Neto, A.S.; Ferreira, J.M.F. Synthetic and Marine-Derived Porous Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering. Materials2018, 11, 1702.
Neto, A.S.; Ferreira, J.M.F. Synthetic and Marine-Derived Porous Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering. Materials 2018, 11, 1702.
Bone is a dynamic tissue with the capacity of repair and regeneration in specific conditions. Nevertheless, due to the increased incidence of bone disorders, the need of bone grafts has been growing over the past decades and the development of an ideal bone graft with optimal properties remains a clinical challenge. This review addresses the bone properties (morphology, composition and their repair and regeneration capacity) and puts the main focus on the potential strategies for developing bone repair and regeneration materials. It describes the requirements for designing a suitable scaffold material, types of materials (polymers, ceramics and composites) and techniques to obtain the porous structures (additive manufacturing techniques/robocasting or derived from marine skeletons) for bone tissue engineering applications. The main objective of this review is to gather the knowledge on the materials and methods for the production of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering and highlighting the potential of natural porous structures such as marine skeletons as promising alternative bone graft substitute materials without any further mineralogical changes, or after partial or total transformation into calcium phosphate. The suitability of the marine-derived porous bone graft substitutes for the intended applications will be also discussed.
Bone tissue engineering; biomaterials; bone scaffolds; additive manufacturing techniques/robocasting; marine-derived biomaterials
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