REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0464.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: rubber nanocomposites; mechanical properties; dynamical mechanical properties; Payne effect; Mullin effect.
Online: 24 September 2018 (15:08:58 CEST)
The reinforcing ability of the fillers results in significant improvements in properties of polymer matrix at extremely low filler loadings compared to conventional fillers. In view of this, present review article describes the different methods used in preparation of different rubber nanocomposites reinforced with nanodimensional individual carbonaceous fillers, such as graphene, expanded graphite, single walled carbon nanotubes, multiwalled carbon nanotubes and graphite oxide, graphene oxide and hybrid fillers consisting combination of individual fillers. This is followed by review of mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break, Young modulus, and fracture toughness) and dynamic mechanical properties (glass transition temperature, crystallization temperature, melting point) of these rubber nanocomposites. Finally, Payne and Mullin Effects have also been reviewed in rubber filled with different carbon based nanofillers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0638.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Al/nanoSiC; Mechanical Alloying Powder Metallurgy; Mechanical Properties; Microstructure
Online: 26 September 2020 (13:48:40 CEST)
Nano Silicon carbide reinforced aluminum (Al/nanoSiC) metal matrix composites are attractive because of their superior properties such as high strength and stiffness, Application of aluminum in technological and structural application is growing steadily. The major limitation for metal matrix nano composites, however, is their propensity to brittle fracture. The new technologies and new materials are two basic aims for companies. In this research, the effect of addition Al/SiC nano particles on microstructure and mechanical properties of pure aluminum has been investigated. Pure aluminum powder and various fractions of SiC particles with an average diameter of 50 nm were milled by a high-energy planetary ball mill to produce nanocrystalline Al–SiC nanocomposite powders. Pressing and sintering applied to consolidate powders to tablet shape. Then the samples were rolled to cylindrical shape. The nano SiC Percentage were 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10% , 12,5% and 15%. Mechanical tests such as tensile, hardness, fracture toughness and young’s modules measurement carried out to study the mechanical behavior of each alloy. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the morphology and microstructure of nanocomposite powders and bulk samples. The role of wt% fraction of SiC nanoparticles was investigated. The results shows that the addition of SiC nano particles has significant influence on the microstructure and mechanical properties of composites and usually the optimum properties depends on wt% SiC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0471.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: Biodegradable polymers; Nanocomposite; Ultrasound-assisted; Mechanical properties; Montmorillonite
Online: 28 September 2021 (12:27:17 CEST)
The preparation of new materials based on starch for the development of biodegradable packaging is increasing, however, the poor properties of this biopolymer for this application causes an area of opportunities for the improvement of water vapour permeability (WVP), mechanical properties, thermal properties, hydrophilicity, water absorption, among others. Hence, starch has been combined with other polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol, which has shown an improvement in the mechanical properties of starch, also, the use of clays suggests that the properties of response to water can be improved. Therefore, in this work, the preparation and characterization of starch-PVA-nanoclay films prepared by solvent casting is reported. The results obtained suggest that the sonication of nanoclay is necessary to reach a good dispersion, which promotes a strong interaction among starch-PVA-nanoclay. In addition, the properties of WVP and mechanical properties of films improved with incorporation of nanoclay, the concentration of 0.5% w/v of nanoclay showed to be the best concentration due to concentrations of 1.0 and 1.5% w/v were poorer than 0.5% w/v. Accordingly, the successful incorporation of nanoclays into the matrix starch-PVA suggests that this material is a good candidate for use as packaging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0214.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: geopolymers; metakaolin; biomass bottom ash; mechanical properties
Online: 16 December 2019 (11:15:41 CET)
In this research, the feasibility of using bottom ashes generated by the combustion of biomass (olive pruning and pine pruning) as a source of aluminosilicates (OPBA) has been studied, replacing the metakaolin precursor (MK) in different proportions (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 wt. % substitution) for the synthesis of geopolymers. As alkaline activator an 8 M NaOH solution and a Na2SiO3 have been used. The geopolymers were cured 24 hours in a climatic chamber at 60 ° C in a water-saturated atmosphere, subsequently demoulded and cured at room temperature for 28 days. The results indicated that the incorporation of OPBA waste, which have 19.7 wt. % of Ca, modifies the characteristics of the products formed after alkaline activation. In general terms, the incorporation of increasing amounts of calcium-rich ashes results in geopolymers with higher bulk density. The compressive strength increases with the addition of up to 50 wt. % of OPBA with respect to the control geopolymers, contributing the composition of the residue to the acquisition of a better behaviour mechanical. The results indicate the potential use of these OPBA waste as raw material to produce unconventional cements with 28-day curing strengths greater than 10 MPa, and thermal conductivities less than 0.35 W/mK.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0081.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: clay; polymer-matrix; nanocomposites; mechanical properties; morphology
Online: 4 November 2022 (01:06:01 CET)
In contrast to the traditional fillers, clay, in particular, natural smectite clay represents an environmentally significant alternative to improve the properties of polymers. Compared to con-ventional nanofillers, smectite clay can effectively enhance the physical and mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites with a relatively small amount of addition (< 5 wt%). The present study focuses on investigating the reinforcing efficiency of different amounts (up to 5 wt%) of a natural Brazilian smectite clay on the mechanical and thermal properties of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) nanocomposites. Natural Brazilian clay modified by addition of quaternary salt and sodium carbonate (MBClay) was infused into the PBT polymer by melt extrusion, using a twin-screw extruder. It was found that the best properties for PBT were obtained at 3.7 wt% of modified BClay. Tensile strength at break exhibited an increase of about 60 %, flexural strength increased by 24 % and flexural modulus increased by 17 %. In addition, an increase in the crystallinity percentage of PBT/BClay nanocomposite was confirmed by DSC and XRD analysis, and a gain of about 45 % in HDT was successfully achieved due to incorporation of 3.7 wt% of MBClay.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0458.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: GTR; Recycling; Reuse; Mechanical Properties; Composites
Online: 22 October 2020 (10:40:22 CEST)
Nowadays, the massive use of tires generates large stocks of waste material which is a serious environmental problem. The usual method used for processing wasted tires is mechanical crushing, in which fiber, steel, and rubber are separated. The aim of this research is the recycling of the obtained rubber, called also GTR (Ground Waste Tires). With this purpose, the paper analyses the mechanical properties of the composites produced by mixing GTR with several industrial polymers. These composites are characterized by the percentage of GTR in the composite and its particle size. These two variables along with seven industrial polymers define a set of composites from which the mechanical properties are analyzed and presented. From the results, it can be drawn that this proposal could be a way to enhance some polymer properties and to contribute in some way to reduce the environmental wasted tires problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0104.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: TRIP-assisted steel; microstructure; mechanical properties
Online: 5 November 2018 (10:37:56 CET)
: The effect that the microstructure exerts on the TRIP phenomenon and on the mechanical properties in a multiphase steel was studied. Samples of an initially cold-rolled ferrite-pearlite steel underwent different intercritical annealing treatments at 750 °C until an equal fractions of austenite/ferrite was reached; the intercritical treatment was followed by isothermal bainitic treatments before cooling the samples to room temperature. Samples in the first treatment were heated directly to the intercritical temperature, whereas other samples were heated to either 900 or 1100 °C to obtain a fully homogenized, single phase austenitic microstructure prior to the conducting the intercritical treatment. The high temperature homogenization of austenite resulted in the decrease in its stability, so a considerable austenite fraction transformed into martensite by cooling to room temperature after the bainitic heat treatment. Most of the retained austenite transformed during the tensile tests, and as a consequence, the previously homogenized steels showed the highest UTS. In turn, the steel with a ferritic-pearlitic initial microstructure, exhibited higher ductility than the other steels and texture components that favor forming processes.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0270.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: TiB2/Cr; Multilayer; Mechanical properties; Coherent interface
Online: 19 September 2022 (08:37:16 CEST)
Alternating TiB2-dcMS and Cr-HiPIMS layers are used to fabricate TiB2/Cr multilayer films. In-troducing a 5-nm-thick Cr interlayer deposited under a substrate bias of -60 V produces slight increases of both film hardness and elastic modulus. The TEM observation indicates that the Cr grains favor epitaxially growth on TiB2 interlayer, forming a coherent TiB2/Cr interface. This produces the hardness increasement. Mechanic measurement by using AFM illustrates that the coherent interface increases the elastic modulus of the Cr up to ~280 GPa, which is significantly higher than bulk material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0573.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: 3D printing; stainless steel; microstructure; mechanical properties; simulation
Online: 26 August 2020 (09:18:37 CEST)
Metal 3D printing technology is a promising manufacturing method, especially in the case of complex shapes. The quality of the printed product is still a challenging issue for mechanical applications. The anisotropy of the microstructure, imperfections, and residual stress are some of the issues that diminish the mechanical properties of the printed sample. The simulation could be used to investigate some technical details, and this research has tried to computationally study the metal 3D printing of austenitic stainless steel to address austenite microstructure and local yield strength. Two computational codes were developed in Visual basics 2015 to simulate the local heating/cooling curve and subsequent austenite microstructure. A stochastic computational code was developed to simulate austenite grain morphology based on calculated thermal history. Then Hall-Pitch equation was used to estimate the yield strength of the printed sample. These codes were used to simulate the effect of temperature of the printer’s chamber on microstructure and subsequent yield strength. The austenite grain topology is more columnar at a lower temperature. The percentage of the equiaxed zone will be increased at a higher chamber’s temperature. Almost a fully equiaxed austenite microstructure will be achieved at 800 C chamber’s temperature, but the last printed layer, which is columnar and can be removed by cutting then. The estimated local austenite grain size and the local yield strength in the equiaxed regions are in the range of 15 to 30 μm and 270 to 330 MPa at 800 C temperature of printer’s chamber, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0411.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: Biodegradable film; thermoplastic starch; chitosan; mechanical properties; water vapor permeability
Online: 23 November 2021 (08:19:40 CET)
Starch is a biopolymer with wide potential for the generation of new biodegradable packages due to its high availability and low price. However, due to its weak functional properties, it is necessary to limit the interaction of some hydroxyl, and to evaluate blends with other polymers to improve their performance. Glycerol plasticized acetylated corn starch films were developed by the casting method, and the impact of incorporating chitosan (TPS:CH) at various proportions (75:25, 50:50, and 25:75 v/v) was studied. The effect of the chitosan ratios on the films' physical, mechanical, water vapor barrier, and thermal properties was evaluated. Chitosan protonated amino groups promote the formation of intermolecular bonds, improving the tensile strength, the thermal stability, the water adsorption capacity, and the gas barrier of starch films. Where the film composed of TPS25-CH75 was the one that presented the best barrier to water vapor. These composite films are a good option for development of biodegradable packaging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0425.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: ignimbrite pe; petrography; physico-mechanical properties; color; cultural heritage
Online: 28 October 2021 (07:39:30 CEST)
The petrographic and petrophysical characteristics of three varieties of ignimbrites used in the architectural heritage of Arequipa (southwest Peru) are analyzed. The modal classification QAFP and TAS diagram discriminate their dacitic nature. Mercury injection porometry revealed very high porosity: 46.5% for white and beige ignimbrites and 35.5% for the pink variety. Ignimbrites contain intrusions of vulcanodetrital fragments and vacuoles that influence their predominantly non-linear mechanical behavior. Results of water absorption by capillarity (C) and ultrasound pulse velocity (UPV) demonstrated a slight anisotropy for the beige variety and near isotropy for white and pink ignimbrites, which justify the randomness of the application of the ashlars in the masonry and in the selection of the faces to carve. Surfaces with hollows in the white and beige ignimbrites are the result of the erosion of the acicular pumice that fills the vacuoles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0661.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: LMOGs; organogels; lipsticks; formulation; photoprotection; mechanical properties
Online: 27 May 2021 (09:14:52 CEST)
With the increase in occupation-specific risks of lip cancer associated with solar radiation, there is a need for developing photoprotective lipsticks to protect skin against harmful effects of UV radiation. Considering the unique chemical and physical properties of low-molecular-weight organogelators (LMOGs), the present study intended to assess the UV protective properties of LMOGs-based lipstick formulations. In this study, dibenzylidene-D-sorbitol (DBS) and 12-hydroxystearic acid (12-HSA) were used to formulate lipsticks : L1 (1% DBS), L2 (10% 12-HSA), L3 (1.5% DBS) and L4 (control, no LMOGs). The lipstick formulations were tested for in vitro sun protection factors (SPF), UVA protection factor (UVA-PF), thermal, mechanical and texture analyses. Lipsticks with LMOGs exhibited higher UVA-PF and SPF, and more particularly 12-HSA-based lipstick. Results showed also the viscoelastic and heat-resistant properties of LMOGs and their effect of increasing pay-off values. In general, texture analysis indicating that 12-HSA-based lipstick was significantly harder to bend compared to control, while other formulations became softer and easier to bend throughout the stability study. Finally, sensorial and instrumental analyses permitted to classify lipsticks into two groups. This work suggests the potential use of LMOGs as a structuring agent for lipsticks paving the way towards more photoprotective and sustainable-derived alternatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0169.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: mortar mosaic; volubilis; characterization; mineralogical; testing; mechanical.
