ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0098.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: open review; open science; zero-blind review; peer review; methodology
Online: 16 August 2019 (05:27:55 CEST)
We present a discussion and analysis regarding the benefits and limitations of open and non-anonymized peer review based on literature results and responses to a survey on the reviewing process of alt.chi, a more or less open-review track within the CHI conference, the predominant conference in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). This track currently is the only implementation of an open-peer-review process in the field of HCI while, with the recent increase in interest in open science practices, open review is now being considered and used in other fields. We collected 30 responses from alt.chi authors and reviewers and found that, while the benefits are quite clear and the system is generally well liked by alt.chi participants, they are reluctant to see it used in other venues. This concurs with a number of recent studies that suggest a divergence between support for a more open review process and its practical implementation. The data and scripts are available on https://osf.io/vuw7h/, and the figures and follow-up work on http://tiny.cc/OpenReviews.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0522.v1
Online: 22 July 2020 (11:19:24 CEST)
With the integration of small unmanned aircraft systems into the U.S. National Airspace System, low altitude regions are being stressed in historically new ways. The FAA must understand and quantify the risk of collision between unmanned and manned aircraft during desired low altitude unmanned operations in order to produce regulations and standards. It is increasingly important to characterize how manned aircraft operate at these low altitudes, as historical assumptions are insufficient for modeling and simulation to support standards development. Yet technical challenges such as poor low altitude radar coverage and lack of required transponder equipage are significant barriers to characterizing the low altitude environment. In response, we conducted an extensive review of fixedwing and rotary-helicopter manned operations to characterize the low altitude environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0104.v1
Online: 7 June 2018 (07:35:48 CEST)
Community peer review is a method that extends the ethics of consent into scientific practices. It gives communities affected by scientific research the ability to determine whether research may cause them harm and be part of determining how knowledge should best circulate to reduce or eliminate that harm. This paper introduces the method of community peer review by first looking at the concepts of consent and refusal, then outlining the steps to community peer review, using a case study of community meetings on a study of plastic ingestion by fish to elucidate the details of each step. Steps include: hiring a community member to the team; researching the social, cultural, and economic contexts of the community; identify the community; ensure skills for community conversation are in place; call the community meeting; conduct the community meeting; and analyze feedback for consent and refusal. Community peer review is premised on the idea that research is not inherently good and can cause harm, and that the best people to know whether and what kinds of harms are likely to occur are community members rather than researchers. The second premise is that the researcher’s “right” to research never supersedes a community’s right to not be harmed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0480.v1
Online: 21 August 2020 (11:03:52 CEST)
Due to breakthroughs in embedded system development, sensing technologies, and ubiquitous connectivity in recent years, technologies such as Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and Internet of Things (IoT) have captured the imagination of researchers, businesses, and general public. That resulted in the emergence of an enormous, difficult-to-navigate body of work related to WSN and IoT. To highlight trends and developments in these technologies and to see whether they are actually deployed rather than subjects of theoretical research with presumed potential use cases, we gathered and codified a dataset of scientific publications from a 5-year period from 2013 to 2017 involving actual sensor network deployments. In the first iteration, 15010 potentially relevant articles were identified in SCOPUS and Web of Science databases; after two iterations, 3059 actual sensor network deployments were extracted from those articles and classified in a consistent way according to different categories such as type of nodes, field of application, communication types, etc. We publish the resulting dataset with the intent that its further analysis may identify prospective research fields and future trends in WSN and IoT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0133.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: simulation practice; debriefing; literature review
Online: 10 May 2022 (10:02:40 CEST)
This study aims to understand the contents of debriefing performance in simulation education and its results by comprehensively examining the learning performance of the education ac-cording to the difference in the debriefing methods employed in domestic and overseas nursing simulation training. This is a literature review conducted to identify the effect of debriefing of simulation nursing practice education. The existing literature was found in electronic databases using Pubmed, Embase, MEDLINE complete, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, KoreaMed, National Discovery for Science Leaders, and Research Information Sharing Service and the key words were “nurse,” “nursing student,” “simulation,” “simulator,” “stand-ardized patient,” “debriefing.” Finally, 32 studies were analyzed. All the studies were conducted from 2012 to 2021. A total of 11 RCT, 17 quasi-experimental studies, 3 mixed method studies and 1 pilot study were identified. The debriefing process used media, structured questionnaires, and a method of teaching or peer-led debriefing. The outcome variables that were statistically significant were skill, performance, knowledge, problem-solving competency, critical thinking disposition, clinical judgement, self-confidence, satisfaction, and debriefing quality evaluation. It is necessary to educate the debriefers who are responsible for strategy development and meeting effective debriefing goals.
Online: 12 August 2020 (14:47:11 CEST)
Framed experiments and games are a useful medium to understand how context affects individual and group decision-making. They are particularly relevant for field research in agriculture, where alternative experimental designs can be costly and unfeasible. After a systematic review of the literature, we found that the volume of published studies employing coordination and cooperation games increased during the 2000-2020 period. In recent years, there has been greater attention given to natural resource management, conservation, and ecology areas, especially in strategic regions for agriculture sustainability. Other games, such as trust and risk games, have come to be regarded as standards of framed field experiments in agriculture. Regardless of sectoral focus, most games' results are subject to internal and external validity criticism. In particular, a significant portion of the games showed potential recruitment biases against women and no opportunities for a continued impact assessment. However, games' validity should be judged on a case-by-case basis. Specific cultural aspects of games might reflect the real context, and generalizing games' conclusions to different settings is often constrained by cost and utility. Overall, games in agriculture could benefit from more significant, frequent, and inclusive experiments and data – all possibilities offered by digital technology. Present-day physical distance restrictions may accelerate this shift. New technologies and engaging ways to approach farmers might represent a turning point for games in agriculture in the 21st century.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0015.v1
Online: 1 February 2019 (10:53:15 CET)
Objective: To map the literature pertaining to adult Person-Centered Rehabilitation (PCR).Data Sources: Following our previously published scoping review protocol, data were identified through: three major databases, snowball searches and expert consultation.Study Selection: Two independent reviewers identified English-language papers which addressed adult physical rehabilitation and met one or more of the six pre-defined inclusion categories for PCR content. Data Extraction: Two independent reviewers extracted key characteristics of included papers (e.g. aims, methods, participants). Quantitative methods (descriptive statistics, regression analysis) and qualitative content analyses were used to synthesize the results. Data synthesis: Of 5084 unique records initially screened, 145 papers were included: 111 empirical, including 11 systematic reviews. Empirical papers had data from 13498 clients and 3849 providers, in total. Yearly publications grew exponentially from 2000 to 2017 (r²= 0.65; p<0.01). Publications were unevenly distributed by countries (e.g. United States’ publications per population size was 45 times lower than New Zealand’s). Most papers focused in more than one profession, setting-type or health conditions, respectively 57.2%, 66.2%, and 60.7%. Finally, more than half of the empirical papers (53.2%) studied implementation of PCR approaches, including its effect. Conclusion: This scoping review synthesizes key characteristics and publication trends in the PCR literature, which is mainly empirical and growing exponentially over time. Stakeholders can use the identified trends, gaps, and literature map to guide further PCR research, and both clinical and organizational practices. The high prevalence of papers focused on multiple professions, settings-type, or health conditions reinforces the need for developing a transdisciplinary, trans-service model of PCR, which will be derived from a thematic analysis of this body of literature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0505.v1
Online: 29 August 2018 (15:52:44 CEST)
Background: Alcohol is a psychoactive substance that leads to dependence and harmful drinking in worldwide. Alcohol use is the most prevalent among age from 13 to 29 year particularly in high school, college, and university students. It affected students mentally, physically, economically and their social issues. In low and middle-income countries particularly in Ethiopia, there is lack of data in systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the prevalence of alcohol use and associated factors among students. Methods: We will search studies using computerized search engine, main electronic databases and other applicable sources. PubMed/Medline, Global Health, Africa-wides, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and direct Google search will be searched to retrieve studies written in English language from 2010 to 2017. Observational studies (case control, cross-sectional, cohort or longitudinal survey, and surveillance reports) on the prevalence of alcohol use and associated factors among students in Ethiopia will be eligible. Data will be extracted by two authors independently. Data synthesis and statistical analysis will be carried out. Pooled estimate will be done to determine the prevalence of alcohol use by using comprehensive meta-analysis software. Protocol registration PROSPERO: 2017: CRD42018083222.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0074.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: reflection; healthcare education; umbrella review
Online: 8 August 2016 (10:40:19 CEST)
Reflection in healthcare education is an emergent topic with many studies and reviews being published. The purpose of the present review is to map the literature in this field by performing a systematic review of reviews (umbrella review) and to explore which definitions and models are currently in use, how reflection impacts on design, evaluation and assessment and future challenges. Nineteen reviews were identified that satisfied inclusion criteria. Emerging themes were: reflection is currently portrayed as self-reflection and critical reflection with the epistemology-of-practice notion not being as much as expected in tandem with the evidence-based-medicine paradigm modern science advocates. Reflective techniques were recognised in multiple settings (e.g. summative, formative, group vs individual etc.) and have been associated with learning but assessment remains a research topic with issues of validity, reliability and replicability. Future challenges involve the epistemology of reflection in healthcare education and how to practice and assess reflection without losing its theoretical background.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0562.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: health equity; implementation; obesity; systematic review; CFIR; qualitative review; school-based interventions; children; facilitators
Online: 30 November 2022 (03:59:34 CET)
Background: Health inequity (HI) remains a major challenge in public health. Improving the health of children with low socioeconomic status (SES) can help to reduce overall HI in children. Childhood obesity is a global problem, entailing several adverse health effects. It is crucial to assess influencing factors for adoption, implementation and sustainment of interventions. This review aims to identify articles reporting about influencing factors for the implementation of school-based interventions promoting obesity prevention behaviors in children with low SES. It aims to critically appraise the articles’ quality, assess influencing factors, categorize and evaluate them, and to discuss possible implications. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in 7 databases with the following main inclusion criteria: 1) school-based interventions and 2) target group aged 5–14 years. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, its five domains (intervention characteristics, inner setting, outer setting, characteristics of individuals, process) along with 39 constructs within these domains were used to deductively analyze the data. We grouped the articles with regard to the characteristics of the interventions in simple and complex interventions. For each domain, and for the groups of simple and complex interventions, the most commonly reported influencing factors are identified. Results: 6452 articles were screened, and 16 met all eligibility criteria. Included articles applied mixed methods (n=10), qualitative (n=5) and quantitative design (n=1). Of these, five were considered to report simple interventions and eleven were considered to report complex interventions. In total, 295 influencing factors were assessed. Aspects of the inner setting were reported in every study, aspects of the outer setting were the least reported domain, and in the group of simple interventions not reported at all. In the inner setting, most reported influencing factors were time (n=7), scheduling (n=6) and communication (n=6). Conclusion: This review found a wide range of influencing factors for implementation. Most important influencing factors need to be assessed for every setting. Including all stakeholders involved in the implementation process enhances the prioritization of the most important influencing factors for the specific setting. More empirical research and practical guidance are needed to promote obesity prevention behaviors among children with low SES.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0451.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: systematic review; ADR assessment; elderly; aged-care facilities; medications monitoring; nursing home; drug review
Online: 29 February 2020 (03:41:22 CET)
Aim: this scoping review was designed to identify studies that assess the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) for older people in Australian aged-care facilities. This review critically evaluated each published study to identify the risk of, or actual adverse drug events in older people. Inclusion criteria: This review considered any clinical studies that examined the adverse effects of medications in older people who were living in aged-care facilities. This review considered qualitative studies, analytical studies, RCTs, descriptive cross-sectional studies, and analytic observational studies that explored the use of medications and their adverse effects on older people in clinical settings (including aged care facilities). Methods: An initial search of the PubMed, OvidSP, EBSCOHost, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Wiley Online, SAGE, and SCOPUS databases, with full text was performed, followed by an analysis of the article’s title and abstract. Additionally, MeSH was used to describe the article. The initial round of the database search was based on inclusion criteria from studies that assessed tools or protocols aiming to identify the adverse effects of medications on the elderly population suffering chronic conditions or multiple co-morbidities. Two reviewers screened the retrieved papers for inclusion. The data presented in this review are in tabular forms and a narrative summary which aligns with the review’s objectives. Results: Seven studies were identified, and the extracted data from these studies were grouped according their characteristics and the auditing results of each study. Conclusion: There was no comprehensive or broadly adverse drug reaction assessment tool derived from Australian data that has been used on the elderly in an Australian healthcare setting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0050.v1
Online: 5 September 2022 (07:49:30 CEST)
Bunyaviruses represent the largest group of RNA viruses, and are the causative agent of a variety of febrile and hemorrhagic illnesses. Originally characterized as a single serotype in Africa, the number of described bunyaviruses now exceeds over 500, with its presence detected around the world. These predominantly tri-segmented, single-stranded RNA viruses are transmitted primarily through arthropod and rodent vectors, and can infect a wide variety of animal and plants. Although encoding for a small number of proteins, these viruses can inflict potentially fatal disease outcomes, and have even developed strategies to suppress the innate antiviral immune mechanisms of the infected host. This short review will attempt to provide an overall description of the order Bunyavirales, describing the mechanisms behind their infection, replication and their evasion of the host immune response. Furthermore, the historical context of these virus will be presented, starting from their original discovery almost 80 years ago, to the most recent research pertaining to viral replication and host immune response.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0095.v1
Online: 6 July 2022 (10:12:39 CEST)
The rapid development of transportation infrastructure in Malaysia had changed the mobility landscape of the country. While it would be a welcome advancement for many, older adults might find it difficult to keep up with their transportation uses and remain active. This study reviewed published articles on the travel behavior of older adults and its associated transportation determinants to explore how sustainable the transportation system is for this vulnerable cohort. Four databases were searched: PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, and EBSCOhost. Inclusion criteria were older respondents, living in a community in Malaysia, addressing any travel behavior characteristics and written in English language. Review paper, letters, book citations, comments, editorials, and experimental and animal studies were excluded from this study. All in all, this review included seven studies extending from the year 2007 to 2020. The result showed that transportation use of older adults had shifted from relying on public transports to driving their own vehicle to move around. According to the finding of this study, besides personal and health factors, transport use of older adults was affected mainly by cost, public transport availability, road traffic and safety, the complexity of the transportation system, distance to public transit, availability of parking space, road condition and signage. It is concluded that an effective strategy to improve the transportation system is lauded to prevent unmet travel needs among the older adults in Malaysia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0062.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Refugee, Asylum seeker, resettlement, scoping review
Online: 6 January 2022 (10:09:58 CET)
The aim of this scoping review is to conduct a systematic search of the literature as it pertains to interventions delivered by peers to refugees and asylum seekers during the resettlement process. A PRISMA-compliant scoping review based on Arskey and O'Malley's (2006) five steps was used. Four databases, Scopus, Embase, Ebsco, and ScienceDirect were searched for peer-reviewed articles published in English from 2000-2021. Studies were included if they reported on interventions, outcomes or the training received by adult peers to support refugees and asylum seekers during the resettlement process. Of an initial 632 journal articles retrieved, 14 met the inclusion criteria for this review. Most included studies were conducted in Western high-income countries, with the exception of one. Studies were heterogeneous in terms of the nationalities of peers and those receiving peer interventions; the outcomes reported on; the content of interventions, and the methodologies used. Findings suggest that peer interventions seem to be effective in addressing many of the challenges faced by refugees and asylum seekers. Community integration, acculturation and psychological distress are some of the key benefits. When such interventions are co-produced in participatory research involving refugees, asylum seekers and the civil society organisations that support this population, they are naturally culturally responsive and can therefore address issues relative to different ethnic needs during the resettlement process. This is the first scoping review to be conducted in this area and adds to what is a very limited body of research. Refugee, Asylum seeker, resettlement, scoping review
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0517.v1
Online: 31 December 2021 (11:59:35 CET)
Chronic diseases (e.g., heart disease, cancer, diabetes) are of major public concern. Such chronic diseases are often caused by a dietary pattern characterized as relatively high in fat, refined sugar, salt, and cholesterol. Societal interest in consuming healthy foods and the demand for healthy food products has increased significantly. As a result, functional foods have gained significant research attention in the food health and technology innovations field. To date, many studies have investigated the factors that may predict consumer acceptance of functional foods, and a wide range of influential factors have been reported. However, studies conducted in different contexts pose challenges to gaining a clear understanding of the factors influencing consumer acceptance. This scoping review identified 75 articles published with varying populations around the globe that empirically investigated consumers’ acceptance of functional foods. We identified and categorized a wide range of determinants related to consumer acceptance of different types of functional foods. The five categories of determinants were product characteristics, socio-demographic characteristics, psychological characteristics, behavioral characteristics, and physical characteristics. Each of the determinants were more fully described by sub-determinants in our scoping review. These determinants should be considered and used by leaders and scientists in product development to aid decision making and, ultimately, the successful launch of novel functional foods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0511.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: review; misinformation; online education; research; discipline
Online: 30 August 2021 (10:26:50 CEST)
Misinformation research has grown to become a critical topic in all disciplines. Since the expanding of online media, misinformation has been spreading rapidly across the globe through social media and other information systems. Paralleling the rise of academic interest in misinformation, is the emergence of online education scholarship. Interest in the online educational implications of misinformation and its impact attracts an increase in scholarship on misinformation. This article presents the results of a review of 1172 publications with “Misinformation” across disciplines and a subset of 174 misinformation literature in online education that were published between 2009 and 2021. This review answers three questions: (1) What is the overall distribution of publication activity with "misinformation" publications? (2) What methodologies have scholars used to investigate misinformation involving online education? (3) What have scholars reported about the results of studies involving misinformation in online education? The review reveals that various methodologies were used in literature focusing on misinformation online education with leading numbers of content analysis and quantitative studies. This systematic review is particularly relevant to those online educators in various disciplines who are interested in learning what scholars from their own academic disciplines are writing about misinformation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0184.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; diet, education; systematic review.
