ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0059.v1
Online: 7 February 2018 (10:25:05 CET)
In this paper we establish several Hermite-Hadamard type integral inequalities for trigonometrically rho-convex functions. Applications for special means are provided as well.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0177.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Nitric oxide delivery; mathematical modeling; Flow-mediated dilation; Inhaled NO therapy; Stem cell therapy; NO-releasing platform
Online: 12 October 2021 (11:40:24 CEST)
Nitric oxide (NO) is a key molecule in cardiovascular homeostasis and its abnormal delivery is highly associated with the occurrence and development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The assessment and manipulation of NO delivery is crucial to the diagnosis and therapy of CVD, such as endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerotic progression, pulmonary hypertension, and cardiovascular manifestations of Coronavirus (COVID-19). However, due to the low concentration and fast reaction characteristics of NO in cardiovascular system, the clinical applications centered on the NO delivery are challenging. In this tutorial review, we first summarized the methods to estimate the in vivo NO delivery process based on the clinical images and mathematical modeling to assess the endothelial function and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaque. Then, the emerging bioimaging technologies that have the potential to directly measure the arterial NO concentration were discussed, including the Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical sensor. Aside from the diagnostic methods, therapies aimed at controlling NO delivery to regulate CVD were reviewed, including the inhaled NO therapy to treat the pulmonary hypertension and COVID-19, stem cell therapy and NO-releasing platform to treat endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0637.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: metal toxicity, phytomelatonin, heavy metals, ROS, NO
Online: 23 April 2021 (12:36:12 CEST)
Metal toxicity in soils, along with water runoff, are increasing environmental problems that affect agriculture directly and, in turn, human health. In light of finding a suitable and urgent solution, research on plant treatments with specific compounds that can help mitigate these effects has increased, and thus the exogenous application of melatonin (MET) and its role in alleviating the negative effects of metal toxicity in plants, have become more important in the last few years. MET is an important plant-related response molecule involved in growth, development, and reproduction, and in the induction of different stress-related key factors in plants. It has been shown that MET plays a protective role against the toxic effects induced by different metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, B, Al, V, Ni, La, As, and Cr) by regulating both the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant plant defense systems. In addition, MET interacts with many other signaling molecules, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), and participates in a wide variety of physiological reactions. Furthermore, MET treatment enhances osmoregulation and photosynthetic efficiency and increases the concentration of other important antioxidants such as phenolic compounds, flavonoids, polyamines (PAs), and carotenoid compounds. Some recent studies have shown that MET appeared to be involved in the regulation of metal transport in plants, and lastly, various studies have confirmed that MET significantly upregulated stress tolerance-related genes. Despite all the knowledge acquired over the years, there is still more to know about how MET is involved in the metal toxicity tolerance of plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0138.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: IBM quantum experience; no-hiding theorem; quantum information
Online: 27 September 2017 (12:22:55 CEST)
In this note, we demonstrate the quantum no-hiding theorem of Braunstein and Pati [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 080502 (2007)] using the IBM 5Q quantum processor. We also analyze the circuit using the ZX calculus of Coecke and Duncan [New J Phys. 13(4), 043016 (2011)], which provides a pictorial/category-theoretic demonstration of the no-hiding theorem.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0279.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Melatonin; NO; ROS; abiotic stress; NOmela; H2S; NRS; PTMs
Online: 20 May 2022 (13:35:00 CEST)
Melatonin (MEL), a ubiquitous indolamine, is a molecule whose regulatory role in plan metabolism has gained interest in the last decades. Likewise, nitric oxide (NO), a gasotransmitter, can also affect plant molecular pathways due to its function as a signalling molecule. Both MEL and NO can interact at multiple levels under abiotic stress, starting by their own biosynthetic pathways and inducing a particular signalling response in plants. This review summarizes the role of these molecules during plant development and fruit ripening, as well as their interactions. Due to the impact of climate change‐related abiotic stresses on agriculture, this review has also focused on their role in mediating abiotic stress tolerance and the mechanisms by which they operate, from upregulation of the whole antioxidant defence system to posttranductional modifications of important molecules. Their interactions and crosstalk with phytohormones and H2S is also discussed. Finally, we introduce NOmela, an emerging and very unknown molecule which seems to have a stronger potential than MEL and NO separately in mediating plant stress response.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0653.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: COVID-19 therapy, oxidant, antioxidant, nitric oxide (NO), thrombosis
Online: 28 June 2021 (13:49:50 CEST)
Patients with underlying health conditions are at risk for a poor outcome from Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Using machine reasoning by the sci.AI system, we investigated the pathobiochemistry of this observation to generate therapeutic guidelines. Facts were extracted and linked from publications available in nlm.nih.gov and Europe PMC to form the dataset which was validated by medical experts. Previously we described how preexisting chronic inflammation renders the acute inflammatory response to Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) excessive translating the SARS-CoV-2 infection into the clinical COVID-19 syndrome. Herein we focus on therapeutic interventions that mitigate the immune response. In essence, from bench to bedside, as depicted in the Graphical Abstract, the clinical management of COVID-19 should aim at: A. Control of excessive oxidant production. B. Neutralization of excessive oxidants. C. Upregulation of nitric oxide (NO) production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0406.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Environmental chemistry; Oxyfuel Combustion; NO-CO reaction; Heterogeneous catalysis.
