REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0432.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Bone tissue engineering; biomaterials; bone scaffolds; additive manufacturing techniques/robocasting; marine-derived biomaterials
Online: 26 June 2018 (16:05:49 CEST)
Bone is a dynamic tissue with the capacity of repair and regeneration in specific conditions. Nevertheless, due to the increased incidence of bone disorders, the need of bone grafts has been growing over the past decades and the development of an ideal bone graft with optimal properties remains a clinical challenge. This review addresses the bone properties (morphology, composition and their repair and regeneration capacity) and puts the main focus on the potential strategies for developing bone repair and regeneration materials. It describes the requirements for designing a suitable scaffold material, types of materials (polymers, ceramics and composites) and techniques to obtain the porous structures (additive manufacturing techniques/robocasting or derived from marine skeletons) for bone tissue engineering applications. The main objective of this review is to gather the knowledge on the materials and methods for the production of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering and highlighting the potential of natural porous structures such as marine skeletons as promising alternative bone graft substitute materials without any further mineralogical changes, or after partial or total transformation into calcium phosphate. The suitability of the marine-derived porous bone graft substitutes for the intended applications will be also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0092.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Jackfruit; Silver; Nanoparticles; Scaffold; Biomaterials
Online: 4 November 2022 (13:14:10 CET)
Starch is a widespread natural polymer used in healthcare applications due to its low cost and antibacterial properties. The use of starch in its many forms and its sometimes combination with metallic nanoparticles have all contributed to the advancement of biomaterials. However, few studies have been conducted on biocomposites composed of jackfruit starch and silver nanopar-ticles (AgNPs). As a result, this research aims to study the physicochemical, morphological, and cytotoxic features of a Brazilian jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) starch-based scaffold loaded with AgNPs. Gelatinization and chemical reduction were used to synthesize the scaffold and AgNPs, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were utilized to explore the properties. The findings supported the development of anisotropic, stable, monodispersed AgNPs. The presence of AgNPs in the scaffold matrix was revealed by XRD and SEM-EDS. AgNPs were found to modify the crystallinity, roughness, and thermal stability of the scaffold while leaving its chemical and physical characteristics unchanged. Finally, the scaffolds did not show adverse effects on the L929 cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0569.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: AMD; Biomaterials; electrospinning; membranes; Bruch's membrane
Online: 23 December 2020 (07:23:19 CET)
Abstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of central blindness in developed countries. It affects people mainly over the age of 50 years. It is a disease of the macula, an area of the retina responsible for sharp central vision. It particularly affects the Bruch’s membrane (BM); a layer in the retina that acts as the basement upon which retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) attach and survive. The pathology of AMD is not fully understood, but age is considered the main risk factor. There are two forms; nonexudative, leading to the end-stage of the disease, called nonexudative (or dry) AMD (90% of cases) where fatty deposits called drusen form under the RPE on top of the BM lifting off the RPE, and neovascular (or wet) AMD (10% of cases) where abnormal new blood vessels grow and push through the BM, bleeding in and disrupting the RPE. Neovascular AMD is well controlled with regular antiangiogenic drug injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) into the eye, whereas there is no current treatment for nonexudative AMD. Many research groups across the world are working on a treatment for nonexudative AMD. This review discusses the research currently being conducted including cell therapies, development of cell transplantation membranes, targeting other disease structures in affected retina (i.e. drusen), and drug delivery to the retina using nanoparticles. Finally, we include our research contributing to the field; developing a bioactive membrane intended to function two-fold: target diseased structures and transplant healthy RPE to the desired area.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0241.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: mechanobiology; biophysics; neuronal differentiation; biomaterials; bioengineering
Online: 20 September 2019 (18:59:51 CEST)
