Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Biomaterials Targeting AMD: Are We There Yet?

Version 1 : Received: 21 December 2020 / Approved: 23 December 2020 / Online: 23 December 2020 (07:23:19 CET)

How to cite: Lawless, R.; Hidalgo-Alvarez, V.; Haneef, A. Biomaterials Targeting AMD: Are We There Yet?. Preprints 2020, 2020120569 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202012.0569.v1). Lawless, R.; Hidalgo-Alvarez, V.; Haneef, A. Biomaterials Targeting AMD: Are We There Yet?. Preprints 2020, 2020120569 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202012.0569.v1).

Abstract

Abstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of central blindness in developed countries. It affects people mainly over the age of 50 years. It is a disease of the macula, an area of the retina responsible for sharp central vision. It particularly affects the Bruch’s membrane (BM); a layer in the retina that acts as the basement upon which retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) attach and survive. The pathology of AMD is not fully understood, but age is considered the main risk factor. There are two forms; nonexudative, leading to the end-stage of the disease, called nonexudative (or dry) AMD (90% of cases) where fatty deposits called drusen form under the RPE on top of the BM lifting off the RPE, and neovascular (or wet) AMD (10% of cases) where abnormal new blood vessels grow and push through the BM, bleeding in and disrupting the RPE. Neovascular AMD is well controlled with regular antiangiogenic drug injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) into the eye, whereas there is no current treatment for nonexudative AMD. Many research groups across the world are working on a treatment for nonexudative AMD. This review discusses the research currently being conducted including cell therapies, development of cell transplantation membranes, targeting other disease structures in affected retina (i.e. drusen), and drug delivery to the retina using nanoparticles. Finally, we include our research contributing to the field; developing a bioactive membrane intended to function two-fold: target diseased structures and transplant healthy RPE to the desired area.

Subject Areas

AMD; Biomaterials; electrospinning; membranes; Bruch's membrane

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