Online: 27 February 2020 (12:25:57 CET)
Carbon dioxide has become a global challenge, where the emissions have become more than what could be handled. In this regard, conversion of CO2 to value added chemicals and thus recycling CO2 became a viable option. One of these options is the use of a process in strong development: oxycombustion. However, the gases resulting from this process contain some traces of impurities that can hinder the recovery of CO2 such as NO and CO. This work has therefore focused on the study of the reaction of NO reduction by CO in an oxidizing medium, using catalytic materials based on various supported noble metals. These materials were extensively characterized by a variety of methods including BET surface area measurements, hydrogen chemisorption, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and H2 temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR). The obtained results show that the catalytic behaviour of M/Al2O3 catalysts in CO oxidation and NO reduction with CO in oxidative conditions depends mainly on the nature of the metal. The best result for these both reactions is obtained with Pt/Al2O3 catalyst. The Pt nanoparticles existing in the metallic form (Pt°) showed by TPR could explain the activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0267.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: EPR, Bell’s Theorem, Aspect-Zbinden Experiments, No-communications theorem
Online: 17 June 2019 (09:57:08 CEST)
The author had previously set out devices to communicate over space-like intervals, with a full proof for the 2‑photon device and only a partial proof for the 1-photon device. The 2-photon device exploits entangled pairs; the 1-photon device utilises path-entanglement. The 1-photon device is fully analysed, then similarities (and differences) are drawn to the 2-photon device to show the holes in the No-communications Theorem: the creation operators representing the sum of paths through the device can be mapped outside the device and quantum state reduction/measurement is a space-like operation. A common misconception on faux rank-3 systems made from rank-2 components is elucidated, avoiding the criticism and null result obtained by naively taking the partial trace.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0090.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Bell’s Theorem, No-communication theorem, Entanglement swapping, Schmidt decomposition
Online: 9 January 2019 (16:28:41 CET)
This paper is in response to a critique of the author’s earlier papers on the matter of a non-local communication system by Ghirardi. The setup has merit for not apparently falling for the usual pitfalls of putative communication schemes, as espoused by the No-communication theorem (NCT) - that of non-factorisability. The enquiry occurred from the investigation of two interferometer based communication systems: one two-photon entanglement, the other single-photon path entanglement. Both systems have two parties: a sender (“Alice”) who transmits or absorbs her particle and a receiver (“Bob”) who has an interferometer, which can discern a pure or mixed state, ahead of his detector. Ghirardi used the density matrix and found that the system wasn’t factorisable; this was seen as a fulfilment of the NCT. We revisit the analysis and say quite simply that Ghirardi is mistaken. The system is rendered factorisable by a Schmidt decomposition and entanglement swapping to “which path information” of the interferometer; also one must consider the joint evolution before taking the partial trace. Ghirardi’s misuse, by the inapplicability of the NCT in this situation, renders this general prohibitive bar incomplete or entirely wrong.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0185.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Bioresorbable implants; Magnesium alloy; PHB; Biocompatibility; Cytotoxicity; NO; temporary implants
Online: 10 May 2021 (12:35:07 CEST)
Magnesium and its alloys are not normally used as bio-resorbable temporary implants due to their high and uncontrolled degradation rate in physiological liquid environment. The improvement of corrosion resistance to simulated body fluids (SBF) of a Magnesium alloy (AZ31) coated with poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and contact angle measurements were used to characterize surface morphology, material composition and wettability, respectively. pH modification of the SBF corroding medium, mass of Mg2+ ions released, and weight loss of the samples exposed to the SBF solution, and electrochemical experiment were used to describe the corrosion process and its kinetics. Materials biocompatibility was described by evaluating the effect of corrosion by products collected in the SBF equilibrating solution on hemolysis ratio, cytotoxicity, Nitric Oxide (NO), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). The results showed that the PHB coating can diffusively control the degradation rate of Magnesium alloy improving its biocompatibility: hemolysis rate of materials was lower than 5%, while in vitro Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells（HUVECs) compatibility experiments showed that PHB coated Mg alloy promoted cell proliferation and had no effect on the NO content, the T-AOC was enhanced compared with the normal group and bare AZ31 alloy. PHB coated AZ31 Magnesium alloy extraction fluids have a less toxic behavior due to the lower concentration of corrosion by-products deriving from the diffusion control exerted by the PHB coating films both from metal surface to the solution and vice versa. These findings provide more reference value for the selection of such system as tunable bioresorbable prosthetic materials