Although many details remain still elusive, it became increasingly evident in recent years that mechanosensing of microenvironmental biophysical cues and subsequent mechanotransduction are strongly involved in the regulation of neuronal cell development and functioning. This review gives an overview about the current understanding of brain and neuronal cell mechanobiology and how it impacts on neurogenesis, neuronal migration, differentiation, and maturation. Therein; we are focussing particularly on the events in the cell/microenvironment interface and the decisive extracellular matrix (ECM) parameters (i.e. rigidity and nanometric spatial organisation of adhesion sites) that modulate integrin adhesion complex-based mechanosensing and mechanotransductive signalling. It will also be outlined how biomaterial approaches mimicking essential ECM features help to understand these processes and how they can be used to control and guide neuronal cell behaviour by providing appropriate biophysical cues. In addition, principal biophysical methods will be highlighted that have been crucial for the study of neuronal mechanobiology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0227.v1
Online: 8 March 2021 (13:54:28 CET)
Worldwide, hernia repair represents one of the most frequent surgical procedures encompassing a global market valued at several billion dollars. This type of surgery usually requires the implantation of a mesh that needs the appropriate chemical, physical and biological properties for the type of repair. This review thus presents a description of the types of hernias, current hernia repair methods, and the state of the art of prosthetic meshes for hernia repair providing the most important meshes used in clinical practice by surgeons working in this area classified according to their biological or chemical nature, morphology and whether bioabsorbable or not. We emphasise the importance of surgical site infection in herniatology, how to deal with this microbial problem, and we go further into the future research lines on the production of advanced antimicrobial meshes to improve hernia repair and prevent microbial infections, including multidrug-resistant strains. A great deal of progress has been made in this biomedical field in the last decade. However, we are still far from an ideal antimicrobial mesh that can also provide excellent integration to the abdominal wall, mechanical performance, low visceral adhesion and minimal inflammatory or foreign body reactions, among many other problems.
Subject: Keywords: molecular engineering; natural conformation; polymeric biomaterials; biocompatibility
Online: 17 March 2020 (03:53:20 CET)
Molecular engineering research is the fundamental way and the only way for the development of biomaterials. Based on molecular engineering, the biocompatibility of natural conformation and polymer biomaterials was studied. In this paper, we discuss that natural conformation is the basis of protein biological function, and that the synergistic action of peptide chain and side group is the motive force for protein to construct natural conformation and complete biological function. On the basis of the influence of the adsorption of polymer biomaterials on the natural conformation of proteins, the relationship between biocompatibility of biomaterials and protein conformation is further explained. Studies have shown that bismuth molecular materials can only be applied in the market and have their functionality if they have good biocompatibility. Therefore, the biocompatibility evaluation of new materials has important practical significance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0389.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: 3D Bioprinting; Extracellular Matrix; Extrusion; Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering
Online: 22 November 2021 (12:26:49 CET)
There is need to address the challenges of organ shortage, through development of tissues and organs with alternatives to those of the allograft-kind. This illustrates the quest behind novel biofabrication strategies such as 3D bio-printing, which is necessary to create artificial multi-cellular tissues/organs. Several findings have been reported in this review. First, the role of ECM components in tissue regenerative medicine is presented. Different ECM components such as collagen, gelatin, elastin, fibronectin, laminins and glycosaminoglycans are concisely examined for their tissue regenerative medicine applications. Next, current state of research on extrusion-based 3D bio-printing techniques and their limitations are reviewed. For example, we show that cell viability is still a challenge with extrusion, while the use of natural polymers such as collagen in improving composites’ mechanical properties is limited. Lastly, we examine unresolved research questions necessary to advance the present state of research in the field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0047.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Graphene oxide; Stem cells; Growth; Cell differentiation; Biomaterials
Online: 3 September 2018 (15:44:08 CEST)
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells which can give rise to any types of cells in our body. Hence, they have been utilized for various applications such as drug testing and disease modeling. However, for the successful of those applications, the survival and differentiation of stem cells into specialized lineages should be well controlled. Growth factors and chemical agents are the most common signals to promote the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. However, those approaches holds several drawbacks such as the negative side effects, degradation or denaturation, and expensive. To address such limitations, nanomaterials have been recently used as a better approach for controlling stem cells behaviors. Graphene oxide is the derivative of graphene, the first 2D materials in the world. Recently, due to its extraordinary properties and great biological effects on stem cells, many scientists around the world have utilized graphene oxide to enhance the differentiation potential of stem cells. In this mini review, we highlight the key advances about the effects of graphene oxide on controlling stem cell growth and various types of stem cell differentiation. We also discuss the possible molecular mechanisms of graphene oxide in controlling stem cell growth and differentiation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0512.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Materials; Magnesium; Magnesium Alloys; Engineering Materials; Biomaterials; Properties; Applications