Online: 8 July 2021 (09:57:01 CEST)
As the incidence and prevalence of diabetes increases, intervention through dietary education is becoming more important for diabetes control. This systematic review aimed to confirm the ef-fect of dietary intervention education on diabetes control. The study subjects were type 2 diabet-ic patients, and the main outcome variable was glycosylated hemoglobin level (HbA1c). The target studies were randomized controlled trials. Thirty-six studies were included in the analysis, of which 33 were included in the meta-analysis. The effect size between the dietary education and general intervention, was -0.42 (n=5,639, MD=-0.42; 95% CI -0.53 to -0.31) and was signifi-cantly different (Z=7.73, P<.001). When subgroup analyses were performed following the appli-cation periods, intervention methods, and intervention contents, the mean differences in 4–6-month application, individual education, diet-exercise-psychosocial intervention were -0.51, (n=2,742, 95% CI -0.71 to -0.32), -0.63 (n=627, 95% CI -1.00 to -0.26), and -0.51 (n=3.244, 95% CI -0.71 to -0.32), respectively. Dietary education interventions provided for at least 3 months were highly effective in controlling blood sugar levels. Regarding the education method, individual-ized education was more effective, and for this, contact or non-contact education may be applied. Combining diet, exercise, and psychosocial intervention is more effective than diet education alone.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0307.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: bio-aerosol; reduction; procedures; dentistry; review
Online: 25 June 2020 (12:24:48 CEST)
Microbe laden air particles, known as bio-aerosols, are routinely generated, in clinical dentistry due to the operative instrumentation within a milieu rich in salivary organisms. As the major mode of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 appears to be airborne aerosols and droplets, there has been an intense focus on such aerosol generating procedures (AGP). As there has been no systematic reviews on the efficacy of bio-aerosol reducing measure in dentistry, the objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the literature on three major AGPs, rubber dam application, pre-procedural oral rinse, and high-volume evacuation (HVE) aimed at reducing dental bio-aerosols. Method: PubMed via Ovid MEDLINE, EBSCO host, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases between January 01, 1985, and April 30, 2020, were searched.Results: A total of 156 records in the English language literature were identified, of which 17 clinical studies with 724 patients were included in the final analyses. The eligible reviewed articles revealed the inadequacy of the afore mentioned three principal AGPs used in contemporary dental practice to minimise bio-aerosols. HVE appears to be the most efficacious method, although no single approach provides total elimination of bio-aerosols. Conclusion:This, the first systematic review on methods of controlling bio-aerosols in dental operatory settings, indicates that employing combination strategies of rubber dam, with a pre-procedural antimicrobial oral rinse, and HVE can significantly minimize bio-aerosols. As the quality of the currently available data on dental bio-aerosols are rather poor, further, controlled, multi-centre studies are essential to address this critical issue.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0405.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: caffeine; coffee; systematic review; pregnancy; safety
Online: 23 August 2018 (05:33:43 CEST)
In 2016–2017, we conducted and published a systematic review on caffeine safety  that set out to determine whether conclusions presented in the heavily cited Health Canada assessment, Nawrot et al. , remain supported by more recent data. To that end, we reviewed data from 380 studies published between June 2001 and June 2015, which were identified from an initial batch of over 5,000 articles through a stringent search and evaluation process . In the current paper, we use plain language to summarize our process and findings, with the intent of sharing additional context for broader reach to the general public. We addressed whether caffeine doses previously determined not to be associated with adverse effects by Health Canada (400 mg/day for healthy adults, 300 mg/day for pregnant women, 2. 5 mg/kg body weight/day for adolescents and children, and 10 g/day for acute effects) remain appropriate for five outcome areas (acute toxicity, cardiovascular toxicity, bone & calcium effects, behavior, and development and reproduction) in healthy adults, pregnant women, adolescents, and children. We used a weight-of-evidence approach to draw conclusions for each of the five outcomes, as well as more specific endpoints within those outcomes, which considered study quality, consistency, level of adversity, and magnitude of response. In general, updated evidence confirms the levels of intake put forth by Nawrot et al., as not being associated with any adverse health effects, and our results support a shift in caffeine research from healthy to sensitive populations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0077.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: systematic review; forest therapy; depression; adults
Online: 14 March 2017 (08:45:56 CET)
The purpose of this study was to systematically review forest therapy programs designed to decrease the level of depression among adults and subsequently identify the gaps in the literature. This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The authors independently screened full-text articles from various databases using the following criteria: 1) intervention studies assessing the effects of forest therapy on depression in adults aged 18 years and over; 2) studies including at least one control group or condition; 3) been peer-reviewed; and 4) been published either in English or Korean before July 2016. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) measurement tool was used to assess the risk of bias in each trial. In the final sample, a total of 28 articles (English: 13, Korean: 15) were included in the present systematic review. This review concluded that forest therapy is one of the emerging and effective interventions for decreasing the level of depression in adults. However, the studies included in this review lacked methodological rigor. Future studies assessing the long-term effect of forest therapy on depression using rigorous study designs are needed.
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: depression; measurement scale; ratings; literature review
Online: 16 December 2016 (07:57:02 CET)
The range of rating instruments in depression measurement and the depth of their analytical relevance constitutes a major development in this psychiatric and psychotherapeutic field of mental health. Though the competition is acute amongst these various instruments, the results for the public have been outstandingly positive. A depression rating scale is essentially a psychiatric measuring instrument utilized in the identification and ranking of depression severity within the patient. The scale provides the practitioner, psychiatrist or psychotherapist, with sufficient information to assess the severity of the depression plotted on the scale. Not used as a “diagnostic tool” itself, nevertheless, the depression rating scale does function as an effective device for designating and assigning a behavioral score which may, then, be used in establishing the severity of depression of value in the designation of a diagnosis and treatment formula. In this paper, we will take a close look at the leading depression rating scales and briefly summarize their scope of assessment value in rating depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0612.v2
Subject: Keywords: Academic journals; Growth of knowledge; Non-peer review; Paradigm change; Peer review; Scholarly communication; Science communication; Simplicity
Online: 30 August 2021 (12:02:53 CEST)
This article challenges the assumption that journals and peer review are essential for developing, evaluating and disseminating scientific and other academic knowledge. It suggests a more flexible ecosystem, and examines some of the possibilities this might facilitate. The market for academic outputs should be opened up by encouraging the separation of the dissemination service from the evaluation service. Publishing research in subject-specific journals encourages compartmentalising research into rigid categories. The dissemination of knowledge would be better served by an open access, web-based repository system encompassing all disciplines. There would then be a role for organisations to assess the items in this repository to help users find relevant, high-quality work. There could be a variety of such organisations which could enable reviews from peers to be supplemented with evaluation by non-peers from a variety of different perspectives: user reviews, statistical reviews, reviews from the perspective of different disciplines, and so on. This should reduce the inevitably conservative influence of relying on two or three peers, and make the evaluation system more critical, multi-dimensional and responsive to the requirements of different audience groups, changing circumstances, and new ideas. Non-peer review might make it easier to challenge dominant paradigms, and expanding the potential audience beyond a narrow group of peers might encourage the criterion of simplicity to be taken more seriously - which is essential if human knowledge is to continue to progress.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: research; public health; innovation; decision making; review
Online: 21 October 2020 (11:26:17 CEST)
SIGNIFICANCE Putting worth on research and selection of studies by importance are crucial in medical innovation. Practical applications include choosing personal study topics, publication review, study grant selection, and decisions of spending or misspending billions in public health. Multiple studies raised alarm that current methods perform poorly in reproducibility, prediction of best research and objectivity. I propose using the metrics how much disease burden is reduced and calculating objective, numerical research value. The concept is that worth of medical research is not subjective but can be reproducible and numerically quantified. The method increases transparency by giving decision makers an externally accountable proof, and frees peer reviewers to check scientific integrity. Its numerical form can capture small differences important in competition between studies. ABSTRACT Finding value and selecting knowledge by importance are crucial in medical innovation. Applications include individuals designing research, funding organizations selecting grants, journals – publications, institutions – priorities in public health and health policy, and decision makers spending or misspending billions of research funds. Currently finding value of knowledge is done by peer review together with checking scientific integrity. Multiple studies raised alarm that it performs poorly in prediction of highest citations, bias, transparency and quality. The resulting problems include perception of slow medical progress and wasting funds and time. I introduce a standard, objective and numerical method for finding value of medical research. It measures disease burden prevented by new knowledge contained in a study or a publication. In its simple form, it is calculated by multiplying disease prevalence, disease burden, and efficacy of the therapy. It can be modified for risk of failure, multi-disease effect and for ethical considerations. The process is described step-by-step in terms common in medical practice. A quick estimate is often sufficient. The advantage is objectivity, since it is calculated from real world data. This gives transparency and externally accountability of decision making. The second advantage is a numerical form. This can measure small differences in research value which, in sharp competition, determine which studies are selected. A researcher can calculate the value of own future effort. Institutions might ask to provide it at submission. The method is also applicable to broad policy analysis, objective evaluation of scientific achievement and bibliometric studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0635.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance; Beta-lactamase gene; Nigeria; Review
Online: 28 August 2020 (11:28:20 CEST)
This review was carried out to identify different beta-lactamase resistance genes reported in published literature from Nigeria and to determine the proportion estimates of the important beta-lactamase resistance genes in Nigeria. Sixty-three (63) articles were included in this review based on the eligibility criteria. All the beta-lactamases reported were detected from the Gram-negative bacteria, most especially from Enterobacteriaceae (n=53). Thirty-six different beta-lactamase genes have been reported from Nigeria. These genes belong to the narrow-spectrum, AmpC, extended-spectrum, and carbapenemase beta-lactamase resistance genes. Eight (8) genes (blaDHA, blaCTXM-1, blaCTXM-14, blaGES-1, blaVEB-1, blaOXA-1, blaOXA-2, and blaTEM-1) were shared between animals and humans, 5 genes (blaSHV-1, blaSHV-2, blaSHV-11, blaSHV-12, and blaNDM-1) were common to both humans and environment while none of the genes was unique to both animals and environment. Four genes including blaCMY, blaTEM-1, blaAmpC, and internationally pandemic blaCTXM-15 gene were unique to animals, humans, and the environment. No carbapenemase gene was reported from animals yet. The pooled proportion estimate of ESBL genes in Nigeria was 31% (95% CI: 26-36%, P<0.0001), while the estimate of blaCTXM-15 gene in Nigeria was 46% (95% CI: 36-57%, P<0.0001). The proportion estimate of AmpC genes was 32% (95% CI: 11-52%, P<0.001), while the estimate for carbapenemases was 8% (95% CI: 5-12%, P<0.001). This study has provided information on the beta-lactamases distribution in Nigeria. This is necessary for a better understanding of molecular epidemiology of clinically important beta-lactamases especially the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and carbapenemases in Nigeria.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0273.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Mycobacterium abscessus, drug treatment, experimental therapy, review,
Online: 12 August 2020 (08:01:41 CEST)
Mycobacterium abscessus is a non-tuberculous mycobacteria notoriously known for causing severe, chronic infections. Treatment of these infections is challenging due to either intrinsic or acquired resistance of M. abscessus to multiple antibiotics. Despite prolonged poly-antimicrobial therapy, treatment of M. abscessus infections often fails, leading to progressive morbidity and eventual mortality. Great research efforts are invested in finding new therapeutic options for M. abscessus. Clofazimine and rifabutin are known anti-mycobacterial antibiotics, repurposed for use against M. abscessus. Novel antimicrobials active against M. abscessus include delamanid, pretomanid and PIPD1 and the recently approved beta-lactamase inhibitors avibactam, relebactam and vaborbactam. Previously unused antimicrobial combinations e.g. vancomycin-clarithromycin and dual beta-lactam therapy have been shown to have synergistic effect against M. abscessus in experimental models, suggesting their possible use in multiple-drug regimens. Finally, engineered phage therapy has been reported to be clinically successful in a severe case of disseminated M. abscessus infection. While many of these experimental therapeutics have shown activity against M. abscessus in vitro, as well as intracellular and/or animal models, most have little if any evidence of effect in humans infections. Clinical studies of M. abscesssus treatments are needed in order to reliably determine the value of their incorporation in therapeutic regimens.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0011.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: alternative food networks; systematic literature review; sustainability
Online: 29 January 2019 (10:34:36 CET)
In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to individuals organizing themselves and managing food systems in an ‘alternative’ and more sustainable way. Such emerging food initiatives are most commonly known as ‘Alternative Food Networks’ (AFNs). However, there is an ongoing debate concerning the extent to which AFNs facilitate social, economic and environmental change. There are criticisms of the overall sustainability promise of AFNs related to sufficiency of impact, possible counter effects and relevance of impacts. Because often empirical studies only focus on specific sustainability issues or AFNs, it has been difficult to develop more robust theories about the relations between diverse AFNs arrangements and sustainability. Thus, the aim of this paper is to contribute towards reducing this knowledge gap through a systematic literature review on AFNs in relation to sustainability. We summarize main methodological approaches, types of AFNs studied and sustainability dimensions addressed in literature to date. Findings serve as reference to propose opportunities for future research regarding sustainability in AFNs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0138.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: dengue fever; transverse myelitis; risk; systematic review
Online: 12 December 2018 (05:22:13 CET)
Dengue virus (DENV) is the most common arbovirus disease, with wide spectrum of presentation. Spinal cord involvement in dengue infection (DF) is rare. However, the risk of transverse myelitis (TM) following Dengue has not been systematically assessed. Methods: We undertook a systematic review of the English literature published from January 1974 to December 2017 to assess risk of TM and outcomes following DF. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE Cochrane library, and references within identified articles. Results: We identified 242 potential studies, 62 were duplicates. A further 136 were excluded on the basis of title and abstract and 19 studies did not meet the eligibility criteria on full text screening. We included 25 publications involving 2672 cases of DF. 10.8% (289/2672) had neurological complications, of which 2.3% (61/2672) was TM. For articles reporting epidemiological data, the neurological complication was twice in males compared to female 67.7% (130/192) vs 32.7% (62/192) and 1.5 fold increase TM for males 59.3% (32/54) vs 40.7% (22/54). The mean age at presentation was 33.1years (Range 0.75 – 61), with onset at 11.7days. The method of diagnosing TM due to DF was mainly IgM seropositivity 92% (n=23/25) and the commonest treatment modality was steroid 78.3% (n=18/23). Only half had full recovery 50.8% (n=31/61). There was no mortality following dengue, however, the crude case fatality rate following TM was 3.3% (n=2/61). Conclusion: This review highlights the risk of TM following dengue. Although neurological complications are rare, especially TM, once set in, it is associated with a significant morbidity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0136.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: blockchain; consensus; distributed systems; healthcare; systematic review.
