REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0198.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: loss of taste and smell; dysgeusia; anosmia; chemosensory dysfunction; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19
Online: 16 June 2020 (07:46:15 CEST)
Early detection, isolation, and management of COVID-19 patients are crucial to contain the current pandemic. The CDC in USA recently included "sudden loss of taste (dysgeusia/ageusia) and smell (anosmia/hyposmia)” as symptoms of COVID-19. If these symptoms are reliable forerunner symptoms of COVID-19, then it may facilitate early detection and containment of the disease. Hence, we systematically evaluated the contemporary evidence on dysgeusia and anosmia as trigger symptoms in COVID-19. Ovid MEDLINE, EBSCO host, and Web of Science databases were searched between December 25, 2019-May 30, 2020.Of the 13 identified records, eight (totaling 11,054 COVID-19 patients), were included, as per the selection criteria. The studies emanated mostly from the European community, as well as China, the USA, and Iran. In total, anosmia and dysgeusia symptoms were present in 74.9 % and 81.3% ambulatory as well as hospitalized, mild-to-severe cases of COVID-19 patients, respectively. The European, US, and Iran data indicate that olfactory, and gustatory symptoms appear prior to general COVID-19 symptoms in a majority of the patients. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review analyzing the prevalence of chemosensory dysfunction in COVID-19. Further, studies are essential to evaluate their utility as harbingers of COVID-19 onset, and to establish clinical practice guidelines.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0045.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: biodiversity loss; conservation; deforestation; Bangladesh
Online: 14 February 2017 (03:08:37 CET)
Biodiversity has become an issue of global anxiety over the past decades due to its rapid decline worldwide. Bangladesh as one of the most densely populated countries in the world is no more exception. The country, although, was once very rich in biodiversity, during the last few decades as a consequence of the rapid reduction in forest area, urbanisation, habitat modification, unsustainable natural resources use and collection and overall climate change it has decreased alarmingly. Of late, the government, as a signatory of various regional and international conservation treaties, has taken various initiatives to improve country’s dwindling biodiversity. This paper reviews the present situation of biodiversity in Bangladesh, management trends and major causes of biodiversity loss. A separate statutory body is fundamental to ensure conservation, sustainable use and equitable sharing of benefits arisen from biodiversity in the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0036.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: conservation; governance; habitat loss; livelihood; eco-tourism; carbon credits
Online: 7 December 2016 (11:13:38 CET)
Establishment of protected areas (PAs) is one of the key global conservation strategies that currently cover approximately 15% of the earth’s land surface. Globally, PA networks are designed to curb the growing anthropogenic pressures in areas with high biological diversity. Despite the importance of PAs in conserving the vanishing biodiversity and unique habitats, many of them are in critical condition due to poor governance thus functioning below the expected level. Moreover, in many developing countries, the PA coverage is below the global standard. Recognizing their contemporary role in conservation, governments have recently agreed to expand the global PA coverage to 17% by the year 2020 (Aichi target 11). This book with eight chapters from different regions of the world provides an overview of the PAs governance, institutional mechanisms, conservation benefits, limitations and challenges associated with their respective policy discourse, integrated management, and functional attributes. Protected areas expect to to play an important role in the long rn in conservation and protection of biodiversity and ecosystems particularly in countries where population pressure and habitat loss are high. Regular intervention, political commitment, and effective governance are essential for the sustainability of PAs across the world. Here, we also attempted to shed some light on future development clues for the sustainable management and monitoring of PAs worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0028.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: Fe-Mn-Si alloy; isothermal holding time; powder sintering; density; weight loss; tensile properties
Online: 9 February 2017 (07:06:14 CET)
This work investigated the isothermal holding time dependence of the densification, microstructure, weight loss and tensile properties of Fe-Mn-Si powder compacts. Elemental Fe, Mn and Si powder mixtures with a nominal composition of Fe-28Mn-3Si (in weight percent) were ball milled for 5h and subsequently pressed under a uniaxial pressure of 400 MPa. The compacted Fe-Mn-Si powder mixtures were sintered at 1200 ℃ for 0, 1, 2 and 3 h, respectively. In general, the density, weight loss and tensile properties increased with the increase of isothermal holding time. A significant increase in density, weight loss and tensile properties occurred in the compacts isothermally holding for 1 h, as compared to those with no isothermal holding. However, further extension of isothermal holding time (2 and 3 h) only played a limited role in promoting the density and tensile properties. The weight loss of the sintered compacts was mianly caused by the sublimation of Mn in Mn depletion region on the surface layer of the sintered Fe-Mn-Si compacts. The length of the Mn depletion region increased as isothermal holding time increased. A single α-Fe phase was detected on the surface of all the sintered compacts, and the locations beyond the Mn depletion region were comprised of a dual dominant γ-austenite and minor ε-martensite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0341.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: population loss; wetland loss; land cover
Online: 5 May 2023 (10:01:07 CEST)
Despite increased hurricane intensity, the U.S. Gulf of Mexico coast has experienced dramatic coastal population increase of 24.5% from 2000 to 2016. However, in coastal Louisiana areas with dramatic wetland loss, parishes have experienced population declines and lower rates of population growth. Therefore, understanding the magnitude of the effect of wetland loss as a main driver in population loss in coastal Louisiana is critical. Using regression analysis, this study finds that wetland loss has a significant and persistent negative effect on population growth in coastal Louisiana. This effect resulted in a reduction in the population growth rate in coastal parishes over time. A counterfactual simulation was conducted to estimate the potential population size in the absence of wetland loss from 1990 to 2021. On average, the effect of 1 hectare of wetland lost causes a reduction of approximately 1000 persons. This indicates that for the year 2021, the population was approximately 18% lower than the population that would have existed in the absence of wetland loss. This research underscores the role of wetlands in providing direct and indirect benefits to people in coastal Louisiana that are ultimately reflected in its population levels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0748.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: cytomegalovirus; hearing loss; pathogenesis
Online: 10 May 2023 (11:20:49 CEST)
Virus infection is one of the most common etiologies of hearing loss. Hearing loss associated with viral infection can be unilateral or bilateral, mild or severe, sudden or progressive, and permanent or recoverable. Many viruses cause hearing loss in adults and children; however, the pathogenesis of hearing loss caused by viral infection is not fully understood. This review describes cytomegalovirus, the most common virus causing hearing loss, and other reported hearing loss-related viruses, along with their pathogenic characteristics and research progress on their pathology, hearing phenotypes, possible associated mechanisms, treatment and prevention measures, aiming to provide diagnostic and treatment assistance to clinical workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0456.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Mediterranean Diet; weight loss; determinants of health; healthy lifestyle; clinically significant weight loss
Online: 29 July 2022 (09:52:36 CEST)
Evidence indicates that unhealthy eating habits constitute multilevel obstacles threatening our health and well-being—studies suggesting that consumer choices turn irremovably towards Western diets. Mediterranean diets (MD) have been identified as one of the most effective in preventing and treating overweight and obesity. Considering this scientific substantiation in prevention and treatment activity, the purpose of this investigation is to verify this evidence. In our prospective interventional study, we examined the effect of MD on body weight in a female cohort sample. The analyzed group consisted of (n=181) females divided into three distinct groups based on their age (tricenarian, quadragenarian, and quinquagenarian). Anthropometric (weight, BMI, FATP, VFATL, FFM, TBW, and BMR), biochemical examinations (urea, creatinine, uric acid, ALT, AST, GGT, CHOL, HDL-CH, non-HDL, LDL-CH, TAG, GLU, and CRP) and comprehensive, personalized three months MD program was completed on the examined subjects. We didn’t establish convincing evidence of MD on weight reduction and its magnitude of correlation with a positive correspondence on selected determinants in all groups combined. There is a challenge to construct more robust prospective cohort studies that will incorporate add-on critical integrands that will be appropriate to monitor, evaluate and predict weight management in experimenting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0093.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: unidirectional fibrous composites, interphase, storage/loss modulus, loss factor, frequency, glass transition.
Online: 7 December 2018 (17:07:22 CET)
Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is a versatile technique that complements the information given by the more traditional thermal analysis techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and thermal mechanical analysis (TMA). Dynamic constants such as storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss factor are temperature dependent and provide information about interfacial bonding between reinforced fibre and polymer matrix of composite material. To study the above mentioned properties at the glass transition region, for unidirectional fibrous composites reinforced with continuous fibers a reliable model was applied. In particular, the composite material was considered as composed of three phases with the intermediate phase between matrix and fibres, the interphase, to have variable properties depending on those of main phases and the mode of preparation of the overall material. The glass transition temperature is defined as the point at which the specific volume versus temperature curve changes abruptly slope marking the region between rubbery polymer and glassy polymer nature. Hence, the behaviour of unidirectional fibrous composites was investigated at this region. Examination of the glass transition temperature, which constitutes an upper limit for the structurally important glassy region through the loss factor, was performed by its consideration as a combination of glass transition temperature of matrix and interphase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0064.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Fasting; weight loss; obese; ketones.
Online: 3 March 2023 (09:08:53 CET)
This case study features an observation of an obese female (body mass index ≥ 30 kgm-2) who undertook a 10-day water and electrolyte fast with the aim of reducing body fat and improving physiological markers of health. A comprehensive range of physiological measures (body mass, girths, blood pressure, body fluid balance, urine osmolarity, and resting oxygen consumption), mood indicators, metabolic markers (blood ketones, blood glucose, breath ketones, urine ketones), and measurement of intake and expenditure (fluid intake, food intake, nutritional macros, steps taken, and estimated movement caloric expenditure) were measured before, during and after the fasting period to determine the effectiveness of undertaking extended therapeutic fasting for improving markers of health and weight loss. Body mass on the first day of the fast was 95.1 kg and on the tenth and final day of the fast it was 88.1 kg representing a loss of 7 kg at a rate of 0.7 kg·day1. Mean body mass in the 15 days after the fast was 88.3 ± 0.4 kg. This case study is novel in reporting key physiological and psychological markers over a 10-day fast, and in pre- and post-fast periods. A 10-day fast appears to be a safe and effective method of weight loss, mood is positively affected by fasting and weight loss from fasting can be sustained providing care is taken in the approach to post-fasting nutrition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0310.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: olfactory loss; parosmia; food liking; cooking
Online: 24 May 2022 (02:59:57 CEST)
Olfactory dysfunction affects often has severe consequences on patients’ quality of life. The most common complaint in these patients is their reduced enjoyment of food in both patients with olfactory loss and parosmia. How the different types of olfactory dysfunction differ in relation to food and cooking habits, sensory awareness, and food-related quality of life has not yet received much attention. By applying questionnaires on cooking, food, olfactory function, weight changes, sensory awareness, and food-related quality of life, we investigate how various aspects of eating differ between participants with olfactory loss (n=271), parosmia(n=251), and normosmic controls(n=166). Cooking habits in olfactory dysfunction revealed pronounced differences as compared with normosmic controls. Cooking with olfactory dysfunction was associated with e.g., a lack of comfort and inspiration for cooking and an inability to make new foods successfully. Significant differences in cooking were also found between olfactory loss and parosmia. Food items were less familiar in participants with olfactory loss and parosmia, while the ratings of liking food items differed between olfactory loss and parosmia, indicating the importance of adapting ingredients in meals separately for olfactory loss and parosmia. Parosmia was associated with a higher incidence of weight loss, but we found no difference in the food-related quality of life between participants with olfactory loss and parosmia. While olfactory loss and parosmia have wide-ranging consequences on patients’ cooking and food habits, adapting meals to include ‘safer food items’ and integrating multisensory stimulation may be a possible avenue for improving the enjoyment of food.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: GWAS; drought; rapeseed; water loss ratio
Online: 26 September 2020 (14:20:53 CEST)
Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is one of the most important oil crops in the world; however, drought significantly curtails its growth and productivity. Identifying drought-tolerant germplasm is an efficient and low-cost strategy for addressing water shortages. Using water loss ratio (WLR) as an index of drought tolerance, we screened a panel of 265 B. napus lines. We identified eight low-WLR and six high-WLR accessions, which were regarded as drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive, respectively. Further validated these selected accessions at the seedling stage under drought-stress conditions. The drought-tolerant accessions had significantly greater fresh and dry weights under drought stress than the drought sensitive accessions. Using RT-qPCR, we showed that a set of previously reported drought-adaptive marker genes were expressed at higher levels in the drought-tolerant lines than in the drought-sensitive lines. These results indicated that the drought-tolerant genotypes could be identified from natural populations using WLR. Then, we performed a genome-wide association study to identify loci harboring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A total of 139 SNPs were significantly associated with the WLR, of which chromosome A10 harbored the largest number. Furthermore, four putative candidate genes were selected by combining the SNP–WLR association results and transcriptional expression data with the changes in drought tolerance. Thus, we have identified two drought-tolerant B. napus cultivars and uncovered genome-wide variation differentiating B. napus lines related to WLR, in addition to providing insights for further research into WLR-related drought mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0368.v8
Subject: Physical Sciences, Theoretical Physics Keywords: gravity; hidden variables; information loss problem; completeness, cosmological constant problem
Online: 6 May 2020 (15:43:39 CEST)
We study a localization of gravity through the matching point between non-inertial frames and local inertial frames. This localization of gravity is done through defining relative gravitational red-shift. This lead to an emergence of a timeless state in a mathematically consistent way. In this timeless state of gravity, we find a geometric interpretation of the speed of light and mass. The experimental support of the timeless state is the quantum entanglement and internal symmetries that are independent of time. Therefore gravity would be responsible for measurements independent of time including quantum entanglement. Timeless state in that sense explain why do we have gravity/gauge correspondence. We conjecture that the universe emerged from a black hole with a global $SU(3)\times SU(2)\times U(1)$ symmetry on its event horizon that produces gauge fields Electromagnetism, weak and strong nuclear force through localization of this global symmetry. Through the localization in the gravity field, the timeless measurements such as spin will be correlated with the varying of timeless measurement which is relative gravitational red-shift. We present a gravitational or geometric interpretation of spin-0, spin-1, and spin-1/2 states. We present an interpretation of why do we measure matter rather than anti-matter. We found that the Higgs scalar field is represented by the gravitational red-shift at every point in the space around the black hole. We derive the numerical value of the cosmological constant that agrees with experimental observations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0094.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Phyllanthaceae; Phyllanthus; Leptopus; transition and transversion substitutions; chloroplast genome; phylogenetic; polymorphic loci; rps16 loss; atpF intron loss
Online: 5 July 2021 (12:03:13 CEST)