Online: 21 May 2021 (09:42:52 CEST)
Magnesium is a promising material. It has a remarkable mix of mechanical and biomedical properties that made it suitable for a vast range of applications. With alloying, many of these inherent properties can be further improved. Today, it is primarily used in the automotive, aerospace, and medical industry. However, magnesium has its own set of drawbacks which the industry and research community are actively addressing. Magnesium’s rapid corrosion is its most significant drawback, and it dramatically impeded magnesium’s growth and expansion into other applications. This article will review both the engineering and biomedical aspects and applications for magnesium and its alloys. It will also elaborate on the challenges the material faces, how they can be overcome, and its outlook.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0125.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: biomaterials; cell control; chitosan; polyvinyl alcohol; scaffold; tissue engineering
Online: 7 December 2020 (07:30:10 CET)
Scaffolds are widely used in tissue engineering because their manufacture is based on natural and synthetic polymers, which allows them to have properties such as biocompatibility and biodegradability, creating an ideal environment for cell growth on their surface. In this context, among the polymers studied in Tissue Engineering are Chitosan (CH) and Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA). CH is a versatile polymer obtained from de-acetylation of chitin, which is used for its high biodegradability and biocompatibility, although its mechanical properties must be improved. It has been found that one of the ways to improve the mechanical properties of CH is to mix it with other synthetic polymers such as PVA. PVA is known for its biocompatibility, biodegradability, zero toxicity and ease of preparation due to its solubility in water and excellent mechanical properties, such as tensile strength and ease in the formation of films and barriers. In this study we evaluated the capacity of scaffolds made with CH and PVA in different concentrations (2: 1, 1: 1, 1: 2, respectively) as a possible application in bone regeneration. This was made through different characterization tests such as Infrared Spectroscopy, AFM, Swelling test and Porosity test, where we obtained information about its structural and physicochemical properties. Additionally, a cellular quality control was performed on the material through the MTT assay. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study showed that there are strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol molecules. The Swelling and Porosity tests showed favorable results, obtaining maximum values of 5519% and 72.17% respectively. MTT tests determined that the prepared materials are not cytotoxic. These findings suggest that scaffolds possess properties suitable for use in Tissue Engineering.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0280.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: conductive hydrogel; tissue engineering; biomaterials; physical and electrical properties
Online: 15 August 2018 (16:12:51 CEST)
In the field of tissue engineering, conductive hydrogels have been the most effective biomaterials to mimic the biological and electrical properties of tissues in the human body. The main advantages of conductive hydrogel include not only its physical properties, but also its adequate electrical properties, thus providing electrical signals to cells efficiently. However, when introducing a conductive material into a non-conductive hydrogel, a conflicting relationship between the electrical and mechanical properties may develop. This review examines the strengths and weaknesses of the generation of conductive hydrogels using various conductive materials and introduces the use of these conductive hydrogels in tissue engineering applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0021.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: biomaterials; cobalt ferrites; poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate); tissue engineering
Online: 3 July 2018 (05:12:53 CEST)
Polymer-based piezoelectric biomaterials have already proven their relevance for tissue engineering applications. Further, the morphology of the scaffolds plays also an important role in cell proliferation and differentiation. The present work reports on poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), a biocompatible, biodegradable and piezoelectric biopolymer that has been processed in different morphologies, including films, fibres, microspheres and 3D scaffolds. Further, the corresponding magnetically active PHBV-based composites were also produced. The effect of the morphology on physico-chemical, thermal, magnetic and mechanical properties of pristine and composites samples was evaluated, as well as their cytotoxicity. It was observed that the morphology does not strongly affect the properties of the pristine samples but the introduction of cobalt ferrites induces changes in the degree of crystallinity that could affect the applicability of prepared biomaterials. Young modulus is dependent of the morphology and also increases with the addition of cobalt ferrites. Both, pristine and PHBV/cobalt ferrite composite samples are no cytotoxic, indicating their suitability for tissue engineering applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0164.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: biofilm; co-culture; Staphylococcus aureus; SaOS-2; biomaterials; implanted devices
