionary history of species within Pleosporales.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0055.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antioxidant system; cell wall integrity; chemosensitization; end point; fungi; small molecule
Online: 3 May 2018 (08:32:40 CEST)
Filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus spp. are opportunistic pathogens, which cause highly invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Control of such fungal pathogens is increasingly problematic due to the small number of effective drugs available for treatment. Moreover, the increased incidence of fungal resistance to antifungal agents makes this problem a global human health issue. The cell wall integrity system of fungi is the target of antimycotic drugs echinocandins, such as caspofungin (CAS). However, echinocandins cannot completely inhibit the growth of filamentous fungal pathogens, which results in survival/escape of fungi during treatment. Chemosensitization was developed as an alternative intervention strategy, where co-application of CAS with the intervention catalyst octyl gallate (OG; chemosensitizer) greatly enhanced CAS efficacy, thus achieved ≥ 99.9% elimination of filamentous fungi in vitro. Based on hypersensitive responses of Aspergillus antioxidant mutants to OG, it is hypothesized that, besides destabilizing cell wall integrity, the redox-active characteristic of OG may further debilitate fungal antioxidant system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0605.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: basidiomycetes; non-basidiomycete fungi; cryopreservation; long/short-term storage; liquid nitrogene; cryoprotectant
Online: 8 December 2023 (10:37:30 CET)
Fungi belong to the species with the highest biodiversity and high potential for use in biotechnology and industry. Therefore, their long-term quality conservation is very important and it is necessary to continuously develop new methods and improve existing methods. Currently, cryopreservation appears to be the best available technique for the preservation of fungi. This study summarises the latest trends and advances in fungal cryopreservation over the last 7 years, i.e. findings from scientific publications from 2017 to 2023 dealing with cryopreservation of both basidiomycetes and non-basidiomycete fungi. The work analyzed the studied organisms and the cryopreservation method used, focused on the use of new procedures and modifications of existing methods; summarized the conditions for successful cryopreservation, such as cryopreservation time and temperature, as well as the substrate and cryoprotectant used.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0438.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Food security; aquatic conservation; disease; Sphareothecum destruens; fungi; invasion; outbreaks; healthy carrier
Online: 25 January 2023 (03:36:44 CET)
The emergence of pathogenic fungi is a major and rapidly growing problem (7% increase) that affects human and animal health, ecosystems, food security and the economy worldwide. The Dermocystida group in particular has emerged relatively recently and includes species that affect both humans and animals. Within this group, one species in particular, Sphareothecum destruens, also known as the Rosette agent, represents a major risk to global aquatic biodiversity and aquaculture and has caused severe declines in wild fish populations in Europe and large losses in salmon farms in the USA. It is a species that has been associated with a healthy carrier for millions of years but the host has managed in recent decades to invade parts of Southeast Asia, Central Asia, Europe and North Africa. In order to better understand the emergence of this new disease, we have for the first time synthesised current knowledge on the distribution, detection, prevalence of S. destruens as well as the associated mortality curves, and the potential economic impact in countries where the healthy carrier has been introduced. Finally, we propose solutions and perspectives to manage and mitigate the emergence of this fungus in countries where it has been introduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0393.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: sustainability; entomopathogenic fungi; food security; fertilizer; micronutrients; organic matter; plant growth biostimulants
Online: 25 November 2022 (01:07:55 CET)
Entomopathogenic fungi perform important functions in the ecosystem as natural antagonists of insects, which can be used in agriculture. Interestingly, recent studies showed a significant promotion of tested plants growth in the presence of fungi. We hypothesize that some of various compounds produced by entomopathogenic fungi can positively affect plant development. To test this hypothesis, fungal extracts of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana were prepared at different conditions of temperature and pH. In addition to determination of the ammonium nitrogen content, the composition of extracts was analyzed by elemental ICP-OES. Then, their effect on the wheat germ growth was studied using various extract concentrations. After experiments, tested plants were measured, weighed, and the chlorophyll content was determined. Finally, the impact of extracts on the selected G+ and G- bacteria growth was examined to exclude the possibility of interference with soil microorganisms. The highest length of the wheat shoot was obtained for the use of 10-times diluted extract (10%) at pH 10 obtained at 20°C. In contrast, addition of 10% extract (pH 10) obtained at 75°C resulted in the shortest shoot. Generally, the extracts obtained at 75°C showed phytotoxic properties leading to lower values of shoot length and fresh weight in comparison to the control group. Our preliminary results are the first confirming the potential of fungal water extracts as factors promoting plant growth. Further detailed study should be carried out to confirm the effects in real environment conditions. Also, the consistency of the plant growth stimulation across different entomopathogenic fungi, and agriculturally used plant species should be tested.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0076.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Coccidioides immitis; Coccidioides posadasii; Coccidioidomycosis; vaccine; immunology; fungi; T-cell mediated immunity
Online: 15 December 2016 (07:24:05 CET)
Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever) is a disease caused by inhalation of Coccidioides spp. This neglected tropical disease of the Americas has substantial public health impact despite its geographic restriction to desert areas of the southwestern U.S., Mexico, Central and South America. The incidence of this infection in California and Arizona has been increasing over the past fifteen years. The burden of disease in outside the U.S. remains poorly understood. Several large cities are within the endemic region in the U.S. Coccidioidomycosis accounts for 25,000 hospital admissions per year in California. While most cases of coccidioidomycosis resolve spontaneously, up to 40% are severe enough to require anti-fungal treatment, and a significant number disseminate beyond the lungs. Disseminated infection, especially involving the meninges, is fatal without appropriate treatment. Infection with Coccidioides spp. is protective against a second infection, so vaccination seems biologically plausible. This review of efforts to develop a vaccine against coccidioidomycosis focuses on vaccine approaches and the difficulties in identifying protein antigen/adjuvant combinations that protect in experimental mouse models. Although the quest for a vaccine has not yet resulted in a clinically useful product, scientific efforts of vaccine development pave the way for future success.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1155.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: microbial pest control; entomopathogenic fungi; Metarhizium brunneum; Beauveria bassiana; Red Palm Weevil; Prevention
Online: 17 November 2023 (11:49:13 CET)
The red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus is highly destructive invasive pest for palms whose management is mainly by application of synthetic pesticides. Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) have been primarily studied as a preventative control measure due to the horizontal transfer of conidia within the RPW population. We previously demonstrated the horizontal transmission of fungal conidia from an egg-laying surface to the female weevil and then to the eggs and larvae. Based on that strategy, this study aimed to evaluate the virulence of commercial EPF products and laboratory EPF preparations to RPW females and their progeny and their ability to protect palms against infestation. As such, it serves as a screening platform for field experiments. Mortality rates of females and eggs depended on the applied treatment formulation and fungal strain. Velifer®, a Beauveria bassiana product, and Metarhizium brunneum (Mb7) resulted in 60–88% female mortality. Mb7—as a conidial suspension or powder—resulted in 18–21% egg-hatching rates, approximately 3 times less than in the non-treated control. Treating palms with Mb7 significantly inhibits infestation signs and results in 75% and 100% protection, respectively. These results lay the foundation for investigating the protective rate of EPF products against RPW in date plantations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1743.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: filamentous fungi; Coffea arabica var. Costa Rica; Phosphorous; Penicillium brevicompactum; coffee bean production
Online: 26 July 2023 (08:50:32 CEST)
The use of phosphate-solubilizing fungi in coffee cultivation is an alternative with which to reduce the use of fertilizers. The objective of this study was to analyze the mechanisms involved in the phosphorus solubilization of the fungal strains and to evaluate the effect of a phosphate-solubilizing strain on the coffee plants. For this, phosphorus-solubilizing fungal strains were selected for evaluation of their solubilization potential and phosphatase activity. Coffee plants were inoculated in the field with a phosphate solubilizing strain, and soil and foliar soluble phosphorus, as well as coffee bean yield, were quantified. Of the 151 strains analyzed, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium waksmanii, and Penicillium brevicompactum showed the highest solubilization. Aspergillus niger and P. waksmanii presented the highest soluble phosphorus values; however, P. brevicompactum showed the highest phosphatase activity. The P. brevicompactum strain inoculated on the coffee plants did not favor foliar phosphorus content but increased the soil soluble phosphorus content in two of the coffee plantations. The plants inoculated with the phosphate solubilizing strain showed an increase in coffee bean weight on all plantations, although this increase was only significant in two of the three selected coffee plantations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0335.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: digestibility; goat; growth performance; rice stubble; urea; value-added product; white-rod fungi
Online: 12 March 2021 (08:44:38 CET)
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fungal treatment (Pleurotus ostreatus) of urea-treated rice stubble on growth performance in slow-growing goats. Eighteen crossbred Thai native x Anglo-Nubian male goats (average body weight: 20.4 ± 2.0 kg) were randomly assigned to three experimental total mixed rations containing 35% rice stubble (RS) that was either untreated (URS), urea treated (UTRS) or treated with urea and fungi (UFTRS). URS and UTRS were cultivated and harvested from aseptically fungal spawn, incubated at 25-30 °C for 25 days. Indicators of growth performance were monitored and faeces were collected quantitatively to assess nutrient digestibility, during a 12-week feeding trial. All goats remained healthy throughout experiment. The goats fed UFTRS had a lower feed conversion ratio (kg feed/kg growth) compared to goats fed URS or UTRS. Compared to URS, dietary UFTRS increased nutrient digestibility of slow-growing goats, such as OM (+8.5%), CP (+5.5%), NDF (+39.2%), and ADF (+27.4%). Likewise, dietary UFTRS tended to increase rumen ammonia concentrations but rumen pH and volatile fatty acids were not affected by UFTRS. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the fungal treatment of RS is an effective tool to improve the growth performance of slow-growing goats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0287.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Paleontology Keywords: Gunflint Chert; stromatolites; black chert; origin of eukaryotes; evolution of fungi; Precambrian microfossils
Online: 26 September 2019 (00:48:56 CEST)