Online: 7 September 2018 (12:55:42 CEST)
Blockchain technology enables a decentralized and distributed environment with no need for a central authority. Transactions are simultaneously secure and trustworthy due to the use of cryptographic principles. In recent years, blockchain technology has become very trendy and penetrated different domains, mostly due to the popularity of cryptocurrencies. One field where blockchain technology has tremendous potential is healthcare, due to the need for a more patient-centric approach to healthcare systems and to connect disparate systems and increase the accuracy of electronic healthcare records (EHRs). In this systematic review, an analysis of state-of-the-art blockchain research in the field of healthcare is conducted. The aim is to reveal the potential applications of the technology and to highlight the challenges and possible directions of blockchain research in healthcare. First, background information is discussed, followed by a description of the exact methodology used in this paper. Next, an analysis of the results is given, which includes a bibliometric overview, an analysis of gathered data and its properties, and the results of a literature quality assessment. Lastly, there is a discussion of the results from the analysis. The findings indicate that blockchain technology research in healthcare is increasing and it is mostly used for data sharing, managing health records and access control. Other scenarios are very rare. Most research is aimed at presenting novel structural designs in the form of frameworks, architectures or models. Findings also show that technical details about the used blockchain elements are not given in most of the analyzed publications and that most research does not present any prototype implementation or implementation details. Often even with a prototype implementation, no details about blockchain elements are given.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0563.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: physical environment; conduct disorders; intellectual disabilities; aggression; review
Online: 30 November 2022 (04:19:22 CET)
The physical environment is of critical importance to child development. Understanding how exposure to domains of the physical environment such as greenspace, urbanicity, air pollution or noise affects externalising problems in typical and neurodiverse children is of particular importance given the significant long-term impact of those problems. In this narrative review we investigated the evidence for domains of the physical environment that may ameliorate or contribute to the display of externalising behaviours. We have considered a broad range of study designs that include typically developing and neurodiverse children and young people aged 0-18 years. We used the GRADE system to appraise the evidence. Searches were performed in 8 databases in July 2020 and updated in June 2022. Additional articles were further identified by hand-searching reference lists of included papers. The protocol for the review was preregistered with PROSPERO. Results: We retrieved 7174 studies of which 67 are included in this review. The studies reported on green space, environmental noise and music, air pollution, meteorological effects, spatial density, urban or rural setting, and home elements (e.g., damp/sensory aspects/colour). They all used well validated parent and child reported measures of externalising problems. Most of the studies were rated as having high or probably high risk of bias. Greenspace rurality and interior design had most evidence, although the certainty of the association was low. As expected, noise, air pollution, urbanicity, spatial density, colour and humidity appeared to increase the display of externalising behaviours. There was a dearth of studies on the role of the physical environment in neurodiverse children. The studies were heterogeneous and measured a range of externalising behaviours from symptoms to full syndromes. Greenspace exposure was the most common domain studied but certainty of evidence for the association between environmental exposures and externalising problems in the child or young person was low across all domains. We found a large knowledge gap in the literature concerning neurodiverse children, which suggests that future studies should focus on these children, who are also more likely to experience adverse early life experiences including living in more deprived environments as well as being highly vulnerable to the onset of mental ill health. Such research should also aim to dis-aggregate the mechanisms of action for both environmental influences on the externalising problems the results of which may point to pathways for public health interventions and policy development to address inequities that can be relevant to ill health in neurodiverse young people.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0219.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: TMDs; temporomandibular; TMJ; network meta-analysis; systematic review
Online: 11 November 2022 (07:04:36 CET)
Abstract: Background: Pain management is one of the main parts of treatments for Temporomandibular Disorders (TMDs). However, there is still a lack of high-quality evidence that compare the overall effects of these non-surgical treatments. The objective of this systematic review is to identify the most potential treatment protocol in dealing with pain caused by TMDs through a mixed comparison of interventions based on network meta-analysis. Methods: A systematic review and network meta-analysis of studies identified by searching PubMed, Embase, Medline, Ovid, and CINAHL. All the included studies should have characteristics that: (1) participants with TMDs of any age; (2) non-surgical treatments; (3) score of Visual Analog Scale (VAS) as the outcome measure; (4) randomized controlled trials. The Cochrane Bias Assessment Toll was used to assess the bias, the CINeMA website was applied to rate the confidence of evidence, and ADDIS software was used to conduct the network meta-analysis. Results: 46 studies were included in this review. The agreement between authors reached a kappa value of 0.78. The results of the network meta-analysis showed that wearable therapy devices are more likely to be the best choice for reducing the pain of patients with myogenic TMDs, whereas a combination of platelet-rich plasma injection and wearable therapy devices is more likely to be the best choice for reducing the pain in a long term after treatment for patients with mix-type TMDs. Moreover, the application of therapy equipment has the most potential in reducing pain in a long term after treatment for patients with articular TMDs. Discussion: Wearable devices have a great potential for pain syndrome caused by TMDs, the mechanism might come from a biomechanical perspective. However, the overall confidence rating of evidence is low. Studies with high quality are still needed in the future. Other: The PROSPERO Registration Number of this systematic review is CRD42021253442.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0375.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: electrical bioimpedance; error compensations; parasitic capacitances; critical review
Online: 25 October 2022 (03:16:35 CEST)
Parasitic capacitance represents the main error source in measurement systems based on electrical impedance spectroscopy. The capacitive nature of electrodes’ impedance in tetrapolar configuration can give origin to phase errors when electrodes are coupled to parasitic capacitances. Nevertheless, reactive charges in tissue excitation systems are susceptible to instability. Based on such a scenario, mitigating capacitive effects associated with the electrode is a requirement in order to reduce errors in the measurement system. A literature review about the main compensation techniques for parasitic capacitance was carried out. The selected studies were categorized into three groups: (i) compensation in electronic instrumentation; (ii) compensation in measurement processing, and (iii) compensation by negative impedance converters. The three analyzed methods emerged as effective against fixed capacitance. No method seemed capable of mitigating the effects of electrodes’ capacitance, that changes in the frequency spectrum. The analysis has revealed the need for a method to compensate varying capacitances, since electrodes’ impedance is unknown.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0218.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Bactericidal; Bacteriostatic; Antibiotic(s); Antimicrobial Therapy; Narrative review
Online: 17 October 2022 (02:05:28 CEST)
Sepsis is a serious and life-threatening medical emergency associated with dysregulated host immune responses to infection. Like cerebral vascular or acute cardiovascular incidents, sepsis is considered a time-dependent condition having severe and long-term consequences on human health. Apart from organ support, prompt administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy is crucial to limit the burden of complications related to sepsis in ICU patients. The management of septic patients requires comprehensive and multi-disciplinary strategies for an adequate diagnosis. Most of the ICU population receives empirical antibiotic therapy without having a confirmed diagnosis. The misuse of antibiotics in intensive care units may increase the possibility of developing multidrug resistance along with considerable ecological side effects. The first doses of empirical anti-microbial therapy are slightly higher, regardless of the presence or absence of organ dysfunction, which may upregulate the production of circulating pro-and-anti-inflammatory mediators, having negative effects on the general well-being of the patients. This notion supports the introduction of individualized antimicrobial approaches based on local patterns of resistance to ensure the appropriate dosage of empirical therapy, as well as to limit the emergence of multidrug resistance in advanced-care patients. The adequacy and treatment duration must be viewed at regular intervals for effective de-escalation, and novel diagnostic approaches must be introduced to improve the quality of care in the ICU population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0137.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: steel slag; alkali activated; ProKnow-C; review; bibliometric.
Online: 11 October 2022 (04:18:06 CEST)
Steel slag is a co-product of the steelmaking industry, this material is rarely used as a binder due to its low cementitious properties. Thus, it´s believed that the alkaline activation of steel slag can enable its use as a cementitious material. This work has the objective of making a systematic bibliographic review on the theme "slag melt as a precursor in activated alkali binders". To this end, the ProKnow-C method was used for the selection and analysis of relevant research on the topic. The portfolio resulted in 71 texts, mostly journals paper. Bibliometrics showed that the country with the most publications is China and the journal with the most publications is Construction and Building Materials. The critical analysis concluded that the XRD, XRF, and compressive strength tests are the most used for the characterization of the material. It is possible to establish that there are some knowledge gaps on the subject, such as better mechanical characterization and greater production of works with dosing by the one-part method.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0281.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Drive tourism; Routes; Sustainable; Systematic Literature Review; PRISMA.