Online: 12 December 2019 (05:24:29 CET)
Biofilm-mediated infection is a major cause of bone prosthesis failure. The lack of molecules able to act in biofilms has driven research aimed at identifying new anti-biofilm agents via chemical screens. However, to be able to accommodate a large number of compounds, the testing conditions of these screenings end up being typically far from the clinical scenario. In this study, we assess the potential applicability of three anti-biofilm compounds (based on natural compounds) as part of implanted medical devices by testing them on in vitro systems that more faithfully resemble the clinical scenario. To that end, we used a competition model based on the co-culture of SaOS-2 mammalian cells and Staphylococcus aureus (collection and clinical strains) on a titanium surface. Additionally, we studied whether these derivatives of natural compounds enhance the previously proven protective effect of pre-incubating the titanium surface with SaOS-2 cells. Out of the three tested leads, one showed the highest potential, and can be regarded as a promising agent for incorporation into bone implants. This study emphasizes and demonstrates the importance of using meaningful experimental models, where potential antimicrobials ought to be tested for protection of biomaterials in translational applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0026.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: elastomers; hydrogels; elastomer-hydrogel systems; injectable biomaterials; adhesive surfaces; tissue engineering
Online: 20 April 2022 (11:39:28 CEST)
Novel advanced biomaterials have recently gained great attention, especially in surgical minimally invasive techniques. Applying sophisticated design and engineering methods, various elastomer-hydrogel systems (EHS) with outstanding performance have been developed in last decades. Those systems composed of elastomers and hydrogels are very attractive due to their high biocompatibility, injectability, controlled porosity and often antimicrobial properties. Moreover, elastomeric properties and bioadhesiveness are making them suitable for soft tissue engineering. Herein, we present the advances in current state-of-the-art design principles and strategies for strong interface formation inspired by nature (bio-inspiration), diverse properties and applications of elastomer-hydrogel systems in different medical fields, in particular, in tissue engineering. Functionalities of those systems, including adhesive properties, injectability, antimicrobial properties and degradability applicable to tissue engineering will be discussed in a context of future efforts towards development of advanced biomaterials.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0035.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: calcium alginate; SARS-CoV-2; bacteriophage; phi 6; biomaterials; films; hydrogels
Online: 2 March 2022 (07:17:08 CET)
The current pandemic is urgently demanding to discover alternative materials capable of inactivate the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease. Calcium alginate is a crosslinked hydrophilic biopolymer with an immense range of biomedical applications due to its excellent chemical, physical and biological properties. In this study, the cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of calcium alginate in the form of films were studied. The results showed that these films are biocompatible in human keratinocytes and are capable of inactivating enveloped viruses such as bacteriophage phi 6 with a 1.43-log reduction (94.92% viral inactivation) and SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant with a 1.64-log reduction (96.94% viral inactivation) in virus titers. The antiviral activity of these calcium alginate films can be attributed to its negative charge density that may bind to viral envelopes inactivating membrane receptors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0378.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: salt-cured cod skin; Gadus morhua; collagen; fishery by-products; biomaterials
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:39:19 CET)
Collagen is the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom. Industrial collagen is mainly bovine and porcine origin. However, due to religious beliefs, allergic issues, and infectious diseases, alternative sources of collagen as marine are gaining increasing interest. In this work, the acid-soluble collagen (ASC) were extracted from salt-cured Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) skin and characterized. The extraction yield was about 2.0%, equivalent to the extraction yield reported for other fish skins. The electrophoretic pattern showed the typical type I structure (α, β and γ chains). UV-VIS and FTIR absorbance spectra suggested a very pure ASC with an intact triple helical structure. The integrity and the adequate porosity required for different applications were then confirmed by electron micrograph. Our findings allow us to say that, for the first time, we extracted acid-soluble type I collagen from salt-cured Atlantic cod skin, with characteristics suitable for application in various fields, such as biomedical.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0329.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: biomaterials; biofabrication; compartmentalization; materials research; microsystems; nanotechnology; self-assembly; self-organization