We report here a giant microfossil resembling the conidium of an ascomycete fungus (cf. Alternaria alternata). The specimen is preserved in stromatolitic black chert of the Gunflint Iron Formation (Paleoproterozoic Eon, Orosirian Period, ca. 1.9-2.0 Ga) of southern Ontario, Canada, and the rock that provided the thin section may have been collected by Elso Barghoorn as part of the original discovery of the Gunflint microbiota. The large size of the fossil sets it apart from other, tiny by comparison, Gunflint microfossils. The fossil is 200 microns in length and has cross walls. Individual cells are 30-46 microns in greatest dimension. The apical ‘spore’ is cap-shaped, and has partly separated from the rest of the structure. Cloulicaria gunflintensis gen. nov. sp. nov. may provide early evidence for eukaryotes (fungi) in the fossil record, and may also represent the earliest evidence for asexual reproduction in a eukaryote by means of mitospores.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0156.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Marine microorganisms, marine fungi, algae, marine plants, marine invertebrates, marine vertebrates, genome, metagenome
Online: 12 December 2018 (15:44:09 CET)
With the continuing development of sequencing technology, genomics has been applied in a variety of biological research areas. In particular, the application of genomics to marine species, which boast a high diversity, promises great scientific and industrial potential. Significant progress has been made in marine genomics especially over the past few years. Consequently, BGI, leveraging its prominent contributions in genomics research, established BGI-Qingdao, an institute specifically aimed at exploring marine genomics. In order to accelerate marine genomics research and related applications, BGI-Qingdao initiated the International Conference on Genomics of the Ocean (ICG-Ocean) to develop international collaborations and establish a focused and coherent global research plan. Last year, the first ICG-Ocean conference was held in Qingdao, China, during which 47 scientists in marine genomics from all over the world reported on their research progress to an audience of about 300 attendees. This year, we would like to build on that success, drafting a report on marine genomics to draw global attention to marine genomics. We summarized the recent progress, proposed future directions, and we would like to enable additional profound insights on marine genomics. Similar to the annual report on plant and fungal research by Kew Gardens, and the White Paper of ethical issues on experimental animals, we hope our first report on marine genomics can provide some useful insights for researchers, funding agencies as well as industry, and that future versions will expand upon the foundation established here in both breadth and depth of knowledge.This report summarizes the recent progress in marine genomics in six parts including: marine microorganisms, marine fungi, marine algae and plants, marine invertebrates, marine vertebrates and genomics-based applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0581.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Frankliniella occidentalis; Lygus hesperus; Trialeurodes vaporariorum; Tetranychus urticae; entomopathogenic fungi; integrated pest management
Online: 29 September 2018 (05:33:45 CEST)
The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae and the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus are major arthropod pests of strawberries in California. Other important insect pests include the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum and the western flower thrips, Frankliella occidentalis. Chemical pesticides play a major role in managing these pests, but not without the associated risk of pesticide resistance and environmental safety. Two field studies were conducted in Santa Maria to evaluate the potential of botanical and microbial pesticides in the integrated pest management (IPM) of strawberry. Chemical, botanical, and microbial pesticides were evaluated against T. urticae in a small plot study in 2013 and against L. hesperus and other insect pests in a large plot study in 2015 in commercial strawberry fields. Bug vacuums were also used in the 2015 study. Results demonstrated that non-chemical alternatives can play an important role in strawberry IPM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0216.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: 18S rRNA; fungi; mycobiome; carcinoma; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing; microbiome; mouth; squamous cell
Online: 30 March 2017 (05:37:37 CEST)
Background: Studies employing next-generation sequencing (NGS) show that the oral fungal community (mycobiome) is far more complex than hitherto thought. However, the role of the oral mycobiome in health and disease, including oral carcinogenesis, has not been explored. Objective: To characterize the mycobiome associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods: Tissue biopsies [cases: 25 OSCC; controls: 27 intra-oral fibro-epithelial polyp (FEP)] were collected from oral and maxillofacial units in Sri Lanka. Total DNA was extracted and subjected to sequencing of the fungal ITS2 region using Illumina’s 2x300 bp chemistry. High quality, non-chimeric merged reads were classified to species level using a BLASTN-algorithm with UNITE’s named species sequences as reference. Downstream analyses were performed using QIIME and LEfSe. Results: 364 species representing 160 genera and 2 phyla (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) were identified, with Candida and Malassezia making up 48% and 11% of the average mycobiome, respectively. However, only 5 species and 4 genera were detected in ≥50% of the samples. The species richness and diversity were significantly lower in OSCC. At the genus level, Candida, Hannaella and Gibberella were overrepresented in OSCC while Alternaria and Trametes were more abundant in FEP. Species-wise, C. albicans, C. etchellsii and Hannaella luteola-like species were enriched in OSCC while Malassezia restricta, Aspergillus tamarii, Alternaria alternate, Cladosporium halotolerans, and Hanseniaspora uvarum-like species were the most significantly abundant in FEP. Conclusions: A dysbiotic mycobiome dominated by C. albicans was found in association with OSCC. Whether this dysbiosis plays a role in oral carcinogenesis warrants further investigation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0086.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Ceratonia siliqua; powdery mildew; Cercospora leaf spot; wood decay fungi; Xylosandrus compactus-Fusarium solani.
