ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0405.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Eye-tracking; distraction; pedestrian behavior; glance behavior; reaction time; signalized crossings.
Online: 16 March 2021 (09:23:11 CET)
Smartphones have become an integral part of our everyday lives and keep us busy while doing other primary activities such as driving, cycling or walking in traffic. The problem of digital distraction among drivers has been largely addressed, and interest is growing also on vulnerable road users as well: In fact, high percentages of pedestrians and cyclists are accustomed to checking their devices while moving in traffic. This research links to the presented theme and aims to investigate the extent to which digital distraction in the form of social media app checking influences pedestrian behavior. The focus of the study is specifically on signalized intersections. An outdoor, eye-tracking experiment was conducted on a specific route consisting of various elements typical of urban areas. Participants were asked to walk the predefined route twice, en-countering three signalized intersections: the first time they were asked to walk with their smartphone in hand, the second time without. The recordings of each participant's route were then analyzed, examining reaction time, crossing time and speed, fixations, and gaze paths. The results show a clear impact of digital devices on pedestrians' attention by increasing their reaction and crossing times and decreasing crossing speeds. In addition, the analysis of fixations found that 82.54% of the time was devoted to the smartphone, while interest in other street ele-ments decreased from 16.64% to 4.03%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0376.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Photo-taking Behavior; photo capturing and sharing; bystanders; human behavior analysis; identity protection
Online: 13 September 2020 (11:16:17 CEST)
Nowadays, with smartphones people can easily take photos, post photos to any social networks and use the photos for some purposes. This leads to a social problem that unintended appearance in photos may threaten the privacy of photographed person. Some solutions to protect facial privacy in photos have already been proposed. However, most of them rely on different techniques to de-identify photos which can be done only by photographers, giving no choice to photographed person. To deal with that, we propose an approach that allows photographed person to proactively detect whether someone is intentionally/unintentionally trying to take pictures of him/her. Thereby, he/she can have appropriate reaction to protect the privacy. In this approach, we assume that the photographed person uses a wearable camera to record the surrounding environment in real-time. The skeleton information of likely photographers who are captured in the monitoring video is then extracted to be put into the calculation of dynamic programming score which is eventually compared with a threshold for recognition of photo-taking behavior. Experimental results demonstrate that by using the proposed approach, the photo-taking behavior is precisely recognized with high accuracy of 92.5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0701.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: COVID-19; eating behavior; diet; food concern; Google Trends; health behavior.
Online: 28 December 2020 (12:55:42 CET)
COVID-19 pandemic and its restrictive measures have present serious unprecedented challenges to human eating behavior. Given that Google Search has become a valuable information resource to examine, predict, and estimate human online interests and behavior, that somehow linked to real people concerns. This study aimed to investigate the features and evaluate the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and its lockdown on consumer worldwide interest in eating behavior and its related factors. Google Trends-Relative Search Volumes (RSV) of distinct keywords related to eating behavior, were obtained from a timeframe before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, from January 1, 2018, to December 13, 2020. During the global lockdown from March 11, 2020, to June 30, 2020, RSV curves exhibited a short-term fluctuation of interest in multiple keywords related to eating behavior and its related factors such as food purchasing, food security, food poisoning, panic buying, stocking up, health awareness and mental illness. Spearman’s correlation analysis showed a strong correlation between daily confirmed cases and examined keywords. Univariate repeated measures ANOVA following with Bonferroni Post-hoc test revealed that during the year with the presence of COVID-19 pandemic, people worldwide pay more concerns in each keyword (1) environmental and economic factors (unemployment: +269%, food shortage: +180%, food bank: +50%); (2) health- and food-safety concerns (immunity: +138%, vitamin C: +90%, vitamin D: +55%, zinc: +47%, food storage containers: +40%, food packaging: +31%); (3) food choices and interest (local meat: +84%, frozen food: +67%, CSA: +65%, flour: +66%, bread: +53%, soybean oil: +45%, local fruit: +43%, canned tomato: +42%, refrigerated food: +41%, canned meat: +39%, pancake: +37%, cookie: +29%, butter: +29%, canned fish: +29%, liquior: +20%); (4) social and individual factors (take-out: +128%, deliver: +53%), (6) lifestyle factors (stationary bicycle: +110%, dumbbell: +89%, yoga mat: +84%, treadmill: +65%, grocery store: +51%); (6) psychological factors (isolation: +113%). COVID-19 pandemic and its lockdown have had far-reaching effects on global concerns in many factors related to human eating behavior. Swift action is necessarily performed to strengthen the resilience of the food supply chain system, support and adapt to the new normal behavior, and mitigation the profound negative changes, especially targeting those in high-risks and vulnerable groups and food-insecure regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0456.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: Bibliometric Analysis; Bad Behavior; Unethical Behavior; Composite Index; Development.
Online: 28 October 2022 (12:14:41 CEST)
Objective. Political instability, corruption, exclusive institutions et al. are some of the hypotheses backed by literature as to why some nations are more developed than others. One hypothesis which has not been intensively studied is the culpability of individual and institutional behavior and its impact on development. To examine the validity of such a hypothesis, a composite index which quantifies such development hindering behavior must be developed. The prelude to developing this index is to investigate whether such a quantitative measure exists to begin with. To achieve this objective, a bibliometric analysis of Scopus and Web of Science databases will be conducted. Method. A bibliometric and content analysis of Scopus and Web of science databases using Excel, VOSviewer, and R software. Results. The findings of the bibliometric analysis indicate the absence of such measure particularly within the scope of ‘bad behavior’, ‘unethical behavior’, and ‘development’. Conclusions. The study findings provide the greenlight to proceed with the construction of the ‘Bad Behavior Index’. Contribution. The practical contribution of this study is that it provides researchers with an improved methodology on how to conduct a bibliometric analysis to identify the absence of knowledge and provide a justification for the creation of such knowledge by integrating and analyzing two journal databases instead of one, using three mediums: Excel, VOSviewer, and R software.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0355.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: consumer behavior,; celebrity endorsement, Romanian market
Online: 13 April 2021 (13:09:22 CEST)
The idea of the current research started from noticing a major gap in the customer behavior literature - researchers scarcely analyzed the impact of scandals on the customer purchase decision in the case of celebrity endorsement. Using a quantitative approach based on questionnaires, 101 people were asked about their opinions, the goals being to find out if people are influenced by the celebrity scandals, if people tend to have different reactions in terms of consumer purchase decision when it comes to various different negative actions carried on by the endorsers - will a murder upset the customers more than an infidelity scandal? - and if there are any differences in treating Romanian and foreign celebrities once they would enter into such a scandal.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0280.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: animal welfare; animal training; applied animal behavior; behavior analysis; behavioral engineering; environmental enrichment; zoos
Online: 15 November 2022 (07:20:08 CET)
The field of applied behavior analysis has been directly involved in both research and applications of behavioral principles to improve the lives of captive zoo animals. Thirty years ago, Forthman and Ogden (1992) wrote one of the first papers documenting some of these efforts. Since that time, considerable work has been done using behavioral principles and procedures to guide zoo welfare efforts. The current paper re-examines and updates Forthman and Ogden’s original points, with attention to the five categories they detailed: (1) promotion of species-typical behavior, (2) reintroduction and repatriation of endangered species, (3) animal handling, (4) pest control, and (5) animal performances. In addition, we outline three current and future directions for behavior analytic endeavors: (i) experimental analyses of behavior and the zoo, (ii) applied behavior analysis and the zoo, and (iii) within-subject methodology and the zoo. The goal is to provide a framework that can guide future behavioral research in zoos, as well as create applications based on these empirical evaluations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0148.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: operability envelope; SPT installation; drill pipe; ocean conditions; mechanical behavior
Online: 16 June 2019 (11:09:07 CEST)
The article presents a mathematical model to investigate the operability envelopes for subsea production tress (SPT) installation using drill pipe. The finite differential method was used to solve the established governing equations in which the ocean conditions were considered. Based on the evaluations of the ocean wave, ocean current, water depth, specification of drill pipe and SPT weight that might dominate the mechanical behaviors of the pipe, the operability envelopes with permissible ocean conditions for SPT installation were obtained. The results indicate that changes of depths in deep water and SPT weight have few effects on the operation conditions and it would be better to choose smaller pipe to obtain larger permissible ocean conditions during SPT installation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0271.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: family functioning; aggressive behavior; emotional intelligence; adolescent values
Online: 24 December 2018 (05:19:54 CET)
Aggressive behavior in adolescence is influenced by a diversity of individual, family and social variables. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between family functioning, emotional intelligence and values for development of different types of aggression, as well as to establish profiles according to the predictor variables of aggression. To do this, a sample of 317 high school students aged 13 to 18 were administered the Peer Conflict Scale, the Family Functionality Scale, the Brief Emotional Intelligence Inventory for Senior Citizens and the Values for Adolescent Development Scales. The study showed that stress management, positive adolescent development and family functioning predominated in nonaggressive subjects with higher scores than aggressors. There was also a negative relationship between the different types of aggression and emotional intelligence, positive values and family functioning. In addition, two different profiles were found. The first had low scores on all the variables, while the second profile had higher scores on all the variables except family functioning which was higher.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0454.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Ransomware; Behavior analysis; Cyber Security; Machine Learning; Ensemble model; Supervised classification
Online: 31 January 2022 (11:49:48 CET)
Ransomware is one of the most dangerous types of malware, which is frequently intended to spread through a network to damage the designated client by encrypting the client’s vulnerable data. Conventional signature-based ransomware detection technique falls behind because it can only detect known anomalies. When it comes to new and non-familiar ransomware traditional system unveils huge shortcomings. For detecting unknown patterns and sorts of new ransomware families,behavior-based anomaly detection approaches are likely to be the most efficient approach. In the wake of this alarming condition, this paper presents an ensemble classification model consisting of three widely used machine learning techniques that include Decision Tree (DT), RandomForest (RF), and K-nearest neighbor (KNN). To achieve the best outcome ensemble soft voting and hard voting techniques are used while classifying ransomware families based on attack attributes. Performance analysis is done by comparing our proposed ensemble models with standalone models on behavioral attributes based ransomware dataset..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0231.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Behavior-Based safety; Critical behavior checklist; Behavioral definition; Intervention; Safe behavior
Online: 18 February 2022 (09:53:30 CET)
Background: It is necessary to apply a behavior-based safety (BBS) program to prevent at-risk behavior. An effective BBS program requires the implementation of not only behavioral definitions and a customized critical behavior checklist (CBC) but also observations of behavior, coupled with customized interventions at power plants. Method: In this study, a customized CBC and behavioral definition were developed through a review of five different sites that previously used a CBC. The rules of observation, flow, and target were established to initiate the observations. Customized interventions were selected to increase safe behaviors. CBC scoring was used to evaluate observed safe behaviors for three years. Recognized safe behaviors were evaluated with a questionnaire that included four items each for conformity and participation behaviors and were then analyzed through a factor analysis and a t-test. The questionnaires were conducted three months before and after the implementation of the BBS program. Results: The customized CBC, behavioral definition, and interventions were effective, such that observed safe behaviors and the levels of workers’ recognized safe behaviors increased. Conclusion: The application of the BBS program was found to increase the observed and recognized safe behaviors. Therefore, the program applied to this site can help increase safe behaviors at other identical or similar sites, as well as prevent an accident, which also corresponds with the results of prior studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0388.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder; activity analysis; automated detection; repetitive behavior; abnormal gait; visual saliency
Online: 19 October 2020 (14:49:24 CEST)
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neuro-developmental disorder that limits social interactions, cognitive skills, and abilities. Since ASD can last during an affected person's entire life cycle, the diagnosis at the early onset can yield a significant positive impact. The current medical diagnostic systems (e.g., DSM-5/ICD-10) are somewhat subjective; rely purely on the behavioral observation of symptoms, and hence, some individuals often go misdiagnosed or late-diagnosed. Therefore, researchers have focused on developing data-driven automated diagnosis systems with less screening time, low cost, and improved accuracy while significantly reducing professional intervention. Human Activity Analysis (HAA) is considered one of the most promising niches in computer vision research. This paper aims to analyze its potentialities in the automated detection of autism by tracking the exclusive characteristics of autistic individuals such as repetitive behavior, atypical walking style, and unusual visual saliency. This review provides a detailed inspection of HAA-based autism detection literature published in 2011 on-wards depicting core approaches, challenges, probable solutions, available resources, and scopes of future exploration in this arena. According to our study, deep learning outperforms machine learning in ASD detection with a classification accuracy of 76\% to 95\% on different datasets comprise of video, image, or skeleton data that recorded participants performing a large number of actions. However, machine learning provides satisfactory results on datasets with a small number of action classes and has a range of 60\% to 93\% accuracy among numerous studies. We hope this extensive review will provide a comprehensive guideline for researchers in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0078.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: market segmentation; coffee market; consumer behavior; sustainable consumption; sustainable values; factor analysis; cluster analysis
Online: 5 November 2018 (03:20:47 CET)
In the face of the ongoing degradation of the natural environment and increasingly worrying climate change, societies and their governments should pay more and more attention to the issue of the development of sustainable consumption and pro-environmental consumer behaviour. It has been known for a long time that producers and retailers are the driving force behind adopting the idea of sustainable development. Unfortunately, many of them, when preparing the offer of their goods and services, still take into account only such consumer characteristics as their wealth, the purchasing frequency and volume. In consumer segmentation, the sustainable values that consumers follow when making their purchasing decisions are rarely taken into account. The purpose of the presented article is to try to fill the research gap in this area. The Polish coffee market, on which this type of research has not been conducted so far, was chosen as an example of segmentation taking into account the sustainable values of consumers. The article’s main source of information is the results of primary research carried out using the CAWI (Computer-Assisted Web Interview) technique on a nationwide sample of 800 coffee consumers in July 2018. Multi-dimensional analyses such as extrapolative factor analysis (EFA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used to describe the results which were obtained from the research and statistical analysis. This made it possible to identify and describe six segments of coffee consumers, taking into account their demographic, social and economic characteristics as well as being guided by sustainable values in their purchases. The conclusions presented in the last part of the article may be used by manufacturing and trade enterprises, operating on the coffee market, in order to respond to the identified needs and expectations of consumers and by governmental and social organisations so as to determine the directions of pro-ecological education of consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0451.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ADAS; Driving behavior; Cyclists; Road safety; Visual behavior
