Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Chloroplast Genome of Phyllanthus Emblica and Leptopus Cordifolius: Comparative Analysis and Phylogenetic within Family Phyllanthaceae

Version 1 : Received: 2 July 2021 / Approved: 5 July 2021 / Online: 5 July 2021 (12:03:13 CEST)

How to cite: Rehman, U.; Sultana, N.; ., A.; Jamal, A.; Muzaffar, M.; Poczai, P. Chloroplast Genome of Phyllanthus Emblica and Leptopus Cordifolius: Comparative Analysis and Phylogenetic within Family Phyllanthaceae. Preprints 2021, 2021070094 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202107.0094.v1). Rehman, U.; Sultana, N.; ., A.; Jamal, A.; Muzaffar, M.; Poczai, P. Chloroplast Genome of Phyllanthus Emblica and Leptopus Cordifolius: Comparative Analysis and Phylogenetic within Family Phyllanthaceae. Preprints 2021, 2021070094 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202107.0094.v1).

Abstract

Family Phyllanthaceae is one of the largest segregates of the eudicot order Malpighiales and its species are herb, shrub, and tree, which are mostly distributed in tropical regions. Certain taxonomic discrepancies exist at genus and family level. Here, we report chloroplast genomes of three Phyllanthaceae species—Phyllanthus emblica, Flueggea virosa, and Leptopus cordifolius— and compare them with six others previously reported Phyllanthaceae chloroplast genomes. The species of Phyllanthaceae displayed quadripartite structure, comprising inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb) that separate large single copy (LSC) and small single copy (SSC) regions. The length of complete chloroplast genome ranged from 154,707 bp to 161,093 bp; LSC from 83,627 bp to 89,932 bp; IRs from 23,921 bp to 27,128 bp; and SSC from 17,424 bp to 19,441 bp. Chloroplast genomes contained 111 to 112 unique genes, including 77 to 78 protein-coding, 30 transfer RNA (tRNA), and 4 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that showed similarities in arrangement. The number of protein-coding genes varied due to deletion/pseudogenization of rps16 genes in Baccaurea ramiflora and Leptopus cordifolius. High variability was seen in number of oligonucleotide repeats while analysis of guanine-cytosine (GC) content, codon usage, amino acid frequency, simple sequence repeats analysis, synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions, and transition and transversion substitutions showed similarities in all Phyllanthaceae species. We detected a higher number of transition substitutions in the coding sequences than non-coding sequences. Moreover, the high number of transition substitutions was determined among the distantly related species in comparison to closely related species. Phylogenetic analysis shows the polyphyletic nature of the genus Phyllanthus which requires further verification. We also determined suitable polymorphic coding genes, including rpl22, ycf1, matK, ndhF, and rps15 which may be helpful for the reconstruction of the high-resolution phylogenetic tree of the family Phyllanthaceae using a large number of species in the future. Overall, the current study provides insight into chloroplast genome evolution in Phyllanthaceae.

Subject Areas

Phyllanthaceae; Phyllanthus; Leptopus; transition and transversion substitutions; chloroplast genome; phylogenetic; polymorphic loci; rps16 loss; atpF intron loss

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