Online: 28 December 2018 (04:46:37 CET)
The recommendations of the panel of experts on the further development of the ‘High-Tech Strategy’ of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany designate the biologization of economic processes along with digitization as the central driver of societal change. Various fields such as the 'biologization of materials research' were then defined in the 'Bio-Agenda' in order to walk the path from biology to innovation. In view of this perspective, we describe how the use of biological materials and mechanisms can lead to resource conservation, the production of intelligent materials and new technological and medical applications. Our strategy, based on research on ‘Biointerfaces in Technology and Medicine’, aims at the development of modular biohybrid systems that could be used as 'biofactories of the future' for sustainable production processes. To achieve this goal, in a first phase already known technologies have to be further refined and integrated in order to obtain and apply compartmentalized reaction systems on different length and time scales. In a second phase, the resulting functional units will be employed to develop dissipative systems useful for biomedical applications and advanced production processes. From a technical point of view, future success in creating 'something entirely new' will depend crucially on robust and complementary research capabilities. Since the close connection of engineering and life sciences at KIT provides an excellent basis for this endeavor, we consider the above perspectives to be feasible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0339.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Polysaccharide biomaterials; capsule polymerases; galactosyltransferase; molecular dynamics simulations; bioremediation; protein engineering; Neisseria meningitidis
Online: 20 September 2021 (15:08:47 CEST)
Heavy metal contamination of drinking water is a public health concern that requires the development of more efficient bioremediation techniques. Absorption technologies, including biosorption, provide opportunities for improvements to increase the diversity of metal ions removed and overall binding capacity. Microorganisms are a key component in wastewater treatment plants and they naturally bind metal ions through surface macromolecules but with limited capacity. The long-term goal of this work is to engineer capsule polymerases to synthesize molecules with novel functionalities. In previously published work, we showed that the Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W (NmW) galactose-sialic acid (Gal—NeuNAc) heteropolysaccharide binds lead effectively, thereby demonstrating the potential for using this capsular polysaccharide in environmental decontamination applications. In this study, computational analysis of the NmW capsule polymerase galactosyltransferase (GT) domain was used to gain insight into how the enzyme could be modified to enable the synthesis N-acetylgalactosamine-sialic acid (GalNAc—NeuNAc) heteropolysaccharide. Various computational approaches, including molecular modeling with I-TASSER and molecular dynamics simulations (MD) with NAMD, were utilized to identify key amino acid residues in the substrate binding pocket of the GT domain that may be key to conferring UDP-GalNAc specificity. Through these combined strategies and using BshA, a UDP-GlcNAc transferase, as a structural template, several NmW active site residues were identified as mutational targets to accommodate the proposed N-acetyl group in UDP-GalNAc. Thus, a rational approach for potentially conferring new properties to bacterial capsular polysaccharides is demonstrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0596.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hydroxyapatite; beverage cans; metal matrix composites, self-propagating high temperatures synthesis and biomaterials
Online: 27 August 2020 (07:52:40 CEST)
The use of cow bones for biomaterial is still limited; accordingly, the cow bones waste has low economic value. Basically, a human’s and a cow’s bones are the same in terms of their forming compound. Aluminum (Al) has the potential to combine with hydroxyapatite (HAp) to make metal matrix composites (MMC) that have the potential for biomaterials. Compatible elements to be combined with Al and HAp are magnesium (Mg), titanium (Ti), and Copper (Cu), used self-high propagating temperatures synthesis (SHS). MMC can be processed to be a useful, solid product. Applying pressure to the SHS reaction and heating process may result in biomaterial composite product consisting of some matrix materials such as Al come from cans materials used in the experiment was HAp that was processed from cow bones calcination, added by can that contained aluminum and wetting agent, namely magnesium. The exothermic temperature was 800-900°C. The compaction process was done to allow materials to be bound. Based on the ASTM F138 standard for element of biomaterials, the porosity value was below 30% and hardness level above 40 HV. Cow bones and can-based composite sample with the composition of HAp-Al-Mg: 85%-10%-5% met the standard since the hardness value was: 73.3 HV with a porosity value of 29.88%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0319.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy; atomic spectroscopy; plasma spectroscopy; laser spectroscopy; physical properties of biomaterials
Online: 18 July 2018 (08:34:46 CEST)