Online: 12 December 2019 (09:59:49 CET)
The objective of this study is to conduct a mineralogical and chemical characterization of the mortars Roman archaeological site of Volubilis to rebuild spare mortars for restoration. We take samples of mortar, broken tile palate garden, and pavement mosaic Falavius Germanus houses. The analysis by X-ray diffraction reveals the coarse mortar Flavius Germanus is made of quartz and calcite with feldspar and probably, mica and dolomite in small amounts. The binder end is formed calcite and quartz. However, the broken tile mortar is formed by coarse particles, clay base mixed with a binder phase dominated by calcite. These results allowed us to reformulate spare mortars for the restoration of damaged Roman mosaics. The mortars are made up by 63.6% of lime and 36.4% of sand(with 4.19% of large grain, 71, 04% of coarse sand, 24.22%, of fine sand and 0.55% fines parts).The performance of these mortars was tested by mechanical testing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0146.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: menstrual cycle; mechanical properties; stiffness; estradiol; musculotendon complex
Online: 9 January 2023 (06:50:28 CET)
The purpose of this study was to determine changes in the mechanical properties of the thigh and lower leg musculature during the early follicular and ovulatory phases. Subjects were 15 female university students with normal menstrual cycles. The early follicular and ovulatory phases were estimated by the basal body temperature method, ovulation kits, and salivary estradiol concentration measurement. The MyotonPRO digital palpation device (Myoton AS, Tallinn, Estonia) was used to measure muscle and tendon stiffness in the early follicular and ovulatory phases. Measurement sites were the rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM), patellar tendon (PT), medial head of gastrocnemius, soleus, and Achilles tendon. No significant differences in stiffness of all muscle tendons were identified between the early follicular and ovulatory phases. In the ovulatory phase, a significant positive correlation was seen between stiffness of RF and PT, and between stiffness of VM and PT. These results suggest that the stiffness of muscles and tendons of anterior sites of the thigh and posterior sites of the lower leg may not change between the early follicular and ovulatory phases. During the ovulatory phase, tendons may also be stiffer in individuals with stiffer anterior thigh muscles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0570.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Polymethyl methacrylate, Cycloolefin copolymer, Mechanical test, Electron Beam
Online: 24 May 2021 (13:26:07 CEST)
Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is a transparent thermoplastic with excellent optical properties, transparent surface, low moisture absorption, tensile and electrical resistance. In this study, the alloy was prepared through PMMA and cycloolefin copolymer (COC) due to some similar properties. The mechanical test showed that properties such as impact resistance, elongation, tensile, and flexural strength decreased by adding COC by up to 20% due to less incompatibility and miscibility, but mentioned properties improved by adding COC 40% due to sub-phase generation. The DSC and DMTA tests showed improvement in the thermal properties of alloys by adding 40% COC. SEM micrographs exhibited a softer surface and more phase elongation of the alloy. Finally, the sample was selected as the optimal sample in terms of mechanical properties irradiated by electron beam, and amplification results showed that a dose of 50 KGY increased the mechanical and thermal properties relatively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0112.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: PEEK; blends; thermal stability; tribological properties; mechanical properties
Online: 25 January 2017 (10:03:49 CET)
In this study, 10%PTFE/PEEK blend were modified by potassium titanate whisker (PTW) and chopped glass fiber (GF), respectively. The blends were prepared by three-screw extruder. Through the investigation of thermal stability, tribological properties, mechanical properties and rheological behavior, the effects of reinforcing agents were determined. The results illustrated that the mechanical properties of 10%PTFE/PEEK blend can be dramatically improved by adding reinforcing agent of PTW or GF, and the reinforcing effect of GF was especially obvious. As for tribological properties, 1% addition was the best proportion. The friction coefficient and wear rate of the blend with 1% PTW were 0.283 and 4.97 × 10-6 mm3/N · m, which decreased by 7.2% and 21% compared with those of the blend without reinforcing agent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0217.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: high-strength steel; weld metal; Pr6O11; microstructure; mechanical properties
Online: 12 January 2021 (11:01:02 CET)
The effect of rare earth Pr6O11 on the microstructure and mechanical properties of high-strength steel weld metal was investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and mechanical testing. Three different contents of Pr6O11 were added to the flux-cored wires. The results showed that the addition of 1% Pr6O11 can promote the refinement and spheroidization of inclusions, refine the grains, form acicular ferrites, and significantly improve the toughness of weld metal. The addition of Pr6O11 promoted the formation of rare earth composite inclusions and acicular ferrites in the weld metal, refined the lath microstructure, inhibited the formation of martensite and bainite. The crack formation mode changed from the boundary cracking of the bainite clusters caused by the surface shear stress to the surface shear stress-induced decohesion of inclusion. However, excessive addition of Pr6O11 will reduce the number of inclusion nucleation and deteriorate the mechanical properties. The wire No.2 with 1% Pr6O11 had the good comprehensive mechanical properties, and the corresponding values were 835MPa of tensile strength and 72 J of impact toughness. These findings suggest that the control of Pr6O11 can be an effective way to improve the impact toughness of weld metal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0064.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: high-strength steel; weld metal; Pr6O11; microstructure; mechanical properties
Online: 4 January 2021 (16:36:28 CET)
The effect of Pr6O11 on the microstructure and mechanical properties of high-strength steel weld metal was investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and mechanical testing. Three different contents of Pr6O11 were added to the flux-cored wires. The results demonstrate that the addition of 1% Pr6O11 can promote the refinement and spheroidization of inclusions, refine the grains, form acicular ferrites in the weld metal, and significantly improve the toughness. The addition of Pr6O11 promoted the formation of rare earth composite inclusions and acicular ferrites in the weld metal, refined the lath microstructure, inhibited the formation of martensite and bainite. The crack formation mode changed from the boundary cracking of the bainite clusters caused by the surface shear stress to the surface shear stress-induced decohesion of inclusion. Excessive addition of Pr6O11 will reduce the number of inclusion nucleation and deteriorate the mechanical properties. The wire No.2 with 1% Pr6O11 had the good comprehensive mechanical properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0074.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: titanium matrix composites; microstructure; mechanical properties; forging
Online: 6 June 2018 (05:54:56 CEST)
In this study, a 5vol. % (TiBw+TiCp)/Ti composite pancake with a diameter of 260mm was prepared by casting followed by open die forging in (α+β) phase region. The microstructures of the composite pancake are inhomogeneous, in terms of both matrix microstructure and distribution of reinforcements. The matrix microstructures were gradually refined from the periphery to centre of the pancake. The TiBw and TiCp reinforcements tend to be uniformly distributed in the centre region and. It is suggested that the microstructure difference can be mainly ascribed to the temperature variation from the periphery to the centre. Additionally, tensile testing results showed that the centre region of the composite pancake exhibits higher strength than the peripheral region. The strengthening mechanism and the softening behavior of the composite pancake with temperature is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0382.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: stainless steel; metal inert gas welding; dissimilar welds; microstructure; mechanical properties
Online: 22 September 2021 (11:56:45 CEST)
The present study utilizes a metal inert gas welding (MIG) to make a dissimilar weld joint of different stainless steel grades AISI 304, 314, 316L, 420 and a standard structural steel S355MC to estimate the correlation of a microstructure and the mechanical properties. The microstructure of the base metals (BM), the heat affected zone (HAZ), the fusion zone (FZ) and the weld seam were analyzed using optical microscopy. Optical microscopy did not reveal any presence of weld defects such as porosity or cracks. The analysis of microstructure showed that both the austenitic and martensitic stainless steel weld structures contain some retained delta ferrite and coarse Me23C6 carbides in the HAZ, while the FZ exhibits delta ferrite and some retained austenite. The hardness profiles revealed difference between austenitic and martensitic steel welds that the later showed extremely high values in the HAZ (~500 HV/0.1) which causes fracture in this zone. The welds of all austenitic steel grades withstood tensile test, showing the average tensile strength of 472 MPa with fracture observed in the base metal zone. It made clear that the use of a filler rod 308LSI is suitable only for the austenitic stainless and structural steel dissimilar welds, and not appropriate for martensitic-structural steel welds. The achieved results revealed that the higher hardness of the martensitic phase in the HAZ of AISI 420 is closely related with the formation of untempered coarse martensitic structure and higher carbon content.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0589.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Mechanical properties; constitutive modelling; cardiac mechanics; anisotropy; biaxial testing
Online: 24 September 2020 (18:24:41 CEST)
Regional mechanics of the heart is vital in the development of accurate computational models for the pursuit of relevant therapies. Challenges related to heart dysfunctioning are the most important sources of mortality in the world. For example, myocardial infarction (MI) is the foremost killer in sub-Saharan African countries. Mechanical characterisation plays an important role in achieving accurate material behaviour. Material behaviour and constitutive modelling are essential for accurate development of computational models. In most cases previously, the mechanical properties of the heart myocardium were assumed to be homogeneous. The main objective of this paper is to determine the mechanical material properties of healthy porcine myocardium in three regions, namely left ventricle (LV), mid-wall/interventricular septum (MDW) and right ventricle (RV). The biomechanical properties of the pig heart RV, LV and MDW were characterised using biaxial testing. The biaxial tests show the pig heart myocardium behaves non-linearly, heterogeneously and anisotropically. In this study, it was shown that RV, LV and MDW may exhibit slightly different mechanical properties. Data presented here may be helpful in regional tissue mechanics, especially for the understanding of various heart diseases and development of new therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0592.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: anticancer drugs; mechanical microenvironment; tumor stiffness; cytoskeleton dynamics; material approaches
Online: 26 July 2021 (15:42:33 CEST)
Mechanical properties of tumor cytoskeleton are extremely vital for any phases of cancer, especially in tumor invasion and metastasis. However, in current category of anticancer drugs, the cytoskeleton-targeting drugs are limited and its role in tumor progression is unclear. Here, we present the mechanical characteristics of tumor stiffness are tightly regulated by cancer cytoskeleton including actin filaments and microtubule during tumor initiation, growth and metastasis, and review the natural drugs that target cancer cytoskeleton. We define cytoskeleton dynamics as target mechanisms for anticancer drug, and summary the plant, microbial and marine sources of natural products. Furthermore, the material approaches to active cancer mechanics are supplied in this review. We aim to promote the development of anticancer drugs that target tumor mechanics by using those material approaches in future and find its pharmacological application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0279.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: corrosion; ductility; mechanical properties; reinforced concrete; tensile strength; equivalent steel
Online: 28 January 2019 (12:15:09 CET)
In this work 144 reinforcing bars of high-ductility steel named B500SD were subjected to an accelerated corrosion treatment and then tested under tension at different loading speeds in order to assess the effect of corrosion on the ductility properties of the rebars. Results showed that the bars with a corrosion level as low as the one reducing the steel mass by 1% gave rise to a significant degradation on the ductility properties with strain-stress curves losing the yield plateau and behaving practically as cold deformed steel bars. This effect took place at every tested loading speed. Thus, the research significance relies on the assessment of the influence of the loading speed at which the tensile test is performed given that it affects the ductility properties of the reinforcement bars.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0128.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Ti6Al4V; SS316L; AlSi10Mg; mechanical properties; Stress corrosion; Surface post- processing; space environment
Online: 4 February 2021 (09:08:01 CET)
The potential of the Additive Manufacturing technologies is impeded by the surface finish obtained on the as-manufactured material. Therefore, the influence of various surface treatments, commonly applied to space hardware, on the mechanical properties of three selected metallic alloys (SS316L, AlSi10Mg, Ti6Al4V) prepared by using Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Electron Beam Melting (EBM) additive manufacturing processes have been investigated. Within this study, SLM using EOS M400 and EOS M280 equipment and in addition EBM using an ARCAM Q20 machine have been applied for sample manufacturing. A half-automated shot-peening process followed by a chemical and/or electrochemical polishing or Hirtisation® process has been applied in order to obtain lower surface roughness compared to their as-received states. Special emphasize has been taken on their tensile, fatigue, and fracture toughness properties. In addition, their stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour including microstructural analysis using HR-SEM have been investigated.
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: friction stir welding; aluminum alloy; preheating; mechanical properties; microstructure
Online: 14 February 2020 (03:02:51 CET)
In this paper, the effect of preheating on the mechanical properties and micro structure of similar friction stir welded AA6061 aluminum alloys sheets was investigated. Aluminum alloy 6061 sheets with a thickness of 5 mm and threaded cylindrical pins were used. Rotation and traverse speeds were 1200 rpm and 75 mm/min, respectively. The results of tensile tests performed on the welded samples showed that compared to the non-preheated samples, preheating had increased the strength and elongation of the joints by 58% and 46%, respectively. In the present study, during the welding process preheating cause emerged heat with lower slope from stir zone. This phenomenon may result in Increase the deformation resistance of material and consequently decrease of grain size. This grain refinement can improve the mechanical properties of welds. Accordingly, hardness and strength of the material will be increased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0056.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: shale; CO2-water-rock interaction; mechanical properties; crack propagation; microstructure
Online: 5 August 2016 (12:35:12 CEST)
The effects of CO2-water-rock interactions on the mechanical properties of shale are essential for estimating the possibility of sequestrating CO2 in shale reservoirs. In this study, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) tests together with an acoustic emission (AE) system and SEM & EDS analysis were performed to investigate the mechanical properties and microstructural changes of black shales with different saturation times (10 days, 20 days and 30 days) in water dissoluted with sub-/super-critical CO2. According to the experimental results, the values of UCS, Young’s modulus and brittleness index decrease gradually with increasing saturation time in water with sub-/super-critical CO2. Compared to intact samples, 30-days’ saturation causes reductions of 56.43% in UCS and 54.21% in Young’s modulus for sub-critical saturated samples, and 66.05% in UCS and 56.32% in Young’s modulus for super-critical saturated samples, respectively. The brittleness index also decreases drastically from 84.3% for intact samples to 50.9% for samples saturated in water with sub-critical CO2, to 47.9% for samples saturated in water with super-critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). SC-CO2 causes a greater reduction of shale’s mechanical properties. The crack propagation results obtained from the AE system show that longer saturation time produces higher peak cumulative AE energy. SEM images show that many pores occur when shale samples are saturated in water with sub-/super-critical CO2. The EDS results show that CO2-water-rock interactions increase the percentages of C and Fe and decrease the percentages of Al and K on the surface of saturated samples when compared to intact samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0015.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: packaging design; product design; mechanical properties, thermoforming, tensile test, 3D printing, simulation
Online: 3 January 2019 (12:17:27 CET)
The increased consumption of food requiring thermoformed packaging means that the packaging industry demands customized solutions in terms of shapes and sizes to make the packaging unique. In particular, the food industry increasingly requires more transparent packaging, with greater clarity and a better presentation of the product features they contain. However, in turn, the differentiation of products is sought through the geometry and final finish of the product, as well as the arrangement of food inside the packaging. In addition, these types of packaging usually include ribs in the walls to improve physical properties, however they also affect the final aesthetics of the product. In accordance with this, this research study analyses by studying the mechanical properties of different relief geometries that can affect not only the aesthetics but also their strength. For this purpose, tensile and compression tests have been carried out. The results provide comparative data on the reliefs studied and show that there are different shapes, sizes and layout.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0786.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Hybrid fibre-reinforced concrete; thermal conductivity; spalling; residual mechanical strength.