Online: 23 December 2022 (07:58:49 CET)
The possibility of using some warnings inside modern vehicles should be an aid to the driving activity. However, the information transferred to users is not always received in the expected way due to the variability and complexity of the road environment. This study, therefore, aims to identify a procedure that allows to ascertain whether drivers receive the data in an appropriate way even during particular manoeuvres, such as passing cyclists on a winding road or, on the contrary, if they represent an unnecessary overload. To answer this question, an experimentation in a simulated environment was set up with which the drivers’ visual behaviour was recorded in presence and absence of a driving aid device (On- Board Unit, OBU). The results show that, in some situation, the information provided by the OBU helps to maintain a more virtuous driving behaviour but, in the most complex ones, drivers acquire information from a smaller number of sources, excluding the aid devices present inside the cockpit. This procedure is useful for ADAS designers in order to refine these instruments but also for road managers who can improve safety by inserting appropriate signs or speed limits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0085.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: Consumer Behavior; Online Food Ordering Systems; Behavior Intention
Online: 6 September 2022 (10:03:48 CEST)
The recent development of the Internet has boosted the extension of online food services by enabling people to search, compare prices and conveniently access these services. Because, only with an online system, small and medium-sized economic actors can compete with established food company such as McD and KFC. Therefore, it is important to know consumer behavior patterns from online food ordering systems for developing marketing strategies. Exploring online consumer behavior provides a better understanding of consumer segmentation in food demand and thus helps to lay the foundation for developing an online marketing strategy for competitive advantage. The purpose of this study is to finding factors affecting attitude towards online food retailing. This study uses a quantitative approach by involving respondents who often use online food ordering systems (Go-Food) applications in Bandung. The results showed that hedonic motivation and price saving orientation had no significant effect on behavior intention toward OFD services by Go-Food, while time saving orientation, prior online purchase experience and convenience motivation had a significant effect on behavior intention toward OFD services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0240.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Environmental values; prosocial behavior; sustainable; clothing disposal behavior
Online: 12 October 2020 (12:33:03 CEST)
Large quantities of clothing are routinely discarded, ending up in landfills that contribute to the environmental crisis; hence, it is worthwhile investigating how to dispose of this waste in a sustainable way. This study considered environmental values and prosocial behavior from a behaviorism theory. The aim was to set up an environmental protection model for the sustainable disposal of consumer clothing. A structural equation modeling analysis of 407 undergraduate and postgraduate consumer data in Taiwan revealed that consumers’ choice to donate clothing was influenced by environmental values and prosocial behaviors. Clothing resale was influenced by the factor of prosocial behavior. However, prosocial consumers used other disposal patterns instead of resale. Clothing reuse was not influenced by either environmental values or prosocial behavior. The results indicated that environmental values and prosocial behavior did in fact influence consumers’ choices regarding clothing donation. However, prosocial consumers used other disposal patterns instead of resale. Behaviorism theory model is effective in analyzing the factors influencing sustainable clothing disposal. To face clothing waste issues, one can intensify traditional values of industriousness and thriftiness, of compassion and sympathy to others, to accelerate the promotion of the sustainable disposal of clothing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0355.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: behavioral factors; fuzzy analysis; gender; employees’ demographics; organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)
Online: 29 May 2019 (15:44:20 CEST)
This paper aims to investigate impact of employees’ gender on OCB as per the employees’ perception in Jordanian governmental hospitals. A convenient sample of 126 employees working in the three main governmental hospitals in north of Jordan has been taken for the purpose of this study. The collected data includes linguistic terms that suffer from uncertainty which, in turn, cannot be dealt with traditional numerical values. The result prove that gender impact on OCB has shown statistically significant differences at (α=0.05) as far as altruism, courtesy, and civic virtue are concerned; and this variable stands in favor of males with the total score of 0.011%. Similarly, as far as the effect of age factor on OCB is concerned, there have been statistically significant differences at (α=0.05) in relation to courtesy, sportsmanship, and civic virtue with the total score of 0.27%. Finally, the results provide a baseline data for further studies which may contribute more significant in the field of OCB.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0494.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: panic disorder; animal experimentation; defensive behavior (Animal); escape behavior (animal)
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:50:13 CEST)
Panic disorder (PD) is characterized by recurrent and uncontrollable panic attacks associated with behavioral changes and/or persistent anxiety due to the attacks. The development of behavioral models in animals is important for the understanding of the psychobiological and behavioral bases of PD. The present article reviews the main models used in the current literature. Biobehavioral assays used in rats and mice include fear conditioning (which presents moderate predictive, face, and construct validities); the elevated T-maze (which presents good predictive validity, but low face and construct validities); electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal gray (which presents good face validity, but moderate construct validity); predator exposure models (which present good predictive and moderate construct validity); and hypercapnia-induced responses (which present moderate construct validity). These three approaches seek coherence with theories on fear as a way to increase its translational potential; thus, while the elevated T-maze is supported by the Deakin/Graeff theory, the mouse defense test battery relies on the concept of defensive distance, and periaqueductal gray stimulation is based on the functional neuroanatomy of fear. Moreover, to higher or lower degree the three models are supported by an “etho-experimental” approach, with careful observation of animal behavior as a way of discriminating different defensive strategies that model different aspects of anxiety, fear, and panic. These assays can be used, in conjunction with independent variables that attempt to simulate the vulnerabilities and stressors which lead to panic attacks, to produce true models of PD. Finally, an alternative/complementary model is proposed that uses zebrafish alarm reaction to study this disorder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0267.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: derailment containment provisions; collision load; contact force; center of gravity; train derailment; vehicle body behavior
Online: 19 October 2022 (04:17:52 CEST)
In order to reduce the large damage caused by train derailment, protective facilities of various shapes and conditions can be installed on railroad tracks. These protective facilities are referred to as derailment containment provisions (DCPs) and three different types are used worldwide. However, there are no clear standards for DCPs design such as installation location, size, and design load, and performance verification of DCPs installed in the actual railway field is not sufficiently performed. In this paper, the functionality of DCPs is analyzed through the full-scale derailment test. In order to propose a method for estimating the collision load acting on the DCP type I after derailment, the experimental results and simulation results are compared. The function of DCP type I according to the change of the vehicle's center of gravity is identified through comparative analysis of the post derailment behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0068.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: wearable device; physical activity; behavior; COVID-19; pandemic; exercise habits; analysis; objectively-measured physical activity
Online: 5 September 2022 (13:49:56 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in government restrictions that altered the lifestyle of people worldwide. Studying the impact of these restrictions on exercise behaviors will improve our understanding of environmental factors that influence individuals’ PA. We conducted a retrospective analysis using an index of government pandemic stringency developed by Oxford and a wearable device for runners to compare strictness of lockdowns and exercise habits, using digitally-logged PA data from more than 7,000 runners on a global scale. Additionally, time-of-day of PA globally and levels of PA in 14 countries are compared between the pre-pandemic year of 2019 and the first pandemic year of 2020. We found that during the pandemic the time-of-day that people exercised experienced a major shift, with significantly more activities logged during standard working hours on workdays (p<0.001) and fewer during the same time frame on weekends (p<0.001). Of the countries examined, Italy and Spain had among the most strict lockdowns and suffered the largest decreases in activity counts, whereas France experienced a minimal decrease in activity counts despite enacting a similarly strict lockdown. This study suggests that there are several factors affecting PA, including government policy, workplace policy, and cultural norms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0261.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: environmental behavior; financial industry; employee survey; behavioral acceptance; intention-behavior-gap
Online: 19 May 2022 (11:39:40 CEST)
The financial sector, too, is developing innovative services and products that have the potential to make a more positive impact on global environmental goals. However, research sheds little light on environmental attitudes and behavioral patterns of employees in this sector. There are multiple factors promoting or inhibiting environmental behavior. Those factors may be rooted in individual or subjective norms, but also social influence and to some extent financial incentives and benefits. A survey concerning the intention to improve and actually show ‘green behavior’ was developed based on widely used acceptance models which differentiate between desirable behavior and the intention to show such behavior. Employees are predominately responsive towards environmental behavior: 20% are convinced of the need to act in a “green” and sustainable manner, only 5% are hard to win over or are not accessible at all. Financial loss or benefits combined with social motives contribute to sustainable living whereas financial benefits alone actually hinder such behavior. The study underlines the existence of a intention-behavior gap: The intention to behave sustainably is built somewhat separately from various influences. There are moderating factors like sex, age and family status that influence the decisions. This then leads to a gap between intention and actual behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0329.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Financial Behavior; Investor Attitudes; Traders and Investors Behavior; Experience; Investment Decision
Online: 13 April 2021 (09:14:10 CEST)
Pakistan is under developing country and it has an unpredictable market nature of shareholder-investors observe the company’s performance. This research could help to companies in understanding financial behavior, attitude and investors’ satisfaction in stock trade. Financial behavior is comparatively new subject in Pakistan therefore; this study has examined the financial behavior and attitude of investors. The behavioral finance that has been attempted to understand the positive experiences influences investors’ financial behavior. This study has find out that investor satisfaction is strongest in influence of positive financial behavior of investor and trader in stock trading; positive experience and brokers suggestions are strengthens the investment decision of investors and increases behavior loyalty to prefer over competitor. The main purpose of research to determine the effect of financial behavior on investors’ attitude and behavioral loyalty and investors’ satisfaction to preference over competitor. The research framework links with experiences in stock trade for positive (negative) experiences, attitude and financial behavior is developed. The research framework is measured data from sample of Karachi and Karachi Stock Exchange; the data is analyzed in smart PLS based on PLS-SEM. This study focused on trading experience with company’s active investors and traders in banking industry in Pakistan. The future research could be research in other sectors with inter-related issue of investors and traders (brokers) in stock trade. This is the first study in this research area; this study will be determine the experiences with positive (negative) financial behavior, attitude, satisfaction and behavioral loyalty of investors and traders in stock trade. Therefore, adding in this area of study which will help understanding the investors and traders attitude, preference and financial behavior in financial market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0264.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: feeding behavior; Peripatidae; invertebrate behavior; undescribed Costa Rican onychophorans; parental investment
Online: 12 November 2018 (04:51:33 CET)
We report, for the first time in onychophorans, food hiding, parental feeding investment and an ontogenetic diet shift, from adhesive to prey, after their first two weeks of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0446.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: medaka; behavior; phenomics; interspecies
Online: 19 May 2021 (13:46:49 CEST)
Recently, medaka has been used as a model organism in various research fields. However, even though it possesses several advantages over zebrafish, fewer studies were done in medaka than zebrafish, especially its behaviour. Thus, to provide more information regarding its behaviour and to demonstrate the be-havioural differences between several species of medaka, we compared the behavioural performance and biomarker expression in the brain between four medaka fishes, which were Oryzias latipes, O. dancena, O. woworae, and O. sinensis. From the results, we found that each medaka species explicitly exhib-ited different behaviours to each other, which might be related to the different basal levels of several biomarkers. Furthermore, by phenomics and ge-nomic-based clustering, the differences between these medaka fishes were further investigated. Interestingly, even though both phenomics and ge-nomic-based clustering showed some resemblances to each other in terms of the interspecies relationship between medaka and zebrafish, however, in the medaka interspecies comparisons, this similarity was not displayed. Therefore, these results suggest a re-interpretation of several prior studies in comparative biology. We hope that these results contribute to the growing database of medaka fish phenotypes and provide one of the foundations for future phe-nomics studies of medaka fish.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0089.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: accelerometers; lamness; grazing; behavior
Online: 7 February 2020 (03:05:28 CET)
Development of accelerometer-based lameness (mobility) detection has focused on cow behaviors such as lying and walking. Several studies, usually small, have reported levels of accuracy up to 91%. However, there has been limited independent replication of these results. In this study, behavior measures previously identified as being associated with lameness such as lying bouts and walking time are examined in relation to mobility score. On a research farm and a commercial farm, four trials were completed with 65 grazing cows. The cows had differing mobility scores ranging from perfect mobility to impaired mobility. Behavior was monitored using leg worn accelerometers. In general, behavior and mobility associations identified in previous studies were not found. Behavior monitoring with accelerometers as a basis to classify impaired mobility in pasture-based contexts thus remains challenging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0263.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Theory of Planned Behavior; organic food; green consciousness; purchasing behavior Structural Equation Modelling
Online: 12 May 2021 (10:45:41 CEST)