Family Phyllanthaceae is one of the largest segregates of the eudicot order Malpighiales and its species are herb, shrub, and tree, which are mostly distributed in tropical regions. Certain taxonomic discrepancies exist at genus and family level. Here, we report chloroplast genomes of three Phyllanthaceae species—Phyllanthus emblica, Flueggea virosa, and Leptopus cordifolius— and compare them with six others previously reported Phyllanthaceae chloroplast genomes. The species of Phyllanthaceae displayed quadripartite structure, comprising inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb) that separate large single copy (LSC) and small single copy (SSC) regions. The length of complete chloroplast genome ranged from 154,707 bp to 161,093 bp; LSC from 83,627 bp to 89,932 bp; IRs from 23,921 bp to 27,128 bp; and SSC from 17,424 bp to 19,441 bp. Chloroplast genomes contained 111 to 112 unique genes, including 77 to 78 protein-coding, 30 transfer RNA (tRNA), and 4 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that showed similarities in arrangement. The number of protein-coding genes varied due to deletion/pseudogenization of rps16 genes in Baccaurea ramiflora and Leptopus cordifolius. High variability was seen in number of oligonucleotide repeats while analysis of guanine-cytosine (GC) content, codon usage, amino acid frequency, simple sequence repeats analysis, synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions, and transition and transversion substitutions showed similarities in all Phyllanthaceae species. We detected a higher number of transition substitutions in the coding sequences than non-coding sequences. Moreover, the high number of transition substitutions was determined among the distantly related species in comparison to closely related species. Phylogenetic analysis shows the polyphyletic nature of the genus Phyllanthus which requires further verification. We also determined suitable polymorphic coding genes, including rpl22, ycf1, matK, ndhF, and rps15 which may be helpful for the reconstruction of the high-resolution phylogenetic tree of the family Phyllanthaceae using a large number of species in the future. Overall, the current study provides insight into chloroplast genome evolution in Phyllanthaceae.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: hearing loss; aging; hyperactivity; excitability; loss of inhibition; neurophysiology; auditory perception; neural plasticity; speech processing
Online: 15 April 2021 (13:34:54 CEST)
Many aging adults experience some form of hearing problems that may arise from auditory peripheral damage. However, it has been increasingly acknowledged that hearing loss is not only a dysfunction of the auditory periphery but results from changes within the entire auditory system, from periphery to cortex. Damage to the auditory periphery is associated with an increase in neural activity at various stages throughout the auditory pathway. Here, we review neurophysiological evidence of hyperactivity, auditory perceptual difficulties that may result from hyperactivity, and outline open conceptual and methodological questions related to the study of hyperactivity. We suggest that hyperactivity alters all aspects of hearing – including spectral, temporal, spatial hearing – and, in turn, impairs speech comprehension when background sound is present. By focusing on the perceptual consequences of hyperactivity and the potential challenges of investigating hyperactivity in humans, we hope to bring animal and human electrophysiologists closer together to better understand hearing problems in older adulthood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0097.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Vision loss; Diabetic retinopathy; Image enhancement; APTOS
Online: 6 February 2023 (09:50:58 CET)
Vision loss can be avoided if diabetic retinopathy (DR) is diagnosed and treated promptly. Following are the main 5 DR stages: none, moderate, mild, proliferate, and severe. In this study, a deep learning (DL) model is presented that diagnoses all 5 stages of DR with more accuracy than previous methods. The suggested method presents two scenarios: case 1 with image enhancement using contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) filtering algorithm in conjunction with an Enhanced Super-resolution generative adversarial network (ESRGAN), and case 2 without image enhancement; augmentation techniques are then performed to generate a balanced dataset utilizing the same parameters for both cases. Using Inception-V3 applied to the Asia Pacific Tele-Ophthalmology Society (APTOS) datasets, the developed model achieved an accuracy of 98.7% for case 1 and 80.87% for case 2, which is greater than existing methods for detecting the five stages of DR. It was demonstrated that using CLAHE and ESRGAN improves a model's performance and learning ability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: vitamin D; obesity; weight-loss; body composition
Online: 12 April 2020 (16:44:13 CEST)
Background: Vitamin D was studied in regards to its possible impact on body mass reduction and metabolic changes in adults and children with obesity yet there were no studies assessing the impact of vitamin D supplementation during a weight management programme in children and adolescence. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of 26 weeks of vitamin D supplementation in overweight and obese children undergoing an integrated 12-months’ long weight loss programme on body mass reduction, body composition and bone mineral density. Methods: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Vitamin D deficient patients ( <30 ng/ml level of vitamin D) aged 6-14, participating in multidisciplinary weight management programme were randomly allocated to receiving vitamin D (1200 IU) or placebo for the first 26 weeks of the intervention. Results: Out of the 152 qualified patients, 109 (72%) completed a full cycle of four visits scheduled in the programme. There were no difference in the level of BMI change. Although the reduction was greater in the vitamin D vs. placebo group (-4.28 ± 8.43 vs. -2.53 ±6.10) the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.319). Similarly the reduction in fat mass – assessed both using bioimpedance and DEXa was achieved, yet the differences between the groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our study ads substantial results to support the thesis on no effect of vitamin D supplementation on body weight reduction in children and adolescents with vitamin D insufficiency undergoing a weight management programme. Trial registration no: NCT 02828228; trial registration date: 8 June 2016 registered in: ClinicalTrials.gov.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0430.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: cat; Tehran; weight loss; food access; waste reduction
Online: 13 October 2022 (11:34:42 CEST)
This study aimed to investigate the effect of reducing the amount of organic waste on the weight of cats in Tehran. The weight of 4192 cats was measured from spring 2016 to the end of winter 2020. They were classified into 6 age groups, 2 gender groups, and 13 geographical areas. Their weight was measured for 48 months (16 seasons). The statistical parameters analysis showed no weight loss in 2017, but since 2018, cats have been losing weight every year. They had lost about 178g of their weight in 2018. The sharpest annual decrease was observed in 2019 when about 301g of weight loss was recorded. In the winter of 2020, 115g of weight loss took place. In the spring of 2017, no weight change was observed, but in the spring of 2018, the cats lost 155g of their weight. Their weight loss intensified in the spring of 2019 and about 299g of weight loss was observed. In the summer of 2017, as in the spring of the same year, no weight loss was recorded, but for the summer of 2018, the weight loss was evident and about 205g of the weight of the cats had been reduced. The weight loss in the summer of 2019 not only continued but intensified and about 304g of weight loss was recorded for cats. Weight change was not observed in the fall of 2017 as in the spring and summer of the same year. In the fall of 2018, weight loss was recorded for cats. They had lost about 324g of their weight in the fall of 2018. Also, they experienced a weight loss of about 218g in the fall of 2019. During the spring, summer, and autumn of 2017, no weight loss was observed in the cats for the winter of 2018, but in the winter of 2019, the cats faced the most severe weight loss (seasonally). They lost about 401g of weight in the winter of 2019. Of course, in the winter of 2020, about 186g of weight loss was observed in cats. The results showed that female cats did not lose weight in 2017 but experienced weight loss in 2018 with a weight loss of 181g. The weight loss of females intensified in 2019 and 294g of weight loss was recorded. Female cats lost 186g of their weight in the winter of 2020. Male cats did not lose weight like female cats in 2017. But in 2018, a weight loss of 166g was observed in male cats. The weight loss of male cats continued in 2019 and 311g of weight loss was recorded for them. However, in 2020, unlike females, weight loss was not observed in male cats. It can be said that both sexes lost more weight in the winter of 2019 than in other seasons. In 2017, weight loss was observed only for the region of 10, and in the same year, weight gain was recorded for the region of 15. But in 2018, except for regions 3, 4, 15, and 19, weight loss was observed in other regions. In 2019, the weight loss of cats spread and weight loss was observed in all regions except the region of 12. In winter 2020, weight loss was recorded only in the region of 4. In the end, it can be concluded that the weight of cats has decreased since the spring of 2018 because the beginning of the decrease in the amount of organic waste has been recorded since the winter of 2018. So, there is a direct relationship between the weight of cats and the amount of organic waste (access to food). The amount of garbage has been decreasing since the winter of 2018, and the average weight of cats has also been decreasing since the spring of 2018 due to the decrease in access to food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0505.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: mitochondria dysfunction; reactive oxygen species; hypoxic; D-galactose; high fat diet; aging; hearing loss; mechanisms of hearing loss
Online: 22 July 2020 (07:58:12 CEST)
Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is the most common sensory disorder in the elderly. It is associated with aging and hair cell death due to oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Although transgenic mice and long-term cultures for induction of aging have been used to study ARHL, there are presently no ARHL animal models stimulated by intermittent environmental change for aging. In this study, an ARHL animal model was established by inducing continuous oxidative stress to promote short-term aging of cells, determined based on the expression of the hearing loss-induced phenotype and aging related factors in the short term. The incidence of hearing loss was significantly different among the groups subjected to intermittent hypoxic environment, high-fat diet (HFD), and injection with D-galactose. Continuous oxidative stress and HFD were factors that accelerated cellular aging. Increase in UCP2 affected oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. CDH23, SLC26A4, KCNQ4, Myo7a, and Myo6, which are ARHL-related factors, were modified by oxidative stress in cells of the hearing organ. We found that intermittent hypoxic, HFD, and galactose injection accelerated cellular aging in the short term. Thus, we anticipate that the development of this hearing loss animal model, which reflects intermittent environmental changes, will benefit future research on ARHL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0712.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Pricing, loss networks, Markov decision processes, blocking probability.
Online: 27 April 2021 (12:32:37 CEST)
Congestion pricing has received lots of attention in the scientific discussion. Congestion pricing means that the operator increases prices at the time of congestion and the traffic demand is expected to decrease. In a certain sense, shadow prices are an optimal way of congestion pricing: users are charged shadow prices, i.e., the expectations of future losses because of blocked connections. The shadow prices can be calculated exactly from Howard’s equation, but this method is difficult. The paper presents simple approximations to the solution of Howard’s equation and a way to derive more exact approximations. If users do not react by lowering their demand, they will receive higher bills to pay. Many users do not react to increased prices but would want to know how the congestion pricing mechanism affects the bills. The distribution of the price of a connection follows from knowing the shadow prices and the probability of a congestion state. There is another interesting distribution. The network produces profit to the operator, or equivalently, blocked connections produce a cost to the operator. The average cost rate can be calculated from Howard’s equation, but the costs have some distribution. The distribution gives the risk that the actual costs exceed the average costs, and the operator should include this risk to the prices. The main result of this paper shows how to calculate the distribution of the costs in the future for congestion pricing by shadow prices and for congestion pricing with a more simple pricing scheme that produces the same average costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0401.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: PV array configurations; Partial shading conditions; Performance assessment; Maximum Power Generation; Mismatch power loss; Relative power loss; Fill factor
Online: 27 October 2021 (11:32:30 CEST)
Partial shading on solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays is a prevalent problem in photovoltaic systems that impair the performance of PV modules and is responsible for reduced power output as compared to that in standard irradiance conditions thereby resulting in the appearance of multiple maximas on panel output power characteristics. These maxims contribute to mismatch power losses among PV modules. The mismatch losses depend on shading characteristics together with different interconnected configuration schemes of PV modules. The research presents a comparative analysis of partial shading effects on a 4 x4 PV array system connected in series(S), parallel (P), serries-parallel (SP),total-cross-tied (TCT),central-cross-tied(CCT),bridge-linked(BL),bridge-linked total cross-tied (BLTCT) ,honey-comb(HC), honey-comb total-cross-tied (HCTCT) and ladder (LD) configurations using MATLAB/Simulink. The PV module SPR-X20-250-BLK was used for modeling and simulation analysis. Each module is comprised of 72 number of PV cells and a combination of 16 PV modules was employed for the contextual analysis. Accurate mathematical modeling for the HCTCT configuration under partial shading conditions (PSCs) is provided for the first time and is verified from the simulation. The different configuration schemes were investigated under short-narrow,short-wide,long-narrow,long-wide, diagonal, entire row distribution, and entire column distribution partial shading condition patterns with mathematical implementation and simulation of passing clouds. The performance of array configurations is compared in terms of maximum power generated ), mismatch power loss (∆), relative power loss ) and the fill factor (FF). It was inferred that on average, TCT configuration yielded maximum power generation under all shading patterns among all PV modules interconnection configurations with minimum mismatch power losses followed by hybrid and conventional PV array configurations respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0218.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: diabetic retinopathy; Vision loss; Deep learning; CLAHE; ESRGAN
Online: 13 February 2023 (14:33:05 CET)
Sometimes when diabetic retinopathy (DR) is found and treated quickly, vision loss can indeed be spared. This study deploys a deep learning (DL) model that can discover all 5 stages of DR more accurately than other methods. The proposed methodology shows two cases scenarios: case 1 with image enhancement using CLAHE and ESRGAN, and case 2 without image enhancement. Augmentation techniques are then employed to produce a balanced dataset with the identical criteria for both scenarios. The generated model using DenseNet-121 on the APTOS dataset outperformed other approaches for locating the 5 stages of DR, with an accuracy of 98.7 percent for case 1 and 81.2 percent for case 2. Using CLAHE and ESRGAN was shown to improve a model's performance and ability to learn.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0133.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Photonic crystal fiber; Gas; Sensitivity; Confinement loss; Characteristic
Online: 7 March 2023 (09:43:50 CET)
A total internal reflection photonic crystal fiber (PCF) based on hexagonal core is proposed for gas sensing in a specific wavelength range. The higher sensitivity and lower confinement loss were realized by the structure of the proposed PCF consists of two layers with circular holes rotated hexagonally around a core region and six slotted air-hole in the cladding based on numerical analysis. The simulation results show that the enhancement of the relative sensitivity has been done by enhancing the diameter of the hexagonal shape air-hole cladding (d1) and the hexagonal arranged holes around the central solid core (d0) in this design. Also, the confinement loss has been reduced by enhancing the ratio of length to width of slotted holes (l/w) and decreasing the cladding air-hole diameters (d1). As the refractive index increases, the wavelength shifts toward the long wavelength. And in a certain temperature range, the transmission characteristics of the device does not change with the temperature. The results are helpful for designing high performance PCF for gas sensing applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0155.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electrical machine; field weakening; IEM-formula; wind energy; iron loss; synchronous generator; equivalent circuit; harmonic loss
Online: 24 October 2017 (04:52:15 CEST)
During flux weakening operation time (FWOT), the total iron loss rises and affects the accuracy of loss prediction and efficiency especially if a large range of FWOT exists. Iron loss prediction is widely employed in investigations for a fast electrical machine analysis using 2-D FEA. This paper studies harmonic loss analytically by a steady-state equivalent circuit. Consideration of skin effects and iron saturation are utilized in order to examine the accuracy through the relative error distribution in the frequency domain of each model from 50 to 700 Hz. Additionally, this comparative study presents a torque-frequency-flux density calculation over each single term of the modified IEM-formula. The analytical calculation is performed using 2-D FEA for a classic and modified IEM-formula along with experimental verifications on a surface-mounted PMSG for a wind generation application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0214.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: community transformations; species loss; geospatial classification; Spartina patens
Online: 12 January 2023 (07:20:07 CET)
Salt marshes are globally important ecosystems, but many have been lost or transformed due to the impacts of global change. There have been attempts to broadly quantify salt marsh communities, especially the ubiquitous grasses which serve as foundation species such as Spartina alterniflora and Spartina patens, the latter of which is being lost due to sea level rise. However, few researchers have used high-resolution geospatial imagery to quantify fine-scale changes in the distribution of grasses or to track losses of S. patens. To address this issue, we utilized a simple and rapid method of classifying geospatial marsh imagery with cloud-based machine learning in Google Earth Engine (>92% accuracy for S. patens regardless of imagery age). Our methods allowed us to characterize full landscapes (two geospatially proximal areas, >7,000 ha each) of critical salt marshes on the New Jersey coast and to evaluate fine-scale (1-m) community transformations in response to global change with imagery from 2006 to 2019. Notably, one marsh experienced very little change while the other experienced an 81.17% (1,087 ha) loss of S. patens, illuminating disparate patterns of change for two geographically proximal ecosystems. Further exploration revealed an association in the loss of S. patens with increases in streamflow and total nitrogen content in the rivers that run through each marsh. These results signify the importance of broad-scale ecological studies that evaluate fine-scale community transformations and for management strategies that do not generalize across landscapes of an ecosystem-type.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: metabolism; fat oxidation; weight loss; adiposity; fasting; obesity