Online: 30 April 2021 (11:13:43 CEST)
Over the years, leaked fluids from the aircraft caused severe deterioration of the airfield pavement. The combined effect of hot exhaust from the auxiliary power unit of military aircraft and spilt aviation oils caused rapid pavement spalling. If the disintegrated concreted pieces caused by spalling is sucked into the jet engine, it may cause catastrophic damage to the aircraft engine or physical injury to maintenance crews. This study investigates the effectiveness of incorporating hybrid fibres into ordinary concrete to improve the residual mechanical and thermal properties to prevent spalling damage of pavement. Three fibre reinforced concrete samples made with micro steel fibre and polyvinyl alcohol fibre with a fibre content of zero, 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.7% by volume fraction. These samples were exposed to recurring high temperature and aviation oils. Tests were conducted to measure the effects of repeated exposure on the concrete's mechanical, thermal and chemical characteristics. The results showed that polyvinyl alcohol fibre reinforced concrete suffered a significant loss of thermal properties and residual mechanical strength than the micro steel fibre reinforced concrete. However, hybrid fibre reinforced concrete performed better in retaining higher residual properties, and no spalling of concrete was observed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0256.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Ti-Cu-Ag thin films; Mechanical properties; Magnetron sputtering; Nanoindentation; FIB-DIC
Online: 13 January 2021 (15:11:02 CET)
In this work, the ternary titanium, copper and silver (Ti-Cu-Ag) system is investigated as a potential candidate for the production of mechanically robust biomedical thin films. The coatings are produced by physical vapor deposition-magnetron sputtering (MS-PVD). The composite thin films are deposited on a silicon (100) substrate. The ratio between Ti and Cu was approximately kept one, with the variation of the Ag content between 10 and 35 at.%, while the power on the targets is changed during each deposition to get the desired Ag content. Thin film characterization is performed by x-ray diffraction (XRD), nanoindentation (modulus and hardness) and Atomic force microscopy to determine the surface topography. The residual stresses are measured by focused ion beam and digital image correlation method (FIB-DIC). The produced Ti-Cu-Ag thin films appear to be smooth, uniformly thick and exhibit amorphous structure for the Ag contents lower than 25 at.%, with a transition to partially crystalline structure for higher Ag concentrations. The Ti-Cu control film shows higher values of 124.5 GPa and 7.85 GPa for modulus and hardness respectively. There is a clear trend of continuous decrease in the modulus and hardness with the increase of Ag content, as lowest value of 105.5 GPa and 6 GPa for 35 at.% Ag containing thin films. In particular, a transition from the compressive (-36.5 MPa) to tensile residual stresses between 229 MPa and 288 MPa are observed with an increasing Ag content. The obtained results suggest that the Ag concentration should not exceed 25 at.%, in order to avoid an excessive reduction of the modulus and hardness with maintaining (at the same time) the potential for an increase of the antibacterial properties. In summary, Ti-Cu-Ag thin films shows characteristic mechanical properties that can be used to improve the properties of biomedical implants such as Ti-alloys and stainless steel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0409.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: Phonon dispersion; PDOS; Mechanical properties; Power factor and Figure of Merit
Online: 22 November 2022 (07:12:14 CET)
The density functional theory was used to explore the structural, electronic, dynamical, and thermoelectric properties of a VIrSi Half-Heulser (HH) alloy. The minimum lattice constant of 5.69 ( ̊A) was obtained for VIrSi alloy. Besides, the band structure and the projected density of states for this HH alloy were calculated, and the gap between the valence and conduction bands was noted to be 0.2 eV. Also, the quasi-harmonic approximation was used to predict the dynamical stability of the VIrSi HH alloy. At 300 K, the Seebeck Coefficient of 370 and -270 μV.K−1., respectively, was achieved for the p and n-type doping. From the power factor result, the highest peak of 18 X 1011W/cm.K2 is obtained in the n-type doping. The Figure of Merit (ZT) result revealed that VIrSi alloy possesses a high ZT at room temperature, which would make VIrSi alloy applicable for thermoelectric performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0134.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: chemical treatment; cantala fiber; mechanical properties; recycled high-density polyethylene
Online: 20 October 2017 (03:19:47 CEST)
The improvement of mechanical properties of cantala fiber and its composites. Treatments including alkali, silane, and the combination of both were carried out to modify the fiber surface. The influence of chemical treatments on fiber properties such as the degree of crystallinity and tensile strength was investigated. A variety of short cantala fiber reinforced rHDPE composites were produced by hot press, and the effect of fiber treatment on the flexural strength of composites was observed. SEM observations also carried out to highlight these changes. The result shows that alkali treatment improves tensile strength and tensile modulus of alkali treated fiber (NF12) which was predicted as a result of the enhancement of the cellulose crystallinity. In contrast, the tensile strength and tensile modulus of silane (SF05) and alkali-silane treated fiber (NSF05) decreased compared to untreated fiber (UF) which is caused by the addition of amorphous material. The tensile strength of alkali-silane treated fiber (NSF05) was lower than alkali treated fiber (NF12), but the composites prepared with NSF05 showed the highest increment of flexural strength of 25.9%. This may be due the combination of alkali and silane treatment helped in the better formation of fiber-matrix interface adhesion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0189.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: micro/nano-structured alloy; mechanical properties; in-situ tensile; deformation mechanism; research progress
Online: 27 December 2017 (06:39:22 CET)
Metal and alloy toughening was the core and long-term research direction in materials filed. As grain size had bimodal distribution, micro/nano-structured alloys presented excellent comprehensive mechanical properties, and this had become one of the research hotspots and developing trends in the field of nanotechnology. In-situ tensile test was a direct and effective method to study the deformation mechanism of materials, which revealed the multiple mechanisms responding to feature grain sizes and provided reliable experimental means and research technique. Research on development of in-situ technique and its applications in mechanical properties was reviewed in this paper according to the recent advances on the modern mechanical properties for high strength and high plasticity alloy at home and abroad. The disadvantages of the present study of preparation methods and investigation techniques for high-performance alloy had been concluded. Finally, the development prospects of high strength and high plasticity alloy materials were analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0023.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: luffa sponge fiber bundles; mechanical properties; anatomical characteristic; moisture regain; thermal performance
Online: 6 March 2017 (04:32:21 CET)
The advancement in science and technology has led to luffa sponge (LS) being widely used as a natural material in industrial application as its polyporous structure and light texture. In order to enhance the utility of LS fibers as the reinforcement of lightweight composite materials, this study investigate its water absorption, mechanical properties, anatomical characteristic and thermal performance. Hence, moisture regain, tensile properties of LS fiber bundles were measured in accordance with standards and the structural characteristics were investigated via microscopic observation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the surface morphology and fracture surface of fiber bundles. Test results shows that the special structure where the phloem tissues degenerate to cavities had a significant influence on the mechanical properties of LS fiber bundles. Additionally, the transverse sectional area occupied by fibers in a fiber bundle (SF), wall thickness and ratio of wall to lumen of fiber cell, and crystallinity of cellulose had an impact on the mechanical properties of LS fiber bundles. Furthermore, the fiber bundles density of LS varies range of 385.46-468.70 kg/m3, much less than that of jute (1360.40 kg/m3) and Arenga engleri (950.20 kg/m3) while LS fiber bundles has superior specific modulus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0024.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: nanocomposites; halloysite nanotubes; multi-layer graphene; water absorption; mechanical properties
Online: 5 January 2017 (09:34:10 CET)
The influence of short term water absorption on the mechanical properties of halloysite nanotubes-multi layer graphene reinforced polyester hybrid nanocomposites has been investigated. The addition of nano-fillers significantly increased the flexural strength; tensile strength and impact strength in dry and wet conditions. After short term water exposure; the maximum microhardness; tensile; flexural and impact toughness values were observed at 0.1 wt% MLG. The microhardness increased up to 50.3%; tensile strength increased up to 40% and flexural strength increased up to 44%. Compared to dry samples; the fracture toughness and surface roughness of all types of produced nanocomposites were increased that may be attributed to plasticization effect. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the main failure mechanism is caused by the weakening of nano-filler-matrix interface induced by water absorption. It was further observed that synergistic effects were not effective at concentration of 0.1 wt% to produce considerable improvement in mechanical properties of produced hybrid nanocomposites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0030.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Ni/Ti/Nb multilayer composite; accumulative roll bonding; microstructure; mechanical properties
Online: 3 February 2020 (11:00:46 CET)
In this work, the Ni/Ti/Nb multilayer composite was successfully manufactured by accumulative pack-roll bonding. The microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of the composite during the accumulative roll bonding (ARB) process were investigated by scanning electron microscopy(SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer(EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), micro-hardness and tensile tests. The results showed that after 5 passes of the ARB process, the deformations of layers were relatively uniform, and no large number of interlayer fractures occurred. The microstructures of Ni and Ti were both equiaxed grains with a grain size of 200 nm and 150 nm, respectively, and finer equiaxed grains of the Ni layer were observed at the interface. The laminar structure of Nb layer was observed. The tensile strength and micro-hardness increased significantly as the number of ARB increased. After 5 passes of the ARB process, the tensile strength of the composite reached 792.3 MPa, and the micro-hardness of Ni, Ti, and Nb were increased to 270.2, 307.4, and 243.4 HV, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0016.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Poly vinyl alcohol/xylan composite films; TiO2-KH550 nanoparticle; mechanical property; UV shielding
Online: 1 August 2018 (10:57:19 CEST)
In order to improve the strength of PVA/xylan composite films and endow them with ultraviolet (UV) shielding ability, TiO2-KH550 nanoparticle was synthesized and added into the PVA/xylan matrix. The TiO2-KH550 nanoparticle dispersed well in the 0.04% sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) solution under ultrasonic and stirring treatments. Investigations on the properties of films showed that TiO2-KH550 had the positive impact on improving the strength, moisture and oxygen barrier properties of the composite films. The maximum tensile strength (27.3 MPa), the minimum water vapor permeability (2.75×10-11 g•m-1•s-1•Pa-1) and oxygen permeability (4.013 cm3•m-2•24h-1•0.1MPa-1) were obtained under the addition of 1.5% TiO2-KH550. The tensile strength of TiO2-KH550 reinforced composite film was increased by 70% than that of the pure PVA/xylan composite film, and the water vapor and oxygen permeability were decreased by 31% and 41%, respectively. Moreover, the UV transmittance of film at the wavelength of 400 nm was almost zero when adding 1.5~2.5% of TiO2-KH550, which indicated the PVA/xylan composite films were endowed with excellent UV light shielding ability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0125.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: metal matrix composites; MCrAlY; mechanical properties; tribological properties; wear; erosion
Online: 8 February 2022 (19:07:50 CET)
The application of metal-matrix composite coatings for protecting and improving the service life of sliding components has demonstrated to have the potentials of meeting the requirements of a diverse range of engineering industries. Recently, a significant body of research has been devoted to study the mechanical and tribological performance of dispersion-strengthened MCrAlY coatings. These coatings belong to a class of emerging wear-resistant materials, offering improved properties and being considered as promising candidates for the protection of engineering structural materials exposed to tribological damage, especially at elevated temperature regimes. This paper attempts to comprehensively review the different reinforcements used in the processing of MCrAlY-based alloys and how they influence the mechanical and tribological properties of the corresponding coatings. Further, the major fabrication techniques together with their benefits and challenges are also reviewed. Discussion on the failure mechanisms of these coatings as well as the main determining factors are also included. In addition, a comprehensive survey of studies and investigations in recent times are summarized and elaborated to further substantiate the review.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Mg-alloy; AZ91D; Mechanical properties; Microstructure; Interconnectivity; Metallography; Grain size; Dendrite arm spacing; 3D reconstruction
Online: 23 October 2020 (09:28:12 CEST)
There has been controversy around the mechanical properties of Mg-alloys such as AZ91D and the large variation of these have been seen. The current paper addresses this controversy through specially fabricated samples combined with tensile testing and advanced metallography, including 3D reconstruction of the phases. The results show that despite a more brittle nature of the fracture, the equiaxed microstructure displays a better elongation as compared to a dendritic microstructure. The main conclusion is that this is primarily caused by the nature, or tortuosity, of the Mg17Al12-network in the material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0233.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: roller compacted concrete pavement; classification-regression models; feature selection; mechanical properties; Monte-Carlo uncertainty
Online: 15 March 2020 (01:32:44 CET)
In the field of pavement engineering, the determination of the mechanical characteristics is one of the essential process for reliable material design and highway sustainability. Early determination of mechanical characteristics of pavement is highly essential for road and highway construction and maintenance. Tensile strength (TS), compressive strength (CS) and flexural strength (FS) of roller compacted concrete pavement (RCCP) are very crucial characteristics as they are necessitated for many data from mixture proportions as input variables. In this research, the classification-based regression models named Random Forest (RF), M5rule model tree (M5rule), M5prime model tree (M5p) and Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) are developed for simulation of the mechanical characteristics of RCCP. A comprehensive and reliable dataset comprising 621, 326 and 290 data records for CS, TS and FS experimental cases extracted from several open sources over the literature. The mechanical properties are developed based on influential inputs combination that processed using Principle Component Analysis (PCA). The applied PCA method as feature selection is specified that volumetric/weighted content forms of experimental variables (e.g., coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, supplementary cementitious materials, water and binder) and specimens’ age are the most effective inputs to generate the better performances. Several statistical metrics are measured to evaluate proposed classification-based regression models. RF model revealed an optimistic classification capacity of the CS, TS and FS prediction of the RCCP in comparison with the CHAID, M5rule, and M5p models. The research is extended for the results verification using Monte-carlo model for the uncertainty and sensitivity of variables importance analysis. Overall, the proposed methodology indicated a reliable soft computing model that can be implemented for the material engineering construction and design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0625.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Laser melting deposition; TC4 titanium alloy; Normalizing temperature; Microstructure; Mechanical properties
Online: 28 August 2020 (08:34:17 CEST)