The rapid growth of the organic food market in Italy and in other developed countries has drawn the attention of researchers and practitioners. The diffusion of pro-environmental concerns and sustainable lifestyles among consumers are often cited as two of the main drivers of the increase in demand for organic food products. Consequently, unveiling the factors that influence consumers’ demand of, and preference for organic food is essential for all the actors involved in the supply chain. This paper presents the results of a research model which relates organic food purchase intention to consumers’ green consciousness, health motivations, food safety concerns, organic product knowledge, family and social context and perception of the intrinsic quality of food. A questionnaire, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the extant literature on organic food choice, was developed and presented to a sample of 600 Italian consumers. Causal relations among variables were then tested using Structural Equation Modelling. The results suggest that, besides the existence of green consciousness, other variables may affect consumers’ preference for organic food: among these, specific and closely interlinked elements, such as food safety concerns and perceived quality heavily affected the intention to buy organic food products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0193.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: binge eating; body image; cognitive control; compulsive behavior; eating disorders; emotional regulation; impulsive behavior; non-suicidal self-injury; self-injurious behavior; urgency
Online: 15 December 2019 (14:26:45 CET)
Eating disorder (ED) symptoms often co-occur with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). This comorbidity is consistent with evidence that trait negative urgency increases risk for both of these phenomena. We previously found that impaired late-stage negative emotional response inhibition (i.e., negative emotional action termination or NEAT) might represent a neurocognitive mechanism for heightened negative urgency among people with NSSI history. The current study evaluated whether relations between negative urgency and ED symptoms similarly reflect deficits in this neurocognitive process. One hundred and five community adults completed an assessment of ED symptoms, negative urgency, and an emotional response inhibition task. Results indicated that, contrary to predictions, negative urgency and NEAT contributed independent variance to the prediction of ED symptoms, while controlling for demographic covariates and NSSI history. Worse NEAT was also uniquely associated with restrictive eating, after accounting for negative urgency. Our findings suggest that difficulty inhibiting ongoing motor responses triggered by negative emotional reactions (i.e., NEAT) may be a shared neurocognitive characteristic of ED symptoms and NSSI. However, negative urgency and NEAT dysfunction capture separate variance in the prediction of ED-related cognitions and behaviors, distinct from the pattern of results we previously observed in NSSI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0490.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: navigation; behavior; proprioception; pectines; vision
Online: 27 January 2023 (06:24:23 CET)
Many sand scorpions are faithful to burrows they dig, however, it is unknown how these animals get back home after hunting excursions. Of the many mechanisms of homing that exist, path integration (PI) is one of the more common tools used by arachnids. In PI, an animal integrates its distance and direction while leaving its home, enabling it to compute an approximate home-bound vector for the return trip. The objective of our study was to test whether scorpions use PI to return home under absolute darkness in the lab. We first allowed animals to establish burrows in homing arenas. Then, after they left their burrow, we recorded the scorpion’s location in the homing arena before we transferred it to the center of a testing arena. We used overhead IR cameras to record its movements in the testing arena. If scorpions exhibited PI, we predicted they would follow a vector in the test arena that approximated the same angle and distance from the capture point to their burrow in their home arena. However, under the conditions of this experiment, we found no evidence that scorpions moved along such home-bound vectors. We speculate that scorpions may need a reliable reference cue to accommodate path integration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0308.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: Diffusion decomposition; lsw; asymptotic behavior
Online: 17 August 2022 (08:44:03 CEST)
A set of programs for the numerical simulation of the diffusion decomposition processes was developed by using simulation methods, kinetic and particle method. The complex has been validated on the model system Ni-Al by the growth of -phase separations. The results on the evolution of the distribution function and other characteristics of the ensemble, which in the zero volume fraction approximation are asymptotically in good agreement with the theory and the experiment, have been obtained. The peculiarity of the created program complex is the possibility of its adaptation to the description of the decomposition of multicomponent multiphase systems. Fig. 6, list of references - 19 titles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0185.v1
Online: 12 July 2022 (09:30:20 CEST)
Nowadays the freedom to make choices is considered of vital importance for decision-makers. Researchers investigating the psychological effects of choice provided empirical evidence about the many advantages of choice (i.e., increased intrinsic motivation, greater perception of self-determination, better performance, and greater life satisfaction). However, more recent studies demonstrated the downsides of choice. When the decision task difficulty exceeds the natural cognitive resources of human mind, the possibility to choose becomes more a source of unhappiness and dissatisfaction than an opportunity for a greater well-being. We here discuss in a detailed fashion the main findings of research in psychology and consumer behavior showing the bright sides and the downsides of choice.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: behavior; neurodevelopment; infant; child; autism
Online: 19 October 2021 (10:13:55 CEST)
Background: Although widely believed to be safe for use in infants and children when used as directed, increasing evidence indicates that early life exposure to paracetamol (acetaminophen) may cause long-term neurodevelopmental problems. Further, recent studies in animal models demonstrate that cognitive development is exquisitely sensitive to paracetamol exposure during early development. In this study, evidence for the claim that paracetamol is safe was evaluated using a systematic literature search. Methods: Publications on PubMed between 1974 and 2017 that contained the keywords “infant” and either “paracetamol” or “acetaminophen” were considered. Of those initial 3096 papers, 218 were identified that made claims that paracetamol was safe for use with infants or children. From these 218, a total of 103 papers were identified as sources of authority for the safety claim. Results and Conclusions: A total of 52 papers contained actual experiments designed to test safety, and had a median follow-up time of 48 hours. None monitored neurodevelopment. Further, no trial considered total exposure to drug since birth, eliminating the possibility that the effects of drug exposure on long-term neurodevelopment could be accurately assessed. On the other hand, abundant and sufficient evidence was found to conclude that paracetamol does not induce acute liver damage in babies or children when used as directed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0137.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: adolescent; behavior; cognition; mobile phone
Online: 12 January 2020 (18:15:25 CET)
Excessive cell phone use contributes to distracted driving, may increase risk for automobile accidents, and a minority of mobile phone users exhibit behaviors consistent with technological addiction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cell phone beliefs and behaviors could be changed by a brief educational encounter. The Theory of Reasoned Action provided a lens for viewing attitudes and behavior. A one-week pre-post design with a thirty-day follow-up was used with participants (N = 215, 67.0% female, age = 20.0 + 1.6) assigned to a peer led intervention or comparison groups. The intervention included cell-phone educational materials. A short index of cell phone behavior was developed which showed good internal consistency with a Cronbach’s alpha of .81. The intervention group “agreed” or “strongly-agreed” more than the comparison group on five of the seven areas of cell phone beliefs and behaviors ( p < 0.05, item Cohen’s d = .32 to .47, total d = .50) at one-week following receipt of informational materials. We conclude that attitudes and behaviors regarding cell phones are malleable and susceptible to change in young-adults following a brief psychoeducational intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0270.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: DISCRETE EVENT, SIMULATION, ROUTING BEHAVIOR
Online: 24 July 2019 (10:47:42 CEST)
Several factors influence traffic congestion and overall traffic dynamics. Simulation modeling has been utilized to understand the traffic performance parameters during traffic congestions. This paper focuses on driver behavior of route selection by differentiating three distinguishable decisions, which are shortest distance routing, shortest time routing and less crowded road routing. This research generated 864 different scenarios to capture various traffic dynamics under collective driving behavior of route selection. Factors such as vehicle arrival rate, behaviors at system boundary and traffic light phasing were considered. The simulation results revealed that shortest time routing scenario offered the best solution considering all forms of interactions among the factors. Overall, this routing behavior reduces traffic wait time and total time (by 69.5% and 65.72%) compared to shortest distance routing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0049.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: polymer-matrix composites; natural fiber reinforcement; interface/interphase; microstructural analysis; crystallization behavior; rheological behavior
Online: 6 February 2018 (00:36:44 CET)
To improve the interfacial bonding of sisal fiber reinforced polylactide biocomposites, polylactide (PLA) and sisal fibers (SF) were melt-blended to fabricate bio-based composites via in situ reactive interfacial compatibilization with the addition of an epoxy-functionalized oligomer (ADR). The FTIR analysis and SEM characterization demonstrated that PLA molecular chain was bonded to the fiber surface and epoxy-functionalized oligomer played a hinge-like role between sisal fibers and PLA matrix, which resulted in improved interfacial adhesion between fibers and PLA matrix. The interfacial reaction and microstructures of composites were further investigated by thermal and rheological analyses, which indicated that the mobility of the PLA molecular chain in composites was restricted because of the introduction of ADR oligomer, which in turn reflected the improved interfacial interaction between SF and PLA matrix. These conclusions were further investigated by the calculated activation energies of glass transition relaxation (△Ea) of composites via dynamic mechanical analysis. The mechanical properties of PLA/SF composites were simultaneously reinforced and toughened via addition of ADR oligomer. The interfacial interaction and structure-properties relationship of composites are key points of this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0310.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: behavioral analysis; COVID-19; governmental intervention; mask adoption; movement change; vaccine participation; non-pharmaceutical interventions; policy recommendations; social physics; social behavior
Online: 20 October 2022 (11:41:27 CEST)
Since its emergence, COVID-19 has caused a great impact in health and social terms. Governments and health authorities have attempted to minimize this impact by enforcing different mandates. Recent studies have addressed the relationship between various socioeconomic variables and compliance level to these interventions. However, little attention has been paid to what constitutes people's response and whether people behave differently when faced with different interventions. Data collected from different sources show very significant regional differences across the United States. In this paper, we attempted to shed light on the fact that a response may be different depending on the health system capacity and each individuals’ social status. For that, we analyzed the correlation between different societal variables (i.e. education, income levels, population density, etc.) along with healthcare capacity related variables (i.e. hospital occupancy rates, percentage of essential workers, etc.) with regards to people's level of compliance with three main governmental mandates in the United States: mobility restrictions, mask adoption, and vaccine participation. Our aim was to isolate the most influential variables impacting behavior in response to these policies. We found that there was a strong relationship between individuals' educational levels and political preferences with respect to compliance with each of these mandates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0345.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: action planning; coping planning; health education; oral care behavior; periodontal disease; theory of planned behavior
Online: 30 September 2019 (08:15:24 CEST)
Background: Strengthening adherence to self-care behaviors in patients with periodontal disease (PD) and reducing plaque index is crucial for improving PD treatment. We evaluated the effectiveness of a theory of planned behavior (TPB)-based health education intervention involving planning strategy on self-care behaviors in patients with PD. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted; 158 and 139 patients comprised the experimental group (EG) and control group (CG), respectively. Both groups received a leaflet, and the EG also received a planning intervention, which was a brief one-on-one counseling session with a planning sheet. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Between-group comparisons of TPB measures revealed significant differences in all domains when controlling for baseline covariates. The EG exhibited significantly higher levels of action and coping planning than the CG at 2-week follow-up (effect size (ES) = 5.54 and 5.57, respectively) and 6-week follow-up (ES = 5.66 and 5.66, respectively). Between-group differences in changes of brushing behaviors increased significantly. More frequent use of dental floss was observed in the EG than in the CG at 2-week and 6-week follow-ups (24.7% and 22.8%, respectively). Conclusions: The intervention involving planning strategy effectively promoted adherence to self-care behaviors in patients with PD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0042.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: Bad Behavior; Institutions; Heterodox Economics; Development
Online: 5 October 2022 (12:43:21 CEST)
How important are institutions for the development of nations? Are there any existing measures which quantify the behavior of institutions? Is there any theoretical justification for measuring their behavior? This paper introduces a framework influenced by Plato’s needs theory to provide justification for measuring the behavior of institutions. This involves introducing the humanization hypothesis which states that the behavior of institutions can be measured as they, similar to human beings, are living entities with similar hierarchical needs which are essential for their survival. The paper employs an explanatory and descriptive research design which is highly theoretical in nature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0146.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: ultrasonic vocalization; mice; masculine behavior; testosterone
Online: 4 March 2021 (09:16:50 CET)
: Testosterone masculinizes male sexual behavior through an organizational effect during the perinatal period. We previously reported that the emission of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in male mice was dependent on the organizational effects of testosterone; females treated with testosterone in the perinatal period had increased USV emissions compared to males. Recently, it was revealed that male USVs have various acoustic characteristics and these variations were related to behavioral interactions with other mice. In this regard, the detailed acoustic character changes induced by testosterone have not been fully elucidated. Here, we revealed that testosterone administered to female mice during the perinatal period modulated the acoustic characteristics of USVs. There was no clear difference in acoustic characters between males and females. Call frequencies were higher in TP-treated males and females compared to control males and females. When the calls were classified into nine types, there was also no distinctive difference between males and females, but TP increased the number of calls with a high frequency, and decreased the number of calls with a low frequency and short duration. The transition analysis by call type revealed that even though there was no statistically significant difference, TP-treated males and females had a similar pattern of transition to control males and females, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest that testosterone treatment can enhance the emission of USVs in females, but the acoustic characteristics are not the same as those of intact males.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0498.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: children; resilience; disaster; behavior; school; factor
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:10:04 CET)
Annually, millions of people (including children) across the world face minor to severe impact from natural or human-induced disasters. Diverse models have been conceptualized and adopted at global scale to increase resiliency of children from disasters focusing on preparedness, response and recover. As children spend most of their lives at school or at home, this paper discusses on factors contributing towards improving or degrading resiliency of children from disasters. Giving low priority to institutional resilience, this paper highlights the behavioral aspects of children which becomes their strength on demonstrating appropriate practices to mitigate disaster risks on self at school, home and community. While doing so, attributes from Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior has been linked with the components of resilience to explain the causative factors. Adopting desk review, this paper describes behavioral attributes of children and emphasizes on need of having multi-dimensional framework to enhance resiliency of children.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Management; entrepreneurial behavior; leadership; SMEs; innovation