Online: 3 October 2023 (05:37:25 CEST)
Main pathogens affecting carob (Ceratonia siliqua) tree in the Mediterranean basin are described in this overview. The most widespread diseases periodically occurring on carob orchards are powdery mildew (Pseudoidium ceratoniae) and cercospora leaf spot (Pseudocercospora ceratoniae). The causal agents of so-called “black leaf spots” (e.g. Pestaliotiopsis, Phyllosticta and Septoria spp.) are responsible for similar symptoms to above mentioned foliar diseases but are reported on carob orchards with a negligible frequency. Likewise, canker and branch diebacks caused by fungal species belonging to Botryosphaeriaceae are almost never recorded. Among wood diseases that may compromise old or previously damaged carob specimens, “brown cubical heart rot” caused by Laetiporus sulphureus is the most widespread and recurrent issue; this pathogen is also well-known for edible fruit bodies that are also appreciated for pharmaceutical and industrial purposes. On the other hand, “white decays” caused by Fomes and Ganoderma species are less common and reported for the first time in this review. Like-gall protuberances on twigs at uncertain aetiology or tumours on branches associated to Rhyzobium radiobacter are described although these symptoms are seldom detected as it happens also for necrotic leaf spots caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. ciccaronei. A list of worldwide pathogens not yet recorded but at high-risk potential of introduction in Italian carob producing area is also provided. Finally, some concerns are addressed to new phytopathogenic fungi vectored by invasive Xylosandrus compactus ambrosia beetle. Comprehensively, all described pathogens could potentially in near future become limiting factors for carob production, because they could be favoured by high-density orchards, increasing global network of trade exchanges and high frequency through which extreme events of climate changes globally occur. Thus, symptoms and signs, causal agents, epidemiology and whenever applicable recommendations for disease prevention and management are provided in this review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0113.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Entomopathogenic fungi; Growth promoters; Nutrient Solubilization; Bioavailability; Iron acquisi-tion genes; ferric reductase activity
Online: 7 February 2023 (02:54:53 CET)
Endophytic insect pathogenic fungi have a multifunctional lifestyle; in addition to its well-known function as biocontrol agents, it may also help plants respond to other biotic and abiotic stresses, such as iron (Fe) deficiency. This study explores M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su strain attributes for Fe acquisition. Firstly, direct attributes include siderophore exudation (in vitro assay) and Fe content in shoots and in the substrate (in vivo assay) were evaluated for three strains of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium bruneum. The M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su strain showed a great ability to exudate iron siderophores (58.4% surface siderophores exudation) and provided higher Fe content in both dry matter and substrate compared to the control and was therefore selected for further research to unravel the possible induction of Fe deficiency responses, Ferric Reductase Activity (FRA), and relative expression of Fe acquisition genes by qRT-PCR in melon and cucumber plants.. In addi-tion, root priming by M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su strain elicited Fe deficiency responses at transcriptional level. Our results show an early up-regulation (24, 48 or 72 h post inoculation) of the Fe acquisition genes FRO1, FRO2, IRT1, HA1, and FIT as well as the FRA. These results highlight the mechanisms involved in the Fe acquisition as mediated by IPF M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su strain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1304.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Celtis sinensis; Alternaria alternata; Alternaria koreana; fungi; identification; fungicides
Online: 21 November 2023 (09:39:54 CET)
Celtis sinensis is an adaptable species that is widely grown in southern China. In June 2022, a leaf blotch disease of C. sinensis was observed in Nanjing, Jiangsu, China. Based on morphological characterization, three isolates were identified as Alternaria species. Phylogenetic analysis of combined ITS, GAPDH, TEF1-α, RPB2 and Alt a 1 sequences identified the three isolates we obtained as Alternaria alternata and Alternaria koreana. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled in the greenhouse, and the pathogenicity of A. alternata and A. koreana was determined by leaf inoculation tests on C. sinensis seedlings. The symptoms of indoor inoculation were consistent with those in the field. A. alternata and A. koreana can grow at 15-35 °C, with an optimal growth temperature of 25 °C. The results of fungicide sensitivity experiments indicated that A. alternata and A. koreana were the most sensitive to prochloraz, which may be a useful strategy for the future prevention and control management of A. alternata and A. koreana. This study provides the first step for further research on A. alternata and A. koreana as pathogens of C. sinensis and provides a theoretical basis for future control strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0090.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: alpine forest gap; freeze-thaw cycle; fungi to bacteria ratio; snow cover depth; total phenol