Online: 19 September 2022 (10:37:29 CEST)
Drive tourism (DT) have become an attractive way of tourist destination for an increasing number of visitors along driving routes. This flow of visitors has made sustainability a major issue that is, the way by which tourism development ensure economic benefits for local communities and preserves local identity, along the route, without compromising the environmental resources. Many studies focused the topic of DT, mainly the analysis of a particular angle, either be economic sustainability, e.g., advantages of the ones related to economic and environment sustainability [e.g., 2,4,5,10], such as the impact of tourists along the route environment. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the social consequences of DT in the local entrepreneurial environment and ensuing over enhancing of their cultural representativeness in terms of authenticity. Our aim is to summon these points of view and achieve, through a systematic literature review, a clear and integrative picture of the driving tourism impacts in terms of sustainability along the routes throughout local communities. A systematic literature review was performed using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) methodology. This systematic literature review sought to consolidate knowledge on the subject. In order to illustrate the link between major categories and their corresponding trends, authors used VOSviewer scientific software. The gathering of existing knowledge around the three components of sustainability highlighted the importance of community involvement and collaboration among DT stakeholders to ensure a trade-off between the protection and promotion of DT routes. Opportunities for future studies are suggested.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: eastern Mediterranean; EMR; hospital; malnutrition; prevalence; systematic review
Online: 7 September 2022 (11:06:27 CEST)
Background: Malnutrition has negative consequences in hospitals, like poor disease recovery, increased mortality, length of hospitalization, readmission, and health care costs.Aims: This review was designed to determine malnutrition prevalence in hospitals located in eastern Mediterranean region (EMR).Study design: To conduct this systematic review, papers, including original articles, related references and conference proceedings on the prevalence of malnutrition in adult hospitalized patients published in international journals and scientific databases from 1 Jan 2017 to 31 Jan 2022 will be included. The following keywords and their alternatives will be used in the literature search: malnutrition, patient, and EMR. The protocol has been registered at PROSPERO (code: CRD42022339426).Methods: After initial screening based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, the full text articles will be read carefully and eligible documents will be selected according to the defined objectives. Afterward, the selected papers will be reviewed for methodological quality and the required information will be extracted. Finally, in case of sufficient data, a meta-analysis will be performed. Screening, selection, quality assessment, and data extraction will be done by at least two independent reviewers.Results: This review is ongoing and will be completed until the end of year 2023.Conclusion: This review aims to provide comprehensive evidence about the prevalence of malnutrition among adult inpatients in EMR hospitals. This can provide regional authorities, health managers and policy makers good information regarding current status to make appropriate decisions for promoting the health status in hospitals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0373.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: review; article; perception; practice; challenge; design; methodology; findings
Online: 22 September 2021 (10:32:03 CEST)
This review paper aimed at reviewing English language teaching articles on EFL teachers’ perceptions, practices and challenges towards communicative language teaching. In this review, two ELT articles, which have been conducted on teachers’ perceptions, practices and challenges towards communicative language teaching in EFL classes, were reviewed in detail. While reviewing the articles, the researcher adapted Rideley’s (2008) checklist to evaluate elements of article. Thus, articles were reviewed by focusing on the title, abstract, introduction, research questions, objectives, research design, participants, sample and sampling techniques, data collecting instruments, methods of data analyses, findings and references based on the checklist provided above. The review revealed that the articles had clear objectives, researchable questions, appropriate methods and inevitable conclusions. They tried to answer the questions which were raised in each article, and the objectives went along with the overall research findings. The review, on the other hand, revealed that the participants in the articles were not representative so as to conclude and generalize the overall population by taking only few participants which were selected even by using non probability sampling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0456.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Misconceptions; errors; learning; place value; mathematics; literature review
Online: 20 May 2021 (08:26:09 CEST)
Children’s learning of place value is critical to their future study of mathematics. However, its learning presents a huge challenge for many learners. As result they develop misconceptions and thencommit errors that become an encumbrance to their understanding of place value. It is therefore important to identify these misconceptions and their associated errors early and help children to overcome them. This article reports the findings from literature on what misconceptions learners display in the learning of place value and how they can best be supported to overcome them. The results show that despite the importance of this topic there are limited studies devoted to its research. The dearth of these studies creates a gap in the study of place value.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0661.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: spatial econometrics; literature review; socioeconomic drivers; environmental pollution.
Online: 26 April 2021 (12:10:50 CEST)
The interest in spatial analysis has been growing in recent years, mainly due to communication technology advance, economic globalization, and the development of new statistical and econometric methods. The main aim of this article is to contribute to the dissemination of spatial econometric applications by presenting some basic theoretical aspects and a literature review of articles that address the socio-economic drivers that lead to environmental pollution. Three spatial regression models are reviewed here: the spatial lag model (SLM), the spatial error model (SEM), and the spatial Durbin model (SDM). A literature search was conducted using specific terms of interest in eight databases, from 1996 to February 2021, where 22 articles were considered for analysis. The results showed that most articles studied environmental problems in China. The most used exploratory spatial analysis model was Moran Index and the most used explanatory spatial analysis models were SDM and SLM.
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: creativity; ideation; architectural design studio; education; systematic review
Online: 17 December 2020 (11:58:29 CET)
Creativity is fundamental to design problem-solving. This paper sets out a systematic review of the literature in relation to its role in the architectural design studio in order to identify central issues that impact upon this activity. Challenges and best practice in relation to systematic reviews are outlined, and the procedure followed in this context is set out in detail. This involves an iterative evaluation process that resulted in a pool of 17 papers for analysis. Eleven themes emerged in the analysis of the papers, which were organized into 5 key categories dealing with: pedagogy, cognitive approach, interaction and socialization, information representation, and measuring ideation and creativity. A discussion of these categories contributed to the comparison and connections between the selected papers, and the identification of critical issues and directions for promoting creativity in the architectural design studio.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0418.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Security patterns; Software patterns; Systematic literature review (SLR)
Online: 16 November 2020 (12:13:53 CET)
Security patterns encompass security-related issues in secure software system development and operations that often appear in certain contexts. Since the late 1990s about 500 security patterns have been proposed. Although the technical components are well investigated, the direction, overall picture, and barriers to implementation are not. Here, a systematic literature review of 240 papers is used to devise a taxonomy for security pattern research. Our taxonomy and the survey results should improve communications among practitioners and researchers, standardize the terminology, and increase the effectiveness of security patterns.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0043.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Electrodermal activity; Stress detection; Machine learning; Scoping review
Online: 2 November 2020 (13:37:08 CET)
Early detection of stress can prevent us from suffering from a long-term illness such as depression and anxiety. This article presents a scoping review of stress detection based on electrodermal activity (EDA) and machine learning (ML). From an initial set of 395 articles searched in six scientific databases, 58 were finally selected according to various criteria established. The scoping review has made it possible to analyse all the steps to which the EDA signals are subjected: acquisition, preprocessing, processing and feature extraction. Finally, all the ML techniques applied to the features of this signal have been studied for stress detection. It has been found that support vector machines and artificial neural networks stand out within the supervised learning methods given their high performance values. On the contrary, it has been evidenced that unsupervised learning is not very common in the detection of stress through EDA. This scoping review concludes that the use of EDA for the detection of arousal variation (and stress detection) is widely spread, with very good results in its prediction with the ML methods found during this review.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0044.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Circular Economy; Social Aspects; Systematic Review; Sustainable Development
Online: 2 September 2020 (11:42:04 CEST)
Circular Economy (CE) is a growing topic among scholars, industry and government aiming at decoupling economic growth and development from the consumption of finite resources. CE incorporates different meanings, from reduce, reuse and recycle activities to environmental degradation or resource scarcity, and supported by specific indicators to attain sustainable development. However, so far, there has been no agreement to measure how effective an industry/product is in making the transition from linear to circular approaches, particularly those affected the society. This research work aims to perform a systematic literature review (n=60) to analyze and discuss how social aspects have been considered and integrated in the CE research so far. Moreover, this review provides and overview of the literature on social impact within CE, that resulted in three main outputs: a knowledge map of the CE, an analysis of social aspects within CE, and the theories/frameworks used to evaluate social impact of CE. Finally, this study brings to light how CE implementation can affect society and highlights the importance of social dimension in the domains of CE and policy-making community, which could help moving CE towards a sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2030065
Online: 20 August 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
Automatic ancient Roman coin analysis only recently emerged as a topic of computer science research. Nevertheless, owing to its ever-increasing popularity, the field is already reaching a certain degree of maturity, as witnessed by a substantial publication output in the last decade. At the same time, it is becoming evident that research progress is being limited by a somewhat veering direction of effort and the lack of a coherent framework which facilitates the acquisition and dissemination of robust, repeatable, and rigorous evidence. Thus, in the present article, we seek to address several associated challenges. To start with, (i) we provide a first overview and discussion of different challenges in the field, some of which have been scarcely investigated to date, and others which have hitherto been unrecognized and unaddressed. Secondly, (ii) we introduce the first data set, carefully curated and collected for the purpose of facilitating methodological evaluation of algorithms and, specifically, the effects of coin preservation grades on the performance of automatic methods. Indeed, until now, only one published work at all recognized the need for this kind of analysis, which, to any numismatist, would be a trivially obvious fact. We also discuss a wide range of considerations which had to be taken into account in collecting this corpus, explain our decisions, and describe its content in detail. Briefly, the data set comprises 100 different coin issues, all with multiple examples in Fine, Very Fine, and Extremely Fine conditions, giving a total of over 650 different specimens. These correspond to 44 issuing authorities and span the time period of approximately 300 years (from 27 BC until 244 AD). In summary, the present article should be an invaluable resource to researchers in the field, and we encourage the community to adopt the collected corpus, freely available for research purposes, as a standard evaluation benchmark.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0299.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Obesity; Eating Disorders; Adolescents; Prevention programs; Systematic Review
Online: 13 August 2020 (10:38:34 CEST)
An effective behavior changes program is the first-line of prevention for youth obesity. However, effectiveness in prevention of adolescent obesity requires several approaches, with special attention paid to disordered eating behaviors and psychological support among other environmental factors. The aim of this systematic review was to compare the impact of two types of obesity prevention programs, inclusive of behavior change components on weight outcomes. Energy-balance studies were aimed at reducing calories from high-energy sources and increasing PA levels, while “shared risk factors for obesity and eating disorders” focused on reducing disordered eating behaviors to promote a positive relationship with food and eating. A systematic search of ProQuest, PubMed, PsycInfo, SciELO, and Web of Science identified 8825 articles. Twenty were considered “energy-balance” and fifteen “shared-risk factors for obesity and eating disorders”. Overall, energy-balance studies were unable to support a maintenance weight status, diet, and PA over time. Shared risk factors programs also did not result in significant differences in weight status over time. However, the majority of shared risk factors studies demonstrated reduced body dissatisfaction, dieting, and weight-control behaviors. More research is needed to examine how a shared risk factor approach can address both obesity and eating disorder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0051.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: COVID-19; WHO; database; systematic review; data quality
Online: 2 August 2020 (17:43:38 CEST)
Introduction: A large number of COVID-19 publications has created a need to collect all research-related material in practical and reliable centralized databases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functionality and quality of the compiled World Health Organisation COVID-19 database and compare it to Pubmed and Scopus. Methods: Article metadata for COVID-19 articles and articles on 8 specific topics related to COVID-19 was exported from the WHO global research database, Scopus and Pubmed. The analysis was conducted in R to investigate the number and overlapping of the articles between the databases and the missingness of values in the metadata. Results: The WHO database contains the largest number of COVID-19 related articles overall but retrieved the same number of articles on 8 specific topics as Scopus and Pubmed. Despite having the smallest number of exclusive articles overall, the highest number of exclusive articles on specific COVID-19 related topics was retrieved from the Scopus database. Further investigation revealed that PubMed and Scopus have more comprehensive structure than the WHO database, and less missing values in the categories searched by the information retrieval systems. Discussion: This study suggests that the WHO COVID-19 database, even though it is compiled from multiple databases, has a very simple and limited structure, and significant problems with data quality. As a consequence, relying on this database as a source of articles for systematic reviews or bibliometric analyses is undesirable.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0045.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Coral; Health; Bleaching; Review; Hyperspectral Imaging; Survey methods
Online: 2 August 2020 (16:37:46 CEST)
Rapidly and repeatedly ascertaining the health status of coral reefs is an ever more pressing issue as part of activities to understand and monitor the damaging impacts of climate change. A combination of increasing ocean temperatures, acidity and frequency of extreme storm events continues to alter the marine environment beyond what sensitive organisms, such as coral, can cope with. It is therefore vital to establish technologies and validated methods to provide a metric or indication into the health of these organisms. There are currently many surveys and techniques used by coral scientists to uncover insights into the status and assessment of coral reefs, from colour wheels to multispectral satellite surveys. Here we outline an array of current techniques and methods focused specifically on coral monitoring and health diagnosis, ranging across the length scales from simple diver-based surveyance to satellite remote sensing. The technique of using hyperspectral fluorescence imaging is also introduced as a viable novel addition to aid and extend the current toolbox of available technologies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0224.v1
Subject: Keywords: fibromyalgia; comprehensive review; neurophysiological abnormalities; psychosocial processes; integration
Online: 11 July 2020 (03:45:54 CEST)
Research into the neurobiological and psychosocial mechanisms involved in fibromyalgia (FM) has progressed remarkably in recent years. Despite this, currents accounts of FM fail to capture the complex, dynamic and mutual crosstalk between neurophysiological and psychosocial domains. We conducted a comprehensive review of the existing literature in order to synthesise current knowledge on FM, explore and highlight multi-level links and pathways among different systems and build bridges between existing approaches. An extensive panel of international experts in neurophysiology and psychosocial aspects of FM discussed the collected evidence and progressively refined and conceptualized its interpretation. Fibromyalgia is a complex condition resulting from the dynamic interplay between multiple systems and processes. We provided an updated overview of the most relevant observations in FM to date as well as the potential pathways by which they exert they are related and exert their mutual influence, to produce the manifestations commonly associated with FM. This review constituted the first step towards and supported the development of a much needed model capable of integrating the main factors implicated in FM into a single, unified model that may prove valuable in understanding and managing FM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0283.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Covid-19; coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; review; pandemic
Online: 16 April 2020 (15:55:12 CEST)
Coronaviruses are an extensive family of viruses that can cause disease in both animals and humans. The current classification of coronaviruses recognizes 39 species in 27 subgenera that belong to the family Coronaviridae. From those, at least seven coronaviruses are known to cause respiratory infections in humans. Four of these viruses can cause common cold-like symptoms, while others that infect animals can evolve and become infectious to humans. Three recent examples of this viral jumps include SARS CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS CoV-2 virus. They are responsible for causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and the most recently discovered coronavirus disease during 2019 (COVID-19).COVID-19, a respiratory disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020. The rapid spread of the disease has taken the scientific and medical community by surprise. Latest figures from 14 April 2020 show more than 2 million people had been infected with the virus, causing more than 120,000 deaths in over 210 countries worldwide. The large amount of information we receive every day concerning this new disease is so abundant and dynamic that medical staff, health authorities, academics and the media are not able to keep up with this new pandemic. In order to offer a clear insight of the extensive literature available, we have conducted a comprehensive literature review of the SARS CoV-2 Virus and the Coronavirus Diseases 2019 (COVID-19).