Ti-6Al-4V (TC4) titanium alloy parts were successfully fabricated by laser melting deposition (LMD)technology in this study. Proper normalizing temperatures were presented in detailed for bulk LMD specimens. Optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electronic universal testing machine were used to characterize the microstructures, phase compositions, the tensile properties and hardness of the TC4 alloy parts treated using different normalizing temperature. The experimental results showed that the as-fabricated LMD speceimens microstructures mainly consisted of α-Ti phase with a small amount of β-Ti phase. After normalizing treatment, in the area of α-Ti phase, the recrystallized length and width of α-Ti phase both increased. When normalizing in the (α+β) phase field, the elongated primary α-Ti phase in the as-deposited state was truncated due to the precipitation of β-Ti phase and became a short rod-like primary α-Ti phase. In as-fabricated microstructure, the β-Ti phase was precipitated between different short rod-shaped α-Ti phases distributed as basketweave. After normalizing treatment at 990 for two hours with subsequent air cooling, the TC4 titanium alloy had significant different microstructures from original sample produced by LMD. Moreover, the mismatch of tensile and hardness property was mitigated in this heat treatment. So the normalizing treatment methods and temperature can be qualified as a prospective heat treatment of titanium alloy fabricating by laser melting deposition.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: mechanical properties; graphene; hexagonal boron nitride; van der Waalsheterostructures; molecular dynamics
Online: 8 April 2019 (11:45:10 CEST)
Molecular dynamics(MD) simulations are carried out to characterize the mechanicalproperties and failure behavior of van der Waals heterostructures composed ofgraphene and hexagonal boron nitride(hBN) single layer sheets. The graphene–hBNand hBN–graphene–hBN heterostructures simulations are carried out under tensileand shear deformation. Accordingly, stress versus strain curves of each systemare plotted and various properties of heterostructures, namely elastic modulusand shear modulus as well as failure stress and failure strain, are evaluatedand compared with one another as well as with the pristine graphene and hBNsheets. Subsequently, the failure mechanism/characterization of each sheet in theheterostructures is described. Alternatively, the elastic and shear modulus of eachheterostructure are computed by means of rule of mixture(ROM) which are in goodagreement with results that are obtained from MD simulations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0108.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Pin geometry; friction stir spot welding; mechanical properties; aluminum alloy
Online: 20 December 2016 (11:15:04 CET)
Aluminum alloy Al 2024-T3 were successfully joined using friction stir spot jwelding joining (FSSW). Satisfactory joint strengths were obtained at different welding parameters (tool rotational speed, tool plunge depth, dwell time) and tool pin profile (straight cylindrical, triangular and tapered cylindrical). Resulting joints were welded with welded zone. The different tools significantly influenced the evolution on the stir zone in the welds. Lap-shear tests were carried out to find the weld strength. Weld cross section appearance observations were also done. The macrostructure shows that the welding parameters have a determinant effect on the weld strength (x: the nugget thickness, y: the thickness of the upper sheet and SZ: stir zone). The main fracture mode was pull out fracture modes in the tensile shear test of joints. The results of tensile shear tests showed that the tensile-shear load increased with increasing rotational speed in the shoulder penetration depth of 0.2 mm. Failure joints were obrerved in the weld high shoulder penetration depth and insufficient tool rotation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0051.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: additive manufacturing; machine learning; tensile modulus; predictive modeling; mechanical properties; polyamide 2200; PA12
Online: 5 March 2019 (05:21:43 CET)
Additive manufacturing (AM) is an attractive technology for manufacturing industry due to flexibility in design and functionality, but inconsistency in quality is one of the major limitations that does not allow utilizing this technology for production of end-use parts. Prediction of mechanical properties can be one of the possible ways to improve the repeatability of the results. The part placement, part orientation, and STL model properties (number of mesh triangles, surface, and volume) are used to predict tensile modulus, nominal stress and elongation at break for polyamide 2200 (also known as PA12). EOS P395 polymer powder bed fusion system was used to fabricate 217 specimens in two identical builds (434 specimens in total). Prediction is performed for XYZ, XZY, ZYX, and Angle orientations separately, and all orientations together. The different non-linear models based on machine learning methods have higher prediction accuracy compared with linear regression models. Linear regression models have prediction accuracy higher than 80% only for Tensile Modulus and Elongation at break in Angle orientation. Since orientation-based modeling has low prediction accuracy due to a small number of data points and lack of information about material properties, these models need to be improved in the future based on additional experimental work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0161.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: carbon nanotubes; polymer-matrix nanocomposites; mechanical properties; flame retardancy
Online: 17 January 2018 (13:04:58 CET)
High-performance poly(1,4-butylene terephthalate (PBT) nanocomposites have been developed via the consideration of phosphorus-containing agents and amino-carbon nanotube (A-CNT). One-pot functionalization method has been adopted to prepare functionalized CNTs via the reaction between A-CNT and different oxidation state phosphorus-containing agents, including chlorodiphenylphosphine (DPP-Cl), diphenylphosphinic chloride (DPP(O)-Cl), and diphenyl phosphoryl chloride (DPP(O3)-Cl). These functionalized CNTs, DPP(Ox)-A-CNTs (x = 0, 1, 3), were respectively mixed with PBT to obtain the CNTs-based polymer nanocomposites through a melt blending method. SEM observations demonstrated that DPP(Ox)-A-CNT nano-additives were homogeneously distributed within PBT matrix compared to A-CNT. The incorporation of DPP(Ox)-A-CNT improved the thermal stability of PBT. Moreover, PBT/DPP(O3)-A-CNT showed the highest crystallization temperature and tensile strength, due to the superior dispersion and interfacial interactions between DPP(O3)-A-CNT and PBT. PBT/DPP(O)-A-CNT exhibited the best flame retardancy resulting from the excellent carbonization effect. The radicals generated from decomposed polymer were effectively trapped by DPP(O)-A-CNT, leading to the reduction of heat release rate, smoke production rate, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide release during cone calorimeter tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0555.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: composite polymers; magnetoactive elastomers; dynamic and mechanical properties; concentration; anisotropy; fineness
Online: 27 January 2021 (11:50:59 CET)
The paper describes the research findings on dynamic and mechanical properties of composite elastomers with high permeability magnetic filling agent capable of rapidly and reversibly changing its properties when exposed to an external magnetic field, which makes it a perspective material for application in a wide range of engineering areas. The research has analyzed the trends in the strength properties of the materials obtained through the use of filling agents of different fineness, content, and structural organization in the final polymer, under different conditions. This allowed to obtain the correlations between the influence of the filler's relative fineness on the dynamic and mechanical properties of composite polymers, and to estimate the trends in the parameters describing the material strength under the complex magnetic and thermal influence. The results obtained by the authors allowed to ground the composition and structural organization of the final material with the best set of dynamic and mechanical properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0450.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: titanium alloy; silver nanoparticles; surface morphology; mechanical properties; surface free energy; silver ions release
Online: 19 November 2018 (11:00:17 CET)
Dispersed silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the surface of titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) and titanium alloy modified by titania nanotube layer (Ti6Al4V/TNT) substrates were produced by chemical vapor deposition method (CVD) using novel precursor of the formula [Ag5(O2CC2F5)5(H2O)3]. The structure and volatile properties of this compound were determined using single crystal X-ray diffractometry, variable temperature IR spectrophotometry (VT IR), and electron inducted mass spectrometry (EI MS). The morphology and the structure of the produced Ti6Al4V/AgNPs, and Ti6Al4V/TNT/AgNPs composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Moreover, measurements of hardness, Young’s modulus, adhesion, and surface free energy have been carried out. The ability to release silver ions from the surface of produced nanocomposite materials immersed in PBS solution has been estimated using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). The wettability and the surface free energy of samples were estimated on the base of contact angle studies with the use of water and diiodomethane. Among the studied surface-modified titanium alloy implants, the best nano-mechanical properties were noticed for the Ti6Al4V/TNT15/AgNPs composite. The location of silver nanoparticles inside of titania nanotubes caused their lowest release rate, which may indicate on suitable properties above mentioned type of the composite for the construction of implants with a long term of antimicrobial activity.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0539.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: α-phase; Au-Cu-Al system; fcc annealing twin; martensite phase; mechanical properties; microstructure; reflectance analysis
Online: 24 May 2021 (08:22:10 CEST)
To enhance the mechanical properties (i.e. strength and elongation) of the face-centered cubic (fcc) α-phase in the Au-Cu-Al system, this study focused on the introduction of the martensite phase (doubled B19 (DB19) crystal structure of Au2CuAl) via the manipulation of alloy compositions. Fundamental evaluations, such as microstructure observations, phase identifications, thermal analysis, tensile behavior examinations, and reflectance analysis have been conducted. The presence of fcc annealing twins was both observed in the optical microscope (OM) and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Both the strength and elongation of the alloys were greatly promoted while the DB19 martensite phase was introduced into the alloys. Amongst all the prepared specimens, the 47Au41Cu12Al and the 44Au44Cu12Al alloys performed the optimized mechanical properties. The enhancement of strength and ductility in these 2 alloys was achieved while the stress plateau was observed during the tensile deformation. A plot of the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) against fracture strain was constructed to illustrate the effects of the introduction of the DB19 martensite phase on the mechanical properties of the alloys. Regardless of the manipulation of the alloy compositions and the introduction of the DB19 martensite phase, the reflectance stayed almost identical to pure Au.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0360.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: earthen buildings; 3D printing; sustainability; biocomposites; aging; mechanical properties; lime carbonation; vulcanization
Online: 11 January 2022 (12:14:21 CET)
This paper is part of a study of earthen mixtures for 3D printing of buildings. To meet the ever-growing environmental needs, the focus of the paper is on a particular type of biocomposite for the stabilization of earthen mixtures—the rice husk-lime biocomposite—and on how to enhance its effect on the long-term mechanical properties of the hardened product. Having assumed that the shredding of the vegetable fiber is precisely one of the possible ways to improve the mechanical properties, we compared the results of uniaxial compression tests performed on cubic specimens made with both shredded and unaltered vegetable fiber, for three curing periods. The results showed that the hardened earthen mixture is not a brittle material in the strict sense, because it exhibits some peculiar behaviors, anomalous for a brittle material. However, being a “designable” material, its properties can be varied with a certain flexibility to get as close as possible to the desired ones. One of the peculiar properties of the hardened earthen mixture deserves further investigation, rather than corrections. This is the vulcanization that occurs (in a completely natural way) in the long term, thanks to the mineralization of the vegetable fiber by carbonation of the lime.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0479.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: high entropy alloy; microstructure; vacuum induction melting; heat treatment; mechanical spectroscopy; Zirconium
Online: 21 July 2021 (10:06:12 CEST)
The effect of Zr addition on the melting temperature of the CoCrFeMnNi High Entropy Alloy (HEA), known as the “Cantor’s Alloy”, is investigated, together with its microstructure, mechan-ical properties and thermo-mechanical recrystallization process. The base and Zr-modified al-loys are obtained by vacuum induction melting of mechanically pre-alloyed powders followed by recrystallization. The alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmis-sion electron microscopy, thermal analyses, mechanical spectroscopy and indentation measures. The main advantages of Zr addition are: 1) a fast vacuum induction melting (VIM) process; 2) the lower melting temperature, due to Zr eutectics formation with all the Cantor’s alloy elements; 3) the good chemical alloy homogeneity; 4) the mechanical properties improvement of recrystallized grains with a coherent structure. The crystallographic lattice of both alloys resulted to be FCC. Results demonstrate that the Zr-modified HEA presents a higher recrystallization temperature and smaller grain size after recrystallization with respect to the Cantor’s alloy, with precipita-tion of a coherent second phase which enhance the alloy hardness and strength, while maintaining a good tensile ductility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0042.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: selective laser sintering (SLS); wood-plastic composites (WPC); carbon nanotube (CNT); mechanical properties; binding mechanism
Online: 7 November 2017 (02:43:15 CET)
A new type of low cost, environmentally friendly wood-plastic composites (WPC) containing carbon nanotubes(CNT)of low content 0%, 0.05wt%, 0.1wt% and 0.15wt%, wood fibers of 14wt% and polymer PES of 86wt% was manufactured by the selective laser sintering (SLS) approach of 3D printing. The experimental results showed that the incorporating of CNTs could obviously increase the mechanical properties of the wood/PES composites material. The tensile strength, bending strength and elasticity modulus were 76.3%, 227.9% and 128.7% higher with 0.1wt% CNTs than without CNTs. And the mechanical properties of specimens firstly increased and then decreased with the increasing contents of CNTs. The SEM results of the specimens’ fracture morphology indicated that the preferable bonding interfaces between wood flour grains and PES grains were achieved by adding CNTs to the composites. There are two reasons to explain why the composites possessed the superior mechanical properties: CNTs could facilitate the laser sintering process of wood plastic composites due to their thermal conductivities; also, CNTs could directly reinforce the WPC composites as reinforcement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0418.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Direct electric curing; Steam curing; Mechanical properties; Microstructure; Joule heat; Energy consumption
Online: 27 October 2021 (14:25:44 CEST)
Direct electric curing (EC) is a new green curing method for cement-based materials that improves the early mechanical properties via the uniform high temperature produced by Joule heating. To understand the effects of EC and steam curing (SC) on the mechanical properties and microstructure of cement-based materials, the mortar was cured at different temperature-controlled curing regimes (40°C, 60°C and 80°C). Meanwhile, mechanical properties, hydrate phase and pore structure of specimens were investigated. The energy consumption of two curing methods was compared and analyzed. The results show that the EC specimens have better and more stable growth of mechanical strength. The pore structure of EC specimen is also better than that of SC specimen at different maintenance ages. However, the hydration degree and products of samples cured by EC are similar to that SC samples. The energy consumption of EC is lower than SC. This study provides an important technical support for the EC in the production of energy-saving and high early-strength concrete precast components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0288.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Bi2O3; PbO; sintering temperature; mechanical properties; lead–bismuth eutectic alloy
Online: 25 April 2019 (13:05:17 CEST)
In this paper, the effect of Bi2O3 doping on the mechanical properties of PbO ceramic pellets was studied. For this purpose, different ratios of Bi2O3/PbO (i.e., xBi2O3–(1-x)PbO, where x is 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 wt%) were fabricated and sintered at 570, 620, and 670°C. Mechanical properties including density, hardness, flexural strength, and sintering of PbO were studied for the aforementioned compositions. Phase compositions, microstructures, and worn surfaces of the composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD analysis revealed that a solid solution formed in the composite ceramic. The best suited conditions of temperature and doping of Bi2O3 for optimal sintering are 620°C and 3 wt%, respectively. The hardness of the 3 wt% Bi2O3–97 wt% PbO ceramic was 717 MPa, which is about four times higher than the hardness of pure PbO; in addition, the strength of the composites was 43 MPa, which is two times higher than that of pure PbO. The integrity of the composites was verified using the lead–bismuth eutectic alloy flushing experiment. Results of this research paper are important for future studies of oxygen control in the lead–bismuth eutectic alloy of lead-cooled fast reactors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0461.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: additive manufacturing; fabrication temperature; porosity effects; carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer composites; mechanical properties; micro CT scan