Online: 24 December 2020 (08:48:59 CET)
The objective of this study is to identify how demographic characteristics (gender, age, seniority at work, and educational level) are related to the entrepreneurial behavior of companies. To comply with the above, a quantitative, transversal, and non-experimental research was carried out, which consisted in applying an instrument to 262 managers of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in a northern city in Mexico. The collected information was analyzed in the software SPSS, version 26 with statistical testing by the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis. The main findings dermore highly educated managers are those who contribute to this behavior of the studied companies, while gender and seniority at work are not differentiating elements in relation to the above. This research generates different possibilities of studies to be carried out in large companies from other sectors, as well as to include behavioral characteristics as study variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0382.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: donepezil; acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; dementia; zebrafish; behavior
Online: 17 September 2020 (07:41:35 CEST)
Donepezil (DPZ) is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used for the clinical treatment of mild cognitive impairment. However, DPZ has been reported to have adverse effects, including abnormal cardiac rhythm, insomnia, vomiting, and muscle cramps. However, the existence of these effects in subjects without Dementia is unknown. In this study, we use zebrafish to conduct a deeper analysis of the potential adverse effects of DPZ on the short-term memory and behaviors of normal zebrafish by performing multiple behavioral and biochemical assays. Adult zebrafish were exposed to 1 ppm and 2.5 ppm of DPZ. From the results, DPZ caused a slight improvement in the short-term memory of zebrafish and induced significant elevation in aggressiveness, while the novel tank and shoaling tests revealed anxiolytic-like behavior to be caused by DPZ. Furthermore, zebrafish circadian locomotor activity displayed a higher reduction of locomotion and abnormal movement orientation in both low- and high-dose groups, compared to the control group. Biomarker assays revealed that these alterations were associated with an elevation of oxytocin and a reduction of cortisol levels in the brain. Moreover, the significant increases of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in muscle tissue suggest DPZ exposure induced muscle tissue oxidative stress and muscle weakness, which may underlie the locomotor activity impairment. In conclusion, we show, for the first time, that the chronic waterborne exposure of DPZ can severely induce adverse effects on normal zebrafish in a dose-dependent manner. These unexpected adverse effects on behavioral alteration should be carefully addressed in future studies considering DPZ conducted on zebrafish or other animals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0455.v1
Online: 20 July 2020 (07:34:29 CEST)
According to its inner property, a crisis in the financial market can be considered as a collective behavior phenomenon. Through the prism of collective behavior, the crisis does not happen if the companies are independent of each other. In this work, cooperative movement processes in a stock market are investigated in a manner similar to that Vicsek first described collective behavior for self-propelled entities. To this end, a phase space is defined as the one in which the return of volume of transactions versus return of price is represented with each share in each day corresponding to a unique point in the space. The findings of the observation show that during times of crisis, the phase space is limited with the vector velocity of shares in the same direction. In contrast, on a regular day, the phase space is entirely accessible, with vector velocity aligned randomly. Moreover, in line with the Vicsek model, an order parameter is introduced, which evaluates the cooperative effects for the shares so that the higher the value of this parameter, the stronger the collective behavior of the shares.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0159.v1
Online: 12 February 2020 (12:26:51 CET)
The primary purpose of this investigation was to identify safety-oriented bicycling practices commonly used by adult riders in an urban setting (Brooklyn, New York), and to explore whether there are any differences between the safety-oriented practices of men and women riders. Methods: 24 adult riders (14 men, 10 women) in Brooklyn were interviewed concerning their perceptions of bicycling hazards and their safety-oriented practices. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through thematic analysis. Fisher’s Exact Test was employed to test for gender differences. Results: Participants identified a variety of hazards, mainly due to motor vehicles but also pedestrians and roadway conditions. The analysis distilled twenty-one bicycling practices to summarize prevalent views of the participants about safe riding practices. Related items were grouped under broader categories, generating seven safety-oriented bicycling strategies. Few differences based on gender were found in the analysis; however, women in this study were more likely than men to say that they felt disrespected by other road users. Conclusion: Seven strategies may be important for safe urban bicycling: minimizing exposure to other road users (especially motor vehicles) while riding, being vigilant and anticipating what others might do, riding in a predictable fashion, making one’s presence known to other road users, making sure it is safe before proceeding, obeying traffic rules, and riding at a safe speed. Future studies could develop these concepts further and test whether they are associated with involvement in traffic crashes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0137.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: oral health; students; medical; behavior; iran
Online: 11 October 2019 (07:30:00 CEST)
Aim: The purpose of this examination is determining predictors to oral health behaviors predict in Iranian students in district 1 Tehran based on the health belief model with added commitment to plan construct. Methods: This cross-sectional study were randomly selected conducted on 351 eligible four grade female students in the first district of Tehran, Iran in 2017. The random Multi‑stage random cluster sampling method was used to recruit students. The inclusion criteria were being graded, four female students (aged 9-11 years), or education at the fourth grade of one of the elementary schools studied in the first district of Tehran and, The health of the student from a physical and psychological of view. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the variables that predict oral health behaviors. To assess the predictors of oral health behaviors, all the expanded Health Belief Model constructs with the construct of “Commitment to Plan of Action” from “Health Promotion Model were examined as risk factors to see if they influence on the probability of brushing behavior and dental floss behavior occurrence and were interpreted through odds ratio (OR). SPSS version 19 was used to analyze the data. Results: Totally 308 four grade female students with mean age of 9.32 ± 0.81 years old took part in the study. The total 31.8% of the students reported that they were brushing behavior less than twice a day and 55.2% students claimed, use of dental floss behavior once a week or less than once a day. The results indicated that perceived self-efficacy (OR=1.46, 95% CI=0.57-3.78, P<0.001), Commitment to plan (OR=1.13, 95% CI=1.04-1.23, P<0.001) and Cues to action (OR=1.42, 95% CI=1.14–1.76, P=0.002) were the significant predicting variables which is the key factor of brushing twice a day, and use of dental floss once a day or more (OR=1.02, 95% CI=0.23-3.53, P=0.003). Conclusion: This study has shown the effectiveness of the health belief model with added commitment to plan construct to predict oral health behavior in female students. So, it seems that the model as a framework for designing training programs to improve students to improve oral health behavior can be used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0215.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: addiction; triathletes; bogy image; behavior regulation
Online: 21 June 2019 (11:36:23 CEST)
The aim of the research was getting to know the risk of dependency on physical exercising in individual sportspeople and the relationship with body dissatisfaction and motivation. 225 triathletes, swimmers, cyclists and athletes- with ages going from 18 to 63 years old took part in the research, of which 145 were men (M = 35.57 ±10.46 years) and 80 women (M = 32.83 ±10.31 years). The EDS-R was used to study the dependency on exercising, BSQ to study body dissatisfaction, BREQ-3 to know the motivation of participants and BIAQ to analyse conducts of avoidance to body image. The obtained results show that 8.5% of the subjects had risk of dependency on exercising and that 18.2% tend to have corporal dissatisfaction, without meaningful differences in the kind of sport they practiced. However, there were important differences concerning the dependency on physical exercise (15% vs 4.8%) and body dissatisfaction (31.1% vs 11%) in relation to sex, being the higher percentage referring to women. The introjected regulation and the conduct of food restriction were the predictor variables of the dependency on exercising and corporal dissatisfaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0071.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: personalized recommendation service; usage behavior; KOSEN
Online: 7 April 2019 (12:42:30 CEST)
Background: We conducted research on the newly developed personalized recommendation service (PRS) of the global network of Korean scientists and engineers (KOSEN) in order to explore the information usage behavior and importance of the PRS used by Korean scientists and engineers. Methods: In order to understand information usage behavior, we gathered data from 513 survey results and analyzed them in terms of information usage behavior and the corresponding importance in each of the service quality areas. Results: We analyzed the 321 outcomes that indicated non-use of the PRS in order to understand the underlying reason(s); we employed 192 results that demonstrated the use of functionality to examine information usage behavior and importance. They found that the predominant motive for non-use of the service resulted from the respondents not knowing how to use it. According to demographic characteristics, the usage behavior of the PRS showed a difference regarding the purpose of using the service in the categories of gender and major field of study. Furthermore, users were concerned with various components of the PRS such as ease of use, design, relevance of content, user support, and interactivity. Conclusions: We suggest reinforcing user education degree and promotion to enhance the PRS. Since users were concerned with ease of use, design, relevance, user support, and interactivity, we recommend these as major points for improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0484.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: Bestiality; Colombia; sexual behavior; sexuality; Zoophilia
Online: 25 September 2018 (11:49:12 CEST)
Introduction: Sex with animals is a male practice with a social acceptance in many areas of the Colombian Atlantic coast; however, this behavior has been little studied. The aim of this study was to characterize the practice of sex with animals in a group of men living in Cordoba department, Colombia. Methods: descriptive quantitative study was made. Forty-seven adults were interviewed. The information was collected through a survey which asked about sociodemographic aspects, characteristics and beliefs around the behavior. Results: Total participants knew about the practice, 68,1% stated to have had it and they said it happened between the ages of 7 and 30 years old, for an average time of seven years gap; 65,6% had it in presence of friends and relatives. 87,6% said the practice feels really good at the first time; 35,6% stated it was a beneficial practice and 37,5% said they would like their sons to experience it. Conclusion: Having sex with animals is a social accepted behavior and it is thought to be positive since it helps the correct psychosexual development and it prevents other behaviors, not culturally accepted, such as drug use or homosexuality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0275.v3
Online: 14 May 2018 (10:46:26 CEST)
Antisocial behavior is a behavior disorder inherited according to the inheritance of X-linked chromosome. This disorder derives from mutations in the MAOA gene. One of the mutations results in the MAOA-L allele activity. The MAOA-L allele activity can cause antisocial behavior in both healthy and unhealthy people. Antisocial behavior from healthy males can originate from maltreatment during childhood. Currently, MAOA inhibitor can reverse antisocial behavior to normal behavior in animal models. However, this disorder cannot be treated permanently; to treat it permanently in the future, technologies such as CRISPR/Cas9, iPSCs and ssODN are required. These technologies have succeeded to correct erroneous segments in the F8 gene and F9 gene. Both genes occupy the X chromosome. The MAOA gene also occupies the X chromosome. Therefore, it is reasonable to state that CRISPR/Cas9 and iPSCs technique for instance can be beneficial tools to edit the MAOA gene to treat antisocial behavior. CRISPR/Cas9 can be used in combination with iPSCs or ssODN for instance. This combination can greatly help the permanent healing of antisocial behavioral disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0153.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: childhood; obesity; activPAL; steps; sedentary behavior
Online: 19 March 2018 (10:16:20 CET)
A major health threat for children in the 21st century is physical inactivity in conjunction with the elevated prevalence of obesity. In Malaysia, low physical activity among children is a major concern. The objective of the study was to analyze the day to day variation of step count in a sample of obese children using the activPALTM monitor. This was a cross sectional study conducted in Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu. The sample compromised 41 boys and 24 girls between the ages of 9-11 years. Number of steps was objectively measured using an activPALTM accelerometer over a period of 4-7 days and had their height and weight measured. Mean step count from this sample of obese children was 8861 ± 3157steps. Steps per day were significantly higher for boys compared to girls (p=0.034). Obese children took significantly more steps at weekdays than on weekends (p=0.001). Steps/hour were significantly higher in weekday compared to weekend between 0600 to 0700 (p<0.001), 0700 to 0800 (p<0.001), 0800 to 0900 am (p<0.001), 0900 to 1000 (p=0.032), 1000 to 1100 (p=0.046), 1100 to 1200 (p<0.001), 1300 to 1400 (p=0.002), 1400 to 1500 (p<0.001), 1800 to 1900 (p=0.026) and 2000 to 2100 (p=0.019). Detailed daily patterns of physical activity are required to fully understand the differences across days that help future interventions to target those falling short particularly during weekend.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0157.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Financial Literacy; Financial Behaviour; Consumer Behavior; Sustainable Consumer Behavior; Social Media; Natural Language Processing; Social Network
Online: 6 July 2021 (13:42:31 CEST)
A more sustainable society and economy also implies a more sustainable behavior in the consumption of financial products. A possible change in focus can come from the demand side, so that more sustainable consumption of financial products have to go hand to hand with financial literacy. However, financial literacy, potential favoring of this sustainable behavior, is far from reaching an international consensus about its definition, object and scope. Two objectives are analyzed; the different interpretations of financial literacy in the academic literature, as well as its evolution and how, in what context and with what other concepts the term is used in social networks. Scientometric techniques and content analysis have been used to carry out a systematic review of literature and also NLP to analyze the comments on Social Networks. Critical moments are identified in the definition of financial literacy. Also ten sentiments are analyzed in social networks in wich positivity, trust, and anticipation predominate. Greater attention to this issue is necessary both from the private initiative and from public policies, so that financial literacy is an effective tool for a more sustainable behavior by consumers. Finally, a new definition is proposed based on our findings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0143.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: sustainability; consumer behavior; clothing; clothing behavior; environmental sustainability; fashion; textiles; fashion sustainability; clothing sustainability; textile sustainability
Online: 14 September 2019 (19:10:15 CEST)
Consumer, as one of the vital stakeholders of fashion supply chain, has a significant role to play to transition fashion industry into sustainable direction. From purchasing and care practice to donation and disposal, every step of their decision has impact on the environment. Various internal and external variables, including culture, custom, value, belief, norm and assumption, economy, gender, and education etc. influence forming that decision. The result of the decision not only directly impacts he environment and society, but also consumer culture and future business opportunity. This study synthesizes a wide spectrum of consumer behavior related to clothing consumption and associated environmental impact. Building on the synthesis, a holistic discussion is offered which can provide relevant behavioral guideline to consumers as well as other stakeholders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0197.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Biomarkers; Genetic; Suicidal behavior; Suicide; Mexican; Genomic.