Online: 14 March 2023 (12:49:24 CET)
Overweight and Obesity (Ow/Ob) is a risk factor for developing cardiometabolic disease, and metabolic dysfunction. Dietary interventions, such as caloric restriction (CR), have been explored but little is known about the acute effects of CR and often such diets are not standardized. PURPOSE: To assess the impact of a standardized 3-day CR diet (~590kcal/d) on cardiometabolic health and fat metabolism in Ow/Ob individuals. METHODS: Fifteen Ow/Ob men and women were assessed pre-post 3-day CR using standardized diet; specifically, body weight/composition (% body fat, visceral fat score (Vfs), waist-hip circumferences, blood pressure and vascular stiffness, resting energy expenditure (REE), substrate utilization (respiratory quotient, RQ), and blood glucose/lipid profile. RESULTS: CR induced changes in body weight (93.1±15.2 to 90.67±14.4 kg, p<0.001, d=1.9), body mass index (32.9±4.0 to 32.0±3.7 kg/m2, p<0.001, d=1.4), body fat (37.2±7.5 to 35.8±7.5%, p=0.002, d=1.1) and Vfs (13.1±4.5 to 12.2±3.9 a.u., p=0.002, d=1.1), but not body water (46.3±3.6 to 46.0±3.6%, p=0.29, d=0.3). CR had no effect on peripheral (86±5 to 89±5 mmHg, p=0.23, d=0.3) or central mean arterial pressure (86±5 to 87±6 mmHg, p=0.44, d=0.2), but lowered augmentation index (29.8±17.5 to 21.5±14.5%, p=0.05, d=0.6). Blood glucose (86±7 to 84±11 mg/dl, p=0.33, d=0.3) and blood lipids (total cholesterol (196±49 to 203±54 mg/dl, p=0.16, d=0.4) and TC/HDL (4.9±2.4 to 6.1±4.7, p=0.13, d=0.4)) were unchanged. RQ decreased with CR (0.84±0.01 to 0.76±0.00, p<0.001, d=1.9), though REE was unchanged (1718±274 to 1722±317 kcal/d, p=0.83, d=0.1). CONCLUSION: The 3-day CR significantly improved body weight and composition and fat metabolism, with minimal cardiovascular effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0096.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Wind tunnel, Prandtl’s configuration, corners, vortex, turbulence, pressure loss
Online: 14 December 2018 (10:44:37 CET)
Wind tunnels are devices that enable researchers to study the flow over objects of interest, the forces acting on them and their interaction with the flow, which is nowadays playing an increasingly important role due to noise pollution. Since the first closed circuit wind tunnel with variable cross-section was built in G¨ottingen, its Prandtl configuration has little change. The wind tunnel with Prandtl configuration has four corners and vanes, more than 50% of the total pressure loss are caused by the corners and vanes. How to reduce the total pressure loss is a world class problem in the wind tunnel design. This study attempts to propose a novel configuration of wind tunnel, where the corners have been replaced by semi-circular tunnel. Sun wind tunnel 2 has only two corners and vanes, while Sun wind tunnel 1 has no corners and vanes at all. It is expected the new wind tunnel can reduce the total pressure loss from 50% to 10%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0357.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Striga infestation; Striga damage; yield loss; nitrogen application
Online: 17 August 2020 (10:08:51 CEST)
Low soil nitrogen status of savanna soils in Nigeria contributes to the persistent Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. infestation that limits maize production. The application of nitrogen fertilizer to Striga-resistant hybrids may reduce Striga infection and increase grain yields. This study assessed the performance of maize hybrids at low (30 kg ha-1) and high (120 kg ha-1) nitrogen application under natural infestation with Striga at Kafin Madaki and Tudun Wada in 2014 and 2015. Results showed that the application of nitrogen at 120 kg ha-1 reduced number of Striga plants by 59% compared to application at 30 kg N ha-1 in Kafin Madaki and by 21% in Tudun Wada. Compared to 30 kg N ha-1, the 120 kg N ha-1 rate also reduced Striga damage rating by 22% in Kafin Madaki and by 33% in Tudun Wada across the hybrids. Hybrids 8338-1 (5.3) and OBASUPER 1 (4.3) were the only entries with Striga damage rating greater than 4.5 (SDR > 4.5) when averaged across the nitrogen levels at both locations. Grain yield was 86 and 98% higher in Kafin Madaki and Tudun Wada, respectively when N was applied at 120 kg N ha-1 than at 30 kg N ha-1. The hybrids M1124-3 and M1227-14 produced grain yields that were significantly higher than those of the other hybrids in all locations. The hybrid 8338-1 produced the lowest grain yield across locations. Our results showed that, the application of 120 kg N ha-1 to Striga resistant maize hybrids will reduce Striga infection and increase grain yield.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0256.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: germination; Leucadendron; seed storage; seed viability estimation; viability loss
Online: 17 November 2021 (13:15:02 CET)
Seed viability is routinely measured on seeds that fail to germinate at the end of an experiment. Together with the number of germinants, this is used to estimate viability of the seeds at start of the experiment (i.e., initial viability) and provides the comparative basis on which germination success is determined. Perusal of the literature shows that sometimes (perhaps often, as the problem has yet to be recognized or reported) prolonged duration in the treatment, especially the control where little germination occurs, can lead to loss of viability. This results in underestimation of initial viability if that treatment is used. I caution against the routine use of end-of-trial germination and viability of ungerminated seeds as an estimate of initial viability in determining germination success of various treatments. I explore ways to deal with the problem but the preference is for estimates of initial viability to be undertaken on a separate sample of seeds concurrently with the experiment as this avoids the risk of seed death during the trial.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0217.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Endoscopic Endonasal Transphenoid (EET); Blood Loss Measurement; Electrochemical Measurement
Online: 9 July 2021 (11:11:51 CEST)
Surgeries that take place in medicine and dentistry or during any form of childbirth results in a significant amount of blood loss. The prevalent measurement methods that surgeons and anesthesiologists utilize as the “gold - standard” has several drawbacks. There are numerous other methods to measure blood loss, which, however, due to their impracticality and limitations, are not ideal either. This paper focuses on minimally invasive neurosurgery in particular, by taking into account a surgical technique known as Endoscopic Endonasal Transphenoidal surgery (EETS), which is used to treat pituitary tumors and adenomas. Along with the review of the existing literature pertaining to blood loss management, this paper proposes a modified electrode probe method along with the concept of usage, computer interface, and the system of integration. The probe is intended to measure the hematocrit count from the collected blood under all circumstances, such that the medical practitioner is assisted to improve the blood loss management technique for better patient recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0072.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: indoor positioning; access point placement; path loss model; optimization
Online: 5 October 2020 (11:34:03 CEST)
Indoor Positioning Systems (IPSs) are designed to provide solutions for location-based services. Wireless local area network (WLAN)-based positioning systems are the most widespread around the globe and are commonly found to have a ready-to-use infrastructure composed mostly of access points (APs). They provide useful information on signal strength to be processed by adequate location algorithms, which are not always capable of achieving the desired localization error only by themselves. In this sense, this paper proposes a new method to improve the accuracy of IPSs by optimizing some of their most relevant infrastructure components. Included are the arrangement of APs over the environment, the number of reference points (RPs), and the number of samples per location estimation test. A simulation environment is also proposed, in which the impact of key influencing factors on system accuracy is analyzed. Finally, a case study is simulated to validate an optimal combination of design parameters and its compliance with the requirements of localization error and the limited number of access points. Our simulation results clearly show that the desired localization accuracy, which is set as a goal, can be achieved while maintaining the factors already mentioned at minimal levels, which decreases both system deployment costs and computational effort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0324.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: corrosion; prestressed concrete bridge; prestressing steel; section loss; strength; ductility
Online: 20 May 2020 (10:00:30 CEST)
The corrosion of prestressing steel in prestressed concrete bridges is a critical issue for bridge maintenance. To assess structures with corroded strands, it is necessary to define the mechanical properties of the strands and their influence on the structural behavior. In this study, corroded strands are taken from external tendons in existing bridges and tested to define the effects of corrosion on the tensile properties of the strand. Empirical equations for the tensile strength and ductility of the corroded strand are proposed using test results. The most corroded wire governs the mechanical properties of the strand. Experiments on prestressed concrete beams with a single corroded strand are conducted to investigate the structural behavior. A reduction in the flexural strength and maximum deformation is observed from the experiment. According to the section loss of a wire in a strand and its location in a beam, the flexural capacity can be evaluated using the proposed equation. The reduced ultimate strain of the corroded strand can be the governing factor of the flexural strength.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC/DC Charger; circuit design; charging strategy; working loss
Online: 3 January 2023 (09:37:24 CET)
Based on the analysis of the working principle, circuit design and working loss of the common charger DC/DC converter, this paper designs a ZVS half-bridge three-level DC/DC converter based on non-phase-shift control mode, and proposes a multi-stage constant current and voltage limiting charging control strategy based on modulation wave selection control. The simulation results show that the proposed method and control strategy have faster voltage regulation ability and wider stability margin, and can achieve stable current sharing control in the charging process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0191.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: stocks portfolio; loss risk; heteroscedastic; VaR; backtesting
Online: 9 October 2020 (09:04:18 CEST)
Stocks portfolio is a form of investment that can be used to minimize the risk of loss. In a stock portfolio, the value at risk (VaR) can be predicted through the portfolio return. If portfolio return variance is heteroscedastic risk prediction can be done by using VaR with ARIMA-GARCH or Ensemble ARIMA-GARCH model approach. Furthermore, the accuracy of VaR is tested through backtesting test. In this study, the portfolio formed from Astra Agro Lestari Ltd (AALI) and Indofood Ltd (INDF) stocks from 10/02/2012 to 10/01/2019. The results showed that the best model is ARIMA(0,0,)-GARCH(1,2) with AIC of -5.604 and MSE 1.874e-07.At confidence level of 95% and 1 day holding period, the VaR of the ARIMA(0,0,)-GARCH(1,2) was -0.3464. Based on the backtesting test, it is proven to be very accurate to predict the value of loss risk because the value of the violation ratio (VR) is equal to 0.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0212.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Photonic crystal cavity; High Q-factor; loss reduction; SOI
Online: 8 February 2021 (13:25:38 CET)
Increasing the quality factor (Q) of an optical resonator device has been a research focus to be utilized in various applications. Higher Q-factor means light is confined in a longer time which will produce a shaper peak and higher transmission. In this paper, we introduce a novel technique to increase further the Q-factor of a one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D PhC) cavity device by using an end loop-mirror (ELM). The technique utilizes and recycles the light transmission from the conventional 1D PhC cavity design. The design has been proved to work by using the 2.5D FDTD simulation with Lumerical FDTD and MODE softwares. By using the ELM technique, the Q- factor of a 1D PhC design has been shown to have increased up to 79.53 % from the initial Q value without the ELM. This novel design technique can be combined with any high Q-factor and very high Q-factor designs to increase more the Q-factor value of a photonic crystal cavity devices or any other suitable optical resonator devices. The experimental result shows that the device is measurable by adding a Y-branch component to the one-port structure and able to get the high-Q result.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0053.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: 1,10-Phenanthroline-5,6-diamine; corrosion inhibitor; weight loss method
Online: 8 January 2018 (09:08:46 CET)
The inhibition impacts of 1,10-Phenanthroline-5,6-diamine (PTDA) on mild steel in 1 M HCl solution were investigated through weight loss method. The inhibition efficiencies of PTDA increase with increase in PTDA concentration at the temperature 303. Weight loss method indicate that PTDA is an excellent inhibitor the inhibition efficiency of 81.5% at the maximum PTDA concentration of 0.5 g/L at the temperature 303K.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0208.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: turbine generator; stator ventilation duct; transient heat transfer; pressure loss
Online: 10 July 2020 (08:34:07 CEST)
Turbine generator operates with complex cooling system due to the challenge in controlling the peak temperature of the stator bar caused by ohm loss, which is unavoidable. Therefore, it is important to characterise and quantifies the thermal performance of the cooling system. The focus of the present research is to investigate the heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of typical cooling system, so-called stator ventilation duct. A real scale model was built at its operating conditions for the present study. The direction of cooling air is varied to consider its operation condition, so that there are (1) outward flow and (2) inward flow cases. In addition, the effect of (3) cross flow (inward with cross flow case) is also studied. The transient heat transfer method using thermochromic liquid crystals is implemented to measure full surface heat transfer distribution. A series of Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis is also conducted to support the observation from the experiment. For the inward flow case, the results suggest that the average Nusselt number of the 2nd duct is about 30% higher than the 3rd duct. The trend is similar with the effect of cross flow. The CFD results are in good agreement with the experimental data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0357.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: biodiversity loss; climate change; ecosystems; exotic species; agriculture; forestry; fisheries
Online: 25 February 2020 (05:06:15 CET)
Bangladesh has a history of species introduction from different geographic regions. The country was a major trade route during the early-modern era and was under British colonial rule until 1947s. Many species of plants and animals are either domesticated or cultivated at different times that were brought into the country by the settlers, seamen, and traders. The deliberate preferences of fast-growing, high-yielding exotics in recent decades also threaten the existence of native species and their genetic resources in the country. Here we provide an overview of the invasive alien species in Bangladesh, likely pathways of their introduction, their impacts on ecosystem and people, and strategies for their effective management and regulation. Many exotic plants and animals both terrestrial and aquatic have found to be invasive in the country with negative impacts on local ecosystems, biodiversity, and livelihoods. Collectively, those species possess serious threats to country’s agriculture, forestry, and fisheries sector. Although initially introduced to favor primary productivity or other environmental benefits, many of these are now regarded as obnoxious pest or weed in Bangladesh. A comprehensive list of invasive species both for native and exotics and a framework to characterize them is also absent in the country. We recommend a separate statutory body and appropriate rules and policies for the introduction, monitoring, and management of alien species in the country. Community awareness, advocacy, surveillance, capacity building of relevant government staff and agreement with neighboring countries for transboundary management of invasive alien species is also necessary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0340.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: damaged area; direct economic loss; disaster; drought; extreme precipitation
Online: 15 November 2018 (04:26:41 CET)
Understanding the distribution in drought and floods plays an important role in disaster risk management. The present study aims to explore the trends in the standardized precipitation index and extreme precipitation days in China, as well as to estimate the economic losses they cause. We found that in the Northeast China, northern of North China and northeast of Northwest China were severely affected by drought disasters (average damaged areas were 6.44 million hectares) and the most severe drought trend was located in West China. However, in the north of East China and Central China, the northeastern of the Southwest China was severely affected by flood disasters (average damaged areas were 3.97 million hectares) and the extreme precipitation trend is increasing in the northeastern of the Southwest China. In the Yangtze River basin, there were increasing trends in terms of drought and extreme precipitation, especially in the northeastern of the Southwest China, where accompanied by severe disaster losses. By combining the trends in drought and extreme precipitation days with the distribution of damaged areas, we found that the increasing trend in droughts shifted gradually from north to south, especially in the Southwest China, and the increasing trend in extreme precipitation gradually shifted from south to north.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1166.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: devulcanization; transmission loss; transfer matrix method; rubber waste; multilayer construction.