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0543.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Leaching of silver; Thiosemicarbazide-oxygen system; No toxic leaching process
Online: 31 August 2018 (08:59:37 CEST)
The mining wastes generated during the last decades in the mining region of Pachuca-Real del Monte in Mexico, still contains silver values of interest. For this reason, the present work is a preliminary study of the leaching kinetics of silver contained in these residues, using as a leaching reagent the thiosemicarbazide-oxygen system, with the aim of proposing this leaching system as a less toxic alternative than cyaniding process. Previous the leaching process, representative samples were wholly characterized, finding 56 g of Ag and 0.6 g of Au per ton. For the kinetic study in the mentioned system, were evaluated the reagent concentration, temperature, partial pressure of oxygen, pH and stirring rate. According the experimental results found, it was observed that [CH5N3S] concentration showed a significant effect on the leaching rate, obtaining a reaction order of n = 0.93, in the range of 20 - 40 mol CH5N3S ⋅ m-3, getting so a silver recovery up to 76.9%. The effect of temperature gave an activation energy of Ea = 45.55 KJ mol-1, which was indicative of a chemical reaction control. Finally, partial pressure of oxygen has a notable effect on leaching rate, but pH and stirring rate have not apparent effect.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0124.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: NO2; NO; gas sensor; nitrogen oxide emission; semiconductor; carbon; electrochemical
Online: 25 December 2016 (08:38:47 CET)
Reactive NOx is one of the major air pollutants, which also plays a key role as greenhouse gas. Many research efforts have been devoted to not only detection of NOx in air but also abatement of NOx emission. The aim of this mini review is to provide a panoramic snapshot of the electrochemical analysis methods for the emission and detection of NOx in atmosphere, with special emphasis on NOx sensor. The electrochemical detecting mechanism and materials for fabricating electrochemical gas sensors are discussed and the prospects and challenges in this area are also evaluated. This work will serve as a useful source to inform the interested audience of the latest developments and applications in the field of NOx emission and electrochemical detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0014.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: No-show; Medical Appointments; Healthcare; Artificial Intelligence; Data processing and management
Online: 1 September 2022 (08:57:07 CEST)
No-show appointments in healthcare is a problem faced by medical centers around the world, and understand the factors associated with the no-show behavior is essential. In the last decades, artificial intelligence took place in the medical field and machine learning algorithms can work as a efficient tool to understand the patients behavior and to achieve better medical appointment allocation in scheduling systems. In this work, we provide a systematic literature review (SLR) of machine learning techniques applied to no-show appointments aiming at establishing the current state-of-the-art. Based on a SLR following the Kitchenham methodology, 24 articles were found and analyzed, in which the characteristics of the database, algorithms and performance metrics of each studies were synthesized. Results regarding which factors have a higher impact on missed appointment rates were analyzed too. The results indicate that the most appropriate algorithms for building the models are decision tree algorithms. Furthermore, the most significant determinants of no-show were related to the patients age, whether the patient missed a previous appointment, and the distance between the appointment and the patients scheduling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0072.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: pay load adapter; robotic arm; no-cooperation spacecraft; suitable docking port
Online: 18 September 2017 (07:39:03 CEST)
In this work is represented conceptual model of robot-manipulator for capture and holding no-cooperation client spacecraft, which has Payload Adapter interface PAS 1666 S, PAS 1194 C, PAS 1666 MVS, PAS 1184 VS, when there are dynamic errors of linear and angular position of client spacecraft in the interval +/-5 deg. per minute and +/-0.1 meters per minute respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0475.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Chernozems; No-till; soil organic matter; Calcium; double-shot pyrolysis; GC/MS
