Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Reflective Practice in Healthcare Education: An Umbrella Review

Version 1 : Received: 7 August 2016 / Approved: 8 August 2016 / Online: 8 August 2016 (10:40:19 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Fragkos, K.C. Reflective Practice in Healthcare Education: An Umbrella Review. Educ. Sci. 2016, 6, 27. Fragkos, K.C. Reflective Practice in Healthcare Education: An Umbrella Review. Educ. Sci. 2016, 6, 27.


Reflection in healthcare education is an emergent topic with many studies and reviews being published. The purpose of the present review is to map the literature in this field by performing a systematic review of reviews (umbrella review) and to explore which definitions and models are currently in use, how reflection impacts on design, evaluation and assessment and future challenges. Nineteen reviews were identified that satisfied inclusion criteria. Emerging themes were: reflection is currently portrayed as self-reflection and critical reflection with the epistemology-of-practice notion not being as much as expected in tandem with the evidence-based-medicine paradigm modern science advocates. Reflective techniques were recognised in multiple settings (e.g. summative, formative, group vs individual etc.) and have been associated with learning but assessment remains a research topic with issues of validity, reliability and replicability. Future challenges involve the epistemology of reflection in healthcare education and how to practice and assess reflection without losing its theoretical background.


reflection; healthcare education; umbrella review


Social Sciences, Education

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