Online: 11 January 2023 (10:34:57 CET)
Suicide is defined as the action of harming oneself with the intention of dying. It is estimated that worldwide one suicide occurs every 40 seconds, making it a major health problem. Studies in families have suggested that suicide has a genetic component, around the world studies have been carried out in search of genetic variants associated with suicidal behavior, these variants could be useful as potential biomarkers to identify people at risk of suicide. In this area in Mexico, some studies of variants in genes related to neurotransmission and other important pathways have been carried out and a possible association of variants located in genes has been suggested: SLC6A4, SAT-1, TPH-2, ANKK1, GSHR, SCARA50, RGS10, STK33, COMT, and FKBP5. This systematic review shows the genetic studies on the Mexican population. This article contributes by compiling the existing information on genetic variants and genes associated with suicidal behavior, said variants in the future could be used as potential biomarkers to identify people at risk of suicide.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: fictional characters; quantum computing; human affective behavior
Online: 7 December 2022 (03:01:34 CET)
In this discussion paper, I give an account for non-experts of, arguably, quantum dynamics in the brain, underlying the modeling of affective behavior of humanoid robots in the making. Outreach to the larger audience inevitably leads to abbreviations and simplifications; nonetheless, I try to offer the backgrounds of why it is important to study the virtual aspects of ‘people’ we meet online, what dimensions play a role in assessing such creatures, what humanities, psychology, communication, and computer science provide to help us understand how we become attached to non-existent others. As its capstone for the time being, an approach derived from physics is discussed for a robot to handle emotional ambiguity and vagueness of its user. Two computational models, Silicon and Quantum Coppélia, are discussed for their potential and limitations in explaining human affective behavior while dealing with mediated characters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0419.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Swarm dynamics; Criticality; Ising Model; Collective behavior
Online: 7 November 2022 (02:40:22 CET)
Social insects, such as honey bees exhibit complex behavioral patterns and their inconspicuous coordination enables decision-making on the colony level. It is thus proposed, that a high-level description of their collective behavior might share commonalities with neural processes in the brains. At the same time, recent research concerning overarching features of neural activity implies that brains are poised at the edge of the critical phase transition and that such a state is enabling maximal computational power and adaptability. In our research, we applied some tools developed in the computational neuroscience field to the dataset of bee trajectories recorded within the hive, during the course of many days. Our results imply that certain characteristics of the system are remarkably similar to the Ising model when it operates at critical temperature and also shares some of the features with the human brain at the resting state
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0315.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Plastic pollution; waste management; environmental behavior; recycling
Online: 21 September 2022 (07:05:39 CEST)
Excessive production, consumption and indiscriminate disposal of plastic waste cause an increasing plastic pollution with detrimental impacts on environment and human health. This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) towards plastic pollution among Malaysians and evaluate the variation of plastic pollution related KAP among various socio-demographics. An online survey was conducted, and 294 valid responses was obtained. Descriptive statistics, KAP scoring and cross tabulation of responses were estimated. One-way analysis of variance, paired t-test and binary logistic regressions were carried out. Results showed that respondents had poor knowledge (mean 7.41 ± 1.80) and practice score (3.81 ± 1.39) across all socio-demographics. Compared to younger (18-30 years) respondents, older ones (>46 years) had higher knowledge (odds ratio, OR 4.304; p<0.01). However, middle aged (31-45 years) respondents reported significantly (p<0.01) higher attitude (OR 4.019) and practice (OR 4.056; p <0.05). Respondents with environmental related university education had showed higher odds about plastic pollution related knowledge (OR 10.343; p<0.01). Suggestions are made to undertake interventions such as environmental awareness creation, incorporating plastic pollution topics in formal and informal education, and providing recycling facilities nearby the localities for encouraging good practices towards minimizing plastic uses and pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0485.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Arsenic; global warming; invertebrates; behavior; oxidative stress
Online: 29 August 2022 (10:43:42 CEST)
Contamination with Arsenic, a toxic metalloid, is increasing in the marine environment. Additionally, global warming can alter metalloids toxicity. Polychaetes are key species in marine environments. By mobilizing sediments, they play vital roles in nutrient and element (including contaminants) cycles. Most studies with marine invertebrates focused on the effects of metalloids on either adults or larvae. Here we bring information on the effects of temperature increase and arsenic contamination on the polychaete Hediste diversicolor in different growth stages and water temperatures. Feeding activity and biochemical responses – neurotransmission, indicators of cell damage, antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes and metabolic capacity - were evaluated. Temperature rise combined with As imposed alterations on feeding activity and biochemical endpoints at different growth stages. Small organisms have their antioxidant enzymes increased, avoiding lipid damage. However, larger organisms are the most affected class due to inhibition of superoxide dismutase, which resulted in protein damage. Oxidative damage was observed on smaller and larger organisms exposed to As and 21 °C, demonstrating higher sensibility to the combination of temperature rise and As. The observed alterations may have ecological consequences, affecting the cycle of nutrients, sediment oxygenation and the food chain that depend on the bioturbation of this polychaete.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0095.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: polyester fabric; surface; rubber; composites; adhesion behavior
Online: 4 August 2022 (03:38:30 CEST)
Due to the extremely inert surface of the polyester (PET) fabric, a toxic and traditional resorcinol-formaldehyde-latex (RFL) dipping solution is always needs to be used in in rubber composite industry. Unfortunately, other effective methods for fabric surface treatment are in urgent needed to improve the poor bonding interface between the fabric and the rubber matrix. In our study, a facile way to modify PET fabric was developed. Specifically, the fabric is treated by an alkaline solution and a coupling agent with magnetic agitation. Afterwards, the treated fabric/rubber composites are prepared through a co-vulcanization process. Attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the surface chemical compositions of the modified fabrics. The adhesion behavior is analyzed by the peel test. The results show that the fabric surface is successfully grafted with a coupling agent, and the peel strength reaches 9.8 N/mm after KH550 treatment, which is increased 32% compared with that of the original fabric/rubber composites. In addition, the vulcanization rate and interfacial fracture mechanism are also researched.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0157.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Proliferation; Angiogenesis; Biologic Behavior; Ameloblastoma; Ameloblastic Fibroma
Online: 12 January 2022 (08:20:26 CET)
Background: The present study was carried out to evaluate the roles of proliferation and angiogenesis in locally aggressive biologic behavior of ameloblastoma versus ameloblastic fibroma; Methods: 30 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded blocks (15 cases of ameloblastoma & 15 cases of ameloblastic fibroma) were used. To evaluate the proliferation, the tissue sections were stained with AgNORs stain. CD105 was used as immunohistochemical marker of angiogenesis. Quantitative evaluations of AgNORs were performed. The mean vascular density was evaluated as a measure for CD105 protein expression by using image analyzer computer system; Results: The mean number of AgNORs dots per nucleus was significantly higher in ameloblastoma as compared to ameloblastic fibroma. Also, the protein level of CD105 showed positive expression and wide distribution that the mean vascular density was significantly higher in ameloblastoma as compared to ameloblastic fibroma; Conclusion: Quantitative evaluation of AgNORs stain & the mean vascular density utilizing CD105 protein expression may reflect a higher proliferative activity and a more locally aggressive biologic behavior of ameloblastoma when compared to ameloblastic fibroma, that other factors may be involved in biologic behavior of ameloblastic fibroma.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: TRYCATs; MDD; MDE; Suicidal behavior; Kynurenine pathway
Online: 11 January 2022 (10:39:25 CET)
Kynurenine or tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway contributes to the pathophysiology of major depression disorder (MDD) and major depressive episodes (MDE) in bipolar disorder and suicidal behaviors. The consequences of the overactivation of this pathway large reduced tryptophan (TRP) levels in peripheral blood and the CNS and increased levels of neurotoxic TRYCATs including kynurenine (KYN), 3-hydroxy kynurenine (3HK), quinolinic acid (QA), xanthurenic acid (XA), and picolinic acid (PA). However, other TRYCATs are protective, such as kynurenic acid (KA) and anthranilic acid (AA). Inflammation and cell-mediated immune activation along with oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) may stimulate the first and rate-limiting enzyme of this pathway, namely indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Therefore, during depression, balancing neuroprotective versus neurotoxic TRYCATs and balancing activation of the immune response system (IRS) versus the compensatory immune response system is crucial for achieving better treatment outcomes. Furthermore, targeting the causes of TRYCAT pathway activation (immune activation and O&NS) is probably the most effective strategy to treat depression. In the present review, we aim to provide a comprehensive explanation of the impact of TRYCATs in terms of pathophysiology and treatment of MDD and MDE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0303.v1
Online: 21 October 2021 (09:47:37 CEST)
Cognitive networks have evolved to cope with uncertain environments in order to make reliable decisions. Such decision making circuits need to respond to the external world in efficient and flexible ways, and one potentially general mechanism of achieving this is grounded in critical states. Mounting evidence has shown that brains operate close to such critical boundaries consistent with self-organized criticality (SOC). Is this also taking place in small-scale living systems, such as cells? Here we explore a recent model of engineered gene networks that have been shown to exploit the feedback between order and control parameters (as defined by expression levels of two coupled genes) to achieve a SOC state. We suggest that such SOC motif could be exploited to generate adaptive behavioral patterns and might help design fast responses in synthetic cellular and multicellular organisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0214.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: pro-environmental behavior; factorial experiment; adolescence; intervention
Online: 10 May 2021 (15:27:23 CEST)
The current study aimed to assess the components of the intervention program “Aquatic”, targeted at the reduction of bottled water use in adolescence. The Comprehensive Action Determination Model was chosen as a theory of change for the development and evaluation of pro-environmental behavior intervention. We examined the impact of five experimental intervention factors (water bottles, promo video, prompts, goal setting, and feedback) on eight intervention program outcomes: Perceived behavioral control, Social norm, Habit, Awareness of need, Awareness of consequence, Personal norm, Intention, and Behavior. The study sample consisted of 419 adolescents (52.8% girls, Mage = 15.21, SDage = .64) from Lithuania. A factorial experimental study design was used, and a Latent change modeling approach was applied for the evaluation of individual and combined effects of intervention components. Promo video, Prompts, and Goal setting had a positive effect on Awareness of consequence, Social norm, and Awareness of need, respectively. Receiving a Water bottle in combination with the Promo video had a positive effect on Perceived behavioral control and in combination with Prompts as well as Goals – on Awareness of need. Water bottles, Promo-video, Prompts, and Goals, but not Feedback, had value in the promotion of targeted pro-environmental outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0429.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: coronavirus; pandemic; population survey; suicidal behavior; suicide
Online: 19 February 2021 (09:56:01 CET)
The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of suicide thoughts and -attempts during the early stage of the COVID-19 outbreak and examine factors associated with suicide thoughts in the general Norwegian population. A sample of 4527 adults living in Norway were recruited via social media. Data related to suicide thoughts and attempts, mental health variables, pandemic-related concerns and sociodemographic variables were collected. Associations with suicide thoughts were analyzed with logistic regression analysis. In the sample, 3.6 % reported suicide thoughts during the last month, while 0.2 % had attempted to commit suicide during the same period. Lower age (OR: 0.66, p < 0.001), daily alcohol use (OR: 3.29, p < 0.001), being in the risk group for COVID-19 complications (OR: 2.38, p < 0.01), and having economic concerns related to the pandemic (OR: 2.51, p < 0.001) were associated with having suicide thoughts. In addition to known risk factors, the study suggests that aspects specific to COVID-19 may be important for suicidal behaviors during the pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0446.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Diuretic hormone; behavior; sleep; feeding; neuromodulation; neurohormone
Online: 22 January 2021 (12:48:25 CET)
Leucokinins (LKs) constitute a neuropeptide family first discovered in a cockroach and later identified in numerous insects and several other invertebrates. The LK receptors are only distantly related to other known receptors. Among insects, there are many examples of species where genes encoding LKs and their receptors are absent. Furthermore, genomics has revealed that LK signaling is lacking in several of the invertebrate phyla and in vertebrates. In insects, the number and complexity of LK expressing neurons vary, from the simple pattern in the larva of Drosophila where the entire CNS has 20 neurons of three main types, to cockroaches with about 250 of many different types. Common to all studied insects is the presence or 1-3 pairs of LK-expressing neurosecretory cells in each abdominal neuromere of the ventral nerve cord, that, at least in some insects, regulate secretion in Malpighian tubules. This review summarizes the diverse functional roles of LK signaling in insects, as well as other arthropods and mollusks. These functions include regulation of ion and water homeostasis, feeding, sleep-metabolism interactions, state-dependent memory formation, as well as modulation of gustatory sensitivity and nociception. Other functions are implied by the neuronal distribution of LK, but remain to be investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0388.v1
Online: 17 July 2020 (15:10:26 CEST)
Innovative interventions in the planning and design of stair and escalator facilities call for understanding their effects on stair use. This study considers five planning variables for the twinned stair and escalator facilities–stair pitch and width, angle of deviation, height and separating distance. Public sites were identified in 8 commercial districts in Beijing. Facilities (n=21) presenting heterogeneously across variables were sampled for simultaneous up and down pedestrian counts in 18 5-minute video segments middays, for a total of 1464 counts. Stair width accounts for 20% of the variance in ascending rate and 10% in descending. Plan angle accounts for 2% in ascending and 5% in descending, while pitch accounts for 1% in ascending and 5% in descending. The study confirms the effects of layout and design of stairway and escalator facilities on facility choice. The results point directly to interventions in support of higher stair-climbing rates.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0306.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: information behavior; veterinary information needs; online survey
Online: 20 March 2020 (05:22:05 CET)
During 2010, at the Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (fmvz-unam) we analyzed the influence of metadata over its website according to the search engines used by the academic community. This document serves only the second specific objective of the research: to know the academic profile, the informative behavior and the veterinary information needs of the academic community of the fmvz-unam. The methodological tool was the design and implementation of an online survey. We received 215 responses, two thirds answered academic staff, the rest, undergraduate and postgraduate students. In relation to information behavior, an Internet-usage index was developed, with which it was determined that 64 % of this community uses four or five information services on the Internet, This means that the network is widely used to seek information and as communication media. This community search for more veterinary information related to dogs, dairy cattle and sheep, compared to other animal species; while animal welfare, zoonosis and molecular biology are the topics of greatest interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0176.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: homeostasis, energy, neuronal networks, behavior, emergent properties