Online: 17 May 2023 (02:19:34 CEST)
According to circular economy principles, the recycling and reuse of waste tyre rubber is one of the most advanced and ecological waste disposal technologies. Each year about 19 million tons of tyres are produced, and this amount is increasing each year. One of the most innovative ways to recycle rubber waste is devulcanization. There are many methods of rubber devulcanization, but the most popular are grinding and chemical. In this article devulcanized rubber granules were used for the preparation of rubber samples. Two of them were obtained by the grinding method and one by chemical devulcanization. 15 different rubber samples were produced for the experimental measurements. Multilayer constructions with two solid layers of plasterboard on both sides (GKB and GKFI) and porous acoustic material of rubber sample inside were produced. Measurements were made in an impedance tube and compared with the results of TMM analysis. The same trends of resonant frequencies were determined. According to the results, the resonant frequencies depended on the thickness of the material, since transmission loss values depended on the mass of construction. According to the test results of transmission loss, constructions with 50mm thick rubber samples had on average 3dB better results than the structures with 25mm samples and 5dB better results than structures with 12 mm thick rubber samples. In addition, it was found that higher density plasterboards (GKFI) increased the overall transmission loss value of the structure by 5 dB. The same trends were determined by the TMM method. The test results showed that multi-layered constructions with devulcanized waste rubber had high transmission loss result and could be used for sound insulating structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0411.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Fresh Agricultural Produce Supply Chain; Coordination; Discount Contract; Quantity Loss
Online: 24 December 2021 (15:56:11 CET)
This paper explores the coordination of the agricultural cooperative to supermarket or E-commerce sup-ply chain, under the condition of quantity loss with a mixed decay function of exponential and logistical distribution. The nature of this process is analyzed, and the corresponding demand and supply functions with single- and multi-stage discount strategies are constructed respectively to create a working model. The optimal discount ratios for supermarkets and agricultural cooperatives in decentralized and central-ized decision-making modes coupled with single- and multi-stage discounts are calculated respectively. Finally, a universal optimal strategy is designed, which can be applied to various quantity decay scenarios and makes the discount strategy more generalized. The results show that discounts can coordinate supply chains more effectively; not only is fresh agricultural produce sold before it starts to rot, but the benefit conflicts arising from both supermarkets vs. cooperatives and traditional vs. E-commerce channels are equilibrated. Further, multi-stage discounts are more effective than single-stage ones, but optimal discount ratios rely on the initial quantity of fresh agricultural produce in the supply chain; its market share in the traditional distribution channel; the potential market size; retail price; the price sensitivity coefficient of the channel; the cross-elasticity coefficient of prices between different channels; and the properties of the quantity loss.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0436.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: obesity; meal frequency; hypocaloric diet; energy expenditure; ghrelin; weight loss
Online: 27 May 2020 (04:27:43 CEST)
Dietary approach is essential to obesity control, but the effectiveness of changes in meal frequency (MF) as strategies for loss and maintenance of body mass remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of MF on a hypocaloric diet on weight loss, active ghrelin levels and metabolic indicators of women with obesity. This is a randomized, parallel clinical trial, including forty women, randomized in two groups, both following a hypocaloric diet, according to MF (G1 – six meals/day; G2 – three meals/day). Dietary, laboratory, anthropometric and body composition indicators were assessed, as well as energy expenditure (EE), before and after the 90 days of intervention. After intervention, both groups decreased body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat mass (FM), insulin and HOMA-IR. G1 increased insulin sensitivity and G2 reduced triglyceride and FM and increased fat-free mass (FFM). MF increased ghrelin levels. There were no differences in EE variables. Hypocaloric diet with different MF promoted a reduction in total weight, BMI, WC and FM and an improvement in glycidic metabolism. However, the accomplishment of the three meals/day increased the FFM and active ghrelin and reduced triglyceride, while six meals/day was more beneficial in increasing insulin sensitivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0150.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: radiation; skin barrier; sebaceous gland; transepidermal water loss; skin pH
Online: 23 November 2017 (08:33:29 CET)
Abstract: Radiation-induced skin injury can be a serious cutaneous damage and have specific characteristics. Asymptomatic periods are classified as the latent stage. The skin barrier plays a critical role in the modulation of skin permeability and hydration and protects the body against a harsh external environment. However, an analysis on the skin barrier dysfunction against radiation exposure in the latent stage has not been conducted. Thus, we investigated whether skin barrier is impaired by irradiation in the latent stage and aimed to identify the molecules involved in skin barrier dysfunction. We analyzed skin barrier function and its components in SKH-1 mice that received 20 and 40 Gy local irradiation. Increased transepidermal water loss and skin pH were observed in the latent stage of the irradiated skin. Skin barrier components, such as structural proteins and lipid synthesis enzymes in keratinocyte, increased in the irradiated group. Interestingly, we noted sebaceous gland atrophy and increased serine protease and inflammatory cytokines in the irradiated skin during the latent period. This finding indicates that the main factor of skin barrier dysfunction in the latent stage of radiation-induced skin injury is sebaceous gland deficiency, which could be an intervention target for skin barrier impairment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0702.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: air pollution; disease burden; YLLs; YLDs; health inequalities; productivity loss
Online: 10 May 2023 (08:04:40 CEST)
The aim of the research presented here is to assess the magnitude of the burden of health limitations resulting from air pollution on the world's economies. This burden was determined by the estimated number of premature years of life lost (YLLs) or health lost (YLDs) due to air pollution-related diseases in the working-age population. Attention was drawn to the problem of existing inequalities in the global burden of national economies with different income levels. The hypothesis of a persistently high level of inequality was verified on the basis of an analysis of the convergence process in a group of 204 countries over the period 1990-2019. The results obtained indicate a strong variation in the level of health constraints caused by air pollution. The analysis of the catch-up process of the least advantaged countries (highest level of health constraints due to air pollution) did not show a positive convergence effect in the study group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0241.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: energy piles; validation; floor slab heat loss; energy; computer simulations
Online: 23 January 2019 (14:04:51 CET)
As the energy efficiency demands for future buildings become increasingly stringent, preliminary assessments of energy consumption are mandatory. These are possible only through numerical simulations, whose reliability crucially depends on boundary conditions. We therefore investigate their role in numerical estimates for the usage of geothermal energy, performing annual simulations of transient heat transfer for a building employing a geothermal heat pump plant and energy piles. Starting from actual measurements, we solve the heat equations in 2D and 3D using COMSOL Multiphysics and IDA-ICE, and discover a negligible impact of the multiregional ground surface boundary conditions. Moreover, we verify that the thermal mass of the soil medium induces a small vertical temperature gradient on the piles surface. We also find a roughly constant temperature on each horizontal cross-section, with nearly identical values if the average temperature is integrated over the full plane or evaluated at one single point. Calculating the yearly heating need for an entire building we then show that the chosen upper boundary condition affects the energy balance dramatically. Using directly the pipes’ outlet temperature induces a 54% overestimation of the heat flux, while the exact ground surface temperature above the piles reduces the error to 0.03%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0161.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: SAGIN; packet loss ratio; transaction size; transmission power; throughput/goodput
Online: 12 January 2022 (10:56:04 CET)
The purpose of this article is to simulate data transmission and calculate traffic parameters in SAGIN air segment for which Ad Hoc network of flying drones is considered as a model. Traffic modeling is based on the manet-routing-compare example from the ns3 simulator library, which has been supplemented with the code for calculation packet losses, throughput/goodput, and message transmission delays. The program allowed considering drones movement at both low and high speeds from 3.6 km/h to 72 km/h. The dependences of traffic losses on data transmission power, transaction sizes and data transmission rate are obtained and analyzed. The distribution of the average effective arrival rate λ and the throughput/goodput for drones has been studied. Comparing traffic characteristics in models with different numbers of drones allows judging how the required quality of service can be achieved by choosing the right transmission parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0071.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Browning; Modified atmosphere packaging; Moisture loss; Oriental melon; Relative humidity
Online: 3 September 2020 (11:51:34 CEST)
Oriental melons have a relatively short shelf life as they are harvested during the summer season and susceptible to cold-induced injuries. Typical chilling injury when stored at 4℃ is expressed as browning of the fruit suture. To prolong the shelf life and reduce browning of the fruit, the effects of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), X-tend modified atmosphere (MA)/modified humidity (MH) bulk packaging (XF), and polyethylene (PE) packaging, on oriental melons were investigated during storage at 4℃ and 10℃ for 14 days and under retail display conditions at 20℃. The O2 concentrations in PE packages stored at 4℃ and 10℃ ranged from 17.4–18.5%, whereas those in XF packages were reduced to 16.3–16.6%. The CO2 content of XF package (4.2–4.6%) was higher than that of PE package (1.4–1.9%) stored at 4℃ or 10℃. Relative humidity (RH) saturated in the PE packages but not in the XF packages after seven days of storage. Furthermore, PE packages performed better at maintaining melon weight and firmness than XF packages during storage at 10℃ for 14 days and under retail display conditions at 20℃. PE and XF packages effectively reduced the browning index of the peel and white linear sutures of oriental melons compared with the unpackaged control during cold storage at 4℃, and this observation was maintained at the retail display condition at 20℃. The enhanced CO2 levels, reduced O2 levels, and optimal RH values that were provided by the MAP, prevented the browning symptoms and improved the marketability and shelf life of oriental melons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0006.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Financial distress; Dual system banking; Loan Loss Provission; forecasting; econometrics
Online: 3 January 2023 (07:19:41 CET)
Nowadays, many Muslim-majority countries have implemented a dual banking system, namely the sharia and conventional systems. The development of Islamic banks is to fulfill the Muslims' need for the existence of halal transactions in financial institutions. However, in some countries, it turns out that conventional banks still dominate the country's economy. Because of that, it is necessary to see whether there are differences in financial risk and Earnings management between Islamic and conventional banks. The samples are conventional and Islamic banks in Southeast Asia, analyzed by the purposive sampling method from 2010-2019. The analytical tool used is the statistical difference test and economometrics analysis using generalized least square (GLS) regression with panel data (time series and cross-sectional data). These models are intended to forecasting the macroeconomics effects in applying dual banking system in one country or region. The results using non parametrics means difference test showed that the first hypothesis is accepted It means that Earnings management in conventional banks is greater than in Islamic banks. The Random Model Effect (REM) for second and third hypotheses testing on Conventional banks shows the Bankruptcy Risk and NPL do not affect the dependent variable Earnings Management (LLP). While fixed effect model testing on Islamic banks, the second and third hypothesis testing is rejected. Therefor Islamic Banks the value of Bankruptcy Risk (z-score) and the value of Non-Performing Loans (NPL) do not affect Earnings management. It also means that hypothesis 2 and 3 are rejected both in conventional as well as Islamic Banking. Sensitivity analysis for conventional as well as Islamic banking altogether using fixed effect model shows that the second and third hypotheses show that the independent variables (Bankruptcy Risk and NPL) do not affect the dependent variable Earnings Management (LLP). These results can be concluded that Islamic bank are enganged in less earnings management. Therefor in the the long run there are still more research that should conduct in comparing dual banking system in one region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0185.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: desert locusts; control; crop loss; pastureland; land cover
Online: 6 December 2021 (15:29:48 CET)
The desert locust remains a major threat to global food security. Control operations are a crucial tool to manage crisis; this research investigated the nature of control operations conducted between 2019-2021. Historical data on desert locust and control operations were obtained from the survey reports at the FAO Locust Hub and analysed with respect to survey reports, land cover types, cropland/rangeland extent and crop productivity data. We found that 16.1% of the grid cells with locust presence and 14.9% of the grid cells with control operations had a proportion of rangeland higher than 0.75; while 13.3% of the grid cells with locust presence and 13.2% of the grid cells with control operations had a proportion of croplands higher than 0.75, highlighting that locust presence and control operations were reported in both rangeland and cropland. Control operations continue to be used both to reduce overall locust numbers and to protect crops. Furthermore, through identifying which crops were most at risk, our analyses indicate that wheat production was under the highest strain during periods of increased locust infestations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0030.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Meniere Disease; cytokines; WGBS; Hearing Loss; DNA methylation
Online: 1 October 2021 (16:03:48 CEST)
Meniere Disease (MD) is a multifactorial disorder of the inner ear characterized by vertigo attacks associated with sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus with a significant heritability. Although MD has been associated with several genes, no epigenetic studies have been performed in MD. Here we performed whole genome bisulfite sequencing in 14 MD patients and 6 healthy controls, with the aim of identifying a MD methylation signature and potential disease mechanisms. We observed a high number of differentially methylated CpGs (DMC) when comparing MD patients to controls (N= 9,545), several of them in hearing loss genes such as PCDH15, ADGRV1 and CDH23. Bioinformatic analyses of DMCs and cis-regulatory regions predicted phenotypes related to abnormal excitatory postsynaptic currents, abnormal NMDA-mediated receptor currents and abnormal glutamate-mediated receptor currents when comparing MD to controls. Moreover, we identified various DMCs in genes previously associated with cochleovestibular phenotypes in mice. We have also found 12 undermethylated regions (UMR) that were exclusive to MD, including 2 UMR in an inter CpG island in the PHB gene. We suggest that the DNA methylation signature allows to distinguish between MD patients and controls. The enrichment analysis confirms previous findings of a chronic inflammatory process underlying MD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0162.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: vertigo; migraine; cytokines; inflammation; vestibular disorders; hearing loss
Online: 6 August 2021 (12:29:43 CEST)
Background: Meniere disease (MD) is an inner ear disorder associated with comorbidities such as autoimmune diseases or migraine. This study describes clinical and cytokine profile in MD according to the age of onset of the condition. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 83 MD patients: 44 with early onset MD (EOMD, <35 years old), and 39 with late onset MD (LOMD, > 50 years old), 64 patients with migraine and 55 controls was carried out. Clinical variables and cytokines levels of CCL3, CCL4, CCL18, CCL22, CXCL1 and IL-1β were compared among the different groups. Results: CCL18 levels were higher in patients with migraine or MD than in controls. Elevated levels of IL-1β were observed in 11.4% EOMD and in 10.3% LOMD patients and these levels were not dependent on the age of individuals. EOMD had a longer duration of the disease (p=0.004) and a higher prevalence of migraine than LOMD (p=0.045). Conclusions: Patients with EOMD have a higher prevalence of migraine than LOMD, but migraine is not associated with any cytokine profile in patients with MD. The levels of CCL18, CCL3 and CXCL4 were different between patients with MD or migraine and controls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0057.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: miscarriage; fetal loss; risk factor; ethnicity; maternal race
Online: 4 April 2019 (15:52:25 CEST)
In last decades, growing migration flows have modified the obstetric clinical care, requiring specific attention by health care systems. The aim was to describe the phenomenon focusing on miscarriage (pregnancy loss at <20 weeks). Patients admitted for care at miscarriage in a six-year period (2012-17) were revised. Miscarriage rates in all ethnic groups, dichotomized in early (within the first 12 weeks of gestation) and late (at <20 weeks) pregnancy loss. Associations between women's characteristics (age, parity, inter-pregnancy interval (IPI)) were explored to elucidate any differences. A total of 1,940 patients were included, segregated in early (n = 1769, 91.2%) and late (n = 171, 8.8%) pregnancy losses. Caucasian ethnicity was the most common (87.9%), leaving the minority groups to 12.1%. Maternal age was higher among Caucasians women than other subgroups, in contrast to Asiatic patients. Nulliparity was observed in 1045 (53.9%) patient, more widespread among Caucasian and Maghrebins. A positive obstetric history counting at least one miscarriage was frequent, ranging from 22.2% to 75%, in particular among Asiatic women, while the recurrence in Caucasians. In Afro-Carribeans the most relevant rate of late miscarriage was found. By multiple regression modelling, maternal age, nulliparity and Afro-Carribean were identified as determinants. Maternal ethnicity should be considered in the management of pregnancy losses in combination with already well-defined risk factors, including age at miscarriare and nulliparity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0026.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: agavins; prebiotics; microbiota; overweight; body weight loss; short chain fatty acids
Online: 25 July 2017 (04:52:34 CEST)