This work reports measurements of calcified gallstone elemental compositions using laser-induced optical emission spectroscopy. The experimental results support the importance of the magnesium concentration in gallstone growth. Granular stones reveal an increased magnesium concentration at the periphery of the granules, suggesting the inhibition of further growth. Non-granular gallstones reveal lower overall magnesium concentrations but with higher values near the center.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0184.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Retinal degenerative diseases; Age related macular degeneration; Biomaterials, Stem cells, Retinal pigment epithelium; Tissue engineering
Online: 8 February 2021 (10:46:50 CET)
The retina is a complex and fragile photosensitive part of the central nervous system which is prone to degenerative diseases leading to permanent vision loss. No proven treatment strategies exist to treat or reverse the degenerative conditions. Recent investigations demonstrate that cell transplantation therapies to replace the dysfunctional retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and or the degenerating photoreceptors (PRs) are viable options to restore vision. Pluripotent stem cells, retinal progenitor cells and somatic stem cells are the main cell sources used for cell transplantation therapies. The success of retinal transplantation based on cell suspension injection is hindered by limited cell survival and lack of cellular integration. Recent advances in material science helped to develop strategies to grow cells as intact monolayers or as sheets on biomaterial scaffolds for transplantation into the eyes. Such implants are found to be more promising than the bolus injection approach. Tissue engineering techniques are specifically designed to construct biodegradable or non-degradable polymer scaffolds to grow cells as a monolayer and construct implantable grafts. The engineered cell construct along with the extracellular matrix formed, can hold the cells in place to enable easy survival, better integration and improved visual function. This article reviews the advances in the use of scaffolds for transplantation studies in animal models and its application in current clinical trials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0071.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: review; biomaterials; polyethylene; UHMWPE; ACL; Ligament; tendon; plasma treatment; surface modification; synthetic graft; bioactive glass
Online: 4 August 2020 (03:27:46 CEST)
The selection of biomaterials for biomedical application is a significant challenge. In the last few decades, various bioabsorbable and stable biopolymers have been applied for use as biomedical devices in orthopedic applications. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been extensively used in medical implants, notably in the bearings of hip, knee, and other joint prostheses, owing to its biocompatibility and high wear resistance. For the ACL graft, synthetic UHMWPE is an ideal candidate due to its biocompatibility and its extremely high tensile strength. Despite the appeal of new advanced materials such as carbon fiber, poly-ether-ether ketone, and other load-bearing materials, UHMWPE remains a primary load-bearing candidate material for ACL reconstructions because of its extremely high strength, the simplicity of the fabrication process, its biocompatibility, and low friction. However, some significant problems are observed in UHMWPE based implants, such as wear debris, and oxidative degradation due to the generation of free radicals when exposed to irradiation with gamma rays for grafting or sterilization. Various innovative methodologies have been developed to resolve those problems and enhance the properties of UHMWPE. In this review, we will explore in detail the methods for surface functionalization of UHMWPE and will apply these findings to the case study of UHMWPE for Anterior Cruciate Ligament repair.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0066.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: chitin; chitosan; cosmetics; biodegradability; biomaterials; polysaccharides; green technology; marine cosmetic ingredients; marine green source; marine resources
Online: 6 May 2019 (12:37:44 CEST)
Huge amounts of chitin and chitosans can be found in the biosphere as important constituent of the exoskeleton of many organisms, as well as waste by worldwide seafood companies. Nowadays, politicians, environmentalists, and industrialists encouraged the use of these marine polysaccharides as renewable source, particularly when developed by alternative eco-friendly processes, especially in the production of regular cosmetics. The aim of this review is to outline the physicochemical and biological properties and the different bioextraction methods of chitin and chitosans sources, focusing on enzymatic deproteinization, bacteria fermentation, and enzymatic deacetylation methods. Thanks to their biodegradability, non-toxicity, biocompatibility, and bioactivity, the application of these marine polymers is widely used in the contemporary manufacturing of biomedical and pharmaceutical products. In the end, advanced cosmetic products based on chitin and chitosans are presented, analyzing different therapeutic aspects about skin, hair, nail, and oral care. The innovative formulations described can be considered as excellent solutions regarding problems in the various body anatomical sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0085.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: TCP-C2S, Nurse ´A ceramic, Biomaterials, adult human mesenchymal stem cells, Solid State Reaction, Biomedical applications.