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: 2019-nCoV; epidemiology; causes; prevention and control; review
Online: 6 February 2020 (08:54:11 CET)
The 2019-nCoV has been identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China beginning in December 2019. This epidemic had spread to 19 countries with 11,791 confirmed cases, including 213 deaths, as of January 31, 2020. The World Health Organization declared it as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. This study analyzed and discussed 70 research articles published until January 31, 2020 for a better understanding of the epidemiology, causes, clinical diagnosis, prevention and control of this virus. Studies thus far have shown origination in connection to a seafood market in Wuhan, but specific animal association has not been confirmed. The reported symptoms include fever, cough, fatigue, pneumonia, headache, diarrhea, hemoptysis, and dyspnea. Preventive measures such as masks, hand hygiene practices, avoidance of public contact, case detection, contact tracing, and quarantines are effective for reducing the transmission. To date, no specific antiviral treatment is proven effective, hence, infected people primarily rely on symptomatic treatment and supportive care. Although these studies had relevance to control a public emergency, more research need to be conducted to provide valid and reliable ways to manage this kind of public health emergency in both short- and long- term.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0325.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: dental caries; prevention; clinical trials; herbal; scoping review
Online: 27 November 2019 (03:57:04 CET)
It is currently recognized that an injudicious strategy in the last decades has been not only focusing of research typically on caries in children, but also the narrow focusing on fluoride, because despite sufficient availability of fluoride in water and oral healthcare products, caries levels escalate steadily as people get older and caries remain a main public health issue to be settled. In the last two decades the scientific community intensified efforts of exploring other products for caries prevention, herbal products being one of these approaches. Because preliminary evidence indicated that clinical trials for caries prevention with herbal products are heterogeneous in design, quality and products evaluated, we performed a scoping review intended to explore the main characteristics of such clinical trials. From an initial collection of 1986 unique papers from different literature databases, 56 articles satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The species investigated, dosage forms, study designs, duration of intervention, controls, endpoints, quality of reporting and risk of bias are discussed. 85.71% of the trials reviewed here reported positive results but given the methodological flaws and biases affecting them, it is difficult to conclude on the efficacy of those products based on the studies published thus far.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0117.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: : antianxiety; antidepression; panax notoginseng saponins; network pharmacology; review
Online: 15 March 2018 (05:20:34 CET)
Panax notoginseng, as traditional Chinese medicine, has a long history of high clinical value, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, inhibition of platelet aggregation, regulation of blood glucose and blood pressure, inhibition of neuronal apoptosis and neuronal protection, and its main ingredients are Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS). Currently, Panax notoginseng may improve mental function, have anti-insomnia and anti-depression effects, alleviate anxiety, and decrease neural network excitation. However, the underlying effects and the mechanisms of Panax notoginseng and its containing chemical constituents (PNS) on these depression-related or anxiety-related diseases has not been completely established. This review summarized the antidepressant or anxiolytic effects and mechanisms of PNS, and analyzed network targets of antidepressant or anxiolytic actions with network pharmacology tools to provide directions and references for further pharmacological studies and new ideas for clinical treatment of nervous system diseases and drug studies and development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0164.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: pre-hospital emergency; review; qualitative study; patient satisfaction
Online: 25 December 2017 (06:41:26 CET)
Objective. To describe patient satisfaction with pre-hospital emergency knowledge and determine if patients and professionals share a common vision on the satisfaction predictors. Methods. A qualitative study conducted in two phases. First, a systematic review following the PRISMA protocol was carried out searching publications between January 2000 and July 2016 in Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane. Second, three focus groups involving professionals (advisers and healthcare providers) and a total of 79 semi-structured interviews involving patients were conducted to obtain information about what dimensions of care were a priority for patients. Results. Thirty-three relevant studies were identified. A majority conducted in Europe using questionnaires. They pointed out a very high level of satisfaction of callers and patients. Delay with the assistance and the ability for resolution of the case are the elements that overlap in fostering satisfaction. The published studies neither reviewed the overall care process nor related the measurement of the real time in responding to an emergency with the satisfaction. The patients and professionals concurred in their assessments about the most relevant elements for patient satisfaction, although safety was not a predictive factor for patients. Response capacity and perceived capacity for resolving the situation were crucial factors for satisfaction. This qualitative approach yielded assistance targets to be improved. Conclusions. Published studies have assessed similar dimensions of satisfaction. Furthermore, despite the fact that few explanations may be given due to the no face to face attention, taking into account the patient’s emotional needs or maintaining contact with the patient until the emergency services arrive are high predictors of the satisfaction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0143.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: coping strategies; children; imprisoned parents; interventions; systematic review
Online: 19 May 2017 (06:14:31 CEST)
Children of imprisoned parents have a two times greater risk for health problems, including difficulties in their environment, academic and behavioural problems as well as social stigma. Focusing on children who have parents in prison has not been a priority for research. This review aims to describe current knowledge on children who have imprisoned parents in a global context and highlight areas for additional research. This review highlights the coping strategies that children of imprisoned parents use and explore interventions that exist to support children of imprisoned parents. This review employed a qualitative narrative synthesis. The database search yielded 1989 articles, of which 11 met inclusion and quality criteria. Stigmatizing children due to parental imprisonment was a widespread problem. Children’s coping strategies included maintaining distance from the imprisoned parent, normalizing the parent’s situation and taking better control over their lives through distraction, sports, supportive people and therapy. Children received the best support in school-based interventions or mentoring programmes. The overall low quality of the included studies indicates a need for further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: dietary pattern; prostate cancer; systematic review; meta-analysis
Online: 6 August 2016 (12:30:38 CEST)
Dietary patterns were recently applied to examine the relationship between eating habits and prostate cancer (PC) risk. While the associations between PC risk with glycemic index and Mediterranean score have been reviewed, no meta-analysis is currently available on dietary patterns defined by “a posteriori” methods. Search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science) to identify studies reporting the relationship between dietary patterns and PC risk. Relevant dietary patterns were selected and the risk estimated were calculated by a random-effect model. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for a 1st-percentile increase in dietary pattern score were combined by a dose response meta-analysis. 12 observational studies were included in the meta-analysis which identified “Healthy pattern” and “Western pattern”. The Healthy pattern was not related to PC risk (OR=0.96; 95% CI: 0.88-1.04) while the Western pattern significantly increased it (OR=1.34; 95% CI: 1.08-1.65). In addition, a “Carbohydrate pattern”, identified in four articles, was positively associated with a higher PC risk (OR=1.64; 95% CI: 1.35-2.00). A significant linear trend between the Western (p=0.011) and the Carbohydrate (p=0.005) pattern and the increment of PC risk was observed. The small numbers of studies included suggest that further investigations are necessary to support these findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0199.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Blockchain; Token; Recognition; Reward; Peer Review; Research Management; NIHR
Online: 14 September 2022 (08:41:28 CEST)
Here we present a blockchain-backed token recognition system to reward the contributions that academics make to the scientific ecosystem. Recognition is important in science but current methods, systems and incentives are limited. Specifically, the traditional focus on narrow publication metrics means diverse contributions are not captured, while bias toward senior, established scientists is common. To tackle this challenge, we explore the potential of harnessing blockchain’s collaborative, decentralised and trust-brokering properties to develop a token reward system for use by research funders. Academics would be awarded tokens for undertaking common but vital tasks such as peer review, sitting on funding committees and submitting reports. These tokens would not be tradable or specifically monetisable but would serve as a validated record of scientific contribution. They would have value in professional recruitment and job placement, support grant and award applications, and inform performance appraisals and file reviews. Coordination and cooperation across multiple funding agencies in developing the platform would provide an opportunity to aggregate and standardise recognition, given academics often work with several funders. This system’s goals are to expand recognition metrics, promote efficiencies, improve the robustness of professional assessments and enable cross-funder collaboration, thereby optimising research processes and practices in a decentralised and democratised manner.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0260.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Childhood cancer; financial costs; Africa; systematic review; meta-analysis
Online: 15 August 2022 (11:53:44 CEST)
The high costs of cancer treatment and lack of investment in health care are significant obstacles to public health on the African continent. The objective of this study was to estimate the financial cost of treating children suffering from cancer in Africa. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of expert opinions between March 2000 and March 2020. The key search terms included ‘cost’, ‘cancer’ and ‘child’; we selected articles that specifically addressed the financial costs of childhood cancer in African countries. Of the 103 articles found, 18 met the inclusion criteria. Cancer care was a heavy financial burden in most of the countries studied, although costs varied from country to country; the average expenditure on healthcare was US$1017.39 ± US$319.1 per year. In countries without a health insurance system, the highest proportion of cancer care costs, 46.6%, was indirect, whereas in countries with a cancer financing system, the direct cost of treatment was low, 53.4%. The cost of treating childhood cancer is high in Africa in relation to the standard of living of individuals residing in this region.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0325.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: big data; architecture; agriculture; climate change; systematic literature review
Online: 24 May 2022 (07:42:55 CEST)
Climate change is currently one of the main problems facing agriculture to achieve sustainability. It causes situations such as drought, increased rainfall, and increased diseases, causing a decrease in food production. In order to combat these problems, Agricultural Big Data contributes with tools that allow improving the understanding of complex, multivariate, and unpredictable agricultural ecosystems through the collection, storage, processing, and analysis of vast amounts of data from diverse heterogeneous sources. This research aims to discuss the advancement of technologies used in Agricultural Big Data architectures in the context of climate change. The study aims to highlight the tools used to process, analyze, and visualize the data and discuss the use of the architectures in the crop, water, climate, and soil management, especially to analyze the context, whether it is in Resilience Mitigation or Adaptation. The PRISMA protocol guided the study, finding 33 relevant papers. Despite the advances in this line of research, few papers were found that mention the components of the architectures, in addition to the lack of standards and the use of reference architectures, which allow the proper development of Agricultural Big Data in the context of climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0339.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: Neuralgia; Interventional Pain Management; Intractable Pain; Delphi Technique; Review
Online: 25 March 2022 (07:41:03 CET)
Interventional management of neuropathic pain (NP) is available to the many patients who do not attain satisfactory outcomes with pharmacotherapy, but evidence supporting this is sparse and fragmented. We attempted to summarize and critically appraise the existing data to identify strategies that yield maximum benefit, orient clinicians, and identify areas that merit further investigation. A two-round Delphi survey that involved pain clinic specialists with experience in the research and management of NP was done over an ad hoc 26-item questionnaire prepared by the authors. Consensus on each statement was defined as either at least 80% endorsement or rejection after the second round. Thirty-five and 29 panelists participated in the first and second round, respectively. Consensus was reached in 20 out of 26 statements. There is sufficient basis to treat postherpetic neuralgias and complex regional pain syndromes with progressive levels of invasiveness and failed back surgery syndrome with neuromodulation. Radiculopathies and localized NP could be treated with peripheral blocks and neuromodulation, or pulsed radiofrequency. Non-ablative radiofrequency and non-paresthetic neuromodulation are efficacious and better tolerated than ablative and suprathreshold procedures. A graded approach, from least to most invasive interventions has the potential to improve outcomes in many patients with common refractory NP conditions. Preliminary promising data warrant further research on new indications, and technical advances might enhance the safety and efficacy of current and future therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0345.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: big data; machine learning; agriculture; challenges; systematic literature review
Online: 28 February 2022 (03:14:56 CET)
Agricultural Big Data is a set of technologies that allows responding to the challenges of the new data era. In conjunction with machine learning, farmers can use data to address different problems such as farmers' decision-making, crops, weeds, animal research, land, food availability and security, weather, and climate change. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize the evidence regarding the challenges involved in implementing machine learning in Agricultural Big Data. We conducted a Systematic Literature Review applying the PRISMA protocol. This review includes 30 papers, published from 2015 to 2020. We develop a framework that summarizes the main challenges encountered, the use of machine learning techniques, as well as the main technologies used. A major challenge is the design of Agricultural Big Data architectures, due to the need to modify the set of technologies adapting the machine learning techniques, as the volume of data increases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0136.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: meta-analyses; primary knee osteoarthritis; stem cells; systematic review
Online: 9 February 2022 (10:57:45 CET)
Background: Conclusions of meta-analyses of clinical studies may substantially influence opinions of perspective patients and stakeholders in health care. Nineteen meta-analyses of clinical studies on the management of primary knee osteoarthritis (pkOA) with stem cells, published between January 2020 and July 2021, came to inconsistent conclusions regarding the efficacy of this treatment modality. It is possible that a separate meta-analysis based on an independent, systematic assessment of clinical studies on the management of pkOA with stem cells may reach a different conclusion. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science and the Cochrane library were systematically searched for clinical studies and meta-analyses of clinical studies on the management of pkOA with stem cells. All clinical studies and meta-analyses identified were evaluated in detail, as were all sub-analyses included in the meta-analyses. Results: The inconsistent conclusions regarding the efficacy of treating pkOA with stem cells in the 19 assessed meta-analyses were most probably based on substantial differences in literature search strategies among different authors, misconceptions about meta-analyses themselves, and misconceptions about the biology of stem cells. An independent, systematic review of the literature yielded a total of 183 studies, of which 33 were randomized clinical trials, including a total of 6860 patients with pkOA. However, it was not possible to perform a scientifically sound meta-analysis. Conclusion: Clinicians should interpret the results of the 19 assessed meta-analyses of clinical studies on the management of pkOA with stem cells with caution, and should be cautious of the conclusions drawn therein. Clinicians and researchers should strive to participate in FDA and/or EMA reviewed and approved clinical trials to provide clinically and statistically valid efficacy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0385.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Space Science Keywords: Agriculture; Copernicus,; Sentinel 1; Sentinel 2; Literature Review,; EO4Agri
Online: 23 December 2021 (11:45:41 CET)
Copernicus is Europe's space-based Earth monitoring asset, which consists of a complex set of systems that collect data from different sources: remote sensing satellites (RS) and in-situ sensors such as ground stations, airborne and marine sensors. This study was originally prepared for the needs of the Czech agricultural community, where we provided an in-depth analysis of articles related to Earth observation in precision agriculture. At a later stage, we extended this study by comparing the recommendations of the European EO4Agri project and scientific articles published in MDPI. We had two important objectives, one was to validate the results of the EO4Agri project and the other was to look for gaps in current research and community needs. To recognize the importance of using Sentinel 1 data, we also added a specific analysis of methods for data fusion of Sentinel 1 and Sentinel 2 data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0243.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: distance learning; intelligent services; literature review; virtual learning environments.