Online: 25 November 2021 (12:53:08 CET)
Reducing the amount of precipitation in summer in the Chernozems area alters soil organic matter (SOM). To compensate for the lack of moisture, farmers are introducing new agricultural technologies such as no-till cultivation. In turn, no-till practices influence the composition of SOM. We examined the impacts of the rise of aridity and no-till technology on the chemical composition of bioavailable and recalcitrant pools of OM. The properties of SOM were assessed using double-shot pyrolysis with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The thermolabile substances that are volatilised in the first stage of pyrolysis (300°C) are considered the bioavailable pool. Accordingly, substances are obtained in the second pyrolysis stage (500°C) were attributed to the recalcitrant pool. Identified in both steps of pyrolysis, products were assigned to different chemical groups (lignin-derivative, polysaccharide-fragments, indoles, etc.) and relative abundances were calculated. In work for the separation of substances, a polar column was used for chromatography of the thermolabile fraction. With an increase in aridity in Сhernozems, the content in the bioavailable pool of polysaccharide fragments decreased and the proportion of indoles increased. In the recalcitrant pool, the abundance of six-membered rings with nitrogen and aromatic compounds decreases at the same time the contents of unsubstituted and O-substituted acyclic compounds as well as pyridine increases. The influence of the NT was more noticeable in the recalcitrant OM. The NT practice promotes biological activity and to rich in nitrogen compounds the bioavailable OM; this process contributes to the accumulation of carbon in the recalcitrant OM.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Electro-dynamic suspension; HTS magnets; no-insulation; closed-loop coils; persistent current model
Online: 13 July 2021 (10:08:02 CEST)
Null-flux Electro-dynamic suspension (EDS) system promises to be one of the feasible high-speed maglev systems above 600 km/h. On account of its greater current-carrying capacity, superconducting magnet can provide super-magnetomotive force that is required for null-flux EDS system and cannot be provided by electromagnets and permanent magnets. There is already a relatively mature high-speed maglev technology with low temperature superconducting (LTS) magnets as the core, which works in the liquid helium temperature region (T≤4.2 K). 2-Generation high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet winded by REBa2Cu3O7−δ (REBCO, RE=rare earth) tapes works above 20 K region and do not need to count on liquid helium which is rare on earth. This paper designed HTS no-insulation closed-loop coils applied for EDS system and energized with persistent current switch. The coils can work at persistent current model and has premier thermal quench self-protection. Besides, a full size double-pancake module was designed and manufactured in this paper, and it was tested in liquid nitrogen. The double-pancake module’s critical current is about 54 A and it is capable of working at persistent current model, whose average decay rate measured in 12 hours is 0.58%/day.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0424.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Genistein; nanofibers; spinal cord injury; inflammation; SOD; NO; MDA; IL-10; TNF-α
Online: 20 September 2018 (17:11:18 CEST)
Implantable drug-delivery systems provide new means for achieving therapeutic drug concentration over a prolonged time to achieve better tissue protection and enhanced recovery. The hypothesis of the current study was to test the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of genistein and nanofibers on the spinal cord tissue following experimental spinal cord injury (SCI). Rats were treated post SCI with genistein loaded on chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol (CS/PVA) nanofibers as an implantable drug-delivery system. SCI caused marked oxidative damage and inflammation as evident by the reduction in the super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the level of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in injured spinal cord tissue, as well as, the significant increase in the levels of nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Treatment of rats post SCI with genistein and CS/PVA nanofibers improved most of the above mentioned biochemical parameters and shifted them toward the control group values. Genistein induced an increase in the activity of SOD and the level of IL-10, while causing a decrease in the levels of NO, MDA and TNF-α in injured spinal cord tissue. Genistein and CS/PVA nanofibers provide a novel combination for treating inflammatory nervous tissue conditions, especially when combined as an implantable drug-delivery system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0125.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: flavonoids; nitric oxide (•NO); nitrosation; nitrous acid; quinones; redox reactions; stomach; thiocyanic acid.