Agavins consumption has lead to accelerate body weight loss in mice. We investigated the changes on cecal microbiota and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) associated to body weight loss in overweight mice. Firstly, mice were fed with standard (ST5) or high fat (HF5) diet for 5 weeks. Secondly, overweight mice were shifted to standard diet alone (HF-ST10) or supplemented with agavins (HF-ST+A10) or oligofructose (HF-ST+O10), five more weeks. Cecal contents were collected before and after supplementation to determine microbiota and SCFA concentrations. At the end of first phase, HF5 mice showed a significant increase of body weight, which was associated with reduction of cecal microbiota diversity (PD whole tree; non-parametric t-test, P < 0.05), increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and reduced SCFA concentrations (t-test, P < 0.05). After diet shifted, HF-ST10 normalized its microbiota, increase its diversity and SCFA levels, whereas agavins (HF-ST+A10) or oligofructose (HF-ST+O10) led to partial microbiota restoration, with normalization of the Firmicutes/Bacteroides ratio as well as higher SCFA levels (P < 0.1). Moreover, agavins noticeably enriched Klebsiella and Citrobacter (LDA > 3.0); this enrichment has not been reported previously under a prebiotic treatment. In conclusion, agavins or oligofructose modulated cecal microbiota composition, reduced extent of diversity and increased SCFA. Furthermore, identification of bacteria enriched by agavins, opens opportunities to explore new probiotics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0436.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: tillage operation; rainfall pattern; hydrological characteristics; surface rainfall; soil loss
Online: 17 April 2023 (09:50:43 CEST)
Many studies have focused on the impacts of rainfall duration and intensity while overlooking the role of rainfall patterns on intensive tillage erosion in hilly agricultural landscapes. The objective of this study was to determine the combined effects of rainfall patterns and intensive tillage erosion on surface runoff and soil loss on sloping farmland in the purple-soil area of China. Five simulated rainfall patterns (constant, rising, falling, rising-falling, and falling-rising) with the same total precipitation were designed, and the intensive tillage erosion treatment (IT) and no-tillage treatment (NT) were subjected to simulated rainfall using rectangular steel tanks (2 m × 5 m) with a slope of 15°. To analyse the differences in the hydrodynamic characteristics induced by tillage erosion, we calculated the flow velocity (V), Reynolds number (Re), Froude number (Fr), and Darcy-Weisbach resistance coefficient (f). The results indicate that significant differences in surface runoff and soil loss were found among different rainfall patterns and stages (P < 0.05). The falling pattern and falling-rising pattern had faster runoff-initiating times and larger sediment yields than those of the other rainfall patterns. f varied from 0.30 to 9.05 for the IT and 0.48 to 11.57 for the NT and exhibited an approximately inverse trend to V and Fr over the course of the rainfall events. Compared with the NT, the mean sediment yield rates from the IT increased the dynamic range of 8.34%–16.21% among different rainfall patterns. The net contributions of the IT ranged from 2.77% to 46.39% on surface runoff and 10.14%–78.95% on soil loss on sloping farmland. Surface runoff and soil loss were positively correlated with rainfall intensity, V, and Fr but negatively correlated with f irrespective of tillage intensive (P < 0.05). For varying-intensity rainfall patterns, soil and water loss fluctuated during rainfall events, suggesting that the changes in rainfall intensity and tillage intensity would result in drastic variations in soil hydrological characteristics and sediment transport mechanisms. The time sequences of rainfall intensity in each rainfall pattern significantly affected surface runoff, soil erosion, and their contribution rates to total soil and water loss. Moreover, tillage erosion effects on soil and water loss were closely related to rainfall patterns in hilly agricultural landscapes. Our study not only sheds light on the mechanism of tillage erosion and rainfall erosion but also provides useful insights for developing tillage-water erosion prediction models to evaluate soil and water loss on cultivated hillslopes.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0233.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: black holes; information paradox; Hawking radiation; information loss; gravitational waves; entropy
Online: 10 September 2020 (10:04:12 CEST)
The black hole information paradox is one of the most puzzling paradoxes in physics. Black holes trap everything that falls into them, while their mass may leak away through purely thermal Hawking radiation. When a black hole vanishes, all the information locked inside, if any, is just lost, thus challenging the principles of quantum mechanics. However, some information does have a way to escape from inside the black hole, that is, through gravitational waves. Here, a concise extension of this notion is introduced. When a black hole swallows something, whether it is a smaller black hole or an atom, the system emits gravitational waves carrying the information about the “food”. Although most of the signals are too weak to be detected, the information encoded within them will persist in the universe. This speculation provides an explanation for a large part, if not all, of the supposed “information loss” in black holes, and thus reconciles the predictions of general relativity and quantum mechanics.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: Drug-induced hearing loss; cochlea; outer hair cells; hearing protection; SIRT3
Online: 9 August 2021 (07:50:36 CEST)
A single paragraph of about 200 words maximum. For research articles, abstracts should give a pertinent overview of the work. We strongly encourage authors to use the following style of structured abstracts, but without headings: (1) Background: Place the question addressed in a broad context and highlight the purpose of the study; (2) Methods: briefly describe the main methods or treatments applied; (3) Results: summarize the article's main findings; (4) Conclusions: indicate the main conclusions or interpretations. The abstract should be an objective representation of the article and it must not contain results that are not presented and substantiated in the main text and should not exaggerate the main conclusions.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: tissue-level; bone-level; dental implants; transmucosal; marginal bone loss; review
Online: 13 July 2020 (03:18:26 CEST)
Purpose: to assess any differences on marginal bone loss between bone-level or tissue-level dental implants through a review of literature until September 2019. Materials and methods: MEDLINE, Embase and other database were searched by two independent authors. The search was limited to articles in English. Results: The search provided 1028 records and, after removing the duplicates through titles and abstracts screening, 45 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. For qualitative analysis 20 articles were included, 17 articles of them for quantitative analysis. A total of 1161 patients (mean age 54,4 years) and 2933 implants were observed, 1427 (Tissue-level) and 1506 (Bone-level). The survival rate and the success rate were more than 90%, except for 2 studies with a success rate of 88% and 86.2%. No studies reported any differences between groups in term of success and survival rates. Three studies showed that BL-implants had statistically less marginal bone loss (P< 0.05). Only one study reported statistically less marginal bone loss in TL-implants (P< 0.05). In the most part of the studies, differences between implant types in marginal bone loss were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Despite to the peri-implant tissue around transmucosal implants has been reported to be inﬂammation-free because of the absence of bacterial infiltration in the micro-gap between the fixture and abutment, no clinical and radiological differences were highlighted between groups from the included studies after a variable period of follow-up ranged between 1 to 5 years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0217.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: swirling flow; lobed nozzle; stream-wise vortex; mixing efficiency; total pressure loss
Online: 19 November 2019 (03:03:48 CET)
Influence of core flow inlet swirl angle on aerodynamic performances of an exhaust nozzle with scarfed lobed mixer was studied by the validated computational approach. The computational simulation was conducted by resolving the steady form of discretized three-dimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the shear stress transport k-Ω turbulence model. Simulation results depict that swirling motions have ignorable influence on the flow field of the top part in the cross sections slightly downstream of the lobed trailing edge. Besides, for the flow field downstream of the L/D=0.1 cross section, the swirling motions are suggested to cause the clockwise stream-wise vortex to stretch into several smaller-scale vortexes. When the case with a bigger swirling angle is investigated, the induced smaller-scale vortexes are more strengthened by the swirling motions. Concerning the 15° swirling case, the loss caused by the destroyed vortex pattern and the benefit induced by the improved smaller-scale vortexes almost counteract with each other with respect to the thermal mixing efficiency. In the last studied cross section as compared with the baseline case, the case with a maximum swirling angle of 30° has increased 6.94% for the thermal mixing efficiency and decreased 0.42% for the total pressure recovery coefficient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0263.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: CO2 lasers; negative curvature fibers; chalcogenide glass; fiber loss; mid-IR
Online: 16 July 2018 (08:40:16 CEST)
We study impact of geometry on leakage loss in negative curvature fibers made with As2Se3 chalcogenide and As2Se3 chalcogenide glasses for carbon dioxide (CO2) laser transmission. The minimum leakage loss decreases when the core diameter increases both for fibers with six and for fibers with eight cladding tubes. The optimum gap corresponding to the minimum loss increases when the core diameter increases for negative curvature fibers with six cladding tubes. For negative curvature fibers with eight cladding tubes, the optimum gap is always less than 20 μm when the core diameter ranges from 300 μm to 500 μm. The influence of material loss on fiber loss is also studied. When material loss exceeds 102 dB/m, it dominates the fiber leakage loss for negative curvature fiber at a wavelength of 10.6 μm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: electric vehicle; Nissan Leaf; lithium-ion battery; capacity loss; battery degradation
Online: 15 March 2018 (07:19:52 CET)
Analysis of 1382 measures of battery State of Health (SoH) from 283 Nissan Leafs (“Leaf/s”), manufactured between 2011 and 2017, has detected a faster rate of decline in this measure of energy-holding capacity for 30 kWh variants. At two years of age, the mean rate of decline of SoH of 30 kWh Leafs was 9.9% per annum (95% uncertainty interval of 8.7% to 11.1%; n = 82). This was around three times the rate of decline of 24 kWh Leafs which at two years averaged 3.1% per annum (95% uncertainty interval of 2.9% to 3.3%; n = 201). For both variants there was evidence for an increasing rate of decline as they aged, although this was much more pronounced in the 30 kWh Leafs. Higher use of rapid DC charging was associated with a small decrease in SoH. Additionally, while 24 kWh cars with greater distances travelled showed a higher SoH, in 30 kWh cars there was a reduction in SoH observed in cars that had travelled further. The 30 kWh Leafs sourced from United Kingdom showed slower initial decline than those from Japan, but the rate of decline was similar at two years of age. Improvements in the battery health diagnostics, continuous monitoring of battery temperatures and state of charge, and verification of a fundamental model of battery health are needed before causes and remedies for the observed decline can be pinpointed. If the high rate of decline in battery capacity that we observed in the first 2.3 years of a 30 kWh Leaf’s lifetime were to continue, the financial and environmental benefits of this model may be significantly eroded. Despite 30 kWh Leafs accounting for only 14% of all light battery electric vehicles registered for use on New Zealand roads at the end of February 2018, there is also the potential for the relatively poor performance of this specific model to undermine electric vehicle uptake more generally unless remedies can be found.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0039.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss; age-related sensorineural hearing loss; inflammation, immune senescence; interleukin 1 receptor type II -positive T cells; naturally occurring regulatory T cells; immune rejuvenation; thymus
Online: 4 January 2019 (11:37:31 CET)
Although congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SHL) in the bilateral cochleae mainly results from genetic abnormalities, chronic SHL progressing in later life is often influenced by systemic immune disturbances, including autoimmunity, chronic inflammation, and immunosenescence. We have investigated the relationship between the inner ear and systemic immunity and reviewed the possibilities to prevent SHL, including autoimmune SHL and age-related SHL. We also demonstrated two lymphocyte populations, interleukin 1 receptor type II (IL-1R2)-positive T cells (T1R2) and naturally occurring regulatory T cells (nTregs) in CD4+ T cells, which increase with aging, suppress host immune function and promote organ degeneration. Alterations in systemic immunity by fewer microbial antigen challenges in the living environment, elimination of immune suppressive lymphocytes, or immune rejuvenation with a reconstituted thymus may contribute not only to renew the cochlear function in SHL, but also to extend the healthy life of functional organs in a vigorous and youthful body, one of humanity’s greatest dreams.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0271.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: geographic information system; land demand; land use; universal soil loss erosion
Online: 12 August 2020 (05:09:55 CEST)
The information on the land use and soil conservation practice based on year 2006, 2010 and 2014, hence offering an opportunity to model the impacts of land use change on erosion, deposition and surface water runoff. Limitation in the use of hydrological models had been their inability to handle the large amount of input data that describe the heterogeneity of the natural system. In this study, a procedure that takes into account soil conservation practice based on the land use change, the response of soil erosion and sediment export from the George Town Conurbation catchment area, and average annual sediment yields were estimated for each grid cell of the watershed to identify the critical erosion areas of rural and urban planning proposes. Average annual sediment yield and data on a grid basis estimated using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and an emerging technology represented by Geographic Information System (GIS) used as a tool to produce a map for erosion rate. The changing of the land use from forest to agriculture and then to an urban area is a challenging task to research on land use demand for population, and environmental impact assessment is important for the planning of natural resources management, allowing research the modification of land use properly and implement more sustainable for long term management strategies. The challenge is to formulate strategies that would promote an integrated approach to the land use planning at an appropriate level as to address the issues that arose. Modelling for creating urban growth boundary for the George Town Conurbation must have to be controlled surface runoff and soil loss and sediment export from land use of the George Town Conurbation catchment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0156.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: circulating thymidine kinase 1; cell loss; biomarker; early treatment response; breast cancer
Online: 8 September 2021 (16:25:39 CEST)
Complete pathologic response (pCR) predicts the long-term outcome of neoadjuvant treated (NAC) breast cancer (BC) but is reached in <10% of hormone-receptor-positive patients. Biomarkers able to guide adjustment or interruption of an ineffective therapy are desired. Here, we evaluated whether shifts in the serum concentration of thymidine kinase 1 (sTK1) during NAC could be utilized as a biomarker. In the PROMIX trial, women with localized HER2- BC received neoadjuvant epirubicin/docetaxel in six cycles. sTK1 was measured with an ELISA in 54 patients at cycles 1-4 and in a total of 131 patients before and 48h after cycle 1. The prognostic significance of the results was evaluated by log-rank tests of Kaplan–Meier estimates. Treatment resulted in a 2-fold increase of sTK1 before and 3-fold increase 48h after the cycles, except for the first cycle, where half of patients reacted with a decrease (post/pre sTK1- ratio <1.12) and the other half reacted with an increase (ratio >1.12). OS rates in ER+ patients with ratios of >1.12 and <1.12 were 97.7% and 78% (p=0.005), respectively, and DFS rates were 90.7% and 68% (p=0.006), respectively. Thus, response of sTK1 at the first cycle of chemotherapy could be used both as an early biomarker for guidance of chemotherapy and for the study of inherent tumor chemo-sensitivity, which could predict long-term outcome prior to therapy.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: Soluble carbon; leaching loss; Water and fertilizer input; Soil carbon migration
Online: 26 May 2023 (09:41:15 CEST)
In order to formulate a reasonable water input model for cotton fields in southern Xinjiang, scientific and rational fertilization, reduce soil carbon leaching, and improve soil carbon sequestration capacity, the undisturbed soil column leaching test was used to simulate the current field management method in the study area. Two methods of drip irrigation and flood irrigation were set up, and three irrigation and three nitrogen fertilizer levels were used to carry out the undisturbed soil column leaching test. The results showed that the amount and mode of water and nitrogen input affected the distribution and leaching loss of organic carbon and inorganic carbon in soil. When the nitrogen application rate increased from 270 kg·hm-2 to 450 kg·hm-2, the leaching loss of soluble organic carbon and soluble inorganic carbon increased significantly. When the water input increased from 6000 m3·hm-2 to 9000 m3·hm-2, the leaching loss of DOC and DIC increased significantly. The carbon leaching loss under drip irrigation was higher than that under flood irrigation. The leaching rates of DOC and DIC were the fastest under the conditions of high water ( 9000 m3·hm-2 ) and high fertilizer ( 450 kg·hm-2 ). It shows that water and nitrogen input and irrigation methods are important factors affecting soil carbon leaching. In the case of excessive water input, long-term high-frequency irrigation is the main factor affecting carbon leaching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0147.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: gut microbiota; obesity; weight-loss; Mediterranean diet; 16S rRNA; High-throughput sequencing
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:07:10 CEST)
Although it is known that the gut microbiota (GM) can be modulated by diet, the efficacy of specific dietary interventions in determining its composition and diversity in obese patients remains to be ascertained. The present work aims to evaluate the impact of a moderately hypocaloric Mediterranean diet on the GM of obese and overweight patients (OB). The GM of 23 OB patients (F/M= 20/3) was compared before (T0) and after 3 months (T3) of the nutritional intervention (NI). Fecal samples were analyzed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. At baseline, the GM characterization confirmed the typical obesity-associated dysbiosis. After 3 months of NI, patients presented a statistically significant reduction of the body weight and fat mass, along with changes in the relative abundance of many microbial patterns. In fact, we observed an increased abundance in several Bacteroidetes taxa (i.e. Sphingobacteriaceae, Sphingobacterium, Bacteroides spp., Prevotella stercorea) and depletion of many Firmicutes taxa (i.e. Lachnospiraceae members, Ruminococcaceae and Ruminococcus, Veillonellaceae, Catenibacterium, Megamonas). In addition, the phylum Proteobacteria showed an increased abundance, while the genus Sutterella, within the same phylum, decreased after the intervention. Metabolic pathways, predicted by bioinformatic analyses, showed a decrease in membrane transport and cell motility after NI. The present study extends our knowledge of the GM profiles in OB, highlighting the potential benefit of a moderate caloric restriction in counteracting the gut dysbiosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0233.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Concentrated plasticity; damping; rotational stiffness; seismic performance; collapse capacity; loss estimation