Online: 14 September 2021 (15:06:55 CEST)
Distance learning has assumed a relevant role in the Educational scenario. The use of Virtual Learning Environments contributes to obtain a substantial amount of educational data. In this sense, the analyzed data generate knowledge used by institutions to assist managers and professors in strategic planning and teaching. The discovery of students’ behaviors enables a wide variety of intelligent services for assisting in the learning process. This article presents a literature review in order to identify the intelligent services applied in distance learning. The research covers the period from January 2010 to May 2021. The initial search found 1,316 articles, among which 51 were selected for further studies. Considering the selected articles, 33% (17/51) focus on learning systems, 35% (18/51) propose recommendation systems, 26% (13/51) approach predictive systems or models, and 6% (3/51) use assessment tools. This review allowed to observe that the principal services offered are recommendation systems and learning systems. In these services, the analysis of student profiles stands out to identify patterns of behavior, detect low performance and identify probabilities of dropouts from courses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0600.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Tor; hidden services; onion services; systematic literature review; survey
Online: 27 July 2021 (11:22:06 CEST)
Anonymous communications networks were born to protect the privacy of our communications, preventing censorship and traffic analysis. The most famous anonymous communication network is Tor. This anonymous communication network provides some interesting features, among them, we can mention user’s IP location or Tor Hidden Services (THS) as a mechanism to conceal the location of servers, mainly, web servers. THS is an important research field in Tor. However, there is a lack of reviews that sump up main findings and research challenges. In this article we present a systematic literature review that aims to offer a comprehensive view on the research made on Tor Hidden services presenting the state of the art and the different research challenges to be addressed. This review has been developed from a selection of 57 articles and present main findings and advances regarding Tor Hidden Services, limitations found, and future issues to be investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0625.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: precision agriculture; agricultural extension; profitability; production quality; systematic review
Online: 25 June 2021 (15:52:08 CEST)
Precision agriculture (PA) is a holistic, sustainable, innovative systems approach that assists farmers in production management. Adopting PA could improve sustainable food security and community economic sustainability. Developing an understanding of PA adoption attributes is needed to assist extension practitioners to promote adoption and better understand the innovation adoption phenomena. A systematic review of literature was conducted to investigate PA adoption. Thirty-three publications were examined, and four themes were found among the reviewed publications. The results were interpreted using Rogers’ diffusion of innovations framework to address the research objectives. Of the reviewed literature, we found relative advantage and compatibility were two dominant attributes to strengthen the adoption of PA, and the complexity attribute was rarely used to promote the adoption of PA. This study shows that change agents do not fully use five attributes of innovation when they promote PA technology to stakeholders to adopt. Thus, we recommend studies from the agricultural extension specialists’ perspectives in the future may determine contributions to motivate farmers’ adoption of PA, in particular related to complexity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0648.v1
Online: 26 April 2021 (10:22:54 CEST)
The runtime environment is an important concern for self-adaptive systems (SASs). Although researchers have proposed many approaches for developing SASs that address the issue of uncertain runtime environments, the understanding of these environments varies depending on the objectives, perspectives, and assumptions of the research. Thus, the current understanding of the environment in SAS development is ambiguous and abstract. To make this understanding more concrete, we describe the landscape in this area through a systematic literature review (SLR). We examined 128 primary studies and 14 unique environment models. We investigated concepts of the environment depicted in the primary studies and the proposed environment models based on their ability to aid in understanding. This illustrates the characteristics of the SAS environment, the associated emerging environmental uncertainties, and what is expressed in the existing environment models. This paper makes explicit the implicit understanding about the environment made by the SAS research community and organizes and visualizes them.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0140.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Literature Review; Elderly Health Problems; ; Elderly Care; Nursing Homes
Online: 5 April 2021 (14:06:36 CEST)
Bacground, the increasing number of elderly is a new challenge for health care systems around the world. The phenomenon of the complex health problems experienced by the elderly encourages families to bring the elderly to a nursing home. The purpose of this study was to describe the condition of the elderly living in nursing homes and their care needs. Methodology, this research design is a literature review, article search using 5 databases, namely Scopus, ProQuest, Pubmed, CINAHL and Scient Direct. Articles reviewed from 2019 to 2021. Protocol and evaluation of literature review using the PRISMA checklist, and the assessment guide using the Joanna Briggs Institute Guideline. Results, the health conditions of the elderly who live in the orphanage are mostly aged 60 years and over, physically experiencing disturbances in their daily activities and dependence. Psychologically experiencing anxiety, depression, loneliness and even mental disorders and socially need family support. The care needs of the elderly in nursing homes include services by competent and culturally sensitive staff and nurses, safe and comfortable nursing home environmental services, privacy needs and social interactions, spiritual needs services, social guidance services, and skills guidance services. Conclusion, based on the literature review, it can be seen that nursing services should be provided in a humanistic and holistic manner, the elderly are clients who have both bio-psycho-socio-cultural and spiritual needs. So that nursing services are aimed at meeting the needs of the elderly in a comprehensive manner.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0448.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer screening; test; alternative; non-invasive; CRC; review
Online: 17 March 2021 (16:01:58 CET)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading cancer-related causes of death in the world. Since the 70s, many countries have adopted different CRC screening programs which has resulted in a decrease in mortality. However, current screening test options still present downsides. The commercialized stool-based tests present high false-positive rates and low sensitivity, which negatively affects the detection of early stage carcinogenesis. The gold standard colonoscopy has low uptake due to its invasiveness and the perception of discomfort and embarrassment that the procedure may bring.In this review, we collected and described the latest data about alternative CRC screening techniques that can overcome these disadvantages. Web of Science and PubMed were employed as search engines for studies reporting on CRC screening tests and future perspectives. The searches generated 555 articles, of which 93 titles were selected. Finally, a total of 50 studies, describing 14 different CRC alternative tests, were included. Among the investigated techniques the main feature that could have an impact on CRC screening perception and uptake was the ease of sample collection. Urine, exhaled breath and blood-based tests promise to achieve good diagnostic performance (sensitivity of 63-100%, 90-95%, 47-97%, respectively) while minimizing stress and discomfort for the patient.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0316.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Infrastructure projects; LCCA; Systematic Review; PRISMA statement; Sustainability; LCA
Online: 11 March 2021 (11:23:23 CET)
The comfort of human life depends on the quality, size, and reliability of the infrastructure projects. In the infrastructure systems, rapid growth is found, where the economic and sustainable impact has become a topic of significant concern for policies and government officials. To achieve con-straints of sustainable development, all the policies and actions over the infrastructure project's life cycle must be assessed. Decision-makers have adopted approaches for economic, social, and en-vironmental initiatives through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Cost Analyses (LCCA) of infrastructure projects. The purpose of this review is to highlight the impact of per-forming LCA and LCCA in infrastructure projects. To achieve this goal, a systematic literature review methodology is adopted in which renowned databases, i.e., Web of Science, Science Direct, Emerald and Scopus were selected to extract the relevant literature. Using the PRISMA approach, 1251 publications were identified which were then filtered and 55 documents were included in the final review. In the extracted publications most, researchers were biased toward LCA and LCA individually, whereas few focused on integrated LCA and LCCA. The researchers assessed the costs and impact associated with the infrastructure project while there were less focused on the environmental cost. Besides this, techniques of economic, social, and environmental growth of infrastructure projects have been emphasized during the design phase because of substantial relations between infrastructure design and operation management. Moreover, a conceptual framework has been developed that will assist the decision-makers to consider the effects of LCA and LCCA on various aspects of the infrastructure project and how it impacts sustainability. In the last, a case study was performed to assess the developed framework with the incorporation of environmental impact cost.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0152.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Biosensors; review; nanotechnology; cancer detection; IoT; low power sensors
Online: 8 January 2021 (11:57:14 CET)
Biosensors are essential tools which have been traditionally used to monitor environmental pollution, detect the presence of toxic elements and biohazardous bacteria or virus in organic matter and biomolecules for clinical diagnostics. In the last couple of decades, the scientific community has witnessed their widespread application in the fields of military, health care, industrial process control, environmental monitoring, food-quality control, and microbiology. Biosensor technology has greatly evolved from the in vitro studies based on the biosensing ability of organic beings to the highly sophisticated world of nanofabrication enabled miniaturized biosensors. The incorporation of nanotechnology in the vast field of biosensing has led to the development of novel sensors and sensing mechanisms, as well as an increase in the sensitivity and performance of the existing biosensors. Additionally, the nanoscale dimension further assists the development of sensors for rapid and simple detection in vivo as well as the ability to probe single-biomolecules and obtain critical information for their detection and analysis. However, the major drawbacks of this include, but are not limited to potential toxicities associated with the unavoidable release of nanoparticles into the environment, miniaturization induced unreliability, lack of automation, and difficulty of integrating the nanostructured-based biosensors as well as unreliable transduction signals from these devices. Although the field of biosensors is vast, we intend to explore various nanotechnology enabled biosensors as part of this review article and provide a brief description of their fundamental working principles and potential applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0134.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: zinc sensor; 8-amidoquinoline; fluorescent probe; chemosensor; systematic review
Online: 6 October 2020 (14:55:13 CEST)
Abundant of preparatory works have recognized that fluorescent sensors based on 8-aminoquinoline are popular tools to detect Zn2+ ions in environmental and biological applications. Along with these studies, researchers started to introduce a variety of carboxamido group into an 8-aminoquinoline molecule in forming 8-amidoquinoline derivatives. Therefore, this systematic review aims to introduce a general overview of the fluorophore 8-aminoquinoline as Zn2+ receptors and to provide comparisons of collected studies that related to 8-amidoquinoline derivatives as fluorophore probe of the sensor. According to PRISMA systematic searches strategy, 13 articles were analyzed for trends, research designs, results and discussion, subject samples, and remarks or conclusions. We found cross-sectional studies with four aspects in zinc sensing that have been targeted; binding studies via titration, detection's limit, interferences studies, and validation of the study. Hence, this paper also included assessments of those criteria and the trends of development of 8-amidoquinoline derivatives based-zinc fluorescent chemosensor. It also showed that most of the researches conducted in China. In conclusion, this study identified various research designs of fluorescent chemosensors based on 8-amidoquinoline prolong with the effectiveness and potential as a recognition probe to assist the detection of zinc. Hence, elucidation of those derivatives essential to be explored because more studies are needed to improve the sensing criteria of the zinc sensor
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: systematic review; community intervention; greenhouse gas emissions; climate change
Online: 3 September 2020 (02:54:04 CEST)
This paper reviews research on community efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. We conducted a systematic search of relevant literature and supplemented our findings with an analysis of review papers previously published on the topic. Results indicate that there have been no peer-reviewed experimental evaluations of community-wide interventions to reduce greenhouse gases involving electricity, refrigeration, or food. The lack of findings limits the conclusions which can be made about the efficacy of these efforts. As a result, we are not accumulating effective interventions and some communities may be implementing strategies that are not effective. We advocate the funding of experimental evaluations of multi-sector community interventions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Such interventions would attempt to engage every sector of the community in identifying and implementing policies and practices to reduce emissions. Comprehensive multi-sector interventions are likely to have synergistic effects, such that the total impact is greater than the sum of impact of individual components. We describe the value of interrupted time-series designs as an alternative to randomized trials because these designs confer particular advantages for evaluating strategies in entire communities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0693.v1
Online: 29 July 2020 (11:12:32 CEST)
This last decade, the amount of data exchanged in the Internet increased by over a staggering factor of 100, and is expected to exceed well over the 500 exabytes by 2020. This phenomenon is mainly due to the evolution of high speed broadband Internet and, more specifically, the popularization and wide spread use of smartphones and associated accessible data plans. Although 4G with its long-term evolution (LTE) technology is seen as a mature technology, there is continual improvement to its radio technology and architecture such as in the scope of the LTE Advanced standard, a major enhancement of LTE. But for the long run, the next generation of telecommunication (5G) is considered and is gaining considerable momentum from both industry and researchers. In addition, with the deployment of the Internet of Things (IoT) applications, smart cities, vehicular networks, e-health systems, and Industry 4.0, a new plethora of 5G services has emerged with very diverging and technologically challenging design requirements. These include: high mobile data volume per area, high number of devices connected per area, high data rates, longer battery life for low-power devices, and reduced end-to-end latency. Several technologies are being developed to meet these new requirements. Among these we list ultra-densification, millimeter Wave usage, antennas with massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), antenna beamforming to increase spacial diversity, edge/fog computing, among others. Each of these technologies brings its own design issues and challenges. For instance, ultra-densification and MIMO will increase the complexity to estimate channel condition and traditional channel state information (CSI) estimation techniques are no longer suitable due to the complexity of the new scenarios. As a result, new approaches to evaluate network condition such as by continuously collecting and monitoring key performance indicators become necessary. Timely decisions are needed to ensure the correct operation of such network. In this context, deep learning (DL) models could be seen as one of the main tools that can be used to process monitoring data and automate decisions. As these models are able to extract relevant features from raw data (images, texts, and other types of unstructured data), the integration between 5G and DL looks promising and one that requires exploring. As main contributions, this paper presents a systematic review about how DL is being applied to solve some 5G issues. We examine data from the last decade and the works that addressed diverse 5G problems, such as physical medium state estimation, network traffic prediction, user device location prediction, self network management, among others. We also discuss the main research challenges when using DL models in 5G scenarios and identify several issues that deserve further consideration.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0536.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: corona-virus; COVID-19; tourism sector; review; risk hedging
Online: 30 April 2020 (14:15:28 CEST)
Nowadays tourism is growing as a gigantic, global business accounting for 10.4 % of Global GDP and 10% of global employment (Joppe, 2020). This review paper aims to explore the risks borne for tourism sector by the outbreak of corona-virus in 2020. Tourism sector is a highly vulnerable sector and the costs that will be borne from corona-virus pandemic will be devastating, particularly for the countries relying on this sector as a basic source of income. The paper suggests possible solutions and adaptation routes, while at the same time reviews lessons of the past from other pandemics and crisis. This paper is very useful for tourism policy makers and governments in countries where tourism contributes a significant part of their GDP, but also for other economic sectors closely but indirectly connected in the tourism value chain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0405.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Systematic Review; Sustainable Agriculture; Climate Change; Resilience; Agro-Systems
Online: 27 February 2020 (12:23:04 CET)
In the last few decades, a lot has been written on the use of sustainable agriculture to improve ecosystem services for resilience to climate change. However, no tangible and systematic evidence exists on how this would participate in alleviating impacts on vulnerable rural communities. This paper provides a narrative systematic review (SR) integrated with a bibliometric analysis and a concept network analysis to understand how, in a changing climate, sustainable agriculture builds the resilience of agro-systems. The search was set from the date of the first relevant article until the end of 2018. Results generated have demonstrated that: a. Only single practices and methods have been studied to assess impacts on single ecosystem services. b. Soil quality and health are considered a key indicator of sustainable agriculture. c. Albeit the assessed practices and methods have shown to improve the biodiversity of agro-systems, which makes them more resilient to extreme climate events, we are still far from reaching interdisciplinary and multi-dimensional agriculture which integrates all management aspects and generates a full range of ecosystem services. In conclusion, the study addressed the following recommendations for the scientific community and for decision-makers to orient future research strategies and efforts: a. Integration of all agro-systems services into sustainable management using an ecosystem-based approach on a life-cycle basis using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method; b. Improving the scientific understanding of traditional knowledge for higher synergies and for further integration; c. Unification of assessment methods and indicators for the quantification of impacts; d. Creation of a platform to share, monitor, screen, and approve assessments and evaluations of sustainable agriculture by region.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0011.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: intercultural education; intervention programs; Roma student; systematic review; PRISMA
Online: 5 May 2019 (11:04:28 CEST)
Intercultural education can be seen as a cornerstone in the sustainability of the current culturally diverse society. In addition, through the establishment of policies and strategies to reverse situations of discrimination and exclusion, there is a consensus on the importance of the social inclusion of groups at risk of exclusion. In this context, actions are suggested to reverse high dropout rates and school failure within the Roma population. The aim of this systematic review in the educational context is to analyze investigations of programs and interventions that have been made to promote the educational inclusion of Roma students. Three databases are used, Scopus, Web of Science, and Eric, to examine 419 articles, which after a selection, based on an inclusion criterion which follows the guidelines given by the Declaration PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes), 17 articles were chosen for the analysis. The main findings shed light on data for programs and interventions developed mostly within the school setting and for students of elementary and secondary education. These programs provide answers for the molding of intercultural education and the policies for educational inclusion of Roma people.