Online: 26 December 2022 (02:33:37 CET)
The use of additive manufacturing in fabricating composite components has been gaining traction in the past decade. However, some issues with mechanical perfor-mance still need to be resolved. The issue of material porosity remains a pertinent one that needs more understanding to be able to determine viable solutions. Different re-searchers have examined the subject of porosity issues in AM-fabricated CFRP compo-sites. However, more research to quantitatively determine the effects of fabrication temperatures at the micro-scale is still needed. This study employed micro CT scan analysis to quantitatively compare the effects of fabrication temperatures at 230°C, 250°C, 270°C, and 290°C for CF-PA and CF-ABS composites. This followed an SEM evaluation which was used to determine the effects of the temperatures on interlayer and intralayer porosity generation. The porosity volume was related to the mechanical properties results in which it was determined how deposition temperatures affect the porosity volumes. It was also determined that semicrystalline composites are generally more affected by fabrication temperatures than amorphous composites, with the rela-tionship between porosity and mechanical properties also established. The overall po-rosity volume from the interlayer and intralayer voids was also determined, with the interlayer voids found to play a more determinant role in influencing the mechanical properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0328.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: vacuum brazing; metallic glasses; Ti-alloy; mechanical properties
Online: 21 June 2018 (04:12:23 CEST)
The developed microstructure features a long with mechanical properties in vacuum brazing of commercially pure Ti-alloy using Ti20Zr20Cu60-x-Nix (x=10, 20, 30, 40 and 50) metallic filler. Brazing temperatures and holding times employed in this study were 1240-1279 K (967-1006oC) for a period of 10 min, respectively. The mechanical properties of brazed joints were evaluated by nanoindention at a constant peak load of 5000 μN and tensile tests. The number of intermetallic phase, such as NiTi2, Ti2Cu, (Ti, Zr)2Cu, (Ti, Zr)2Ni, β(Ti, Zr), α-Ti and NiTi. The solid solution matrix have been identified at 1279 K out of these different regions the NiTi2 rich region had the highest nanohardness of 17 GPa, It is interesting to note that among five different glasses, the Ti20Zr20Cu10Ni50 has the highest yield strength of 17 GPa, which is mainly due to NiTi2 phase. Based on the tensile test results all cracks propagate along the brittle intermetallic compounds like NiTi2 in the reaction layer the reduction of the strength of the joints and fracture behaviour upon propagation of the crack, which shows the morphological cleavage including facets characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0354.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: friction stir processing; aluminum/steel explosive composite plate; multi-pass; bonding interface; mechanical properties
Online: 29 January 2020 (12:01:42 CET)
There always exist steel cuttings, holes and cracks at the interfaces in the explosive composite plate. Multi-pass friction stir processing (M-FSP) is proposed in this research to optimize the interface microstructure and the interface connection for 1060Al/Q235 explosive composite plate. Results show that the microstructures of 1060Al after M-FSP are fine and uniform owing to the strong stirring effect and recrystallization. Micro-defects formed by the explosive welding can be repaired by the M-FSP. However, M-FSP can also form tunnel defects in the aluminum, especially when the passes are one and two. The melting block and the melting lump in the composite plates are easy to become source of crack. The shear strengths and the bending properties for the 1060Al/Q235 explosive composite plate after M-FSP are the best when the passes are three, with the tool rotation speed of 1200rpm and the forward speed of 60mm/min. The optimized interfaces for the explosive composite plate after M-FSP are mainly by the metallurgical bondings, with a certain thickness and are discontinuous. Therefore, the crack extension stress is the largest and the mechanical properties are the best.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0253.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Magnetic abrasive finishing; microstructure evolution; mechanical property; laser powder bed fusion; Inconel 718
Online: 21 February 2022 (12:08:50 CET)
Surface finishing is challenging for additively manufactured components with complex geometries. Magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) is a promising surface finishing technology that can refine the surface quality of components with complex shapes produced by additive manufacturing. However, there is insufficient study regarding the impact of MAF on microstructure-property relationships for additively manufactured builds, which is critical for evaluating the mechanical performance. Furthermore, although MAF is usually used as the final step of post-processing, it remains unclear whether adjusting the sequence between MAF and other processes, e.g., heat treatment, can potentially improve the mechanical performance. In this work, the effects of MAF on the microstructure and mechanical property evolution of Inconel 718 superalloys made by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) were studied. The application of MAF was found to significantly reduce the surface roughness of alloys and refine the grain size of aged samples. Moreover, MAF is able to increase the elongation of materials, which can be further influenced by the sequence of MAF and different heat treatments. The highest elongation can be achieved when MAF is performed between homogenization and aging processes. This work demonstrated a promising solution to improving the performance of LPBF Inconel 718 by combining MAF and heat treatment, which provides new perspectives on the post-processing development of additively manufactured alloys for advanced mechanical properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0128.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Carbon foam; multi walled carbon nanotubes; Graphene oxide; electrical; mechanical and thermal properties
Online: 5 August 2021 (08:36:50 CEST)
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene oxide (GO) reinforced carbon foam (CF) composite were prepared by direct pyrolysis of MWCNTs, GO and mesophase coal tar pitch. The effect of additive amount of the mixture of MWCNTs and GO on the microstruture and properties of carbon foam was analzyed by transmission electron miscroscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Four-probe resistance meter, universal testing machine, and laser thermal conductivity tester respectively. The result shows that MWCNTs and GO had significant impact on the microstructure of carbon foam. Futhermore, the electrical, mechanical and thermal properties of carbon foam composites were significantly enhanced by increasing the additive amount. Maximum compressive strenght of 19.2 MPa and Young’s modulus of 56.8 MPa of CF composite were observed. Similarly, Highest thermal conductivity of 30.91 W/m.K and electrical conductivity of 27.2 ×103 S/m were observed at 2 wt. % of MWCNTs-GO additive loading.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0115.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Space Science Keywords: 6063 aluminum alloy; Al-Ti-C-La composite alloy; refinement effect; precipitated phase; mechanical properties
Online: 7 July 2020 (08:26:44 CEST)
In this paper, 6063 aluminum alloy for common building profiles is used as the research object. By adding a new Al-Ti-C-La composite alloy, the effect of 6063 aluminum alloy on the microstructure and properties of 6063 aluminum alloy is studied. The results show that Al-Ti-C-La composite alloy has obvious effect on grain refinement of 6063 aluminum alloy. With the addition of Al-Ti-C-La composite alloy, the grain size decreased significantly. When the addition amount of Al-Ti-C-La composite alloy is 1%, the grain size is reduced from 482 μm to 121 μm. Rare earth La is mainly distributed near the Mg2Si phase and β-AlFeSi, and complex compounds such as AlFeSiMgLa are formed. After aging for 270 days on the basis of T6 heat treatment, the tensile strength and elongation of 6063 aluminum alloy augmented with the addition of Al-Ti-C-La composite alloy, and the Vickers hardness gradually diminished. When the addition amount of Al-Ti-C-La composite alloy is 1%, the tensile strength, elongation and Vickers hardness of 6063 aluminum alloy reach 177.2 MPa, 17.8% and 60.9 HV, respectively, and the tensile strength is increased by 16.3%. The elongation is increased by 50.8%, the Vickers hardness is reduced by 15.4%, and the fracture of the alloy is mainly ductile fracture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0015.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: 316L austenitic steel; selective laser melting; powder bed fusion; technological parameters; mechanical property characterization
Online: 1 March 2020 (15:36:32 CET)
The main aim of this study is to investigate the optimization of the technological process for selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing. The group of process parameters considered was selected from the first-stage parameters identified in preliminary research. Samples manufactured using three different sets of parameter values were subjected to static tensile and compression tests. The samples were also subjected to dynamic Split–Hopkinson tests. To verify the microstructural changes after the dynamic tests, microstructural analyses were conducted. Additionally, the element deformation during the tensile tests was analyzed using digital image correlation (DIC). To analyze the influence of the selected parameters and verify the layered structure of the manufactured elements, sclerometer scratch hardness tests were carried out on each sample. Basing on the research results it was possible to observe the porosity growth mechanism and its influence on the material strength (including static and dynamic tests). Parameters modifications that caused 20% lower energy density, elongation of the elements during tensile testing decreased twice, which was strictly connected with porosity growth. An increase of energy density by almost three times caused a significant reduction of force fluctuations differences between both tested surfaces (parallel and perpendicular to the building platform) during sclerometer hardness testing. That kind of phenomenon had been taken into account in the microstructure investigations before and after dynamic testing where it had been spotted a positive impact on material deformations based on fused material grains formation after SLM processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0655.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: cast iron with lamellar graphite; graphite microstructure; mechanical properties; thermal properties; material properties; microstructure simulations; homogenization; material data workflow
Online: 29 July 2021 (12:33:20 CEST)
The sensitivity of macroscopic mechanical and thermal properties of grey cast iron is computationally investigated for a variety of graphite microstructures over a wide temperature range. In order to represent common graphite microstructures according to DIN EN ISO 945-1, a synthetic approach is used to algorithmically generate simulation domains. The developed mechanical and thermal model is applied in a large simulation study. The study includes statistical volume elements of the graphite microstructures classes GG-15 and IA2 to IA5, with 10 v.-%, 11 v.-% and 12 v.-% graphite, respectively, for a temperature range from 20 °C to 750 °C. Homogenized macroscopic quantities such as the Young's moduli, Poisson's ratios, yield strengths and thermal conductivities are predicted for the different microstructure classes by applying simulation and data analysis tools of the research data infrastructure Kadi4Mat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0613.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: 12Mn steel; round billet; thermal mechanical simulation; CCT curve; diatometer method; JmatPro; tensile strength; the reduction of area; stress-strain curve; Thermal-cal software
Online: 25 March 2021 (11:44:06 CET)
The dilatometer curves of continuous cooling transformation of 12Mn steel were measured with Formastor-FⅡthermal mechanical simulator．The steel's undercooled austenite phase continuous cooling transformation curves ( CCT curves) were established by means of the dilatometer method and the metallographic-hardness measurement method． The effect of cooling rate on microstructure and hardness of the steel was studied． CCT curve of test steel was simulated by JMatPro. The results show that the Ac1 and Ac3 of the experimental steel are 692 ℃ and 855 ℃ ; the microstructure obtained is made of ferrite，pearlite and bainite．The ferrite transformation and pearlite transformation occur at a slower cooling rate，in which the ferrite is dominant. When the cooling rate is greater than 4.25 ℃ / s bainite transformation happens．As the cooling rate increases，microstructure or grains become finer．The hardness of the tested steel with increasing cooling rate shows a trend of first fast increase and soon decrease．The simulation results are consistent with the measured CCT law. The high temperature mechanical properties of 12mn steel round billet were tested by gleeble-1500d thermal / mechanical simulator. The tensile strength, reduction of area and stress-strain curves of the billet were obtained in the range of 600-1300 ℃.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0220.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel; multi-strand composite welding wire; EBSD; welding thermal cycle; mechanical property; microstructure
Online: 21 August 2019 (03:34:18 CEST)
A multi-strand composite welding wire was applied to join high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel, and microstructures and mechanical properties were investigated. The electrical signals demonstrate that the welding process using a multi-strand composite welding wire is highly stable. The welded joints are composed of columnar austenite and dendritic ferrite and welded joints obtained under high heat input and cooling rate have a noticeable coarse-grained heat-affected zone and larger columnar austenite in weld seam. Compared with welded joints obtained under the high heat input and cooling rate, welded joints have the higher fractions of deformed grains, high angle grain boundaries, Schmid factor and the lower dislocation density under the low heat input and cooling rate, which indicate a lower tensile strength and higher yield strength. The rotated goss (GRD) orientation of a thin plate and the cube (C) orientation of a thick plate are obvious after welding, but the S orientation at 65° sections of Euler’s space is weak. The δ-ferrite was studied based on the primary ferrite solidification mode. It is observed that low heat input and high cooing rate result in the increasing of δ-ferrite and high dislocation density was obtained in grain boundaries of δ-ferrite. M23C6 precipitates due to low cooling rate and heat input in weld seam and deteriorates the elongation of welded joints. The engineering stress-strain curves also show the low elongation and tensile strength of welded joints under low heat input and cooling rate, which is mainly caused by the high fraction of δ-ferrite and the precipitation of M23C6.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0288.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: effect of temperature; exposure time; steel microstructure; residual mechanical properties; high-strength steel bolts; heat treatment of steel; phase transformation; fire; cooling method
Online: 13 May 2021 (12:53:32 CEST)
The article presents results of research consisting in an attempt to assess the influence of temperature, heating time and cooling method on microstructure and residual strength properties of steel previously tempered during the production process. Simulated environmental conditions to which high-strength bolts, commonly used in steel construction, were subjected, were intended to reflect conditions of a natural fire that may occur in public facilities where the obligation to ensure safety of users and rescue teams is of key importance, also required by law. Furthermore, the tests carried out also comprised a simulated effect of a rescue and firefighting operation using shock, rapid cooling of some of the heated bolts. Samples cut out from the tested bolts, after they were properly prepared, were subjected to microstructural tests using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), phase analysis with the use of an X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and quantitative analysis of the microstructure involving, inter alia, measuring the surface area of grains, their equivalent diameter and mean diameter. As a result of the tests, considerable microstructure changes were identified occurring in the bolt material as a result of exposing it to fire conditions, leading to a change in key, from the point of view of structural safety, mechanical properties. The results of the microstructure tests were compared with the results of previous strength tests, including hardness of the material after the heat treatment and the residual tensile strength of the material Rm. A conducted comparative analysis showed a significant effect of all such factors as the temperature level of the simulated fire, its duration and the fire-fighting method on the mechanical properties of bolts. Results obtained were provided with required comments and the concept of using the microstructure for the post-fire assessment of steel structures was referred to.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0439.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: mechanical ventilation design; low cost mechanical ventilator; experimental ventilation curves; mechanical ventilation mathematical model; COVID-19