Online: 8 October 2019 (10:57:01 CEST)
Alpine forest gaps can distribute snowfall, solar radiation and rainfall, thus inducing a heterogeneous hydrothermal microenvironment between the inside and outside areas of forest gaps. Additionally, the characteristics of the heterogeneous microenvironment could vary greatly across the gap location properties during winter and the growing season. To determine the response of total phenol loss (TPL) from the litter to alpine forest gap disturbance during decomposition, we conducted a field litterbag experiment within a representative fir (Abies faxoniana Rehd.) forest based on the gap location properties. The TPL and abundances of fungi and bacteria from two typical shrub species (willow, Salix paraplesia Schneid., and bamboo, Fargesia nitida (Mitford) Keng f.) were measured during the following periods over two years: snow formation (SF), snow cover (SC) snow melting (ST), the early growing season (EG) and the later growing season (LG). At the end of the study, we found that the snow cover depth, frequencies of the freeze-thaw cycle and the fungal copy g-1 to bacterial copy g-1 ratio had significant effects on the litter TPL. The abundances of fungi and bacteria decreased from the gap center to the closed canopy during the two SF, SC, ST and LG periods and reversed during the two EG periods. The TPL closely followed the same trend as the microbial abundance during the first year of incubation. In addition, both species had larger TPLs in the gap center during the first winter, first year and entire two years. These findings suggest that alpine forest gap formation accelerates litter TPL and plays a dual role during specific critical periods by distributing abiotic and biotic factors directly and indirectly. In conclusion, reduced snow cover depth and duration during winter warming under current climate change scenarios or as gaps vanish may slow litter TPL in alpine biomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0911.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: forest decline; Diplodia corticola; Botryosphaeriaceae; emerging plant diseases; fungal pathogens; endophytic fungi; biotic and abiotic stress.
Online: 15 November 2023 (03:48:59 CET)
The emergence of new plant diseases is an increasingly important concern. Climate change is likely to be among the factors causing most of the emerging diseases endangering forest and tree heritage around the world. Such diseases may be caused by latent pathogens or microorganisms cryptically associated with plants. The shift from a non-pathogenic to a pathogenic stage may depend on physiological alterations of the host, environmental changes and/or stress factors. In some woods of the Salento peninsula (Apulia region, Italy) sudden declines of holm oak plants (Quercus ilex L.) have been observed since 2016. The morphological and molecular characterization of representative fungal isolates associated with canker and necrosis in declining plants indicated that these isolates belong to the Botryosphaeriaceae family, and the most frequent species were Diplodia corticola and Diplodia quercivora, followed by Neofusicoccum vitifusiforme. In artificially inoculated young holm oak plants, both D. corticola and D. quercivora species produced intense and severe subcortical and leaf margin necrosis. N. vitifusiforme, although less aggressive, induced the same symptoms. Our research in addition to confirm the involvement of D. corticola in olm oak decline, represents the first report of D. quercivora as a new pathogen on Quercus ilex in Italy. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, we also found N. vitifusiforme as a new pathogen on Q. ilex for the first time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1938.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: microbial inoculants; arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; Kosakonia radicincitans; organic fertilizer; field experiment; soil conditions; soil pH; yield
Online: 26 May 2023 (14:23:07 CEST)
The performance of two bio inoculants either in single or in combined applications with organic fertilizer was tested to determine their effect on plant growth and yield under normal and unfavorable field conditions such as low pH value and low content of P. Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi ((AMF; three species of Glomus) and the plant growth-promoting bacterial strain Kosakonia radicincitans DSM16656 were applied to barley in two years field experiment with different soil pH levels and available nutrients. Grain yield, content of P, N, K, Mg, and soil microbial parameters were measured. Grain yield and content of nutrients were significantly increased by the applications of mineral fertilizer, organic fertilizer, AMF, K. radicincitans, and combined application of organic fertilizer with AMF and with K. radicincitans over the control under normal growth conditions. Under low pH and low P conditions, only the combined application of the organic fertilizer with K. radicincitans and organic fertilizer with AMF could increase grain yield and content of nutrients of barley over the control.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1888.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Ascomycetes; bio decaffeination; endophytic bacteria; endophytic fungi; entomopathogenic endophytes; nitrogen fixing; phosphate solubilizing; phytohormones; plant defense system
Online: 26 May 2023 (08:14:17 CEST)