Online: 17 January 2019 (11:58:15 CET)
A major goal of neuroscience is understanding how neurons arrange themselves into neural networks that result in behavior. Most theoretical and experimental efforts have focused on a top-down approach which seeks to identify neuronal correlates of behaviors. This has been accomplished by effectively mapping specific behaviors to distinct neural patterns, or by creating computational models that produce a desired behavioral outcome. Nonetheless, these approaches have only implicitly considered the fact that neural tissue, like any other physical system, is subjected to several restrictions and boundaries of operations.Here, we propose a new, bottom-up conceptual paradigm: The Energy Homeostasis Principle, where the balance between energy income, expenditure, and availability are the key parameters in determining the dynamics of the found neuronal phenomena from molecular to behavioral levels. Neurons display high energy consumption relative to other cells, with metabolic consumption of the brain representing 20% of the whole-body oxygen uptake, contrasting with this organ representing only 2% of the body weight. Also, neurons have specialized surrounding tissue providing the necessary energy which, in the case of the brain, is provided by astrocytes. Moreover, and unlike other cell types with high energy demands such as muscle cells, neurons have strict aerobic metabolism. These facts indicate that neurons are highly sensitive to energy limitations, with Gibb’s free energy dictating the direction of all cellular metabolic processes. From this activity, the largest energy, by far, is expended by action potentials and post-synaptic potentials; therefore, plasticity can be reinterpreted in terms of their energy context. Consequently, neurons, through their synapses, impose energy demands over post-synaptic neurons in a close loop-manner, modulating the dynamics of local circuits. Subsequently, the energy dynamics end up impacting the homeostatic mechanisms of neuronal networks. Furthermore, local energy management also emerges as a neural population property, where most of the energy expenses are triggered by sensory or other modulatory inputs. Local energy management in neurons may be sufficient to explain the emergence of behavior, enabling the assessment of which properties arise in neural circuits and how. Essentially, the proposal of the Energy Homeostasis Principle is also readily testable for simple neuronal networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0043.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: traditional; local; consumer behavior; principal component analysis
Online: 8 January 2018 (04:17:29 CET)
This study assesses attitudes of young adults' (18-30 years old) consumption on local and traditional products in7 European countries. A clustered sample (n=836) from natives of Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovenia, Croatia, Denmark and France was collected, by distributing questionnaires through social media and university mail services. Sample was examined by implementing Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in three different samples; overall and two subgroups, Eastern and Western European countries. Six major factors revealed: consumer behavior, health issues, cost, influence from media and close environment and availability on store. As a result, young adults have a positive attitude to local and traditional food products but they express insecurity for health issues. Cost factor influences less people from Eastern European countries than those from the overall sample (3rd and 5th factor accordingly). Influence of close environment is a different factor in Eastern countries comparing to Western ones that it common with influence from media. Females and older people (25-30 years old) doubt less about TFPs, while media have high influence on consumers’ decisions. Aim of this survey is to create consumer profiles of young adults and create different promotion strategies of local and traditional products among the two groups of countries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0050.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: amorphous carbon; sulfur; superconductivity; peculiar magnetic behavior
Online: 5 August 2016 (07:16:18 CEST)
We report on magnetic studies of inhomogeneous commercial and synthesized amorphous carbon (a-C) and a-C doped with sulfur (a-CS) powders which exhibit (i) peculiar magnetic behavior and (ii) traces of two superconducting (SC) phase ~ Tc=33 and at 65 K. (i) The temperature dependence of zero-field-cooled (ZFC) curves measured up to room temperature show a well distinguish elusive peaks around 50-80 K, their origin is not yet known. These peaks are totally washed-out in the second ZFC sweeps and in the FC branches as well. As a result, in the vicinity of the peaks, the FC curves lie below the ZFC peaks (FC<ZFC), a phenomenon which is rarely observed. These magnetic anomalies are intrinsic properties of a-C and a-CS materials (ii) SC was observed in three different a-C sources: (a) The commercial a-C powder contains 0.21% of sulfur and it is suggested that two different a-CS phases (at 33 and 65 K) are the origin of the two SC states observed. The compositions of these two phases are not yet unknown. The small SC volume fractions of the 33 K phase can be enhanced by a solid reaction with additional sulfur at 250 ºC. (b) The synthesized a-C powder (obtained from decomposition of sucrose) is not SC. However, when mixed with sulfur and heated at 400 ºC under a protective atmosphere, the a-CS powder obtained also show traces of a SC phase at TC= 42 K. (c)The same occurs in a-C thin films. The as-grown films are not SC but a SC phase at Tc = 34 K emerges after the films were reacted with sulfur at elevated temperatures. It is concluded therefore, that all SC phases observed are due to different unknown a-CS phases. Since the a-C and a-CS powders possess SC and magnetic states, we believe that these powders resemble the high TC curates and Fe-As based systems in which the SC and the magnetic states are closed related to each other.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0316.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: appetite; saciety response; eating behavior; pediatric obesity; anthropometry
Online: 21 October 2022 (03:27:47 CEST)
Background: Different investigations have shown an association between the eating behavior of children and adolescents, and their nutritional status. The objective is to identify eating behavior patterns associated with nutritional status diagnosed by anthropometry in a sample of Spanish schoolchildren. Methods: A cross-sectional study in 283 Spanish schoolchildren (6 to 16 years old). Methods: The sample was assessed anthropometrically by Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist-to height ratio (WHtR) and body fat percentage (%BF). Eating behavior was analyzed using the CEBQ "Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire" answered by parents or guardians. Results: A positive association was found between excess weight, abdominal obesity, high adiposity, lower scores in anti-intake subscales and higher scores in pro-intake subscales. These were mainly associated with lower satiety response, higher food intake, higher food enjoyment, higher eating speed, and emotional overeating. Conclusion: Our results support the usefulness of the CEBQ as an easy-to-use tool to identify eating behaviors associated with the development of childhood and adolescent obesity. Its use in future research could help to understand behavioral phenotypes in schoolchildren and guide nutrition education and obesity prevention initiatives
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0110.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: ADHD; Antisocial Behavior; Sense of Coherence; Protective Factors
Online: 7 September 2022 (11:03:25 CEST)
Numerous studies have established the link between ADHD and antisocial behavior, one of the most serious functional impairments caused by the disorder. However, research on protective factors that mitigate this link is still lacking. The Salutogenic Model of Health offers the “Sense of Coherence” (SOC), establishing that individuals who see their lives as logical, meaningful, and manageable are more resistant to various risk factors and diseases. The present study examines for the first time whether SOC is also a protective factor against ADHD-related different types of antisocial behaviors (severe/mild violent behavior, verbal violence, property crimes, public disorder, and drug abuse). 2260 participants aged 15-50 completed online questionnaires assessing the level of ADHD symptoms, antisocial behaviors, and SOC. An interaction between ADHD and SOC was found in predicting each type of antisocial behavior. The link between ADHD and antisocial behavior was significantly weaker for high than low SOC participants, regardless of age group. The current study found that people with high SOC are protected against the effect of ADHD on one of the most serious functional impairments, antisocial behavior. These findings suggest that SOC is a protective factor from the adverse effects of ADHD, justifying further prospective and intervention studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0407.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: thematic analysis; pro-environmental behavior; motivation; environmental activists
Online: 24 August 2022 (04:00:15 CEST)
We conduct a thematic analysis of a U.S. adult sample’s self-reported motives and perception of environmental activists’ motives to engage in pro-environmental behavior via a qualitative online survey. We identified themes using a two-stage coding procedure, whereby the research team first helped to code all content into one or more of 17 inductive content categories, then the lead investigator examined themes in each of the categories and created 5 themes based on both inductive and theoretical (e.g., moral foundations theory) considerations: a) harm and care, b) purity, c) waste and efficiency, d) spreading awareness, and e) self-interest (mostly non-financial). Endorsement of themes were qualitatively similar across individuals’ own self-described motives and perceptions of environmental activists’ motives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0395.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Hong Kong; coaching; education; job satisfaction; coaching behavior
Online: 26 October 2021 (16:06:06 CEST)
Coaches are vital stakeholders in sports development and player/team performances. However, how they perform as coaches is significantly anchored on their relationship with players as the coach-player relationship influences coach’s roles and responsibilities. This study aimed to establish an understanding of how coaching behavior positively influences job satisfaction in Hong Kong. This study sought to achieve the following objectives; to investigate coaching traits for coaching different sports, explore the factors contributing to a coaching behavior, identify effects of coaching behavior on job satisfaction, and describe how coaching behaviors influence the way coaches react to player behavior and competitions. The study used a quantitative research approach to collect and analyze data. A closed-ended questionnaire was used. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. The main finding of this study is that career commitment positively influences coaches’ job satisfaction; however, their coaching behavior plays a substantial mediating role. This implies that coaches with high career commitment are positively satisfied with coaching when they focus on coaching behavior factors such as effective communication to have their players perform and achieve common goals.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0530.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: energy; homeostasis; neural network; behavior; free energy principle
Online: 30 September 2021 (17:49:37 CEST)
Explaining the emergence of behavior and understanding on the basis of neuronal mechanisms is still elusive. One renowned proposal is the Free Energy Principle (FEP), which uses an information-theoretic framework derived from thermodynamic considerations to describe how behavior and understanding would emerge. FEP starts from a whole organism approach, based on mental states and phenomena, mapping them into the neuronal substrate. An alternative approach, the Energy Homeostasis Principle (EHP), initiates a similar explanatory effort, but starting from single neuron phenomena and building up to the whole organism’s behavior and understanding. In this work, we develop the EHP as an alternative but complementary vision to FEP and try to explain how behavior and understanding would emerge from the local requirements of the neurons. Based on EHP and a strict naturalist approach that sees living beings as physical and deterministic systems, we explain scenarios where learning would emerge without the need for volition or goals. Given these starting points, we state several considerations of how we see the nervous system, particularly the role of function, purpose, and the conception of goal-oriented behaviors. We problematize these conceptions, giving an alternative teleology-free framework in which behavior and, ultimately, understanding would still emerge. We reinterpret neural processing explaining basic learning situations up to simple anticipatory behavior. Finally, we end the work with an evolutionary perspective of how this non-goal-oriented behavior appears. We acknowledge that in the current form of our proposal, we are still far from explaining the emergence of understanding. Still, we set the ground for an alternative neuron-based framework to ultimately explain understanding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0154.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: sports participation; junior middle school students; prosocial behavior
Online: 8 September 2021 (14:21:00 CEST)
Based on the 2014-2015 China Education Panel Survey (CEPS) and using the propensity score matching method, we studied the causal relationship between physical exercise and prosocial behavior of junior middle school students in China. Ordinary least squares regression and propensity score matching estimation results showed that participation in physical exercise significantly increases students’ prosocial behavior by more than 0.2 standard points. The results of this study were tested and found to be robust.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0694.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Electric energy; Occupant behavior; energy efficiency; lecture halls
Online: 29 June 2021 (08:44:05 CEST)
All over the world energy is used for different purposes and hence its continuous high demand which has brought about an increase in crisis and prices of energy. Ghana has faced a lot of supply and high electricity consumption challenges over a period of time. The Energy Commission of Ghana has developed regulations and guidelines to help reduce high consumption challenges among users, these included the replacement of incandescent bulbs with fluorescent bulbs, ban of importation of low energy efficient appliances. In spite of the effort to reduce electricity wastage, there is still a high increase in electricity consumption. The research investigated what contributed to electricity consumption in Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology with the lecture halls as the main focus, the research also analyzed the current occupant behavior characterized by the electrical energy consumption practices. And investigated how the contemporary theories for reducing energy consumption was used in the lecture halls. A questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate occupants on their energy use practices in lecture halls that causes wastages, observation was made to establish relevant data on the use of contemporary theories for energy reduction in lecture halls. In a total of 110 occupants that responded to the questionnaire, 79 occupants almost always turn off electrical fitting and fixtures when not in use. From the responses, a majority of the occupants claimed to comply to best practices of energy use. The research concluded that some contemporary theories to reduce energy consumptions was not used and considered in the lecture halls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0338.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: parental warmth; gratitude; prosocial behavior; school climate; adolescent
Online: 14 June 2021 (09:09:26 CEST)
Parental warmth plays an important role in the development of adolescents’ physical and mental health. There are numerous empirical studies indicating a relationship between parental warmth and prosocial behavior among adolescents, although the underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear. Adopting a longitudinal design across two time points, the present study proposes a moderated mediation model to explore the mediating role of gratitude and the moderating role of the school climate between parental warmth and prosocial behavior. The sample consisted of 943 participants (483 boys and 451 girls) who participated in the second assessment and completed questionnaires assessing gratitude, school climate, and prosocial behavior in April 2019. Their parents participated in the first assessment and completed a questionnaire pertaining to parental warmth in October 2018. After controlling for the gender and age of the adolescents, the results showed that the positive association between parental warmth and prosocial behavior is mediated by gratitude, and school climate does play a moderating role in the second half of the mediating path. Specifically, the school climate can play a protective role in adolescents with low levels of gratitude. For adolescents with less gratitude, a strong school climate can promote more prosocial behaviors and can effectively alleviate the negative prediction of low levels of gratitude. This study provides a theoretical explanation for the generation of adolescents’ prosocial behavior, and provides theoretical guidance for the interventions of schools and parents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0539.v1