Online: 17 December 2020 (16:25:13 CET)
A mechanical ventilation system is a big support for breathing complications, in which an external solution is quite necessary to keep oxygen compensation in the patients. Its knowledge is well widespread and different equipment has been developed. However, they are very expensive and their quantity in medical centers is not sufficient, especially in Peru. Hence, it has been required to develop new methods to provide oxygen by a low cost equipment; Protofy, a research group from Spain, designed one of the first low cost mechanical ventilation systems which was medically validated by its government. In this sense, a redesign of the mechanical ventilation system was carried out according to the local requirements and available technology, a different airbag resuscitator with different properties and geometry, but maintaining its working concept based on a cam compression mechanism. Sensors and a display were added to improve the performance with a control algorithm for the rotation frequency and to show the ventilation curves over time to the medical staff. It was necessary to develop a mathematical model to relate the behavior between ventilation curves for a patient and physical variables of the design, especially in the epidemic COVID 19, that many countries are dealing with at the time research is being conducted. The mechanical ventilation system was redesigned, fabricated, and tested measuring its ventilation curves over time. Results indicate that this redesign provides a sturdy equipment able to work during a longer lifetime than the original. The replicability of the ventilation curves behavior is assured, while the mechanism dimensions are adapted for a particular airbag resuscitator. The mathematical model of the whole system can predict satisfactorily the ventilation curves over time and was used to provide the air pressure, volume, and flow as a function of the rotation angle measured by sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0160.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: electron beam powder bed fusion (EBPBF); Inconel 625; microstructure and mechanical properties; layer-thickness effects; heat treatment; duplex grain structure; grain boundary carbides
Online: 12 October 2022 (02:09:35 CEST)
This research program investigated the effects of layer thickness (50 and 100 microns) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of electron beam powder bed fusion (EBPBF) additive manufacturing of Inconel 625 alloy. The as-built 50 and 100 micron layer thickness components were also heat treated at temperatures above 1100 oC, which produced a recrystallized grain structure containing annealing twins in the 50 micron layer thickness components, and a duplex grain structure consisting of islands of very small equiaxed grains dispersed in a recrystallized, large-grain structure containing annealing twins. The heat treated component microstructures and mechanical properties were compared with the as-built components in both the build direction (vertical) and perpendicular (horizontal) to the build direction. Vickers microindentation hardness (HV) values for the vertical and horizontal geometries averaged 227 and 220 for the as-built 50 and 100 micron layer components, and 185 and 282 for the corresponding heat treated components. The yield stress values were 387 MPa and 365 MPa for the as-built layer horizontal and vertical 50 micron layer geometries, and 330 MPa and 340 MPa for the as-built 100 micron layer components. For the heat treated 50 micron components, the yield stress values were 340 and 321 MPa for the horizontal and vertical geometries, and 581 and 489 MPa for the 100 micron layer components, respectively. The elongation for the 100 micron layer as-built horizontal components was 28% in contrast to 65% for the corresponding 100 micron heat treated layer components, an increase of 132% for the duplex grain structure. However, the coarse grains containing annealing twins and the equiaxed small grain islands in the duplex structure for the heat treated components contained continuous carbides in the grain boundaries, and this may indicate sensitization and a reduction in corrosion resistance. These findings point to the potential mechanical property advantage for heat treatment of Inconel 625 alloy 100 micron layer thickness components fabricated by EBPBF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0232.v2
Subject: Keywords: Lithium-ion-cell; Electrode dilation; Mechanical strain; Cell-format; Layer resolved mechanical simulation
Online: 12 May 2021 (14:06:24 CEST)
Electrochemical-mechanical interactions, in particular pressure-induced ones, have been identified to be a cause for lithium-plating in lithium-ion cells. Mechanically-induced porosity inhomogeneities in the separator layers due to electrode expansion during charging especially lead to cell internal balancing currents and can cause localized plating. To identify cell-format and cell-material dependent mechanical weak spots, a layer-resolved mechanical simulation of different cell types and cell-material combinations is presented in this work. The simulation results show distinctive layer strain patterns for different cell-types that coincide with localized lithium-plating found in post-mortem cells. Additionally, the effects of cell bracing in battery modules is investigated and a method to mitigate the increased layer strain due to bracing counterforces is proposed that also increases cell energy density for hardcase-type automotive cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0040.v1
Online: 4 October 2021 (10:28:57 CEST)
Impure and pure casts have collected reasonable attentions over all the world. In this paper, Aluminum (Al) and Copper (Cu) cast alloys are considered to be studied. Multiple impure and pure Al-Cu cast alloys are established under the condition of very high temperatures. Then, all of the established alloys are examined by applying mechanical tests. More specifically, tests of hardness are exploited. Moreover, different quenching conditions are employed and analyzed. These are the water, air and oil. Consistent results are separately obtained for the impure and pure materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0159.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: electrophoresis; protein; mechanical treatment; quantification
Online: 6 July 2021 (14:54:12 CEST)
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) is widely used for studying proteins and protein-containing objects. However, it is employed most frequently as a qualitative method rather than a quantitative one. In this paper, we show the feasibility of routine digital image acquisition and mathematical processing of electrophoregrams for protein quantification. Both the well-studied model protein molecules (bovine serum albumin) and more complex real-world protein-based products (casein-containing isolate for sports nutrition), which were subjected to mechanical activation in a planetary ball mill to obtain samples characterized by different protein denaturation degrees, were used as study objects. Protein quantification in the mechanically activated samples was carried out. The degree of destruction of individual protein was shown to be higher compared to that of protein-containing mixture after mechanical treatment for an identical amount of time. The methodological approach used in this study can serve as guidance for other researchers who would like to use electrophoresis for protein quantification both in individual form and in protein mixtures. The findings prove that photographic imaging of gels followed by mathematical data processing can be applied for analyzing the electrophoretic data.
Online: 4 September 2020 (12:32:58 CEST)
As part of a plethora of global efforts to minimize the negative effects of the SARS-CoV2 (COVID-19) pandemic, we developed two different mechanisms that, after further development, could potentially be of use in the future in order to increase the capacity of ventilators with low-cost devices based on single-use-bag-valve mask systems. We describe the concept behind the devices and report a characterization of them. Finally, we make a description of the solved and unsolved challenges and propose a series of measures in order to better cope with future contingencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0143.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Epoxy; tensile strength; mechanical properties
Online: 10 July 2019 (10:14:48 CEST)
Mechanical response of bisphenol-F based epoxy cured with amine hardener was investigated in tensile testing. Different types of methods were considered in preparing the tensile samples in order to evaluate their effects on the tensile strength of the cured epoxy system. Specifically, four types of preparation methods were discussed to prepare the tensile samples were considered in the study. Further, the effect of different type of tensile samples on tensile strength of specimens was also considered in the analysis. The experimental results showed that the preparation methods affected the tensile strength of the specimens. Starting from the experimental results, an appropriate testing methodology is proposed for epoxy based nanocomposite composite specimens in order to reduce problems that may arise during the test and to optimize procedures for preparation of specimens.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0462.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Dental Implants; fatigue; mechanical tests; torque
Online: 24 August 2021 (09:04:13 CEST)
The aim of this study was to compare the screw removal torque of mini conical prosthetic components and straight trunnion of indexed morse taper implants, after mechanical cycling. The sample consisted of 40 implants and 20 mini-conical prosthetic components (MC group) and 20 straight trunnion components (ST group). Each group consisted of 10 specimens, with 2 implants in each, and cobalt-chromium metallic crowns were screwed into each sample. The components of the MC group received a torque of 20 N.cm with a digital torque wrench and after 10 minutes were retightened with the same value as the initial torque. The components of the ST group received a torque of 30 N.cm, with a digital torque wrench and after 10 minutes, they were retightened with the same value. The screws of the respective crowns of the two groups received a torque of 10 N.cm and after 10 minutes were retightened with the same value. Each group was subjected to the fatigue test in a mechanical cycler at 2.000.000 cycles, with a load of 250 N and frequency of 4 Hz. At the end of the fatigue test, the loosening torque of each screw of the specimens was measured through a digital torque wrench. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey test. In both groups, there were loss of torque. The results showed no statistic difference between MC and ST groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0464.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Ti3SiC2; Si3N4; mechanical properties; fracture toughness
Online: 29 February 2020 (10:30:51 CET)
In-situ grown C0.3N0.7Ti and SiC, which derived from non-oxide additives Ti3SiC2, are proposed to densify silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics with enhanced mechanical performance. Remarkable increase of density from 79.20% to 95.48% could be achieved for Si3N4 ceramics with 5vol% Ti3SiC2. The capillarity of decomposed Si from Ti3SiC2, and in-situ reaction between nonstoichiometric TiCx and Si3N4 were believed to be responsible for densification of Si3N4 ceramics. An obvious enhancement of flexural strength and fracture toughness for Ti3SiC2 doped Si3N4 ceramics was observed. The maximum flexural strength of 795 MPa for Si3N4 composites with 5vol% Ti3SiC2 and maximum fracture toughness of 6.97 MPa.m1/2 for Si3N4 composites with 20vol% Ti3SiC2 are achieved when mixed powders are hot-press sintered at 1700℃. Pull out of elongated Si3N4 grains, crack bridging, crack branching and crack deflection were demonstrated to dominate enhance fracture toughness of Si3N4 composites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0136.v1
Online: 11 April 2019 (08:52:43 CEST)
Abstract: Microstructural and mechanical properties of the eutectic Sn58Bi and micro-alloyed Sn57.6Bi0.4Ag solder alloys were compared. With the addition of Ag micro-alloy, the tensile strength was improved and this is attributed to a combination of microstructure refinement and an Ag3Sn precipitation hardening mechanism. However, ductility is slightly deteriorated due to the brittle nature of the Ag3Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs). Additionally, a board level reliability study of Ag micro-alloyed Sn58Bi solder joints produced utilising a surface-mount technology (SMT) process, were assessed under accelerated temperature cycling (ATC) conditions. Results reveal that micro-alloyed Sn57.6Bi0.4Ag has a higher characteristic lifetime with a narrower failure distribution. This enhanced reliability corresponds with improved bulk mechanical properties. It is postulated that Ag3Sn IMCs are located at the Sn-Bi phase boundaries and suppress the solder microstructure from coarsening during the temperature cycling, hereby extending the time to failure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0115.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Motion; Inert; Mechanical stimulation; Sensory proteins
Online: 11 January 2019 (15:51:51 CET)
Thought runs through the mind like blood runs through our body to keep us alive. Like the mind, the body does not stay inert and is in constant motion. Not a single cell in our body is left inert unless cell is under stress or dying. These scenarios are reflected upon when a person is sick, the person lies in bed with less movement; however, is active when the person is healthy. The topic of mechanical stimulation has emerged due to the increasing understanding of the physical stimulations we face each day. Further understanding of the mechanically-regulated mechanism can help us explore the pathological events in a disease. Here, we reviewed the role of sensory proteins in pathological events that are observed in cardiomyopathy, cancer, respiratory, renal, obesity, genetics, physical injury and bacterial infection. Taken together, sensory proteins are mechanically-activated which assist reception of external physical stimulation and convert into biochemical to trigger intracellular signaling cascade.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0320.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: bionic composites; thin films; mechanical properties
Online: 11 July 2018 (13:10:32 CEST)
Regenerated silk (RS) is a protein-based “biopolymer” that enables the design of new materials; here, we called “bionic” the process of regenerated silk production by a fermentation-assisted method. Based on yeast’s fermentation, here we produced a living hybrid composite made of regenerated silk nanofibrils and a single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, by fermentation of such microorganisms at room temperature in a dissolution bath of silkworm silk fibers. The fermentation-based processing enhances the beta-sheet content of the RS, corresponding to a reduction in water permeability and CO2 diffusion through RS/yeast thin films enabling the fabrication of a mechanically robust film that enhances food storage durability. Finally, a transfer print method, which consists of transferring RS and RS/yeast film layers onto a self-adherent paraffin substrate, was used for the realization of heat-responsive wrinkles by exploiting the high thermal expansion of the paraffin substrate that regulates the applied strain, resulting in a switchable coating morphology from the wrinkle-free state to a wrinkled state if the food temperature overcomes a designed threshold. We envision that such efficient and smart coatings can be applied for the realization of smart packaging that, through such a temperature-sensing mechanism, can be used to control food storage conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0271.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: hippotherapy; horse riding simulator; mechanical horse design
Online: 19 October 2022 (07:31:52 CEST)
Hippotherapy is a popular rehabilitation method for children with cerebral palsy (CP), which is done by riding an actual horse or a horse riding simulator (HRS) device. Riding a real horse is more expensive than using an HRS device due to its high maintenance cost. However, most HRS devices commonly sold in the market are designed as exercise devices, not rehabilitation devices. Most of them are designed to simulate a horse's walk, trot, canter, or gallop gait at various speeds. Hippotherapy aims to improve the walking ability of CP patients. Therefore, the device should aim to replicate the walking gait of a healthy human, the end goal of hippotherapy. This problem motivates us to design and build a specialized HRS device replicating the walking gait of a healthy human that is suitable for hippotherapy, which is achievable by simulating a horse walking gait with several adjustments. We first studied and observed the walking gait cycle of a horse, then analyzed and derived a formulation of it. We then continue by designing an HRS device using a single electrical rotational motor and mechanical means to replicate the walking gait of a horse, then tune it to an extent to replicate a human walking gait. To measure the performance of our design, we compare the gait of the user when riding our device versus walking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0240.v2
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: graphene; dry ice; mechanical milling; magnesium oxide
Online: 13 January 2022 (13:44:03 CET)