Endophytic microbes are a ubiquitous group of plant-associated communities that colonize the intercellular or intracellular host tissues while giving numerous beneficial effects to the plants. All the plant species are thought to be associated with endophytes, majorly constituted with bacteria and fungi. During the last two decades, there has been a considerable movement toward the study of endophytes associated with coffee plants. In this review, the main consideration is given to address the coffee-associated endophytic bacteria and fungi, particularly their action on plant growth promotion and the biocontrol of pests. In addition, we sought to identify and analyze the gaps in available research. Additionally, the potential of endophytes to improve the quality of coffee seeds is briefly discussed. Even though there are limited studies on the subject, it has been well recognized the potentiality of coffee endophytes in plant growth promotion through enhancing nitrogen fixation, availability of minerals, nutrient absorption, secretion of phytohormones, and other bioactive metabolites. Further, the antagonistic effect against various coffee pathogenic bacteria, fungi, nematodes, and also insect pests lead to the protection of the crop. Furthermore, it is recognized that endophytes enhance the sensory characteristics of coffee as a new field of study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0026.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: rhizosphere; phyllosphere; endophyte; plant microbiome; plant mycobiome; rare microbiome; fungi; bacteria; microbes; soil microbiology; inoculum; microbial ecology
Online: 1 August 2022 (15:22:30 CEST)
A plant’s health and productivity is influenced by its associated microbes. Although the common microbiome is often thought to be the most influential, significant numbers of rare or uncommon microbes (eg. specialized endosymbionts) may also play an important role in the health and productivity of certain plants in certain environments. To help identify rare/specialized bacteria and fungi in the most important angiosperm plants, we contrasted microbiomes of the shoots, roots and rhizospheres of Arabidopsis, Brachypodium, maize, wheat, sugarcane, rice, tomato, coffee, common bean, cassava, soybean, switchgrass, sunflower, Brachiaria, barley, sorghum, and pea. Plants were grown inside sealed jars on sterile sand or field soil. About 95% and 86% of fungal and bacterial diversity inside plants was uncommon, however judging by read abundance, up to half of the mycobiome consists of uncommon fungal cells, while less than 11% of bacterial endophytes are rare. Uncommon seed transmitted microbiomes consisted mostly of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteriodetes, Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes that most heavily colonized shoots, to a lesser extent roots and least of all rhizospheres. Soil served as a more diverse source of rare microbes than seeds, replacing or excluding the majority of the uncommon seed transmitted microbiome. With the rarest microbes, their colonization pattern could either be the result of stringent biotic filtering by most plants, or uneven/stochastic inoculum distribution in seeds or soil. Several strong plant-microbe associations were observed such as seed transmission to shoots, roots and/or rhizospheres of Sarocladium zeae (maize), Penicillium (pea and Phaseolus), and Curvularia (sugarcane), while robust bacterial colonization from cassava field soil occurred with the cyanobacteria Leptolyngbya into Arabidopsis and Panicum roots, and Streptomyces into cassava roots. Some abundant microbes such as Sakaguchia in rice shoots or Vermispora in Arabidopsis roots appeared in no other samples, suggesting they were infrequent, stochastically deposited propagules from either soil or seed (impossible to know based on the available data). Future experiments with culturing and cross inoculation of these microbes between plants may help us better understand host preferences and their role in plant productivity, perhaps leading to their use in crop microbiome engineering and enhancement of agricultural production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0305.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: replant disease; Malus; free-living nematodes; bacteria; fungi; rhizosphere; nematode-microbe association; disease complex; metabarcoding; nematode community
Online: 20 December 2021 (10:34:03 CET)
Apple replant disease is a severe problem in orchards and tree nurseries. Evidence for the involvement of a nematode-microbe disease complex was reported. To search for this complex, plots with a history of apple replanting, and control plots cultivated for the first time with apple were sampled in two fields in two years. Shoot weight drastically decreased with each replanting. Nematodes were extracted from soil samples by floatation-centrifugation, washed on a 20 µm-sieve, and used for DNA extraction. Nematode communities and co-extracted fungi and bacteria were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing of amplified ribosomal fragments. The nematode community and co-extracted fungal and bacterial communities significantly differed between replanted and control plots. Free-living nematodes of the genera Aphelenchus, Cephalenchus, and an unidentified Dorylaimida were associated with replanted plots, as indicated by linear discriminant analysis effect size. Among the co-extracted fungi and bacteria, Mortierella was most indicative of replanting. Some genera, mostly Rhabditis, indicated healthy control plots. Isolating and investigating the putative disease complexes will help to understand and alleviate stress-induced root damage of apple in replanted soil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0710.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Gut microbiota; Mycobiota; Bacteria; Fungi; Malaria; Plasmodium falciparum; 16S metagenomics; ITS metagenomics; Children; Cohort; Mali; Dogon country