Online: 28 June 2017 (07:41:14 CEST)
Foods are mixed with saliva in the oral cavity and swallowed. During staying in the stomach, saliva is contentiously provided to mix with the ingested foods. Because a salivary component nitrite is protonated to produce active nitrous acid at acidic pH, the redox reactions of nitrous acid with phenolic compounds in foods become possible in the stomach. In the reactions, nitrous acid is reduced to nitric oxide (•NO), producing various products from phenolic compounds. In the products, stable hydroxybezoyl benzofuranone derivatives, which are produced from quercetin and its 7-O-glucoside, are included. Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and rutin are oxidized to quinones and the quinones can react with thiocyanic acid derived from saliva producing stable oxathiolone derivatives. 6,8-Dinitrosocatechis are produced from catechins by the redox reaction, and the dinitrocatechins are oxidized further by nitrous acid producing the quinones, which can make charge transfer complexes with the dinitrosocatechin and can react with thiocyanic acid producing the stable thiocyanate conjugates. In this way, various products can be produced by the reactions of salivary nitrite with dietary phenolic compounds, and reactive and toxic quinones formed by the reactions are postulated to be removed in the stomach by thiocyanic acid derived from saliva.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0051.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: PDE2; cAMP/cGMP crosstalk; natriuretic peptides; NO signalling; heart failure; arrhythmia; inflammation; cardiovascular disease
Online: 3 September 2020 (04:20:07 CEST)
Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are the principal superfamily of enzymes responsible for degrading the secondary messengers 3’,5’-cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP. Their refined subcellular localization and substrate specificity contribute to finely regulate cAMP/cGMP gradients in various cellular microdomains. Redistribution of multiple signal compartmentalization components is often perceived under pathological conditions. Thereby PDEs have long been pursued as therapeutic targets in diverse disease conditions including neurological, metabolic, cancer and autoimmune disorders in addition to numerous cardiovascular diseases. PDE2 is a unique member of the broad family of PDEs. In addition to its capability to hydrolyze both cAMP and cGMP, PDE2 is the sole isoform that may be allosterically activated by cGMP increasing its cAMP hydrolyzing activity. Within the cardiovascular system, PDE2 serves as an integral regulator for the crosstalk between cAMP/cGMP pathways and thereby may couple chronically adverse augmented cAMP signalling with cardioprotective cGMP signalling. This review provides a comprehensive overview of PDE2 regulatory functions in multiple cellular components within the cardiovascular system and also within various subcellular microdomains. Implications for PDE2 mediated crosstalk mechanisms in diverse cardiovascular pathologies are discussed highlighting the prospective use of PDE2 as a potential therapeutic target in cardiovascular disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0294.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Reprocessing of mining wastes; Leaching of silver; Thiosemicarbazide-oxygen system; No toxic leaching process
Online: 16 August 2018 (15:20:17 CEST)
The mining wastes generated during the last decades in the mining region of Pachuca-Real del Monte in Mexico, still contains silver values of interest. For this reason, the present work is a preliminary study of the leaching kinetics of silver contained in these residues, using as a leaching reagent the thiosemicarbazide-oxygen system, with the aim of proposing this leaching system as a less toxic alternative than cyaniding process. Previous the leaching process, representative samples were wholly characterized, finding 56 g of Ag and 0.6 g of Au per ton. For the kinetic study in the mentioned system, were evaluated the reagent concentration, temperature, partial pressure of oxygen, pH and stirring rate. According the experimental results found, it was observed that [CH5N3S] concentration showed a significant effect on the leaching rate, obtaining a reaction order of n = 0.93, in the range of 20 - 40 mol CH5N3S × m-3, getting so a silver recovery up to 76.9%. The effect of temperature gave an activation energy of Ea = 45.55 KJ mol-1, which was indicative of a chemical reaction control. Finally, partial pressure of oxygen has a notable effect on leaching rate, but pH and stirring rate have not apparent effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0124.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: Carapa guianensis; Meliaceae; andiroba; seeds; limonoids; seco-phragmalin; mexicanolide; carapanosins A—C; NO production
Online: 7 June 2018 (15:06:25 CEST)
A novel nor-phragmalin-type limonoid, named carapanosin D (1), and two novel mexicanolide-type limonoids, carapanosins E (2) and F (3), were isolated from the seeds oil of Carapa guianensis AUBLET (andiroba), a traditional medicine in Brazil and Latin American countries. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses using 1D and 2D NMR techniques and HRFABMS. Compounds 1—3 were evaluated for their effects on the production of NO in LPS-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages. The NO inhibitory assay suggested that compound 2 may be valuable as potential inhibitors of macrophage activation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0048.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: NO; NOS; genetics; nitric oxide; nitric oxide synthase; oxidative stress; pathogenesis; mental disorders, neurological diseases
Online: 4 February 2020 (11:06:10 CET)