Although the dry ice method used to synthesize exfoliated graphite/graphene is little known and used, it has significant advantages over others: it is low cost, simple, and a large quantity of material can be obtained using some inorganic and highly available acids (which can be reused). Despite the above advantages, the main reason for its incipient development is the resulting presence of magnesium oxide in the final product. In the present work, three different treat-ments were tested to remove this remnant using some acid chemical leaching processes, making use of hydrochloric acid, aqua regia, and piranha solution. Based on the experimental evidence, it was found that using aqua regia and combining the leaching process with mechanical milling was the most efficient way of removing such a remnant, the residue being only 0.9 wt.%. This value is low when compared to that obtained with the other acid leaching solutions and purifi-cation process (2.8 - 29.6 wt.%). A mandatory high-energy mechanical milling stage was neces-sary during this treatment, in order to expose and dissolve the highly insoluble oxide without secondary chemical reactions on the graphenes. High-energy mechanical milling is an effective route to exfoliate graphite/graphene, which allows the magnesium oxide to be more susceptible to acid treatment. The obtained surface area was 504 m2g-1; this high value resulting from the in-tense exfoliation can potentiate the use of this material for a wide variety of applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0044.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Mechanical transmissions; 2T6R robot; kinematic; direct kinematics.
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:04:51 CET)
The paper deals with the problems of direct kinematics related to a 2T6R robot, the direct kinematics of the plane mechanism of the robot. The direct kinematics of this proposed new robot help to study the movement, including the dynamic one, to determine the forces in the mechanism and to model the possible trajectories of the final effector point, thus determining the robot's working space and some of its multiple possible uses. Two totally different methods were used to verify the calculation relations, the results obtained by both methods being practically identical. The first method used is an original trigonometric method, and the second is an original geometrically analytical method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0568.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: die forging; isothermal annealing; thermo-mechanical treatment
Online: 22 December 2020 (16:13:53 CET)
The article discusses the results of investigations performed during a thermo-mechanical treatment of forgings made of chromium-molybdenum 42CrMo4 grade steel. The treatment was realized during a regular series production. The forging process was combined with a heat treatment carried out directly after forging on a specially adapted station. Such a production technology will make it possible to eliminate the step of repeated heating of the forgings. On the example of an element of a steering gear, it was demonstrated how it is possible to perform an isothermal annealing process starting from the temperature at which the trimming of the forgings ends. During the cooling of the forgings, it is enough to maintain the temperature at the proper level in order for the exothermal phase transformation of austenite into pearlite to take place. With an appropriate design of the processing line, the heat released during the transformation could be used to maintain the applied temperature, thus limiting the consumption of energy needed to power the devices. The test results show that, with the properly selected temperature of isothermal annealing, it is possible to obtain an equilibrial ferritic-pearlitic structure in the required hardness scope. Introducing such a solution into the industrial practice would allow significant savings of the energy used for the heat treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0660.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Alloy; nanocomposite; magnesium; synthesis; microstructure; mechanical properties
Online: 26 November 2020 (10:29:31 CET)
The present study investigated the effects of alloying and nano-reinforcement on the mechanical properties (microhardness, tensile strength, and compressive strength) of Mg-based alloys and composites. Pure Mg, Mg-3Sn alloy, and Mg-3Sn+0.2GNP alloy-nanocomposite were synthesized by powder metallurgy followed by hot extrusion. The microstructural characteristics of the bulk extruded samples were explored using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and optical microscopy and their mechanical properties were compared. The microhardness, tensile strength, and compressive strength of the Mg-3Sn alloy improved when compared to those of monolithic Mg sample and further improvements were displayed by Mg-3Sn+0.2GNP alloy-nanocomposite. No significant change in the compressive strain to failure was observed in both the alloy and the alloy-nanocomposite with respect to that of the pure Mg sample. However, an enhanced tensile strain to failure was displayed by both the alloy and the alloy-nanocomposite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0381.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: trolleybus brushes; recycling; mechanical and electrical properties
Online: 19 October 2020 (13:24:38 CEST)
The paper presents an analysis of the possibility of producing traction brushes from waste materials. Brushes are used to ensure good electrical contact between the rail and the pantograph. Slides are produced in the process of hot pressing, with parameters of heating up to max 175 ⁰C, at the minimal pressure value of 200 MPa. The developed brushes with a high (55-60%) content of recycled materials have comparable characteristics to commercial brushes, and some of the prototypes are even more durable and break-resistant.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0429.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: mechanical stress; vicious cycle; midkine; ARDS; GTEx
Online: 26 May 2020 (11:26:52 CEST)
The SARS-Cov-2 virus, which causes COVID 19, uses the cell surface protein ACE2 as receptor for entry into cells. Critically ill COVID-19 patients often require prolonged mechanical ventilation which can cause mechanical stress to lung tissue. In vitro studies have shown that expression of ACE2 in alveolar cells is increased following mechanical stretch and inflammation. Therefore, we analyzed transcriptome datasets of 480 (non-COVID-19) lung tissues in the GTex tissue gene expression database. We found that mechanical ventilation of the tissue donors increased the expression of ACE2 by more than two-fold (p<10-6). Analyses of transcriptomes of mechanically ventilated mice in the GEO database indicate that this alveolar cell response to stretch and inflammation is mediated by the chemokine midkine. Using a novel big knowledge network approach (SPOKE) we also found in transcriptomes of pharmacological perturbations (LINCS) that corticosteroids down-regulate midkine in pulmonal cells, and confirmed this in GEO transcriptomes of animal studies. Thus, mechanical ventilation of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia may eo ipso facilitate viral propagation in the lung, further accelerating the pulmonal pathology that has necessitated mechanical ventilation in the first place. This vicious cycle presents a rationale for the temporary treatment with corticosteroids to modulate the midkine-ACE2 axis in ventilated COVID19 patients and for gentler ventilation protocols.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0182.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: electrical properties; mechanical properties; recycling, epoxy resin
Online: 16 October 2019 (09:37:44 CEST)
In this work we produced biochar by coffee waste and use it as filler in epoxy resin composite with the aim to increase their electrical properties. The biochar and biochar based composite electrical conductivity were studied in function of applied pressure and compared with carbon black and carbon black composite. The applied pressure has the aim to investigate the behaviour of filler in powder or dispersed in composite in function of compression. Results showed that even if the coffee biochar has less conductivity if compared with carbon black in powder form, it has better conductivity in composite if compared with carbon black. Composite mechanical properties were tested and they are generally improved respect to neat epoxy resin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0344.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: brazing; alumina dispersion-strengthened copper; mechanical test
Online: 19 July 2018 (05:18:58 CEST)
Alumina dispersion-strengthened copper, Glidcop, is used widely in high-heat-load ultra-high-vacuum components for synchrotron light sources (absorbers), accelerator components (beam intercepting devices) and in nuclear power plants. Glidcop has similar thermal and electrical properties to OFE (oxygen free electrical) copper, but has superior mechanical properties, thus making it a feasible structural material; its yield and ultimate strength are equivalent to those of mild-carbon steel. The purpose of this work has been to develop a brazing technique to join Glidcop to Mo, using a commercial Cu-based alloy. The effects of the excessive diffusion of the braze along the grain boundaries on the interfacial chemistry and joint microstructure, as well as on the mechanical performance of the brazed joints, has been investigated. In order to prevent the diffusion of the braze into the Glidcop alloy, a copper barrier layer has been deposited on Glidcop by means of RF-sputtering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: two-dimensional semiconductor; first-principles; mechanical; thermal
Online: 14 May 2018 (11:46:59 CEST)
In this short communication, we conducted first-principles calculations to explore the stability of boron monochalcogenides (BX, X=S, Se or Te), as a new class of two-dimensional (2D) materials. We predicted BX monolayers with two different atomic stacking sequences of ABBA and ABBC, referred in this work to 2H and 1T, respectively. Analysis of phonon dispersions confirm the dynamical stability of BX nanosheets with the both 2H and 1T atomic lattices. Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations reveal the outstanding thermal stability of all predicted monolayers at high temperatures over 1500 K. BX structures were found to exhibit high elastic modulus and tensile strengths. It was found that BS and BTe nanosheets can show high stretchability, comparable to that of the graphene. It was found that all predicted monolayers exhibit semiconducting electronic character, in which 2H structures present lower band-gaps as compared with 1T lattices. The band-gap values were found to decrease from BS to BTe. According to the HSE06 results, 1T-BS and 2H-BTe show respectively, the maximum (4.0 eV) and minimum (2.06 eV) electronic band-gaps. This investigation introduces boron monochalcogenides as a novel class of 2D semiconductors with remarkable thermal, dynamical and mechanical stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0120.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: water distribution; management; mechanical reliability; risk assessment
Online: 13 February 2018 (16:04:12 CET)
The management of existing water distribution system (WDS) is challenged by ageing of infrastructure, population growth, increasing of urbanization, climate change impacts and environmental pollution. Therefore, there is a need for integrated solutions that support decision makers to plan today, while taking into account the effect of these factors in the mid and long term. The paper is part of a more comprehensive project, where advanced hydraulic analysis for WDS is coupled with a dynamic resources input-output analysis model. The proposed modeling solution can be used to optimize the performance of a water supply system while considering also the energy consumption and consequently the environmental impacts. Therefore, as a support tool in the management of a water supply system also in the intervention planning. Here a possible application is presented for rehabilitation/replacement planning while maximizing the network mechanical reliability and minimizing risk of unsupplied demand and pressure deficit, under given economic constraints.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0236.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: noise pollution; mechanical wood industries; equipment; control
Online: 31 August 2016 (09:03:57 CEST)
High level of noise is a disturbance to the human environment. Noise in industries is also an occupational hazard because of its attendant effects on workers’ health. Noise presents health and social problems in industrial operations, and the source is related to the machineries used in the industries. One of the unique features of the noise associated with wood machinery is the level of exposure and duration. Equipment used in a factory can be extremely loud. They can produce noise at decibels high enough to cause environmental health and safety concerns. The mechanically driven transport and handling equipment, cutting, milling, shaping and dust extractor installations in the wood industry generate noise. The sources of noise pollution have increased due to non-compliance with basic safety practices. The increased use of locally fabricated machine in the industry has increased the level of noise and vibration. The effects of industrial noise pollution as discussed include: increase in blood pressure; increased stress; fatigue; vertigo; headaches; sleep disturbance; annoyance; speech problems; dysgraphia, which means reading/learning impairment; aggression; anxiety and withdrawal. As presented in this paper, noise control techniques include; sound insulation, sound absorption, vibration damping and Vibration isolation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0330.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: critical care; enteral feeding; mechanical ventilation; nutritional status
Online: 10 June 2021 (14:21:06 CEST)
Objective: This study aims to identify the impact of nutritional factors on mechanical ventilation duration for critical patients. Patients and Methods: The current study was a single-center, prospective observational design which enrolled one-hundred critically ill patients who were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). It demonstrates purposive sampling and also performs the descriptive nutritional factors influencing the mechanical ventilation duration. Daily calories target requirement scale (DCRS), subjective global assessment form (SGA), dyspnea assessment form, and APACHE II have been used as methods in the study along with time to initial enteral nutrition (EN) after 24-hour admission and daily calories target requirement over 7 days to assess patients. Data is analyzed using the multiple regressions. Results: As a result, nutritional status monitoring, time to initial EN, calories and target requirements are statistically positive significance associated with the mechanical ventilation duration respectively (R = 0.54, R = 0.30, R= 0.40, p < 0.05). However, age, illness severity, and dyspnea scales are not associated with the mechanical ventilation duration (p> 0.05). Therefore, the nutritional status, malnutrition scores and calorie target requirements can be used to significantly predict the mechanical ventilation duration. The predictive power is 58 and 28.0% of variance. The most proper influencer to predict the mechanical ventilation duration is nutritional status or malnutrition scores. Conclusion: The research findings show that the nutritional status, time to initial EN, and calorie target requirement within 7 days of admission are associated with the mechanical ventilation duration in the critical patients. Therefore, it can be used to develop guidelines reducing the mechanical ventilation duration and to promote the ventilator halting for critical patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0514.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: optical fiber; distributed sensor; mechanical vibrations; ϕ-OTDR
Online: 28 May 2021 (13:48:46 CEST)
The distributed long-range sensing system using the standard telecommunication single-mode optical fiber in a function of a distributed sensor for sensing of mechanical vibrations is described. Various events generating vibrations such as walking or running person, moving cars, trains and others can be detected, localized and classified. The sensor and related sensing system components were designed and constructed and the system was tested both in the laboratory and in the real situation with 88 km telecom optical link, and the results are presented.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0275.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; ARDS; PEEP; mechanical ventilation; transpulmonary pressure
Online: 16 April 2020 (13:24:29 CEST)
With the emergence of COVID-19 we are confronted with a new clinical picture of acute respiratory distress syndrome in the intensive care unit. In the majority of patients, the respiratory mechanics are very different from the “normal” ARDS patient. We measured transpulmonary pressure and dead space ventilation to assess the effects of high and low PEEP levels on lung compliance and ventilation-perfusion mismatching. Advanced respiratory mechanics were assessed in 14 patients. Compared to ARDS patients, lung compliance was relatively high (61 ± 5 mL/cmH2O). COVID-19 patients had high dead space ventilation and gas exchange impairment (Bohr 52 ± 3%; Enghoff modification 67 ± 2%; ventilatory ratio 2.24 ± 0.23). we show that higher PEEP levels decrease lung compliance and in most cases increase dead space ventilation, indicating that high PEEP levels probably cause hyperinflation in patients with COVID-19. We suggest using prone position for an extended period of time, and apply lower PEEP levels as much as possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0285.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: additive manufacturing; biyomedikal alloy; micro structure; mechanical properties.