Online: 21 December 2020 (16:01:59 CET)
Starting from the importance of risk perception for taking certain preventive measures to protect people and their property from disasters, the subject of the research is to examine the factors influencing public perception of mythically-based human behavior in disaster conditions. Using the random sampling method, 250 adult respondents were surveyed in the city of Belgrade, using a specially created and adapted survey questionnaire. The results of the research show that there is no statistically significant influence of gender, age, educational and economic factors on the public perception of human behavior in disaster conditions. The results of the research can be used to improve strategies and campaigns based on risk assessment, aimed at improving the safety of people in disasters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0052.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: body composition; physical fitness; sedentary behavior; nutritional status
Online: 2 November 2020 (14:51:42 CET)
Mexico shows a high prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents. Geographical location and cultural environment could play a role in the promotion of healthy lifestyles in terms of physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB) and nutrition. The purpose of this study was to assess rural and urban differences in body composition (BC), physical fitness (PF), PA and nutritional status of adolescents from the state of Jalisco (Mexico). The study involved 469 students aged 13-17 years (55.0% girls) from 8 high schools. BC was analyzed by bioimpedance, and PF by standardized field tests. Objective measurements of PA and SB were taken in a subsample (n=240). Energy intake (EI) was calculated from two 24h recalls. Rural residents presented a higher prevalence of overweight, waist circumference, trunk fat mass, regional fat free mass and muscle handgrip strength (all p<0.05, ηp2<0.06). Cardiorespiratory fitness was similar among participants, whereas urban adolescents showed higher muscle power, speed-agility and flexibility scores (all p<0.05, ηp2<0.07). Overall lifestyle behavior in urban adolescents was more sedentary (p<0.05, ηp2= 0.11). EI was similar in both locations. In conclusion, urban Mexican adolescents presented a generally higher sedentary behavior and better fitness and fatness profile than their rural peers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0633.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; tourism; tourist behavior; tourism sustainability
Online: 26 September 2020 (13:19:47 CEST)
This research aims to understand the vision and the reaction of the population towards tourism and holidays during this period of the COVID-19 pandemic. It investigates also the tourist needs of the Algerian population after the closure of international borders. Methods: The data were collected using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods through a questionnaire applied to 203 people in different regions of Algeria (a North African country) from 1st June to 13 July 2020. Results: The needs of Algerian tourists are characterized by a great need for leisure to relieve psychological stress caused by COVID-19 (M = 25.33) among the study sample (p <0.05). The results also show an average need to rationalize the costs of tourist services (M = 5.26) according to the respondents (p <0.01). This is in addition to the great need (M = 7.75) among respondents (p <0.05) of the awareness that the tourism sector can contribute to the economic recovery in Algeria after the confinement period. About 75.86% of respondents demand the cleanliness of tourist sites, while 69.95% recommend improving safety because of the size of tourist sites in the Algerian territory and also measures related to social distancing. The results show that 53.69% of respondents preferred the month of August to go on vacation, 29.06% chose the month of September, and 17.25% would prefer the months of October, November and December since they expect a reduction in the risks of the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the tourism needs of the Algerian population, which has become increasingly aware of the consequences of the pandemic in relation to their health and on the country's economy. These results can help the authorities of the tourism sector to better understand and identify the tourism needs of this population in the current period and after the COVID-19 pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0396.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Feeding behavior; Feeding habits; Physiology; Hexacorallia; Octocorallia; Ceriantharia
Online: 17 September 2020 (10:48:18 CEST)
In this study, we performed a bibliographical review examining the scientific literature on “feeding in Anthozoa” theme for the period from 1890 to 2019, using scientific databases (Google Scholar) supplemented with additional literature. This study categorized published scientific papers on this topic by decade of publication, target taxa, variability of species studied in each order and main themes studied. As a result, 153 studies were found, and based on their content, it was observed that within Anthozoa, there has been a concentration of feeding studies on species in the orders Actiniaria (Hexacorallia), Scleractinia (Hexacorallia), and Alcyonacea (Octocorallia). This indicates that the other remaining orders of the group have been comparatively neglected with regards to their feeding aspects. Therefore, as data on feeding in some groups of Anthozoa are scarce, studies need to be carried out to fill the gaps that permeate this important benthic group, in order to better understand their ecology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0313.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: eWOM; Online Reviews; Online consumer behavior; Management; Tourism
Online: 14 July 2020 (13:45:38 CEST)
Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM) has been widely used by the majority of consumers in different digital platforms. This exploratory study was conducted with the aim to get further insights about online consumer behavior through social networking sites and online reviews sites in order to help tourism businesses develop sustainable eWOM strategies. In order to carry out this objective, an exploratory study has been developed to analyze the existing literature of eWOM strategies and online consumer behavior. The systematic literature review analysis establishes two main topics: (i) tourism (ii) eWOM. The scientific database of Web of Science has been used to collect relevant literature of the subject matter. The search term “Tourism” and “eWOM” were applied. The database of Web of Science produced a total of 124 articles and with the different filters applied during the PRISMA 2009 Flow diagram the process resulted in a selection of 13 studies. The results of the research will provide a broader knowledge for scholars of social sciences and businesses for adopting sustainable strategies of the increasing influence of eWOM in tourism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0098.v1
Online: 6 July 2020 (09:01:38 CEST)
Energy system optimization models (ESOM) are widely used to inform about energy transition strategies. The heterogeneity of consumers, especially in the heat sector, is rarely considered in these model types. Integrating consumer heterogeneity and behavioral factors into ESOMs may generate new insights for energy policy. In this study a literature review was conducted, identifying empirical data on consumer behavior for adopting residential heating systems. This data was integrated into an ESOM for the German heat sector, combining established methods for integrating consumer heterogeneity and a novel approach for calculating indirect costs, representing behavioral factors. The incorporation of consumer choice leads to a higher diversity in technology market shares in a business as usual and an ambitious measures scenario. Especially, the future role of log wood technologies in the private household sector may have been underestimated in previous studies and should be discussed, when designing policies. Still, these findings need to be handled with care, since the empirical data basis and the methodological basis is limited.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0485.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: aggression; cholesterol; impulsivity; lipids; neurobiology; suicide; suicidal behavior
Online: 31 May 2020 (17:44:27 CEST)
Previous incidental findings of an increase of suicidal risk among subjects with low cholesterol levels have drawn attention to the role of lipids in suicidal behavior. To date, multiple lines of evidence acquired from clinical studies have confirmed an association between low cholesterol levels and suicidal behavior, but the involvement of dimensional traits including impulsivity and aggression in this association remains elusive. In this narrative review, we aimed to address and synthesize the literature regarding the involvement of lipids in the neurobiology of suicidal behavior and its underlying psychological substrates, impulsivity and aggression. An electronic database search was performed using different combinations of relevant keywords. Both preclinical and clinical studies matching the scope of this article were reviewed and filtered through an inspection of the abstracts to recruit the most suitable articles that contributed essential and substantial findings to the literature. Although subject characteristics and study designs vary across studies, current research has demonstrated that impulsivity and aggression might have shared neurobiologic substrates involved in altered serotonergic neurotransmission. Despite the association between low serum lipid levels and suicidal behavior being well documented, the involvement of lipid subtypes in the pathophysiology of impulsive and aggressive traits remains elusive. Further work is warranted to recognize the roles of lipids in neuronal membrane functions and serotonin metabolism, promote a greater appreciation of identifying biomarkers that could be used to determine at-risk individuals, and develop potential interventions to disrupt the pathogenesis of behavioral phenotypes of suicide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0299.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Circadian rhythms, neural circuit, pacemaker, calcium imaging, behavior
Online: 24 May 2019 (14:07:50 CEST)
Drosophila circadian circuit is one of the best described neural circuits but is complex enough to obscure our understanding of how it actually works. Animals’ rhythmic behavior, the seemingly simple outcome of their internal clocks, relies on the interaction of heterogeneous clock neurons that are spread across the brain. Direct observations of their coordinated network interactions can bring us forward in understanding the circuit. The current challenge is to observe activity of each of these neurons over a long span of time –hours to days– in live animals. Here we review the progress in circadian circuit interrogation powered by in vivo calcium imaging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0288.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: adolescent; current smoking; smoking behavior; tobacco message exposure
Online: 24 May 2019 (08:34:44 CEST)
This study investigated the influence and interaction of tobacco promotional and control information with adolescents’ current smoking and smoking susceptibility. 12,278 students were recruited from junior, senior and vocational high schools located in Shanghai, China. The exposure to tobacco promotional and control message of participants over the past 30 days were examined, as well as current smoking and never smokers’ initiation susceptibility. Complex sample analysis was applied. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted. 89.3% and 91.5% of adolescents investigated were exposed to tobacco promotional and control message respectively, which separately increased and decreased the risk of current smoking and never-smokers’ smoking susceptibility, especially among males and junior high school students. The risk changed in consistency with the exposure level（Ptrend < 0.001）. Tobacco control message seemed to mitigate the influence of tobacco promotions in the risk of both current smoking (OR = 0.64, 95%CI: 0.41–0.99) and smoking susceptibility (OR = 0.65, 95%CI: 0.46–0.93). Tobacco-related message exposure was highly prevalent and associated with youth smoking risk and smoking susceptibility. It is important to enhance the comprehensiveness and enforcement of promotion bans. Given the improvement of tobacco control message on smoking risk brought by tobacco promotions, the publicity and dissemination of tobacco control information need to be consistently strengthened.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0084.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: GTD222; nickel based superalloy; solidification behavior; cooling rate
Online: 8 May 2019 (08:57:20 CEST)
The microstructure and solidification behavior of nickel based GTD222 superalloy at different cooling rates are studied. The solidification of the GTD222 superalloy proceeds as follows: L→L+γ, L→L+γ+MC, L→L+(γ/γ ′)-Eutectic and L→η phase. The temperature of liquidus of GTD222 superalloy is 1360 °C while the solidus is slightly lower at 1310 °C, which due to the alloying elements redistribution. It was found that the dendrite arm spacing of the alloy decreased with the increase of cooling rate (From 200 μm at 2.5 K/min to 100 μm at 20 K/min).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0397.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Children; Eating disorders; Eating behavior; Feeding practices; Obesity
Online: 16 November 2018 (10:31:50 CET)
Abstract: Given the links between parental obesity and eating psychopathology in their children, it is important to understand the mechanisms via which unhealthy relationships with eating are passed from parents to children. The aim was to review research focusing on food-related parenting practices (FPPs) used by parents with overweight/obesity. Web of Science, PubMed and PsycINFO were searched. Twenty studies were included in the review. Single studies suggest differences between parents with healthy-weight vs overweight/obesity with respect to; food accessibility, food availability and modelling. Multiple studies suggest that several parenting strategies do not differ according to parental weight status (child involvement, praise, use of food to control negative emotions, use of food-based threats and bribes, pressure, restriction, meal and snack routines, monitoring, and rules and limits). There was inconclusive evidence with respect to differences in parental control, encouragement and use of unstructured FPPs among parents with healthy-weight vs overweight/obesity. The findings of this review imply some differences between parents with overweight/obesity and healthy-weight and the use of some food-related parenting practices, however they should be interpreted with caution since research remains limited and is generally methodologically weak. The review highlights opportunities for further research and to improve current measures of FPPs and help clarify current study findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0348.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: exercise; cigarette; smokeless tobacco; substance use; health behavior
Online: 16 October 2018 (09:49:28 CEST)
Background: Exercise is increasingly understood as an important resource for people with harmful substance use, including those in prison. Little is known about how inmates adopt various health behaviors during incarceration, without interventions. Methods: This study analyzed self-reports from 1468 inmates in Norwegian prisons, compared them according to harmful substance use pre-incarceration, and explored changes in exercise and nicotine use during incarceration. Results were presented in accordance with the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines. Results: Inmates with harmful substance use reported higher rates of smoking, smokeless tobacco, and physical inactivity pre-incarceration than inmates without harmful use. However, inmates with harmful use also exhibited more behavioral changes: they adopted exercise, ceased smoking, and adopted smokeless tobacco at higher rates during incarceration than the non-harmful group. Conclusions: Exercise is being taken up by a significant proportion of inmates, and may in particular be a replacement behavior for substance use. However, unhealthy behaviors are also begun or maintained. If prisons were used as an arena to facilitate healthy behaviors, the public health benefits to a marginalized group such as substance-using inmates could be substantial.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0330.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: elastic properties; laser ultrasonic; mechanical behavior; fiber-network
Online: 18 September 2018 (08:16:18 CEST)
For development and successful application of any material, a clear understanding of their mechanical behavior is one of the most important things, but when it comes to nanofibers networks it become a challenge due to, their high porosity, many scales in their structure, and characteristics non-linear. Therefore, an experimental methodology in conjunction with a theoretical model that can fully consider their characteristics is still needed. In this work we proposed a model that incorporates the propagation of the elastic waves in two-phase media to determine the effective elastic modulus of electrospun membranes of PLA/gelatin given the mechanical properties of nanofibers, shape, distribution and concentration. The model was verified via laser ultrasonic testing. It was found that the values predicted for the effective modulus by the model were higher than the values obtained from experimental results. One explanation is due to the experimental density. As a result, the P-Wave velocity from the model best fit to experimental results and it has the same behavior, decrees as the concentration of gelatin in the solution. These results indicate the model and experimental methodology can assist in the dressing of nanofibers networks and electrospun materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0594.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: cheating behavior, cheating during exam, 2nd medical laboratory