Online: 9 July 2021 (16:18:12 CEST)
In order to alleviate the problems regarding conventional damping modeling techniques in nonlinear structural simulations, using concentrated plasticity formulation including rotational end springs with no damping plus middle elastic parts with modified assigned damping has recently been proposed. However, a proper selection for springs’ stiffness is a source of contention. In this paper, the effect of choosing different ratios for springs’ rotational stiffness to the elastic part of the elements on the seismic performance of RC moment frames was investigated. Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA) was performed and the derived responses were used for seismic performance assessment methodology. The results demonstrate that using flexible springs may lead to a greatly conservative estimation of collapse capacity, annual losses, and repair costs compared to a rigid one. Due to lack of experimental data, it is not possible to certainly assert the most appropriate ratio. However, such variation in the seismic performance of a building model with different stiffness modification necessitates more investigation on this modeling strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0415.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: seagrass; anthropogenic disturbance; boat anchoring; meadow traits; habitat loss; island ecosystem
Online: 18 September 2020 (04:03:57 CEST)
Seagrass ecosystems are lost due to habitat disturbance, coastal development and human pressure. We assessed the impact of boat anchors from traditional fishing and recreational activities on the seagrass Halophila ovalis from the Andaman and Nicobar Isalnds of India. The plant density, biomass, morphometrics, canopy height and percentage cover were estimated from two sites of Govind Nagar beach of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The shoot density of H. ovalis was reduced by physical damage caused by boat anchors. The morphometrics of H. ovalis, such as number of leaves per ramet, leaf length, width and horizontal rhizome length were significantly reduced when impacted by boat anchors. Seagrass canopy height and percentage cover were reduced by 41% and 47% respectively. Though the impact of boat anchors reported here is on small-scale, it may impact feeding grounds of locally endangered dugongs. Therefore, proper management and preventive measures should be implemented to prevent the loss of dugong grass habitats from tourism, recreational and fishing activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0604.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: atmospheric ducts; northwestern SCS; parabolic equation model; propagation loss
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:33:51 CEST)
The propagation of electromagnetic waves beyond the line of sight can be caused by atmospheric ducts, which are a significant concerns in the fields of radar and communication. This paper utilizes data from seven automatic stations and five radio-sounding stations to statistically analyze the characteristics of the atmospheric ducts in the northwest region of the South China Sea (SCS). After verifying the practicality of numerical analysis data from NCEP CFSv2 and ERA5 in studying atmospheric ducts using measured data, we analyzed the space-time distribution characteristics of the height of the regional evaporation duct and the bottom height of the elevated duct. Using the parabolic equation model, we simulated electromagnetic propagation loss under different frequencies and radiation elevation angles in both uniform and non-uniform duct environments within a typical atmospheric duct structure. The study found that the NCEP CFSv2 data accurately captures the evaporation duct height and duct occurrence rate in the study area, and the elevated duct bottom height obtained from the inversion of ERA5 and the measured data has a good consistency. The occurrence rate and height of evaporation duct in coastal stations in the northwest of the SCS vary significantly by month, demonstrating clear monthly distribution patterns. Conversely, changes in the Xisha station are minimal, indicating good temporal uniformity. For lower atmospheric ducts, the difference in occurrence rates between 00:00 and 12:00 (UTC) is negligible. The occurrence probability of elevated ducts in the Beibu Gulf area is relatively high, mainly concentrated from January to April, and the Xisha area is dominated by surface ducts without foundation layer, mainly concentrated from June to August. The monsoon plays a critical role in the generation and evolution of atmospheric ducts in the northwest of the SCS, with the height of the evaporation duct increasing and the bottom height of the elevated duct decreasing after the onset of the summer monsoon. Electromagnetic propagation simulations demonstrate that higher frequency and lower elevation angles of radiation sources in the trapping layer of the evaporation duct make it easier to be trapped. As the evaporation duct height decreases, the amplitude of the "sinusoidal fluctuation" of the propagation loss also decreases. Frequency changes of the radiation source in the surface duct environment have minimal impact on electromagnetic propagation loss, but the elevation angle of the radiation source is a critical factor. The frequency of the "sinusoidal fluctuation" in propagation loss is higher in a hybrid duct environment compared to a uniform surface duct. Additionally, the propagation loss increases faster with distance at the height of the evaporation duct, resulting in greater electromagnetic propagation loss.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0098.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Adaptive; Tuning; Modelling; Estimation parameters; Propagation loss; NLOS; LOS
Online: 11 April 2022 (13:53:30 CEST)
Wireless cellular communication technology has developed into a very resourceful commodity worldwide. Today, people of all races can hardly live without means of voice and data cellular communication technology. Imprecise propagation loss estimation leads to high power waste, high co-channel interference and poor service quality in cellular communication system networks. This paper proposes a realistic adaptive fine-tuning method for distinctive propagation loss estimation over a microcellular communication radio links based on signal power measurements from Long Term Evolution radio broadband networks, taking non-line of sight (NLOS) and line of sight (LOS) environments into consideration. The methodology is verified by measurements taken in non-line of sight and line of sight signal propagation scenarios. The results showed that the estimated propagation losses using the proposed realistic adaptive tuning models were more accurate than the existing Cost -231 modelling estimation approach
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0095.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Adaptive; Tuning; Modelling; Estimation parameters; Propagation loss; NLOS; LOS
Online: 11 April 2022 (11:03:43 CEST)
Wireless cellular communication technology has developed into a very resourceful commodity worldwide. Today, people of all races can hardly live without means of voice and data cellular communication technology. Imprecise propagation loss estimation leads to high power waste, high co-channel interference and poor service quality in cellular communication system networks. This paper proposes a realistic adaptive fine-tuning method for distinctive propagation loss estimation over a microcellular communication radio links based on signal power measurements from Long Term Evolution radio broadband networks, taking non-line of sight (NLOS) and line of sight (LOS) environments into consideration. The methodology is verified by measurements taken in non-line of sight and line of sight signal propagation scenarios. The results showed that the estimated propagation losses using the proposed realistic adaptive tuning models were more accurate than the existing Cost -231 modelling estimation approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0502.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Stem Cell; Embryo; Zebrafish; Neurosensory Hearing Loss; Tissue Regeneration
Online: 26 November 2021 (10:52:49 CET)
Hearing dysfunctions can be classified by type, degree, configuration, time of onset, aetiology, and finally, consequences on speech development. They can be divided into conductive, mixed, central types and sensorineural. Conductive hearing loss (CHL) results from interference with the mechanical transmission of sound through the external and middle ear; it can be congenital, as a consequence of anatomic abnormalities, but it can commonly be acquired following middle ear inflammatory pathologies. Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) results from failure to transduce vibrations to neural impulses in the cochlean and is a consequence of an irreversible damage to the differentiated cells which make up the organ of hearing and the acoustic paths at various levels. Mixed hearing loss involves a combination of these two types in the same ear. Studies in neuroscience field have shown that the prevention of cell degeneration is only possible if all the factors taken at the different stages of stem cells’ multiplication and differentiation are administered together. We have demonstrated this in a recent study on the ability of SCDSFs to prevent neurodegeneration in hippocampal cells of the CA1 zone in mice. This study confirms previous findings demonstrating that early developmental zebrafish embryo extracts could act as a modulator of senescence in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) isolated from many adult tissues. These findings have open a promising way for the approaches promoting the rejuvenation and regeneration of different tissues, by-passing stem cell transplantation. In the present clinical trial we have used SCDSFs to study the possible reversion of neurosensory hearing loss, until now considered an irreversible condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0356.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Land-use change; forest conversion; species loss; fragmentation; deforestation
Online: 17 August 2021 (10:10:09 CEST)
Remote sensing/GIS techniques are a versatile tool for x-raying serial forest structural changes in retrospect. It would be impossible to evaluate past occurrences and changes in forest extents in past decades at Effan Forest Reserve without non-conventional means. Therefore, we adopted remote sensing technology using Landsat images to evaluate land-use change and degradation rates in the area with a view to ascertaining causal factors for possible minimization of forest degradation in Effan Forest Reserve. Land-use/land-cover changes were analyzed using USGS-Landsat TM and ETM images of 1987, 2002, 2014 and 2019. Field-data were collected using handheld GPS receiver and spatial statistical analyses were conducted using the ground control points (GCPs). For inventory data, a systematic sampling technique was adopted using ten 1.05 km-transects at 500 m intervals. A total of 50 sample plots of 50 × 50 m were used. All tree species with Dbh ≥10 cm were enumerated. Nineteen tree species in ten families were encountered with Vitellaria paradoxa as the most-frequently occurring species in the area. IUCN-listed endangered Pterocarpus erinaceus, hitherto abundant in the area, was rarely encountered during the survey, while Vitellaria paradoxa is gradually shrinking, going the relative abundance in the area. The result further showed that primary and secondary forests decreased considerably by 258.03 ha (46.72%) and 9.18 ha (3.63%), respectively, with a total forest loss of 50.3% in 32 years (8.4 hayr-1, 1.6% per annum). While forest plantation size doubled by 369.72 ha within the period. This is worrisome as the remaining fragmented forests appeared to be on the decline, except the riparian vegetation, due to inaccessibility to the riparian by loggers. It thus appeared that forest protection approaches were ineffective. Increased protection efforts could save this forest reserve, and the concerned authority should consider a focused-enrichment planting involving indigenous species for ecosystem-repair.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0526.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: RUSLE; Quantification; Severity; Significant Factors; Soil Erosion; Soil Loss
Online: 23 February 2021 (15:54:25 CET)
The quantity of soil loss as a result of soil erosion is dramatically increasing in catchment where land resources management is very weak. In this paper, a RUSLE model-based soil loss quanti-fication technique is presented to estimate the annual soil loss and identify the severity of the erosion in the catchment. This study uses Fincha catchment in Abay river basin as the study area to quantify the annual soil loss by implementing Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model developed in ArcGIS version 10.4. Digital Elevation Model (12.5 x 12.5), LANDSAT 8 of Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), Annual Rainfall of 10 stations and soil maps of the catchment were used as input parameters to generate the significant factors. Rainfall erosivity factor (R), soil erodibility factor (K), cover and management factor (C), slope length and steepness factor (LS) and support practice factor (P) were used as soil loss quantification significant factors. A model builder for the RUSLE model was developed and raster map calcula-tion algebra was applied in ArcGIS version 10.4 to quantify the total annual soil loss. It was found that the quantified average annual soil loss ranges from 0.0 to 76.5 t ha-1 yr-1 was obtained in the catchment. The area coverage of soil erosion severity with 55%, 35% and 10% as low to moderate, high and very high respectively were identified. The information about the spatial variation of soil loss severity map generated in RUSLE model has a paramount role to alert land resources man-agers and all stakeholders in controlling the effects via implementation of both structural and non-structural mitigations. The results of the RUSLE model can also be further considered along with the catchment for practical soil loss quantification that can help for protection practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0405.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: quantum loss limit; broadband signal recycling; optomechanical filter cavity
Online: 16 November 2020 (09:10:41 CET)
Quantum noise limits the sensitivity of laser interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. Given the state-of-the-art optics, the optical losses define the lower bound of best possible quantum-limited detector sensitivity. In this work, we come up with the configuration which allows to saturate this lower bound by converting the signal recycling cavity to be a broadband signal amplifier using an active optomechanical filter. We will show the difference and advantage of such a broadband signal recycling scheme compared with the previous white-light-cavity scheme using the optomechanical filter in [Phys.Rev.Lett.115.211104 (2015)]. The drawback is that the new scheme is more susceptible to the thermal noise of the mechanical oscillator. To suppress the radiation pressure noise which rises along with the signal amplification, squeezing with input/output filter cavities and heavier test mass are used in this work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0009.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: visual search; vision loss; incidental learning; macular degeneration; fovea
Online: 1 October 2020 (09:12:00 CEST)
Foveal vision loss has been shown to reduce efficient visual search guidance due to contextual cueing by incidentally learned contexts. However, previous studies used artificial (T among L-shape) search paradigms that prevent the memorization of a target in a semantically meaningful scene. Here, we investigated contextual cueing in real-life scenes that allow explicit memory of target locations in semantically rich scenes. In contrast to the contextual cueing deficits in artificial scenes, contextual cueing in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) did not differ from age-matched normal-sighted controls. We discuss this in the context of visuospatial working memory demands for which both eye-movement control in the presence of central vision loss and for memory-guided search may compete. Memory-guided search in semantically rich scenes may depend less on visuospatial working memory than search in abstract displays, potentially explaining intact contextual cueing in the former but not the latter. In a practical sense, our findings may indicate that Patients with AMD are less deficient than expected after previous lab experiments. This shows the usefulness of realistic stimuli in experimental clinical research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0273.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: amyloid; virus; nucleation; loss-of-function; Alzheimer's; Parkinson's; prion; protein-only
Online: 19 November 2019 (03:53:09 CET)
Amyloids are fibrillar protein aggregates that are associated with diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, type II diabetes and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. The process of amyloid aggregation involves three pathological protein transformations; from natively-folded conformation to the cross-β conformation, from biophysically soluble to insoluble, and from biologically functional to non-functional. While amyloids share a similar cross-β conformation, the biophysical transformation can either take place spontaneously via a homogeneous nucleation mechanism (HON) or catalytically on an exogenous surface via a heterogeneous nucleation mechanism (HEN). Here, we postulate that the different nucleation pathways can serve as a mechanistic basis for an etiological classification of amyloidopathies, where hereditary forms generally follow the HON pathway, while sporadic forms follow surface-induced (including microbially-induced) HEN pathways. Furthermore, the conformational and biophysical amyloid transformation results in loss-of-function (LOF) of the original natively-folded and soluble protein. This LOF can, at least initially, be the mechanism of amyloid toxicity even before amyloid accumulation reaches toxic levels. By highlighting the important role of non-protein species in amyloid formation and LOF mechanisms of toxicity, we propose a generalized mechanistic framework that could help better understand the diverse etiology of amyloid diseases and offer new opportunities for therapeutic interventions including replacement therapies.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: hearing impairment; hearing loss; ontology; data harmonization; meta-analysis
Online: 19 September 2019 (11:37:08 CEST)
Hearing impairment (HI) is a common sensory disorder that is defined as the partial or complete inability to detect sound in one or both ears. This diverse pathology is associated with a myriad of phenotypic expressions and/or syndromes. HI can be caused by various intrinsic, environmental and/or unknown factors. Some ontologies capture some relevant HI forms, phenotypes and syndromes, but there is no comprehensive knowledge portal which includes aspects specific to the HI disease state. This hampers inter-study comparability, integration and interoperability within and across disciplines. This work describes the HI Ontology (HIO) that was developed based on the Sickle Cell Disease Ontology (SCDO) model. This is a collaboratively developed resource built around the 'Hearing Impairment' concept by a group of experts in different aspects of HI and ontologies. HIO is the first comprehensive, standardized, hierarchical and logical representation of existing HI knowledge. HIO allows researchers and clinicians alike to readily access standardized HI-related knowledge in a single location and promote collaborations and HI information sharing, including epidemiological, socio-environmental, biomedical, genetic and phenotypic information. Furthermore, this ontology illustrates the adaptability of the SCDO framework for use in developing a disease-specific ontology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0160.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Siamese neural network, appearance model, contrastive loss, cross entropy.