Online: 25 October 2019 (11:24:36 CEST)
The Wolfram (W), Silicium (Si) and Molybdenum (Mo) doped Co-Cr biomedical alloy were fabricated by additive manufacturing method, which is part of powder metadology. The mixture of Wolfram (W), Silicium (Si), Chrome (Cr) and Cobalt (Co) alloy is known good wear and corrosion resistance among of biomedical applications. By addition of Molybdenum (Mo) into the structure of alloy, the structure become more stbale also increase the corrosion and wear resistance. In addition, the effects of secondary annealing process on the alloy were investigated. The microstructure of the produced alloy was analyzed by X-ray diffraction method XRD, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis EDX and scanning electron microscope SEM. Moreover, Electrochemical corrosion test, micro hardness and density measurements were performed to investigate the mechanical properties of the alloy. As a result of the analyzes, the effects of Molydenum (Mo) doped and secondary annealing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of bioalloying were determined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0516.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: grass pea; bioplastics; mechanical properties; transglutaminase; zeta potential
Online: 23 October 2018 (04:23:21 CEST)
The aim of this work was to prepare bioplastics from renewable and biodegradable molecules. In particular, the bioplastics were produced by using as biopolymer source the grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) flour, the proteins of which were structurally modified by means of microbial transglutaminase, an enzyme able to catalyze isopeptide bonds between glutamines and lysines. We analyzed, by means of Zeta-potential, the flour suspension with the aim to choose which pH is more stable for the production of film-forming solutions. The bioplastics were produced by casting and they were characterized according to several technological properties. Optical analysis demonstrated that films cast in the presence of the microbial enzyme are more transparent compared to the untreated ones. Moreover, the visualization by Scanning Electron Microscopy demonstrated that the enzyme-modified films possessed a more compact and homogeneous structure. Furthermore, the presence of microbial transglutaminase allowed to obtain film more mechanically resistant. Finally, digestion experiments under physiological conditions performed in order to obtain information useful for applying these novel biomaterials as carriers in the industrial field, indicated that the enzyme-treated coatings might allow the delivery of bioactive molecules in the gastro-intestinal tract.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0330.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: elastic properties; laser ultrasonic; mechanical behavior; fiber-network
Online: 18 September 2018 (08:16:18 CEST)
For development and successful application of any material, a clear understanding of their mechanical behavior is one of the most important things, but when it comes to nanofibers networks it become a challenge due to, their high porosity, many scales in their structure, and characteristics non-linear. Therefore, an experimental methodology in conjunction with a theoretical model that can fully consider their characteristics is still needed. In this work we proposed a model that incorporates the propagation of the elastic waves in two-phase media to determine the effective elastic modulus of electrospun membranes of PLA/gelatin given the mechanical properties of nanofibers, shape, distribution and concentration. The model was verified via laser ultrasonic testing. It was found that the values predicted for the effective modulus by the model were higher than the values obtained from experimental results. One explanation is due to the experimental density. As a result, the P-Wave velocity from the model best fit to experimental results and it has the same behavior, decrees as the concentration of gelatin in the solution. These results indicate the model and experimental methodology can assist in the dressing of nanofibers networks and electrospun materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0112.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Cu6Sn5 whiskers; Ag3Sn fibers; mechanical property; screw dislocation
Online: 16 March 2017 (08:50:05 CET)
Cu6Sn5 whiskers precipitated in Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu/Cu interconnection in concentrator silicon solar cells solder layer were found and investigated after reflow soldering and during aging. Ag3Sn fibers can be observed around Cu6Sn5 whiskers in the matrix microstructure, which can play an active effect on the reliability of interconnection. Different morphologies of Cu6Sn5 whiskers can be observed, and hexagonal rod structure is the main morphology of Cu6Sn5 whiskers. A hollow structure can be observed in hexagonal Cu6Sn5 whiskers, and a screw dislocation mechanism was used to represent the Cu6Sn5 growth. Based on mechanical property testing and finite element simulation, Cu6Sn5 whiskers were regarded as having a negative effect on the durability of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu/Cu interconnection in concentrator silicon solar cells solder layer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0147.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: piezoresistive sensor; electron microscope; in situ mechanical test
Online: 30 December 2016 (04:16:25 CET)
In this work, we designed a MEMS device which allows simultaneous direct measurement of mechanical properties during deformation under external stress and characterization of the evolution of microstructure of nanomaterials within a transmission electron microscope. This MEMS device makes it easy to establish the correlation between microstructure and mechanical properties of nanomaterials. The device uses piezoresistive sensors to qualitatively measure the force and displacement of nanomaterials, e.g., in wire and thin plate forms. The device has a theoretical displacement resolution of 0.19 nm and a force resolution of 2.1 μN. The device has a theoretical displacement range limit of 2.74 μm and a load range limit of 27.75 mN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0099.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: PET; Petroleum Coke; Mechanical Alloying; Thermal studies; XRD
Online: 9 August 2016 (14:22:43 CEST)
The thermal degradation behaviour of 10:90 and 90:10 blends of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) and petroleum coke has been investigated using mechanical alloying (milling) at 300 rpm and for periods up to 1-10 hours. Milled specimens were characterised using SEM and x-ray diffraction; their thermal degradation behaviour was investigated using thermo-gravimetric analyser (TGA) for temperatures up to 1200°C. Whereas PET specimens showed a tendency towards flattening out and increased surface area during collisions in ball mills, petroleum coke particles tended to break down into smaller particles. 10:90 and 90:10 blends of PET and coke showed significant microstructural evolution with increasing speeds and time including fracture, strain hardening and re-welding. X-ray diffraction results showed clear evidence for increasing amorphous component in petroleum coke without much influence on PET crystallinity. Thermo-gravimetric results showed a significant increase in the overall degradation and much higher weight losses associated with mechanical alloying. This study has shown that mechanical alloying could be used to modify the degradation behaviour of coke/plastic blends and corresponding yield during pyrolysis with implications for plastic waste management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0076.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: mechanical alloying; titanium carbide; spark plasma sintering; cermets; corrosion
Online: 5 December 2022 (11:30:50 CET)
In order to produce nanostructured Ti0.9Cr0.1C powders, an elemental powder mixture of titanium, chromium, and graphite is milled in this work using a high-energy ball mill for various milling times. Microstructural characteristics such as crystallite size, microstrain, lattice parameter, and dislocation density are determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Mechanical alloying successfully produced nanocrystalline (Ti,Cr)C with an average crystallite size of 11 nm. This size of the crystallites is also directly verified using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the morphology of the samples. The novelty of this work is advancing the scientific understanding of the effect of milling time on the particle size distribution and crystalline structure, and also understanding the effect of the spark plasma sintering on the different properties of the bulks. Densified cermet samples were produced from the nanocrystalline powders, milled for 5, 10 and 20 hours by SPS process at 1800 degrees for 5 min under a pressure of 80 MPa. Phase changes of the produced cermets were examined according to XRD, SEM/EDX analyses. Significant amounts of Cr and Fe elements were detected, especially in the 20 h milled cermet. The bulk forms of the milled powders for 5 and 20 h had a relative density of 98.43 and 98.51 %, respectively. However, 5 h milled cermet had 93.3 HRA because of the more homogeneous distribution of the (Ti,Cr)C phase, the low iron content and high relative density. According to the 0.0011 mm/year corrosion rate, and 371.68 kΩ*cm2 charge transfer resistance obtained from the potentiodynamic polarization and EIS tests, the 20 h cermet was the specimen with the highest corrosion resistance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0019.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: aluminum alloys; dissimilar; FSW parameters; mechanical strength; similar; weldability
Online: 1 November 2022 (06:47:32 CET)
The solid-state welding method known as friction stir welding (FSW) bonds two metallic work parts, whether the same or different, by plastically deforming the base metal. The frictional resistance between both metallic work pieces causes them to produce heat, which produces plastic deformation and welds them. However, the weldability and strength of FSW joints mainly depend on the FSW parameters. This review work highlights the previous research work on the FSW parameters and their effects on the weldability and quality of the aluminum alloys joined with similar and dissimilar metals through the FSW method. About 150 research studies were systematically reviewed, and the articles included data from peer-reviewed journals. It has been concluded that the key parameters, including welding speed, “rotational speed”, “plunge depth”, “spindle torque”, “shoulder design”, “base material”, “pin profile” and “tool type", significantly affect the weldability of the aluminum joint through the FSW method. Also, the selection of these parameters is important and fundamental as they directly affect the joint. It is recommended that future work focus on FSW for aluminum. Among these, the most essential is the application of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to select the optimum FSW parameters for aluminum welding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0222.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: machine learning; CNT-reinforced cement-based composites; mechanical attributes
Online: 15 March 2022 (16:50:44 CET)
Time and cost-efficient techniques are essential to avoid extra conventional experimental studies with large date-set to characterize the mechanical properties of composite materials. Correlation between the structural performance and mechanical properties could be captured through the efficient predictive models. Several ensembled Machine Learning (ML) methods were implemented in this study, to materially characterize carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced cement-based composites. Proposed models were compared with each other to represent the accuracy of each method. The Flexural and Compressive Strength (target values) of CNT reinforced composites were predicted based on the data-rich framework provided in previous experimental investigations. These data were utilized for training of the proposed models by employing SciKit-Learn library in Python, followed by hyper-parameter tuning and k-fold cross-validation method for obtaining an efficient model to predict the target values. Random Forest (RF) and Gradient Boosting Machine (GBM) were developed for this purpose. The findings of this study would be useful for prospective composite designers in case of sufficient experimental data availability for ML model training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0063.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; wear analysis; mechanical properties; H13 tool steel
Online: 3 February 2022 (16:18:57 CET)
The paper contains the results of the 100-hour test campaign of the Additive Manufactured (AM) spare part (retainer – slipper) dedicated for an exact axial piston pump. The material of the retainer-slipper has been identified by using energy dispersive spectroscopy and replaced by other – with similar material properties as the original one. The obtained spare part had been subjected to only one postprocessing type (sandblasting) to analyze the influence of the rough part after the AM process. The whole test campaign has been divided into stages, where after each stage microscopic measurements have been made. During microscopical investigation roughness and geometrical measurements were conducted. The results revealed that it is possible to replace parts in hydraulic pumps with the use of AM. 100-hour test campaign caused about 500% increase in the surface roughness of the pump’s original part which was cooperated with the AM spare retainer-slipper, without any damages to the test system.