Online: 31 May 2021 (08:25:57 CEST)
The gut microbiota has recently been associated with susceptibility/resistance to malaria in animal models and humans, yet the impact of the gut microbiota on the risk of a malaria attack remains to be assessed. This study aims at assessing the influence of the gut microbiota on malaria attacks and Plasmodium parasitæmia in children living in a malaria-endemic area in Mali. Three hundred healthy children were included in a 16-months cohort study in Bandiagara. Their gut bacteria and fungi community structures were characterised via 16S and ITS metabarcoding from stool samples collected at inclusion. Clinician team monitored the occurrence of malaria attacks. Asymptomatic carriage of Plasmodium was assessed by qPCR. Over the 16-month period, 107 (36%) children experienced at least one occurrence of malaria attacks, and 82 (27%) at least one asymptomatic Plasmodium parasitæmia episode. A higher gut bacteria richness was independently associated with susceptibility to asymptomatic parasitæmia episodes and malaria attacks; while the Shannon H diversity and Chao-1 richness index of gut fungi community structure was relatively homogeneous in children who were and were not infected with P. falciparum. Using a linear discriminant effect size analysis of operational taxonomic units assigned to the species level, 17 bacteria, including Clostridiaceae, Eubacteriaceae, Senegalimassilia sp., Atopobiaceae and Lachnosipraceae, and seven fungi, including Dioszegia fristigensis, Ogataea polymorpha and Cutaneotrichosporon cyanovorans, were associated with susceptibility; whereas eight bacteria, including, Bifidobacterium spp., Weissela confusa and Peptostreptococcacea, and 3 fungi, Malassezia sp., Niesslia exosporoides, and Didymocrea leucaenae, were associated with resistance to malaria. Moreover, 15 bacteria, including Coproccus eutactus, Terrisporobacter petrolearius, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Ruminococcaceae, and 13 fungi, including Wallemia mellicola, were associated with susceptibility, whereas 19 bacteria, including Bifidobacterium spp., Bacteroides fragilis, Peptostreptococcacea, and Lactobacillus ruminis, and three fungi, including Cryptococcus neoformans, were associated with resistance to asymptomatic Plasmodium parasitæmia episodes. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings that point the way towards strategies aiming to reduce the risk of malaria by modulating gut microbiota components in at-risk populations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1458.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Plant-derived antimicrobial peptides; biotic and abiotic stresses; salinity; drought; pathogenic fungi; plant diseases; insect pests; transgenic plants
Online: 23 November 2023 (08:23:37 CET)
Global agriculture has been forced to increase food production to feed the growing human population, while confronting various environmental obstacles such as global warming, resistance to pathogens, and constraints on arable land caused by soil salinity, drought, rising sea level, saltwater intrusion, and urbanization. Regarding abiotic stresses, salinity is a worldwide problem for agricultural production. Many efforts, therefore, have been made to cope with the environmental challenges, however, the progress of salinization, which is mainly caused and accelerated by anthropogenic activities, is likely faster than our progress in finding ways to deal with this problem. In addition, drought represents a global threat to the production of major crops. In addition, pests and pathogens cause significant crop losses and diminish global food security. Among the various strategies that have been investigated and applied in plant science, antimicrobial peptides derived from plants have caught widespread attention from scientists since these peptides exhibit beneficial biological activities. In agricultural science, there have been reports on the roles of antimicrobial peptides with active properties against biotic and abiotic stresses. Non-specific plant lipid transfer proteins, thionins, systemins, defensins, cyclotides, and heveins-like antimicrobial peptides are common antimicrobial peptides that have been found to be involved in the defense system against fungi and insect pests. Based on their potential ability to protect crops from pests, bacteria, and pathogenic fungi, the use of antimicrobial peptide genes in creating transgenic plants has been largely conducted during the last decades, and these studies have obtained positive results against the growth of fungi and bacteria. This review will focus on the latest progress in studies of antimicrobial peptides related to biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in plants. We will also update the current progress in the development of antimicrobial peptide-based transgenic crops.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: trichoderma atroviride; mycoparasitism; secondary metabolites; volatile organic compounds (VOCs); photoconidiation; fungi; 2-octanone; injury response; light response; fusarium oxysporum
Online: 11 December 2019 (04:55:05 CET)