Online: 30 August 2018 (13:46:11 CEST)
Cheating during examination is now day serious problem spatially in Ethiopia where many students sit in one class to exam. When cheating occurs in medical schools, it has serious consequences for human life, social values, and the economy. Even though, cheating on exams has existed in any department, with unknown reason, prevalence of cheater among 2nd year laboratory students were high. So that assessing factors and improving cheating behavior of the students are mandatory to create competitive graduated students. To identify factors and to improve cheating behavior action research study design was conducted among 2nd year medical laboratory student. Criterion sampling technique was used to selects sixteen cheater students among 2nd year laboratory students. To gather necessary data, we used focus group discussions, individual interview, open-ended questionnaire and observation and collected information by using hand writing notes. During exam different cheating methods used by students like using a system of signals, writing on hands, desks and copy the other students answer. While the compelling reasons for cheating were like hard courses, hard exams, time pressure and fear of failure. To improve cheating behavior of the student’s different action strategies were taken like prepared exam by using code, arrangement sitting style during exam and sit with brainy students during class, reading and discussion. Most students were trying to done exam by themselves but their results are not good as previously. So that, we need more future action plan to avoid cheating behavior of the students. During, the next action plan we will be taken the remaining main action strategies and action evaluation we will be expected 50% of participants will be avoided their cheater behavior and done exam independently without forced by the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0070.v1
Online: 3 August 2018 (14:31:16 CEST)
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) has been used widely in strengthening of steel structures. Steel/CFRP systems subjected to elevated temperatures is realistic in a summer climate event in many countries where the temperature in steel may approach 50 °C or even higher, which will lead to the degradation of the bond performance between CFRP and steel. Therefore, predicting the bond behavior of the CFRP/steel system under elevated temperature is critical. This paper investigated the mechanical performance of CFRP/steel adhesively-bonded double strap joints at elevated temperatures. Thirty CFRP-steel double strap joints were tested to failure under temperatures between 10 °C and 90 °C. It was found that the joint failure mode changed from adherend failure to debonding failure as the temperature approached Tg. In addition, the ultimate load and joint stiffness decreased significantly at temperatures near to and greater than Tg. Based on the experimental results, a model is proposed to predict the bond stress of the CFRP/steel at different temperatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0045.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: caffeine; cognition; motor coordination; memory; social behavior; mice
Online: 4 June 2018 (13:02:34 CEST)
Heavy caffeine consumption is associated with adverse health effects. The effects of moderate and high doses of caffeine mixed with drinking water on the motor coordination, learning and memory and the social behavior in mice were studied in mice. Animals were divided into 3 groups: control group, moderate dose group (Ac MD) and high dose group (Ac HD). The animals were tested after 7 days of caffeine administration. Rota rod test for motor coordination showed that the mice of the moderate dose group could stay more time on the rotating rod before they fall than the control group and the high dose group. Water maze test for learning and memory showed better performance of mice receiving moderate dose of caffeine compared to the other groups. Animals that were administered moderate as well as high doses of caffeine showed no sociability and no preference for social novelty in the three-chamber test used to test the social behavior. In elevated plus maze, control animals showed no anxiety- like behavior while mice administered with caffeine were both showing anxiety-like behaviors. We concluded that acute administration of moderate dose of caffeine to mice could enhance their spatial memory and motor coordination. High doses however caused defects in memory and learning. The social behavior as the level of anxiety and sociability was affected negatively by moderate as well as high dose caffeine administration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0001.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: corrosion behavior; FG20; electrochemical measurements; EPMA; corrosion mechanism
Online: 1 November 2017 (04:15:39 CET)
In some sour reservoirs and tertiary oil recovery blocks, SO42- in solution can cause the corrosion and corrosion fatigue of the sucker rods. In this paper, the corrosion behaviors of super-strength sucker rod FG20 (16Mn2SiCrMoVTiA) steel in the well fluid are investigated by electrochemical measurements, and electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) analysis. The results show that FG20 steel has a favorable corrosion resistance in neural solutions. When the hydrogen ion content increases, the hydrolysis of SO42- greatly accelerates the corrosion of FG20 steel. The energy dispersive X-ray(EDX)results demonstrate that the corrosion process of FG20 steel in neural well liquid is an oxygen concentration process, and the protective FeCO3 and Fe2O3 on the surface of the samples can prevent further corrosion. With the increase of the acidity in the well liquid, the corrosion process converts into a sulphide concentration process, and the sloppy FeS and mackinawite film cannot provide effective protection for the specimens, resulting in the increase of corrosion rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0037.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: recycling; public participation; public perception; recycling behavior; environment
Online: 6 June 2017 (09:35:32 CEST)
Managing household solid waste is an urban problem in recent years. To tackle this problem, recycling is one of the most effective methods applicable in waste management. Recycling in the city of Laramie in Wyoming has a history that dates to 1983 with the establishment of Ark Recycling center. Laramie officially started its curbside recycling services in September 2011 and In April 2012, the city declared its long-term goal to achieve 40% diversion rate by 2030. The study involved a mail-back survey to understand public participation landscape and factors affecting recycling behaviors and attitudes of residents in Laramie. Quantitative result of the survey responses, civic engagement score, recycling importance score recycling satisfaction and recycling behavior scores were created to understand these attributes. In addition, three key informant interviews were conducted to explore efforts of the city, the University of Wyoming and the Ark Regional Services. Findings of the study show that more than 80% of the survey respondents indicated environmental concern was the major motivation to join recycling with high level of recycling importance and satisfaction. The Study further uncovered hints that Laramie needs to introduce an aggressive educational policy, incentive policies and a Master Plan to meet its 40% waste diversion rate by 2030 by maintaining stronger public participation in its planning process and community outreach programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0455.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Direct Behavior Rating 1; Test 2; Sensitivity over time 3; Rating 4; School 5; Classroom Behavior 6; Progress Monitoring 7
Online: 19 October 2018 (14:36:31 CEST)
Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) as a behavioral progress monitoring tool can be designed as longitudinal assessment with only short intervals between measurement points. The reliability of these instruments has been evaluated mostly in observational studies with small samples based on generalizability theory. However, for standardized use in the pedagogical field, a larger and broader sample is required in order to assess measurement invariance between different participant groups and over time. Therefore, we constructed a DBR with multiple items to measure the occurrence of specific externalizing and internalizing student classroom behaviors on a Likert scale (1 = never to 7 = always). In a pilot study, two trained raters observed 16 primary school students and rated the student behavior over all items with a satisfactory reliability. In the main study, 108 regular primary school students, 97 regular secondary school students and 14 students in a clinical setting were rated daily over one week (five measurement points). IRT analyses confirmed the instrument’s technical adequacy, and latent growth models demonstrated the instrument’s stability over time. Further development of the instrument and study designs to implement DBRs are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0357.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: 3D printing; earthen buildings; bio-composites; load-bearing walls; orthotropic material; crack propagation; Poisson’s ratio; volumetric strain; mesoscale behavior; microscale behavior
Online: 4 January 2022 (12:24:38 CET)
This study provides a contribution to the research field of 3D printed earthen buildings, focusing, for the first time, on the load-bearing capacity of these structures. The study involves the entire production and testing process of the earthen elements, from design, to the preparation of the mixture and the 3D printing, up to the uniaxial compression test on a wall segment. The results indicate that 3D printed earthen elements have a compressive strength of 2.32 MPa, comparable to that of rammed earth structures. The experimental data also made it possible to draw conclusions on the action of the infill, which seems to have the function of stopping the propagation of cracks. This has a positive effect on the overall behavior of 3D printed earthen elements, since it avoids the onset of dilative behavior in the final stages of the load test and maintains ultimate load values higher than 50% of the maximum load.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0098.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: Theory of planned behavior; Psychological factors; Sociodemographic factors; Behavior; Broker; Professional farmer; Cooperative farm; Probit model; Multinomial logit model; Marginal effect
Online: 7 December 2021 (11:12:22 CET)
The purposes of this study are based upon the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to examine the impact of past experiences of contract farming on selecting a specific type of contract farming in the future and then compare different psychological factors in the TPB for different potential contract farmer statuses. These statuses include homesteaders, farmers from cooperative farms, farmers from production and sales teams, professional farmers, and brokers. The impact of factors in the TPB for a particular contract type on potential contract farmers is further to compute. To this end, data are collected in three major sweet potato production areas in Taiwan. The results show that the farmers’ past contract farming experience does not influence the selection of the contract in the future. As for the selection of contract type, strengthening the perception and motivating the behavioral intention of contract farming for cooperative farms will increase the probability of selecting an unclassified sweet potato size contract. On the other hand, enhancing perceived behavioral control factors and behavioral intention factors for professional farmers and brokers is apt to have a relatively high probability of selecting those types involving the highest amount or the best price to obtain the best deal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0226.v1
Subject: Keywords: unreinforced masonry; quasi-brittle material; in-plane behavior; shear-compression; triplet test; dilatancy; bond behavior; confinement; finite element model; macro-model
Online: 16 February 2020 (16:06:10 CET)
Rubble stone masonry walls are widely diffused in most of the cultural and architectural heritage of historical cities. The mechanical response of such material is rather complicated to predict due to their composite nature. Vertical compression tests, diagonal compression tests, and shear-compression tests are usually adopted to experimentally investigate the mechanical properties of stone masonries. However, further tests are needed for the safety assessment of these ancient structures. Since the relation between normal and shear stresses plays a major role in the shear behavior of masonry joints, governing the failure mode, triplet test configuration was here investigated. First, the experimental tests carried out at the laboratory (LPMS) of the University of L'Aquila on stone masonry specimens were presented. Then, the triplet test was simulated by using the Total Strain Crack Model, which reflects all the ultimate states of quasi-brittle material such as cracking, crushing and shear failure. The goal of the numerical investigation was to evaluate the shear mechanical parameters of the masonry sample, including strength, dilatancy, normal and shear deformations. Furthermore, the effect of (i) confinement pressure and (ii) bond behavior at the sample-plates interfaces were investigated, showing that they can strongly influence the mechanical response of the walls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0389.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: civic education; cultural activities; social behavior; Latin America; Europe
Online: 21 December 2022 (06:57:07 CET)
The objective of this research article is to determine if social and cultural capital are factors that cause inequalities in the level of knowledge in civic and citizenship education, between Latin American and European countries. To achieve this purpose, information from the National Study of Civic and Citizen Education -ICCS-, of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement -IEA-, of the year 2016, is used. Methodologically speaking, the Educational Production Function -EPF- is estimated and subsequently, the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition technique is applied to quantify the differences in civic and citizenship education and see how much they are explained by the characteristics of the student and their family. the school, the social and cultural capital. As a main result, educational inequalities were found in favor of European countries, and are due to a greater extent to differences in school resources, between Latin American and European countries, followed by differences in social and cultural capital, therefore, it is the European students who make the best use of and benefit from the differences in school endowments and in social and cultural capital.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0456.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Inclusive leadership; Job crafting; Innovative work behavior; Belongingness; Uniqueness
Online: 24 November 2022 (09:25:46 CET)
The study aims to examine the mediating role of job crafting between inclusive leadership and innovative work behavior. The data were collected from 314 workers employed in China's small and medium-sized industries. The data collection was done through survey design. The data analysis was done through structural equation modeling using Spss 26 and Mplus 8. Inclusive leadership was found to be related to job crafting and innovative work behavior of the employees. Job crafting was found to be mediating between inclusive leadership and innovative work behavior. The study delineated the link mechanism between inclusive leadership and innovative work behavior. Studying inclusive leadership in the context of Chinese culture is a powerful complement to inclusive leadership theory. This paper provides the managers of SMEs with significant managerial insights into how inclusive leadership can effectively motivate employees’ innovative work behaviors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0393.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Breastfeeding; The theory of planned behavior; Psycho-social Factors
Online: 26 October 2022 (03:24:10 CEST)
Psycho-social factors are key factors to the powerlessness of infant mothers who breastfeed. As the theory of planned behavior (TPB) is widely used to investigate the correlation between psycho-social factors and breastfeeding behavior, this study aims to examine the utility of TPB constructs to predict breastfeeding behavior and understand TPB-based psycho-social factors’ effectiveness on breastfeeding behavior. A narrative review consulting Web of Science, Scopus, Ebsco, PubMed, and PsycInfo in English and Chinese has been conducted, with the inclusion of twenty studies published between January 2000 and May 2022. It is reported that psycho-social factors based on TPB for breastfeeding such as affective attitude, instrumental attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control (including self-efficacy), moral norm, breastfeeding knowledge, and self-identity can effectively explain the breastfeeding behavior. Future research should improve the theoretical model of TPB-based breastfeeding and implement more localized prediction and intervention studies on breastfeeding.