Online: 13 May 2019 (13:32:25 CEST)
An appearance model plays a crucial rule in multi-target tracking. In traditional approaches, the two steps of appearance modeling i.e visual representation and statistically similarity measure are modeled separately. Visual representation is achieved either through hand-crafted features or deep features and statically similarity is measure through a cross entropy loss function. A loss function based on cross-entropy (KL-divergence, mutual information) find closely related probability distribution for the targets. However, if the targets have similar visual representation, it ends up mixing the targets. To tackle this problem, we come up with a synergetic appearance model named Single Shot Appearance Model based on Siamese neural network. The network is trained with a contrastive loss function for finding the similarity between different targets in a single shot. The input to the network is two target patches and based on their similarity, a contrastive score is output by the network. The proposed model is evaluated on accumulative dissimilarity metric on three datasets. Quantitatively, promising results are achieved against three baseline methods.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: forgery detection; GAN; contrastive loss; deep learning; pairwise learning
Online: 5 May 2019 (11:13:55 CEST)
Recently, generative adversarial networks (GANs) can be used to generate the photo-realistic image from a low-dimension random noise. It is very dangerous that the synthesized or generated image is used on inappropriate contents in social media network. In order to successfully detect such fake image, an effective and efficient image forgery detector is desired. However, conventional image forgery detectors are failed to recognize the synthesized or generated images by using GAN-based generator since they are all generated but manipulation from the source. Therefore, we propose a deep learning-based approach to detect the fake image by combining the contrastive loss. First, several state-of-the-art GANs will be collected to generate the fake-real image pairs. Then, the contrastive will be used on the proposed common fake feature network (CFFN)to learn the discriminative feature between the fake image and real image (i.e., paired information). Finally, a smaller network will be concatenated to the CFFN to determine whether the feature of the input image is fake or real. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method significantly outperforms other state-of-the-art fake image detectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0529.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: extracellular vesicles, EVs , traumatic brain injury, bone loss, TBI
Online: 23 October 2018 (08:56:08 CEST)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major source of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Patients suffering from TBI exhibit a higher susceptibility to bone loss and an increased rate of bone fractures; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Herein, we observed significantly lower bone quality and elevated levels of inflammation in bone and bone marrow niche after controlled cortical impact-induced TBI in in-vivo CD-1 mice. Further, we identified dysregulated NFB signaling, an established mediator of osteoclast differentiation and bone loss, within the bone marrow niche of TBI mice. Ex vivo studies revealed increased osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow-derived cells from TBI mice, as compared to sham injured mice. Finally, we found bone marrow derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) from TBI mice enhanced the colony forming ability and osteoclast differentiation efficacy of bone marrow cells and activated NFB signaling genes in bone marrow-derived cells. Taken together, we provide evidence that TBI-induced inflammatory stress on bone and the bone marrow niche may activate NFB leading to accelerated bone loss. Targeted inhibition of these signaling pathways may reverse TBI-induced bone loss and reduce fracture rates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0818.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: dynamic phase transition; alternating magnetic field; magnetic nanoparticle; hyperthermia; specific loss power
Online: 24 April 2023 (04:16:54 CEST)
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have attracted a great interest in nanomedical research. MNPs exhibit many important properties, particularly, magnetic hyperthermia for selective killing of cancer cells is one of them. In hyperthermia treatment, MNPs act as nano-heaters when they are under the influence of an alternating magnetic field (AMF). In this work, micromagnetic simulations have been used to investigate the magnetization dynamics of a single-domain nanoparticle of magnetite in an external AMF. Special attention is paid to the circumstances dealing with a dynamic phase transition (DPT). Besides, we focus on the influence of the orientation of the magnetic easy-axis of the MNP on the dynamic magnetic properties. For amplitudes of the external AMF above certain critical value, the system is not able to follow the magnetic field and it is found in a dynamically ordered phase; whereas for larger amplitudes, the state corresponds to a dynamically disordered phase and the magnetization follows the external AMF. Our results suggest that the way how the order-disorder DPT takes place, and both the metastable lifetime as well as the specific loss power (SLP), are strongly dependent on the interplay between the orientation of the magnetic easy-axis and the amplitude of the external AMF.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0130.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Obesity; hypothalamus; appetite; glucose homeostasis; weight-loss drugs; AGRP; POMC; NTS; incretins
Online: 3 May 2023 (10:22:49 CEST)
Keywords: Obesity; hypothalamus; appetite; glucose homeostasis; weight-loss drugs; AGRP; POMC; NTS; incretins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0075.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Algae; wet anaerobic storage; dry matter loss; organic acid; lactic acid bacteria
Online: 4 March 2022 (08:45:40 CET)
Wet anaerobic storage of algal biomass is a promising preservation approach which can ensure continuous supply of these feedstocks to biorefineries year-round. An effective solution to preservation must ensure minimal dry matter loss and change in biochemical composition during storage. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the preservation of Nannochloropsis gaditana biomass through wet anaerobic storage and its impact on biomass quality. Prior to storage, algae sample was inoculated with two different strains of lactic acid bacteria and thereafter stored for 30 and 180 days. Each inoculant limited dry matter loss to <10% (dry basis) after the storage durations. Final pH values (4.3 - 4.8) indicate that the biomass samples were properly ensiled, achieving the acidic conditions necessary for preservation. Compositional analysis of the biomass after storage showed a reduction in carbohydrate content, a relative increase in lipid content, and no significant change to the protein fraction. Glucose and galactose were the prevalent sugar monomers. The low dry matter loss and minimal compositional change indicates that wet anaerobic storage is an effective means of preserving algal biomass, ensuring a constant supply of algal biomass feedstock to a biorefinery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0137.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: eddy current loss; multi-objective optimization (MOO); electromagnetic analysis; equivalent hierarchical method
Online: 11 April 2018 (05:45:35 CEST)
The eddy current loss should be optimized to be as less as possible for the stability of permanent magnet in high speed permanent magnet synchronous motor (HSPMSM) rotor and ensure the high efficiency and low temperature of the motor. This paper analyzes the eddy current distribution in rotor, with consideration of the conflict of the thickness of sleeve and diameter of the rotor, calculating the eddy current loss (ECL) and the thermal distribution via Separation of variables method for solving Maxwell's equations with analytical hieratical model of ECL constructed. The optimization result of ECL of the HSPMSM whose power and rated speed is 30kw 48000r/min can be got by multi-objective optimization method, combined weighting coefficient method and traversal algorithm based on chaotic local search particle swarm optimization (CLSPSO), utilizing ECL analytical model and other analytical constraints. Related experiment and measurement has been implemented with new approach of loss separation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0352.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense; Panama disease; epidemiology; disease impact; loss; yield; management.