Trichoderma atroviride is a strong necrotrophic mycoparasite antagonizing and feeding on a broad range of fungal phytopathogens. It further beneficially acts on plants by enhancing growth in root and shoot and inducing systemic resistance. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are playing a major role in all those processes. To date, T. atroviride IMI 206040 and T. atroviride P1 are among the most frequently studied T. atroviride strains and hence are used as model organisms to study mycoparasitism and photoconidiation. However, there are no studies available, which systematically and comparatively analyzed putative differences between these strains regarding their light-dependent behavior. We therefore explored the influence of light on conidiation and the mycoparasitic interaction as well as the light-dependent production of VOCs in both strains. Our data show that in contrast to T. atroviride IMI 206040 conidiation in strain P1 is independent of light. Furthermore, significant strain-and light-dependent differences in the production of several VOCs between the two strains became evident, indicating that T. atroviride P1 could be a better candidate for plant protection than IMI 206040.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0374.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: olive mill solid waste (OMSW); white-rot fungi; laccase; manganese-independent peroxidase; manganese peroxidase; Anthracophyllum discolor; Stereum hirsutum; whole cell
Online: 29 March 2022 (05:21:39 CEST)
White-rot fungi (WRF) have specific enzymes to degrade lignocellulosic and phenolic compounds. Therefore, their direct application could be an alternative to biodegrade complex lignocellulosic biomass such as olive mill solid waste (OMSW). The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of A. discolor and S. hirsutum to grow in OMSW as the sole substrate under static conditions and evaluate the phenolic removal compounds and lignin degradation. The lignolytic enzyme activity was determined, as was the phenolic compound removal. At the same time, lignin degradation and structural changes were evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. Both strains were able to grow using OMSW as the sole substrate without adding other nutrients, oxygen and/or agitation. The higher ligninolytic enzyme activity was found at day 8, and the highest phenolic removal (more than 80% with both strains) was reached after 24 days of incubation. The CLSM analysis confirmed lignin degradation through the drop in lignin fluorescence from 3967 for untreated OMSW to 235 and 221 RFU after 24 days of treatment by A. discolor and S. hirsutum respectively. The results indicate that both WRF could be suitable candidates to design an in-situ pretreatment step of OMSW, as long as in future research the WRFs have the same performance in non-sterile conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1708.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Cytoplasmic membrane homeostasis; Pathogenicity; Pathogenic fungi; Membrane lipid metabolism; Membrane curvature; Transmembrane protein; Cell wall components; Cytoskeleton; Growth and development; Host infection
Online: 24 May 2023 (10:38:22 CEST)
The cytoplasmic membrane is the fundamental component of all living cells, which participates in various physiological processes, such as material exchange, stress response, cell recognition, signal transduction, cellular immunity, apoptosis, pathogenicity, etc. The normal function of a cytoplasmic membrane requires stable organization of transmembrane protein-lipid microdomains, transmembrane protein-cell wall microdomains, and cytoskeleton-transmembrane protein microdomains. Here, we review the mechanisms and functions of various membrane lipid components, fatty acid content and saturation, membrane curvature, and cell wall and cytoskeleton in plasma membrane homeostasis affecting the pathogenicity of pathogenic fungi. Pathogenic fungi maintains plasma membrane homeostasis and contributes to fungal virulence by maintaining plasma membrane assembly, structural and functional integrity of pathogenic fungi at various stages of cell development through interactions among lipid components of cytoplasmic membranes, transmembrane proteins, cytoskeleton and cell wall components, etc.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0383.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: ACD; asymmetric cell division; AMF; amoebozoa; metazoa and fungi; DSCD; defective symmetric cell division; GRN; gene regulatory network; MGRS; multinucleated genome repair syncytium; NG; non-gametogenic germline; PGCC; polyploid giant cancer cell
Online: 7 November 2023 (11:39:43 CET)
Cancer is a complex and devastating disease that has engaged scientists and researchers for decades. Despite tremendous efforts, previous hypotheses about cancer development have not achieved significant breakthroughs. Evolutionary Cancer Cell Biology (ECCB) is a novel and emerging branch of oncological science that provides an evolutionary perspective on the origin of cancer. It reveals that the cancer genome evolved hundreds of millions of years ago, long before multicellular organisms such as metazoans and humans emerged. ECCB aims to unify all evolutionary insights, hypotheses, and theories into a cohesive framework. It investigates the intricate relationship between cancer genomics and ancient pre-metazoan genes that emerge when normal cells transform into cancer cells. It challenges the conventional wisdom of cancer research by suggesting that cancer could arise through intrinsic cellular mechanisms without genetic alterations and mutations. Furthermore, it postulates that somatic mutations are only secondary, downstream events in the process of oncogenesis.