According to the recent data, nitric oxide (NO) is a chemical messenger that mediates functions such as vasodilation and neurotransmission, it also possesses antimicrobial and antitumoral activities. Nitric oxide has been implicated in neurotoxicity associated with stroke and neurodegenerative diseases, neural regulation of smooth muscle, including peristalsis, and penile erection. We searched for full-text English publications in Pubmed and SNPedia databases using keywords and combined word searches (nitric oxide, single nucleotide variants, single nucleotide polymorphisms, genes) over the past 15 years. In addition, earlier publications of historical interest were included in the review. In our review, we have sum up all NOS1, NOS2, NOS3, and NOS1AP single nucleotide variants (SNVs) involved in the development of mental disorders and neurological diseases/conditions. The results of studies we have discussed in this review are contradictory, that might be due to different designs of the studies, small sample sizes in some of them, as well as different social and geographical characteristics. However, the contribution of genetic and environmental factors has been understudied, that makes this issue increasing for researchers as the understanding of these mechanisms can support a search for new approaches to pathogenetic and disease-modifying treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0193.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: bell states; BSM; EPR pairs; LOCC; no-cloning theorem; quantum communications; quantum entanglement; quantum teleportation
Online: 26 July 2018 (04:59:03 CEST)
A simplified version of the quantum teleportation protocol is presented in here. Its experimental confirmation will have deep implications for a better understanding of Quantum Entanglement with a particular projection on Quantum Communications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0649.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Infertile women; Hysteroscopy; Clinical pregnancy rate; Live birth rate; No Intrauterine pathology; endometrial stimulation; Systematic review
Online: 26 September 2020 (16:39:39 CEST)
(1) Background: The aim of this work was to systematically review existing studies on whether hysteroscopy improves the reproductive outcomes of women with infertility even in the absence of intrauterine pathologies when compared to women who did not receive a hysteroscopy. (2) Methods: We established the Participant-Intervention-Comparison-Outcome strategy and used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement to conduct a systematic review of 11 studies which were retrieved from 3 electronic databases: Ovid-Medline, Ovid-Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Two independent investigators extracted the data from the included studies and used the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool to assess their quality. (3) Results: The primary outcome measures were the clinical pregnancy rates (CPRs) and live birth rates (LBRs) in the in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Hysteroscopy in infertile women without intrauterine pathologies showed higher CPRs and LBRs than those in the same population who did not receive hysteroscopy in cases of recurrent implantation failure and IVF (odds ratio: 1.79 and 1.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.46-2.30 and 1.08-1.97 for CPR and LBR, respectively); however, the degree of significance was not as high for LBR. (4) Conclusions: Hysteroscopy before IVF/ICSI in infertile women without intrauterine pathologies may potentially be effective in improving the CPRs and LBRs in patients with RIF. Robust and high-quality randomized trials are warranted to confirm this finding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0191.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: Quantum Rayleigh emissions; photonic beam splitters and filters; photon coincidence counting; HOM dip with no entangled photons
Online: 17 September 2019 (12:47:42 CEST)
The quantum Rayleigh spontaneous emission replaces entangled photons with independent ones in homogeneous dielectric media where single photons cannot propagate in a straight line. Single and independent groups of photons, described by the original bare states of Jaynes-Cummings model, deliver the correct expectation values for the number of photons carried by a photonic wavefront, its complex optical field, and phase quadratures. The intrinsic longitudinal field profile associated with a photonic wavefront is derived for any instantaneous number of photons. These photonic properties enable a step-by-step analysis of various beam splitters and interferometric filters. As a result, generalized expressions are derived for the correlation functions characterizing counting of coincident numbers of photons for fourth-order interference, whether classical or quantum optical, without entangled photons.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0051.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: melatonin; ROS; NO; posttranslational modifications (PMTs); abiotic stress; drought; salinity; high temperature; high light; waterlogging; abiotic stress combination
Online: 5 October 2020 (07:48:29 CEST)