REVIEW | doi:10.3390/sci1010015.v1
Subject: Keywords: wastewater treatment; temperatures; systematic review; biofilms; endocrine disrupting compounds
Online: 21 March 2019 (00:00:00 CET)
Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are contaminants with estrogenic or androgenic activity that negatively impact human and animal communities. These compounds have become one of the significant concerns for wastewater treatment in recent decades. Several studies have evaluated EDC removal methods from wastewater across the globe including the United Kingdom (UK). Accordingly, the current study reviews EDC removal methods from municipal/domestic wastewater in the United Kingdom (UK) for the period of 2010–2017. The research highlights that despite the relative efficacy of existing chemical and physical methods for removing certain EDCs from wastewater there is emerging evidence supporting the need for more widespread application of nature-based and biological approaches, particularly the use of biofilms. The analysis reveals that there have been relatively few research studies on EDC removal methods have been carried out in the UK in the 2010–2017 period and none of the research focused on EDC removal using biofilms. Finally, this review suggests that more research is needed to remove EDCs, particularly through the application of biofilms, from municipal wastewater in current scenarios.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0220.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Acute pancreatitis; Etiology; Biliary pancreatitis; Systematic review; Meta-analysis
Online: 25 February 2019 (08:58:59 CET)
Introduction: Cholelithiasis and consumption of alcohol are the most frequent causes of acute pancreatitis (AP), accounting for about 30 to 40% of the cases, respectively. The frequency of acute biliary pancreatitis is high in a certain population in Brazil. Objective: To estimate the global frequencies of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP), acute alcoholic pancreatitis (AAP) and the cases considered as acute idiopathic pancreatitis (AIP) in studies published from October 2006 to December 31, 2018. Methods: A systematic review of observational studies was performed from October 2006 to December 31, 2018. A meta-analysis by the random effects model was used to calculate the frequencies of global ABP, AIP and AAP and subgroups. Results: Forty-six studies representing 2,341,007 AP cases were included in 36 countries. The overall estimate for acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) was 41.6% (95% CI 39.2-44.1), followed by acute alcoholic pancreatitis (AAP) with 20.5% (95% CI) 16.6- 24.6) and acute idiopathic pancreatitis (AIP) in 18.3% (95% CI 15.1-27.7). Conclusion: ABP is the most prevalent etiology of AP, being two times more frequent than second-placed pancreatitis. Latin America has a frequency for ABP much higher than the rest of the world. The importance of the etiologic diagnosis is the treatment of the cause for prevention of recurrence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0431.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: LULC Products, systematic review, Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia
Online: 23 July 2018 (15:33:55 CEST)
A large variety of remote sensing-based land use/land cover (LULC) products are currently available on national and global scales. This literature review and in-situ validation study evaluates the suitability of these products for local scale applications in the complex terrain of the Ethiopian mountains. For the review, 146 research papers were analyzed. Most studies (73%) have been published since 2013 and are based on individually computed maps. Not a single study relied on readily available LULC products. Nine readily available LULC products with 20, 30, 300, 500 and 1,000 m spatial resolution have been identified at national and global scales. To complement and extend this body of research, the recent (since 2013) LULC products were validated using 185 ground truth points collected in the Bale Mountains National Park between 1,500 and 4,385 m a.s.l. The results indicate a rather poor overall accuracy (<50%).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0058.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: ambient air pollution; epidemiology; narrative review; sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 8 January 2018 (09:52:02 CET)
An important aspect of the new sustainable development goals (SDGs) is a greater emphasis on reducing the health impacts of urban ambient air pollution (AAP) in developing countries. Meanwhile, the burden of disease attributable to AAP in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is growing, yet estimates of its impact in the region are likely underestimated due to a lack of air quality monitoring, the paucity of epidemiological studies, and important population vulnerabilities in the region. The lack of studies in the SSA region also represents an important global health disparity and environmental justice issue because thousands of air pollution health effects studies have been conducted in Europe and North America rather than in some of the most polluted regions of the world, such as SSA. In this review, we synthesize all of the ambient air pollution epidemiological studies that have been conducted in SSA to date. We highlight the gaps in AAP epidemiological studies conducted in different sub-regions of SSA and provide methodological recommendations for future environmental epidemiology studies addressing AAP in the SSA region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0012.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: diabetes; water intake; mineral water; magnesium; bicarbonate; review; prevention
Online: 6 July 2017 (18:12:04 CEST)
To address the question whether there is evidence that drinking water in general or mineral water in particular is effective in preventing diabetes; we performed a literature search of randomized controlled trials (PubMed). The search resulted in very few trials (N = 9) investigating this topic: one trial investigates the effect of increasing water consumption on glycemic control in diabetic patients; two trials investigate the effect of drinking water with a meal in diabetic patients; while six trials compare the effect of mineral rich water with that of low mineralized water on glucose metabolism in healthy subjects. There is evidence that increasing water consumption can improve glucose metabolism and randomized controlled trials with mineral water suggest that waters containing relevant amounts of magnesium can exert an additional effect. The role of bicarbonate; which is present in all the mineral waters used in the trials; will be discussed. Future research needs to investigate the effect of mineral water in prediabetic individuals or individuals with impaired glycemic control.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0003.v3
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: sustainability; value modeling; decision support; value driven design; review
Online: 12 June 2017 (13:51:25 CEST)
Manufacturing organizations shall recognize sustainability as a business occasion to capitalize on, rather than an undesirable pressing situation. Still, empirical evidence shows that this opportunity is hard to capture and communicate in global strategic decisions, through planning by tactical management, to daily operational activities. This paper systematically reviews the modeling challenges at the crossroad of value and sustainability decisions making, spotlighting methods and tools proposed in literature to link sustainability to customer value creation at strategic, tactical and operational level. While statistical results show that the topic of sustainability and value modeling is trending in literature, findings from content analysis reveal that recent attempts to promote a value-based view in the sustainability discussion remain at a strategic level, with most of the proposed indicators being suited for managerial decision-making. The lack of support at operational level points to the opportunity of cross-pollinating sustainability research with value-centered methodologies originating from the aerospace sector. The Value Driven Design framework is proposed as main hub from which to derive models supporting engineers and technology developers in the identification of win-win-win situations, where sustainable improvements are aligned with business advantages.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: sequelae; COVID-19; SARS-COV-2; long-COVID; systematic review
Online: 14 September 2022 (08:50:08 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 made its debut as a pandemic in 2020; since then, more than 607 million cases and at least 6.5 million deaths have been reported worldwide. While the burden of disease has been described, the long-term effects or chronic sequelae are still being described. Objective: To describe the findings of a current systematic review of the long-term effects related to post-COVID-19 sequelae. Design: A systematic review was carried out in which cohort studies, case series, clinical case reports were included, and the PubMed, Scielo, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases were ex-tracted. Information published 2020 to June 1, 2022, was sought. Results: We reviewed 300 manuscripts during the first step of the literature review process. Then 260 abstracts were analyzed. In the end, we included 32 manuscripts: 9 for pulmonary, 6 for cardiac, 2 for renal, 9 for neurological and psychiatric, and 8 for cutaneous sequelae. Conclusion: Studies show that the most common sequelae are those linked to the lungs, followed by skin, cutaneous and psychiatric alterations. Women report a higher incidence of the sequelae, as well as those with comorbidities and severer COVID-19 history. The COVID-19 pandemic has not only caused death and disease since its apparition but has also sickened millions of people around the globe who potentially suffer from serious illnesses that will continue to add to the list of health problems and further burden healthcare systems around the world.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0034.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: remote work; telework; systematic literature review; work design; workforce planning
Online: 2 September 2022 (05:54:08 CEST)
The practice of telework, remote work, and working from home has grown significantly across the pandemic era (2020+). These practices offer new ways of working but come with a lack of clarity as to the role it plays in supporting the wellbeing of staff. (1) Background: the purpose of this study is to examine the current literature on wellbeing outcomes and effects of telework; (2) Methods: this study adopts a systematic literature review from 2000-2022 using the PRISMA approach and thematic analysis guided by the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (Wellbeing, Decent Work, Gender Equality, and Inclusive Production); (3) Results: it was evident that there is a lack of clarity on the actual effects of telework on employee wellbeing, but it appeared that it had a generally positive effect on short-term wellbeing of staff, and created more flexible and proactive work design opportunities; (4) Conclusions: there is a need for more targeted research into work designs that support wellbeing and productivity of staff, and consider the environmental sustainability changes from reduced office and onsite work and increased working from home.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0448.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Electric Vehicles; Review; SOC Estimation; Deep Learning; Lithium-ion Battery
Online: 26 August 2022 (04:43:03 CEST)
As one of the critical state parameters of the battery management system, lithium battery state of charge (SOC) can provide an essential reference for battery safety management, charge/discharge control, and energy management of electric vehicles. To analyze the application of deep learning in electric vehicle power battery SOC estimation, this study reviewed the technical process, common public datasets, and the neural networks used, structural characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of lithium battery SOC estimation in deep learning method. First, the specific technical processes of the deep learning method for SOC estimation were analyzed, including data collection, data preprocessing, feature engineering, model training, and model evaluation. Secondly, the current commonly and publicly used lithium battery dataset was summarized. Then, the input variables, data sets, errors, and advantages and disadvantages of four types of deep learning methods, were concluded using the structure of neural network used for training as the classification criterion. Finally, the challenges and future development directions of lithium battery SOC estimation in deep learning method were explained.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: type 2 diabetes; glycemic control; insulin resistance; nutrients; umbrella review
Online: 9 May 2022 (05:05:33 CEST)
Background: Nutrient supplements are widely used for type 2 diabetes (T2D) yet evidence-based guidance for clinicians is lacking. Methods: We searched the four electronic databases from November 2015–December 2021. The most recent, most comprehensive, high-ranked systematic reviews, meta-analyses and/or umbrella reviews of randomised controlled trials in adults with T2D were included. Data were extracted on study characteristics, aggregate outcome measures per group (glycemic control, measures of insulin sensitivity and secretion), adverse events, and GRADE assessments. Quality was assessed using AMSTAR-2. Results: Twelve meta-analyses and one umbrella review were included. There was very low certainty evidence that chromium, Vitamin C and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (-3 PUFAs) were superior to placebo for the primary outcome of HbA1c (MD -0.54%, -0.54% and ES -0.27 respectively). Probiotics were superior to placebo for HbA1c (WMD -0.43%). There was very low certainty evidence that Vitamin D was superior to placebo for lowering HbA1c in trials of <6 months (MD -0.17%). Magnesium, zinc, Vitamin C, probiotics and polyphenols were superior to placebo for FBG. Vitamin D was superior to placebo for insulin resistance. Data on safety was limited. Conclusions: Future research should identify who may benefit from nutrient supplementation, safety, and optimal regimens and formulations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0028.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Deep Learning; Depression; Electroencephalogram; EEG; Depressive Disorders; Systematic Literature Review
Online: 10 November 2021 (15:29:25 CET)
Depression is considered by WHO as the main contributor to global disability and it poses dangerous threats to approximately all aspects of human life, in particular public and private health. This mental disorder is usually characterized by considerable changes in feelings, routines, or thoughts. With respect to the fact that early diagnosis of this illness would be of critical importance ineffective treatment, some development has occurred in the purpose of depression detection. EEG signals reflect the working status of the human brain by which are considered the most proper tools for a depression diagnosis. Deep learning algorithms have the capacity of pattern discovery and extracting features from the raw data which is fed into them. Owing to this significant characteristic of deep learning, recently, these methods have intensely utilized in the diverse field of researches, specifically medicine and healthcare. Thereby, in this article, we aimed to review all papers concentrated on using deep learning to detect or predict depressive subjects with the help of EEG signals as input data. Regarding the adopted search method, we finally evaluated 22 articles between 2016 and 2021. This article which is organized according to the systematic literature review (SLR) method, provides complete summaries of all exploited studies and compares the noticeable aspects of them. Moreover, some statistical analysis performs to gain a depth perception of the general ideas of the latest researches in this area. A pattern of a five-step procedure was also established by which almost all reviewed articles fulfilled the goal of depression detection. Finally, open issues and challenges in this way of depression diagnosis or prediction and suggested works as the future directions discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0043.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Collaborative Problem Based Learning; Metacognitive; Chemistry Students; Systematic Literature Review
Online: 2 August 2021 (13:23:11 CEST)
Increasing the metacognitive abilities of chemistry students is an indisputable output of the teaching and learning process today. Collaborative problem based learning is a learning method that has been tested and proven to be applied, especially in Western countries in increasing the metacognitive abilities of students, but it is still very minimal applied in Asian countries, including Indonesia. Thus, this study was conducted to explore previous studies that examined collaborative problem-based learning in improving students' metacognitive abilities. The research design used in this study is a Systematic Literature Review with the requirements of the inclusion of articles on collaborative problem-based learning in improving the metacognitive abilities of chemistry students, accredited national and international publications between 2010 and 2020, full text, journal articles, and open access. The results of the exploration that were carried out found 102 articles, then the title and abstract were read into 20 articles, and 4 articles were read in full, which fulfilled all the stipulated inclusion requirements. The results of the systematic literature review conducted in this study provide empirical evidence of literacy that problem based learning improves the metacognitive abilities of chemistry students. However, most of research conducted still uses various instruments, which are not standardized and validated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0577.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Material culture, restitution, artefacts, antiquities, cultural objects, western museums, review
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:30:52 CEST)
Background: The saga of repatriating cultural artefacts continues as western museums face increasing pressure from claimants. Western museums that have been involved in the display of historical artefacts, most of which were acquired during the colonial period, have come under huge criticism. A heated discussion of late has been the legitimacy of retaining artefacts in western museums. This study aimed at investigating the ongoing debate regarding the restitution of artefacts. Objective: To investigate the arguments for and against the repatriation of artefacts in relation to diplomatic exchange, preservation, legitimacy and usefulness. Methods: Records will be searched in electronic databases including the University of Manchester Library for Social Anthropology, Scorpus and Project MUSE. Search terms will include "return of artefacts", “return of historical objects”, “return of cultural objects”, “western museums”, “restitution of artefacts”, “repatriation of artefacts”, “restitution of historical objects”, repatriation of historical objects”, “restitution of cultural objects”, “repatriation of cultural objects”, "material culture", "return of antiquities”, restitution of antiquities” and “repatriation of antiquities”. Coding and analysis will be done in SWIFT-Review. The deductive and inductive approaches will be used in synthesising results. Both tabular and graphical methods will be used to present results. Ethics and Results: This study did not need any ethical approval. Results on study characteristics, quality and risk of bias assessments as well as the synthesis of arguments for and against the restitution of artefacts will be presented. The review results will be reported according to appropriate guidelines and disseminated through publication in a relevant journal and presented to stakeholders where necessary. Conclusions: This review will be based on current protocols for systematic review and qualitative evidence synthesis. The study will be the first review that seeks to pull together claims for and against the return of cultural artefacts. The conclusions that will be drawn and recommendations will provide the basis for further research into the debate and the way forward. This study will also help identify the existing gaps regarding the subject matter.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Electricity demand forecast; Machine Learning; Artificial Neural Networks; systematic review.