Online: 14 March 2017 (13:43:13 CET)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity and cell response of a well-characterized Nurse´s A-phase (7CaO•P2O5•2SiO2) ceramic and his effect compared to a control (tissue culture polystyrene-TCPS) on the adhesion, viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of ahMSCs in vitro. Cell proliferation (Alamar Blue Assay), Alizarin Red-S (AR-s) staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin (OCN) and collagen I (Col I) were evaluated. Also, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images were acquired in order to visualise the cells and the topography of the material. The proliferation of cells growing in a direct contact with the material was slower at early stages of the study because of the new environmental conditions. However, the entire surface was colonized after 28 days of culture in growth medium (GM). Osteoblastic differentiation markers were significantly enhanced in cells growing on Nurse´s A phase ceramic and cultured with osteogenic medium (OM), probably due to the role of silica to stimulate the differentiation of ahMSCs. Moreover, calcium nodules were formed under the influence of ceramic material. Therefore, it is predicted that Nurse´s A-phase ceramic would present high biocompatibility and osteoinductive properties being a good candidate to be used as a biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0436.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Additive manufacturing; Biomaterials; Bone; Bone regeneration; Critical Bone Defects; Hydroxy-apatite nanoparticles; Polycaprolactone; Polyethylene glycol diacrylate; Scaffolds
Online: 28 October 2022 (02:15:21 CEST)
Notwithstanding the advances achieved in the last decades in the field of synthetic bone substitutes, the development of biodegradable 3D scaffolds with ideal mechanical and biological properties remains an unattained challenge. In this work, a novel approach is explored to produce synthetic bone grafts mimicking the complex bone structure using additive manufacturing. For the first time, scaffolds were produced, using an extrusion technique, composed of a thermoplastic polymer, polycaprolactone (PCL), hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANp), and polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA). These scaffolds were further compared with two groups of scaffolds: one composed of PCL and another of PCL and HANp. After production, optimisation and characterisation of these scaffolds, an in vitro evaluation was performed using human dental pulp stem/stromal cells (hDPSCs). Through the findings it was possible to conclude that PEGDA scaffolds were successfully produced presenting networks of interconnected channels, presenting hydrophilic properties (15.15 4.06°), adequate mechanical performance (10.41MPa 0.934), and allowing a cell viability significantly superior to the other groups analysed. To conclude, findings in this study demonstrated that PCL, HANp and PEGDA scaffolds may have promising effects on bone regeneration and might open new insights for 3D tissue substitutes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0176.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Polymeric Biomaterials; Natural Cellulose; Tissue Engineering; Differentiation; Bone Regeneration; Skin Regeneration; Cardiac Regeneration; Vascular Regeneration; Neural Regeneration
Online: 14 February 2022 (14:02:16 CET)
In the recent years, tissue engineering researchers have exploited a variety of biomaterials that can potentially mimic extracellular matrix (ECM) for tissue regeneration. Natural cellulose, mainly obtained from bacterial (BC) and plant-based (PC) sources, can serve as a high potential scaffold material for different regenerative purposes. Natural cellulose has drawn the attention of researchers due to its advantage over synthetic cellulose in terms of availability, cost-effectiveness, perfusablility, biocompatibility, negligible toxicity, mild immune response and due to imitating native tissues. In this article, we will review the recent in vivo and in vitro studies aimed to assess the potentials of natural cellulose for the purpose of soft (skin, heart, veins, nerve, among others) and hard (bone and tooth) tissue engineering.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0012.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: biosensors; biophotonics; integrated optical sensors; aptamers; biomaterials; optical sensor; silicon photonics; ring resonators; lab-on-a-chip
Online: 3 January 2019 (11:41:49 CET)
Recent developments in optical biosensors based on integrated photonic devices are reviewed with a special emphasis on silicon-on-insulator ring resonator. The review is mainly devoted to the following aspects: (1) Principles of sensing mechanism, (2) sensor design, (3) biofunctionalization procedures for specific molecule detection and (4) measurement set-ups and advances in chip-integration. The inherent challenges of implementing photonics-based biosensors to meet specific requirements of applications in medicine, food analysis, and environmental monitoring are discussed.