Abiotic stress in plants is an increasingly common problem in agriculture, and thus, studies on plant treatments with specific certain compounds that may help to mitigate these effects have increased in recent years Melatonin (MET) application and its role in mitigating the negative effects of abiotic stress in plants have become important in the last few years. MET, a derivative of tryptophan, is an important plant-related response molecule involved in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants, and the induction of different stress factors. In addition, MET plays a protective role against different abiotic stresses such as salinity, high/low temperature, high light, waterlogging, nutrient deficiency and stress combination by regulating both the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. Also, MET interacts with many signaling molecules, among these, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), and participates in a wide variety of physiological reactions. It is well known that NO produces S-nitrosylation and NO2-Tyr of important antioxidant-related proteins, being this an important mechanism for maintaining the antioxidant capacity of the AsA/GSH cycle under nitro-oxidative conditions, being extensively reviewed here under different abiotic stress conditions. Lastly, in this review, we show the coordination between NO and MET as a long-range signaling molecule, regulating many responses in plants, including plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. Despite all the knowledge acquired over the years, there is still more to know about how MET and NO act on tolerance to abiotic stresses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0203.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Dark matter; no dark matter; halo-curves; gravity-forces; galactic core; third Kepler-law; centripetal force; stellar halo- velocity
Online: 14 January 2022 (11:20:04 CET)
Since several years there is the discussion about dark matter in the halos of galaxies. This is aconsequence of observation of halo-velocity curves in dependence of distance which don‘t fulfillthe third Kepler-law. Maybe the ansätze are wrong. Shown is a simple physical model in classicalNewton-dynamics which fits qualitative the form of observation curves. Additional Parameters canbe used to fit the curves quantitative exactly without the hypothesis of dark matter.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Oleuropein; colon cancer; activated macrophages; chronic inflammation; inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS); cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2); nitric oxide (NO)
Online: 2 August 2021 (12:04:58 CEST)
Abstract: Oleuropein, the major compound of olive leaves, has been reported to exert numerous pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and anticancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate, for the first time, the effect of oleuropein-rich leaf extracts (ORLE) in already-developed colon tumours colon tumours arising in an Apc (adenomatous polyposis coli) mutated PIRC rats (F344/NTac-Apcam1137). Here, we were able to investigate in parallel the anti-cancer effect of ORLE, both in vivo and in vitro, and its anti-inflammatory effect on macrophages, which represents a critical and abundant population in most solid tumours microenvironment. We found that in vivo ORLE treatment promoted apoptosis and attenuated iNOS activity both in colon tumours as in peritoneal macrophages of PIRC rats. We confirmed in vitro using primary RAW264.7 cells: ORLE reduced iNOS activity in parallel with COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6 and TGF-. These findings suggest that ORLE possess a strong anti-inflammatory activity, which could be crucial for dampening the pro-tumourigenic activity elicited by a chronic inflammatory state generated by either tumour cells or tumour-associated macrophages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: ascending aorta aneurysm; bicuspid aorta valve; tricuspid aorta valve; ERG transcriptional factor pathway; TGF-β-SMAD, Notch, and NO pathways modulation.
Online: 2 August 2022 (03:43:22 CEST)
Abstract: The pathobiology of ascending aorta aneurysms (AAA) onset and progression is not well understood and only partially characterized. AAA are also complicated in case of bicuspid aorta valve (BAV) anatomy. There is emerging evidence about the crucial role of endothelium-related pathways, which show in AAA an altered expression and function. Here, we examined the involvement of ERG-related pathways in the differential progression of disease in aortic tissues from patients having a BAV or tricuspid aorta valve (TAV) with or without AAA. Our findings identified ERG as a novel endothelial-specific regulator of TGF-β-SMAD, Notch, and NO pathways, by modulating a differential fibrotic or calcified AAA progression in BAV and TAV aortas. We provided evidence that calcification is correlated to different ERG expression (as gene and protein), which appears to be under control of Notch signaling. The latter, when increased, associated with an early calcification in aortas with BAV valve and aneurysmatic, was demonstrated to favor the progression versus severe complications, i.e., dissection or rupture. In TAV aneurysmatic aortas, ERG appeared to modulate fibrosis. Therefore, we proposed that ERG may represent a sensitive tissue biomarker to monitor AAA progression and a target to develop therapeutic strategies and influence surgical procedures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0293.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: machine Learning (ML); artificial neutral network (ANN); bagging decision tree (BDT); SUpport Vector Machines (SVM); no free lunch theorem (NFLT); hyperparameter optimisation; model comparison; heat meter
Online: 13 November 2018 (04:41:07 CET)
Heat metres are used to calculate the consumed energy in central heating systems. The subject of this article is to prepare a method of predicting a failure of a heat meter in the next settlement period. Predicting failures is essential to coordinate the process of exchanging the heat metres and to avoid inaccurate readings, incorrect billing and additional costs. The reliability analysis of heat metres was based on historical data collected over many years. Three independent models of machine learning were proposed, and they were applied to predict failures of metres. The efficiency of the models was confirmed and compared using the selected metrics. The optimisation of hyperparameters characteristics for each of models was successfully applied. The article shows that the diagnostics of devices does not have to rely only on newly collected information, but it is also possible to use the existing big data sets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0433.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: SRT; fourth-order-theory; any velocity; FTL; real rest mass; resonance analogy; damped space-time; SR-Extrapolation; superluminal-velocity; negative kinetic energy; fourth-order worldline-element; no-tachyons