Online: 21 May 2021 (09:48:10 CEST)
The forecast of electricity demand has been a recurrent research topic for decades, due to its economical and strategic relevance. Several Machine Learning (ML) techniques have evolved in parallel with the complexity of the electric grid. This paper reviews a wide selection of approaches that have used Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to forecast electricity demand, aiming to help newcomers and experienced researchers to appraise the common practices and to detect areas where there is room for improvement in the face of the current widespread deployment of smart meters and sensors, which yields an unprecedented amount of data to work with. The review looks at the specific problems tackled by each one of the selected papers, at the results attained by their algorithms, and at the strategies followed to validate and compare the results. This way, it is possible to highlight some peculiarities and algorithm configurations that seem to consistently outperform others in specific settings.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: systematic review; cannabis; neuroimaging; age-of-onset psychosis; psychosis; schizophrenia
Online: 14 May 2021 (09:58:14 CEST)
Acute exposure to cannabis has been associated with an array of cognitive alterations, increased risk for neuropsychiatric illness, and other neuropsychiatric sequelae including the emergence of acute psychotic symptoms. However, the brain alterations associating cannabis use and these behavioral and clinical phenotypes remains disputed. To this end, neuroimaging can be a powerful technique to non-invasively study the impact of cannabis exposure on brain structure and function in both humans and animal models. While chronic exposure studies provide insight into how use may be related to long-term outcomes, acute exposure may reveal interesting information regarding the immediate impact of use and abuse on brain circuits. Understanding these alterations could reveal the connection with symptom dimensions in neuropsychiatric disorders and, more specifically with psychosis. The purpose of the present review is to: 1) provide an update on the findings of pharmacological neuroimaging studies examining the effects of administered cannabinoids and 2) focus the discussion on studies that examine the sensitive window for the emergence of psychosis. Current literature indicates that cannabis exposure has varied effects on the brain, with the principal compounds in cannabis (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol) altering activity across different brain regions. Importantly, we also discorvered critical gaps in the literature, particularly regarding sex-dependent responses and long-term effects of chronic exposure. Certain networks often characterized as dysregulated in psychosis, like the default mode network and limbic system, were also impacted by THC exposure, identifying areas of particular interest for future work investigating the potential relationship between the two.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0194.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: aphthous stomatitis, risk factors, genetic polymorphisms, multivariate analysis, systematic review
Online: 10 May 2021 (13:55:48 CEST)
The cause and prevention of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (also called aphthous ulcers or canker sores) are still unknown. This may be due in part to ignorance of the risk factors present in susceptible people. In this systematic review (PROSPERO record #CRD42019122214), we show that most of the risk factors for the disease are single nucleotide genetic polymorphisms in genes related to the functioning of immune system (TLR4, MMP9, E-selectin, IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha). Single nucleotide genetic polymorphisms do not constitute a modifiable risk. This indicates that, at least in part, susceptibility to recurrent aphthous stomatitis is hereditary, and that these factors cannot be modified.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0075.v1
Subject: Keywords: Schistosomiasis; diagnosis; non-human hosts; surveillance; systematic review; meta-analysis
Online: 6 May 2021 (12:04:50 CEST)
Background Reliable and field-applicable diagnosis of schistosome infections in non-human animals is important for surveillance, control, and verification of interruption of human schistosomiasis transmission. This study aimed to summarize uses of available diagnostic techniques through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods and principal findings We systematically searched the literature and reports comparing two or more diagnostic tests in non-human animals for schistosome infection. Out of 4,909 articles and reports screened, 18 met our inclusion criteria, four of which were considered in the meta-analysis. A total of 14 techniques (parasitologic, immunologic, and molecular) and nine types of non-human animals were involved in the studies. Notably, four studies compared parasitologic tests (miracidium hatching test (MHT), Kato-Katz (KK), the Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory technique (DBL), and formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation-digestion (FED-SD)) with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and sensitivity estimates (using qPCR as the reference) were extracted and included in the meta-analyses, showing significant heterogeneity across studies and animals hosts. The pooled estimate of sensitivity was 0.21 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03 – 0.48) with FED-SD showing highest sensitivity (0.89, 95% CI: 0.65 – 1.00). Conclusions and significance Our findings suggest that the parasitologic technique FEA-SD and the molecular technique, qPCR, are the most promising field-applicable techniques for schistosome diagnosis in non-human animal hosts. Future studies are needed for validation and standardization of the techniques for real-world field applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0010.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Coral Reef Monitoring; Reef Health; Review; Hyperspectral Imaging; Marine Optics
Online: 3 May 2021 (16:10:43 CEST)
Monitoring the health of coral reefs is essential to understand the damaging impacts of anthropo-genic climate change. Non-invasive methods to survey coral reefs are the most desirable and op-tics-based surveys, ranging from simple photography to multispectral satellite imaging are well es-tablished. Herein, we review these techniques, focusing on their value for coral monitoring and health diagnosis. A new, low-cost hyperspectral imaging technique using linear variable filters is also described. This system is capable of simultaneously producing hyperspectral and photogrammetric outputs, which provides integrated information of reef structure and physiology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0448.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: preprint; citations; scholarly communication; open science; peer review; impact factor
Online: 16 April 2021 (16:45:49 CEST)
Preprints are regularly cited in peer reviewed journal articles, books and conference paper. Are preprint citations somehow less important than citations to peer reviewed research papers? This study investigates citation patterns between 2017 and 2020 for preprints published in three preprint servers, one specializing in biology (bioRxiv), one in chemistry (ChemRxiv), and another hosting preprints in all disciplines (Research Square). As evaluation of scholarship continues to largely rely on citation-based metrics, this analysis and its outcomes will be useful to inform new research-based education in today’s scholarly communication.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0062.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: MMR; vaccine hesitancy; critical review; Wakefield; child immunisation; United Kingdom
Online: 2 April 2021 (12:19:07 CEST)
This review critically assesses the body of research about Measles-Mumps-and-Rubella (MMR) vaccine attitudes and uptake in the United Kingdom (UK) over the past 10 years. We searched PubMed and Scopus, with terms aimed at capturing relevant literature on attitudes, uptake, decision-making, and beliefs about the MMR vaccine. Two researchers screened for abstract eligibility and after de-duplication 934 studies were selected. After screening, 40 references were included for full-text review and thematic synthesis by three researchers. We were interested in the methodologies employed, and grouped findings by whether studies concerned: (1) Uptake and Demographics; (2) Beliefs and Attitudes; (3) Healthcare Worker Focus; (4) Experimental and Psychometric Intervention; (5) Mixed Methods. We identified group and individual level determinants for attitudes, operating directly and indirectly, that influence vaccine uptake. We found that access issues, often ignored within the public “anti-vax” debate, remain highly pertinent. Finally, a consistent theme was the effect of misinformation and lack of knowledge or trust in healthcare, often stemming from the Wakefield controversy. Future COVID-19 immunisation campaigns for children should consider both access and attitudinal aspects of vaccination, and incorporate a range of methodologies to assess progress, taking into account socio-economic variables and the needs of disadvantaged groups.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0598.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Camellia sinensis; tea polyphenols; gut microbiota; gastrointestinal bacteria; systematic review
Online: 24 March 2021 (16:18:03 CET)
A diet high in polyphenols is associated with a diversified gut microbiome. Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world, after water. The health benefits of tea might be attributed to the presence of polyphenol compounds such as catechins, theaflavins, tannins, and flavonoids. Although many studies are on tea, little is known of its effects on trillions of gut microbiota. Hence, this review is aimed at systematically studying the effect of tea polyphenols on the stimulation or suppression of gut microbiota in humans and animals. It was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol. Articles were retrieved from PubMed and Scopus databases, and data were extracted from 6 human trials and 15 animal studies. Overall, huge variations were observed in terms of microbiota composition between humans and animals. A more consistent pattern of diversified microbiota was observed in animal studies. Tea alleviated the gut microbiota imbalance caused by high-fat diet-induced obesity, diabetes, and ultraviolet-induced damage. Overall changes in microbiota composition measured by beta diversity analysis showed that tea had shifted the microbiota from the pattern seen in animals that received tea-free intervention. In humans, the prebiotic-like effect was observed towards gut microbiota, but these results appear in lower-quality studies. Beta diversity in human microbiota remains intact despite tea intervention; supplementation with different teas affected different types of bacterial taxa in the gut. These studies suggest that tea polyphenols may have a prebiotic effect in disease-induced animals and in a limited number of human interventions. Further intervention is needed to identify the mechanisms of action underlying the effects of tea on gut microbiota.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0421.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Human mobility; literature review; bibliometric analysis; network visualisation; CiteSpace; VOSviewer
Online: 16 March 2021 (12:17:51 CET)
Studies on human mobility have a long history with increasingly strong connections to multi-disciplines across social science, environmental science, information and technology, computer science, engineering, and health science. However, what is lacking in the current research is a summary of studies on human mobility to identify the evolutional pathway and future research directions. To address this gap, we conduct a systematic review of human mobility-related studies published from 1990 to 2020. Drawing on the selected publications retrieved from the Web of Science, we conduct a bibliometric analysis and network visualisation by CiteSpace and VOSviewer on publication years and numbers, authors and their countries and afflictions, citations, topics, abstracts, keyword, and journals. Our findings show that human mobility-related studies have become increasingly interdisciplinary and multi-dimensional, enhanced by the involvement of multi-source big data, the development of technologies, the innovation of modelling approaches, and the novel applications in various areas. We also summarise four future research directions proposed by top cited authors and mobility studies, in terms of data sources, modelling methods, applications, and technologies. We advocate in-depth research on human mobility to address real-world problems and contribute to social good as promising future orientations through integrating multi-source big data and advanced modelling methods facilitated by artificial intelligence, and machine and deep learning.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0218.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Image accessibility; touchscreen; nonvisual feedback; blind; visual impairment; systematic review
Online: 8 March 2021 (13:41:50 CET)
A number of studies have been conducted to improve the accessibility of images using touchscreen devices for screen reader users. In this study, we conducted a systematic review of 33 papers to get a holistic understanding of existing approaches and to suggest a research road map given identified gaps. As a result, we identified types of images, visual information, input device and feedback modalities that were studied for improving image accessibility using touchscreen devices. Findings also revealed that little has studied how to automate the generation of image-related information, and that screen reader users play important roles during the evaluation but the design process. Then we introduce two of our recent studies on the accessibility of artwork and comics, AccessArt and AccessComics respectively. Based on the identified key challenges, we suggest a research agenda for improving image accessibility for screen reader users.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0206.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: urban green spaces; cancer; risk factors; contributing factors; scoping review
Online: 11 January 2021 (17:47:23 CET)
This scoping study aims to explore the relationships between urban green spaces (UGSs) and cancer. We followed the PRISMA extension for scoping reviews (protocol published in 2018). Eligibility criteria for papers were: 1) to be concerned with UGSs, 2) reporting effects of UGSs on cancer-related outcomes including direct or indirect measures, 3) reporting randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, case studies, observational studies, non-comparative studies, 4) in English or French. The search covered primary studies in the published and unpublished (grey) literatures searching by hand and electronic databases (MEDLINE, Green File, CINAHL and ScienceDirect). Among 1703 records screened by two reviewers independently, 29 were included for qualitative synthesis. We classify the cancers concerned and the effects reported i.e. protective effect, risk or without association. The most investigated cancers are bladder, breast and lung cancer. Our study also identified contributing factors and their mediating effects between UGSs and cancer. Results highlight the wide variety of possible mediating factors between the use of green spaces and cancer occurrence, remission and/or prevention. Knowledge gaps and future research perspectives should be oriented to qualitative research on protective factors, the role of mental health in recovering from cancer and health inequalities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0286.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: human-like motion; humanoid robots; arm motion planning; literature review
Online: 10 November 2020 (10:38:49 CET)
In the last decade, the objectives outlined by the needs of personal robotics have led to the rise of new biologically-inspired techniques for arm motion planning. This paper presents a literature review of the most recent research on the generation of human-like arm movements in humanoid and manipulation robotic systems. Search methods and inclusion criteria are described. The studies are analysed taking into consideration the sources of publication, the experimental settings, the type of movements, the technical approach, and the human motor principles that have been used to inspire and assess human-likeness. Results show that there is a strong focus on the generation of single-arm reaching movements and biomimetic-based methods. However, there has been poor attention to manipulation, obstacle-avoidance mechanisms, and dual-arm motion generation. For these reasons, human-like arm motion generation may not fully respect human behavioural and neurological key features and may result restricted to specific tasks of human-robot interaction. Limitations and challenges are discussed to provide meaningful directions for future investigations.