Online: 15 July 2021 (10:12:43 CEST)
The effective management of Fusarium wilt of bananas (FW) depends on the knowledge of the disease dynamics in time and space. The objectives of this work were: To estimate disease intensity and impact, and to investigate the spatial and temporal dynamic of FW. Fields planted with Silk (n = 10), Pome (n = 17) or Cavendish (n = 3) banana subgroups were surveyed in Brazil, totaling 95 ha. In each field, all plants were visually assessed and diseased plants were georeferenced. The incidence of FW and the impact of the disease on yield on a regional scale were estimated. Spatial patterns were analyzed using quadrat- and distance-based methods. FW incidence ranged from 0.09 to 41.42%, being higher in Silk fields (median = 14.26%). Impacts of epidemics on yield ranged from 18.4 to 8,192.5 kg.ha-1.year-1, with a median of 935.2 kg.ha-1.year-1. The higher economic impact of the disease was observed on Silk cultivar with a median loss of US$ 910.5 ha-1.year-1. Overall, estimated losses increased on average by US$ 109.8 ha-1.year-1 at each 1% of incidence. Aggregation of FW was detected by all analytical methods in 13 fields (1 of Cavendish, 11 of Pome and 1 of Silk). In the other 17 fields, at least one analytical method did not reject the null hypothesis of randomness. One field (5 ha), composed of six plots, was selected for spatial and temporal studies during two years with bi-monthly assessments. A sigmoidal curve represented the FW progress and the Gompertz model best fitted disease progress. The level of aggregation varied over time, and evidence of secondary infection to neighboring and distant plants were detected. FW is a widespread problem in Brazil and yield losses can be of high magnitude. Epidemiology-based management strategies can now be better established.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1037.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Inverse Weibull distribution; symmetric entropy loss function; Rényi entropy; Bayesian estimation; Lindley approximation
Online: 15 May 2023 (11:14:14 CEST)
In this paper, under the symmetric entropy and the scale squared error loss functions, we consider the maximum likelihood (ML) estimation and Bayesian estimation of the Shannon entropy and Rényi entropy of the two-parameter inverse Weibull distribution. In the ML estimation, the dichotomy is used to solve likelihood equation. In addition, the approximation confidence interval is given by the Delta method. Because the form of estimation results is more complex in the Bayesian estimation, the Lindley approximation method is used to achieve the numerical calculation. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations and a real data set are used to illustrate the results derived. By comparing the mean square error between the estimated value and the real value, it can be found that the performance of ML estimation of Shannon entropy is better than that of Bayesian estimation, and there is no significant difference between the performance of ML estimation of Rényi entropy and that of Bayesian estimation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0279.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Glaucoma; Diabetic Retinopathy; Convolution Neural Network (CNN); Vision Loss; Blindness; Machine Learning
Online: 12 August 2021 (15:36:51 CEST)
In the last few decades, glaucoma became the second biggest leading cause of irreversible vision loss. Because of its asymptotic growth, it is not properly diagnosed until the relatively late stage. To stop the severe damage by glaucoma it is needed to detect glaucoma in its early stages. Surprisingly diabetes also be the greatest cause of glaucoma. In the modern era, artificial intelligence makes great progress in the medical image processing field. Image analysis based on machine learning gives a huge success in diagnosis glaucoma without any misdiagnosis. The aim of this proposed paper is to create an automated process that can detect glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Here various Machine Learning models are used and results of these methods are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0131.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: phase-shifted full-bridge; resonant converter; photovoltaics; zero voltage switching; power loss
Online: 14 June 2019 (10:01:32 CEST)
This paper presents the design of a high frequency zero voltage switching (ZVS) full-bridge converter with a phase-shifted driving signal for photovoltaic applications. The resonant power converter can provide high-power capacity under high-frequency operation. The proposed power converter can also reduce the size of the transformer under the same power rating. The high-frequency transformer was developed by using the resonant and switching frequencies of the power converter to reduce the switching loss and to improve the system efficiency. Phase-shifted modulation was selected to drive the switches of a full-bridge power converter based on the switching loss minimization method. The desired output voltage was controlled using a closed-loop controller under a loop gain stability margin. The simulation results showed that the output voltage can be controlled to the desired constant when the input voltage changes from 30 VDC to 60 VDC. The desired output voltage of power converter is constant at 400 VDC. The power converter can transfer the DC supply to a 220 VAC household via grid-connected inverter. Therefore, the proposed study showed the effectiveness of the phase-shift ZVS full-bridge power converter with high-frequency transformer. This power converter can control the operation of the desired voltage system and has a small sizing of power converter system, low switching loss, and high system efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0155.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Statistical Energy Analysis; Coupling Loss Factor; Power Injection Method; Monte Carlo Filtering
Online: 8 November 2022 (10:33:02 CET)
Monte Carlo Filtering (MCF) is one of the methods of Experimental Statistical Energy Analysis (E-SEA), which allows the correction of a negative LF (Loss Factor). In this article, a modification of the MCF method, called DESA (Diagonal Extension of the Search Area), is proposed. The technique applies a non-uniform extension of the search area when generating a population of normalized energy matrices. The degree of expansion of the search area is controlled by the Diagonal Penalty Factor (DPF). The authors demonstrated the method's effectiveness on a system that could not be identified in several frequency bands by the classical MCF method. After applying DESA, it was possible to fill in the problematic bands that were missing CLF and DLF values. The paper also proposes a way to minimize the errors introduced by using overly high DPF values.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1120.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: drought stress; introgression; leaf area; root to shoot ratio; wild species; yield loss
Online: 28 April 2023 (05:15:13 CEST)
Drought stress is a major production constraint in crops globally. Crop wild relatives are important source of resistance and tolerance for both biotic and abiotic stresses, respectively. A breeding program was initiated to introgress drought tolerance in sunflower through hybridization between the wild species Helianthus argophyllus and the cultigen pool of H. annuus. Selection was carried out in the F2 to F5 segregating populations for high cuticular waxes, smaller leaf area, single heading and high oil content. The selected F5 breeding lines were compared with non-adapted elite sunflower germplasm in a replicated randomized complete block research project using different water treatments comparing fully irrigated (T0), with 75 (T1), 50 (T2) and 25% (T3) irrigation treatments. The comparison between the two types of germplasm showed that drought tolerant breeding lines had comparatively lesser decreases in leaf area, shoot weight and root shoot ratio 10 under the various drought treatments. Leaf area of the drought selected F5 lines were smaller than that of the elite germplasm under controlled irrigated treatments, but they maintained their leaf area under the drought treatments. Several drought resistant promising lines D-2, D-5, and D-27 were identified and showed high leaf area, great root length and increase root to shoot ratio under the highest stressed treatments (T3). Some of the lines could be directly used for the development of drought tolerant hybrids. Combining ability test indicated D-27 (F7) as good general combiner for seed yield plant−1 and oil contents when mated with male line RSIN.82. These hybrids could help to minimize seed yield losses due to water stress and to achieve profitable cultivation of sunflower in 18 arid regions of Pakistan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0121.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: REBF; protection levels; agricultural economic loss; Baoji section of the Weihe River
Online: 18 December 2017 (11:36:05 CET)
Many agricultural water uses crowd the river ecology of the river water, thus leading to irreversible habitat damage. This paper presents an agricultural economic loss calculation model that is based on river ecological basic flow (REBF) protection by introducing a typical crop water requirement coefficient. First, the water balance equation is used according to a set of REBF protection values to compute the agricultural water shortage that results in the REBF. Second, the agricultural water shortage that results in REBF protection and a typical crop water requirement coefficient are used to determine the food production generated by REBF protection. Finally, the loss of food production and the food market prices are used to determine the agricultural economic loss caused by the different protection levels of REBF. A case study of the Weihe River in China is conducted. The calculation model is used to compute the agricultural economic loss on the basis of REBF protection in the Baoji section of the Weihe River, and the change law of the agricultural economic loss that results in different levels of the REBF is discussed. In addition, changes in the canal water use coefficient and the crop structure that affect agricultural economic loss are analyzed. Results show that the spatial and temporal variations in the runoff affect the changes in time and space of the agricultural economic loss. The higher the REBF protection level, the higher the agricultural economic loss. In addition, agricultural economic loss can provide a quantitative basis for reasonable REBF protection. The size of agricultural economic loss helps the government sector in decision-making on REBF protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0071.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: aero-fuel centrifugal pump; combination impeller; flow loss; flow characteristics; head and efficiency
Online: 9 January 2020 (05:22:18 CET)
Aero-fuel centrifugal pumps are important power plants in aero-engines. Unlike most of the existing centrifugal pumps, a combination impeller is integrated with the pump to improve its performance. First, the critical geometrical parameters of combination impeller and volute are given. Then, the effects of combination impeller on flow characteristics inside the impeller and volute are clarified by comparing simulation results with that of the conventional impeller, where the effectiveness of selected numerical method is validated by an acceptable agreement between simulation and experiment. Finally, the experiment is performed to test the external performance of studied pump. A significant feature of this study is that the flow characteristics are significantly ameliorated by reducing the flow losses emerged in impeller inlet, impeller outlet and volute tongue. Correspondingly, the head and efficiency of combination impeller are higher with comparison to conventional impeller. Consequently, it is a promising approach in ameliorating flow field and improving external performance by applying a combination impeller to an aero-fuel centrifugal pump.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0330.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: crack severity; strain energy loss; beam deflection; frequency shift; hill-climbing method
Online: 24 June 2022 (04:46:40 CEST)
Evaluating the integrity of structures is an important issue in engineering applications. The use of vibration-based techniques has become a common approach to assessing cracks, which are the most often occurring damage in structural elements. When involving an inverse method, it is necessary to know the influence of the position and the geometry of the crack on the modal parameter changes. The geometry of the crack, both in size and shape, defines the damage severity (DS). In this study, we present a method (DS-SHC) used for estimating the DS for closed and open transverse cracks in beam-like structures by using the intact and damaged beam deflections under its weight and a Stochastic Hill Climbing (SHC) algorithm. After describing the procedure of applying DS-SHC, we calculate for a prismatic cantilever beam the severities for different crack types and depths. The results are tested by comparing the DS obtained with DS-SHC with those acquired from dynamic tests made using professional simulation software. We obtained a good fit between the severities determined in these two ways. Afterward, we performed laboratory experiments and find out that the severities obtained with the DS-SHC method can accurately predict the frequency changes due to the crack. Hence, these severities are a valuable tool for damage detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0081.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Cable ferrite; electromagnetic interferences; low frequency emissions; nanocrystalline; relative permeability; insertion loss
Online: 13 December 2017 (13:37:22 CET)
The gap of standardization for conducted and field coupled electromagnetic interferences (EMI) in the 2–150 kHz frequency range can lead to Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) problems. This is caused by power systems such as PWM controlled rectifiers, photovoltaic inverters or charging battery units in electric vehicles. This is a very important frequency spectral due to interferences generate in a wide range of dives and, specifically, communication problems in the new technologies and devices incorporated to the traditional grid to convert it into Smart Grid. Consequently, it is necessary to provide new solutions to attenuate this kind of interferences, which involve finding new materials able to filter the electromagnetic noise. This contribution is focused on characterizing the performance of different cable ferrite compositions in order to determine the effectiveness of most common materials such as MnZn and NiZn and a new range based on nanocrystalline solutions. This analysis procedure is carried out through two methods: theoretical method by determining the insertion loss through measuring impedance parameter and proposing a new empirical technique based on measuring directly the insertion loss parameter. Therefore, the main aim of this characterization process is to determine the performance of these cable ferrites to reduce the interferences in this controversial frequency range. From the results obtained, it is possible to deduce that nanocrystalline cable ferrites provide the best performance to filter the electromagnetic noise in the 2-150 kHz frequency range.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0906.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Respiratory viruses; Anosmia; Olfaction Disorders; loss of smell; COVID-19
Online: 12 May 2023 (08:49:10 CEST)
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) known as severe acute respiratory syndrome - coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged in China in 2019, and caused an outbreak of unusual viral pneumonia. The olfactory dysfunction following the infection of different variants of SARS-CoV-2 is now accepted as a hallmark symptom in patients. Recent studies have pointed out the relationship between COVID-19 and altered or loss of smell in infected patients. This mini review provides an overview of the role of SARS-CoV-2 and the other acute respiratory viruses in the development the human olfactory pathophysiology. We highlight the importance of deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the olfactory dysfunction caused by SARS-CoV-2 to help design new drugs to restore the altered or loss of smell in affected patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0206.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: Nanobelts; PAH; polyaromatics; cyclic polymers; hydrogen loss; fullerenes; carbon chains
Online: 16 May 2022 (10:57:33 CEST)
We explore the importance of curvature in carbonaceaous species transformation and stability, using laser-induced vaporisation to evaporate and ionise a source of curved polyaromatic hydrocarbons: carbon nanobelts. Collision impacts between species cause mass loss and the resultant ions are catalogued via mass-spectrometry. To interpret the mass spectra, we perform a series of “in-silico” simulated systematic hydrogen-loss studies using density functional theory (DFT) modelling, sequentially removing hydrogen atoms using thermodynamic stability as a selection for subsequent dehydrogenation. In an initial sequence of H2 removal, the rings are maintained through stable carbyne chain and pentagon-chain formation, giving rise to circular strained dehydrobenzoannulene species. The chains subsequently break, releasing CH and C2. While theoretical closed-cage routes are identified, they are not observed experimentally. The results can serve as a useful guide to high-energy impact conditions observed in some astrochemical environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0345.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Cold Sensation; Heat Loss; Cold Related Risks; Real Feel Temperature
Online: 21 December 2021 (14:06:58 CET)
Abstract: Windtech device is a novel tool for measuring the sensation of the ‘cold’. Cold poses numerous challenges for industrial operations, human survival, and living convenience. The impact of the cold is not possible to be quantified just based on temperatures; however other factors such as wind speed, humidity, irradiance have to be taken into consideration. Efforts have been made to develop combined indices such as wind chill temperature (WCT), AccuWeather RealFeel®, and others. The presented article discusses these along with the industrial standards that emphasize on the quantification of the ‘cold’. The following article introduces the Windtech device and its operating principle involving ‘heated temperature’, where the ‘heated temperature’ is affected by environmental parameters including ambient temperature, humidity, wind velocity, and irradiance. The discussed Windtech device is calibrated for operation according to the ISO 11079:2007 standard.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0094.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Discrete Mathematics And Combinatorics Keywords: Siamese networks; Ensemble of classifiers; Loss function; Discrete cosine transform
Online: 3 August 2021 (15:49:22 CEST)
In this paper, we examine two strategies for boosting the performance of ensembles of Siamese networks (SNNs) for image classification using two loss functions (Triplet and Binary Cross Entropy) and two methods for building the dissimilarity spaces (FULLY and DEEPER). With FULLY, the distance between a pattern and a prototype is calculated by comparing two images using the fully connected layer of the Siamese network. With DEEPER, each pattern is described using a deeper layer combined with dimensionality reduction. The basic design of the SNNs takes advantage of supervised k-means clustering for building the dissimilarity spaces that train a set of support vector machines, which are then combined by sum rule for a final decision. The robustness and versatility of this approach are demonstrated on several cross-domain image data sets, including a portrait data set, two bioimage and two animal vocalization data sets. Results show that the strategies employed in this work to increase the performance of dissimilarity image classification using SNN is closing the gap with standalone CNNs. Moreover, when our best system is combined with an ensemble of CNNs, the resulting performance is superior to an ensemble of CNNs, demonstrating that our new strategy is extracting additional information.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: athletes; eating disorders; weight loss; body dissatisfaction; body image disorders
Online: 27 May 2021 (08:50:10 CEST)
TThe passion of bodybuilding athletes for a symmetric, lean, heavily muscled body leads them to carry out exhausting exercise programs and restrictive eating regimens, sometimes resulting in disordered eating behaviors. This study investigates potential exacerbators on the development of disordered eating in bodybuilding and strength athletes. The study involved 103 Cypriot bodybuilding athletes of both sexes, performing at three levels: professional, recreational and strength athletes. The Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26) and The Three Factor Eating Question-naire (TFEQ-R21) were used to evaluate disordered eating and eating behaviors respectively. The current study was performed under the auspices of the Hellenic Center of Education & Treatment of Eating Disorders (KEADD). The degree of deviation between the perceived ideal body weight and the actual body weight was associated with increased risk of eating disorder. Athletes who desired a lower body weight recorded higher scores on EAT-26 overall, (p=0.001), and the subscales of dieting (p=0.01) and bulimia. (p=0.001). Cognitive restraint and emotional eating scales of TFEQ-R21 were more pronounced in the non-professional athletes. (p=0.01). The emotional eating score was higher in women. There is a need for appropriate sport-specific, gender-specific preventive intervention to deescalate the risk of eating disorder, in both profes-sional and non-professional bodybuilding athletes.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0471.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Athletes; eating disorders; weight loss; body dissatisfaction; body image disorders
Online: 19 April 2021 (12:10:51 CEST)
The passion of bodybuilding athletes for a symmetric, lean, heavily muscled body leads them to carry out exhausting exercise programs and restrictive eating regimens, sometimes resulting in disordered eating behaviors. This study investigates potential exacerbators on the development of disordered eating in bodybuilding and strength athletes. The study involved 103 Cypriot bodybuilding athletes of both sexes, performing at three levels: professional, recreational and strength athletes. The Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26) and The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R21) were used to evaluate disordered eating and eating behaviors respectively. The current study was performed under the auspices of the Hellenic Center of Education & Treatment of Eating Disorders (KEADD). The degree of deviation between the perceived ideal body weight and the actual body weight was associated with increased risk of eating disorder. Athletes who desired a lower body weight recorded higher scores on EAT-26 overall, and the subscales of dieting and bulimia. Cognitive restraint and emotional eating scales of TFEQ-R21 were more pronounced in the non-professional athletes. The emotional eating score was higher in women. There is a need for appropriate sport-specific, gender-specific preventive intervention to deescalate the risk of eating disorder, in both professional and non-professional bodybuilding athletes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0125.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: image inpainting; image completion; attention; pyramid structure loss; deep learning
Online: 10 February 2020 (10:16:37 CET)
This paper develops a multi-task learning framework that attempts to incorporate the image structure knowledge to assist image inpainting, which is not well explored in previous works. The primary idea is to train a shared generator to simultaneously complete the corrupted image and corresponding structures --- edge and gradient, thus implicitly encouraging the generator to exploit relevant structure knowledge while inpainting. In the meantime, we also introduce a structure embedding scheme to explicitly embed the learned structure features into the inpainting process, thus to provide possible preconditions for image completion. Specifically, a novel pyramid structure loss is proposed to supervise structure learning and embedding. Moreover, an attention mechanism is developed to further exploit the recurrent structures and patterns in the image to refine the generated structures and contents. Through multi-task learning, structure embedding besides with attention, our framework takes advantage of the structure knowledge and outperforms several state-of-the-art methods on benchmark datasets quantitatively and qualitatively.