Online: 16 April 2021 (10:42:35 CEST)
Abstract: Discussed is an expansion of SRT to fourth-order of space-time including any velocities and possible negative kinetic energies by real rest mass in analogy of the model amplitude of enforced damped oscillation. This paper serves an introduction to developed SRT including superluminar translating velocities without tachyons or imaginary restmass. Focused is on those parts, which develop the elaborated lorentz-transformations. Discussed are the problems of this theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0640.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Databases; database administration; database management systems; counting; storage; structure; search; No SQL; SQL; Oracle; relational databases; non-relational databases; magnetic tapes; punched tapes; relational model; Datamining; BigData; Datawarehouse
Online: 25 March 2021 (16:05:52 CET)
Databases are by far the most valuable asset of companies. Since the need was seen not only to count but also to have some type of record of elements such as crops, animals, money, properties and that this record could be consulted and modified according to the situation, that is where the first database was born. , and after that, these databases cannot be disorganized, they also need to be managed and administered under established standards that facilitate their understanding and management not only by their creators but by the other people who subsequently administer them. Databases and database management systems have an interesting evolutionary history that deserves to be analyzed and this is the objective of this document, where it is sought to understand. Along with databases and their management systems, data mining or Data mining arises that in order not to extend ourselves so much, it is the job of finding common patterns in various data sources and in what way they can be used to predict situations or results of various circumstances; We also focus on the other topic that we will present, Oracle data mining, which roughly is to merge data mining with Oracle, which makes it a powerful tool for obtaining information and predicting results based on statistics.In this article we will study and analyze the ideas, concepts and basic examples that make up SGBD and Data Mining and, we will try to go deeper into this topic, the use of decision techniques such as advanced statistical algorithms. We also present a fictitious example of the application of these techniques: predicting which products can be sold based on their relationship with others. we will give a brief explanation of association rules, data mining cycle and the types of learning and the evolution that data mining has had.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0409.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Black Hole has no hair; Electromagnetic field of a charged black hole, Electromagnetic field of a supported charge in gravitational field; electric fields follow photo trajectories in gravitational field
Online: 24 August 2022 (04:49:54 CEST)
Using the principle of equivalence, it has recently been shown that the electrostatic field lines of a charge, stationary in the gravitational field, bend exactly like the trajectories of photons emitted isotropically from a source at the charge location and that the fraction of electric flux crossing a surface `below' or `above' the charge is exactly similar to the fraction of photon trajectories intersecting these surfaces, with more flux in the downward direction than upward. As one goes much deeper in the gravitational field, all electric field lines increasingly point in the vertically downward direction as is also the case for a stream of photons. Since photon trajectories as well as electric field lines, at any location in the gravitational field, are affected by the local space-time curvature an inference can be drawn that this parallel between the photon trajectories and the electric field lines is a general result. We could then apply these results in the external gravitational field of a black hole, where the trajectories of photons in the gravitational field are already well-known and the behaviour of electric field lines of a stationary charge could be inferred therefrom. Accordingly, we show that the electric field through an external spherical surface surrounding the black hole steadily reduces as the charge location approaches the event horizon (Schwarzschild radius), and like photons from a source inside the Schwarzschild radius cannot escape outside, the electric field lines of a charge within the black hole too remain trapped inside the event horizon. From this one arrives at a conclusion that, contrary to the conventional wisdom, the electric charge contained inside a static black hole cannot be detected or inferred by an external observer. A black hole, said to have no hair with the only external identifying characteristics being mass, electric charge, and angular momentum, is therefore all the more `hairless', as even its charge cannot be ascertained. The derivation of the Reissner-Nordström metric, supposedly describing the gravitational field of a static charged black hole, presumes an external stress-energy tensor of the electrostatic field, as per Gauss law, even for the charges contained within the black hole. However, the absence of electric flux external to a static charged black hole implies that such a charged black hole is not described correctly by the Reissner-Nordström metric and the consequential peculiarities of the space-time geometry, leading in specific cases to the idea of a naked intrinsic singularity and a need for the ``cosmic censorship'' hypothesis, also do not arise here.