ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0680.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Air pollution; low birth weight; prenatal exposure; joint effects; cold climate
Online: 28 July 2020 (10:43:42 CEST)
There is accumulating evidence that prenatal exposure to air pollution disturbs fetal growth and development, but little is known about these effects in cold climates or their season-specific or joint effects. Our objective was to assess independent and joint effects of prenatal exposure to specific air pollutants on the risk of low birth weight (LBW). We utilized the 2568 children of the Espoo Cohort Study, born between 1984 and 1990, and living in the City of Espoo. We conducted stratified analyses for births during warm and cold seasons separately. We analyzed the effect estimates using multi-pollutant Poisson regression models with risk ratio (RR) as the measure of effect. The risk of LBW was related to exposure to CO and (adjusted RR 1.44, 95% CI: 1.04-2.00) and exposure to O3 in the spring-summer season (1.82, 1.11-2.96). There was also evidence of synergistic effects between CO and O3 (relative risk due to interaction, RERI, all year 1.08, 95% CI: 0.27-4.94, spring-summer 3.97, 2.17-25.85) and PM2.5 and O3 (all year 0.72, -0.07-3.60, spring-summer 2.80, 1.36-19.88). We present new evidence of both independent and joint effects of prenatal exposure in a cold climate on the risk of LBW at low levels of air pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0188.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: kinesiology tape; maximum isometric voluntary contraction; joint position sense; force sense; proprioception
Online: 10 March 2023 (08:50:49 CET)
(1) Background: Within the scope of prevention studies, many researchers have indicated the need to enhance knee proprioception. Kinesiology tape is one product that claims to enhance proprioception, however, its use has not been well researched in the healthy population before. The aim of the study was to investigate if kinesiology tape application on the quadriceps muscle enhances proprioception. (2) Methods: Twelve healthy and physically active volunteers (M=7, F=5, mean age= 20.75 ± 2.14, mean BMI=22.25 ±2.34) participated in the study. With computerized, custom-built isokinetic dynamometer, we recorded perceived joint position angles (small and large angles). For force sense, we recorded maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) and differences in torques (Nm) via force matching tasks both with vision and without vision on left leg. The absolute errors for joint position sense measurements and for force matching tasks and differences in MVIC both in untaped and taped conditions for left legs of all subjects were recorded. (3) Results: Two-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed that no significant interaction existed among small and large angle groups in both the conditions nor any main condition effect was observed in both the groups. (p>0.05). Similarly, no differences were accounted in force matching tasks between the taped and un-taped with vision and without vision (p=0.52 and 0.38 respectively.) Statistically insignificant increments were observed in mean torque post application. (p=0.67) (4) Conclusions: Present study suggests that immediate kinesiology tape application on quadriceps muscle offers no benefits on proprioception in terms of joint position sense and force sense hence other preventive measures to strengthen the proprioceptive system should be relied upon.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0400.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Temporomandibular joint disorders; Temporomandibular Joint; Facial Pain; Craniomandibular Disorders
Online: 17 February 2021 (16:07:10 CET)
Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is a group of orofacial pain conditions which is the most common non-dental pain complaint in the maxillofacial region. Due to the complexity of the etiology and often cyclical nature of the disease, the diagnosis and management of TMD remain a challenge where consensus is still lacking in many aspects. While clinical examination is considered the most important process in the diagnosis of TMD, imaging may serve as a valuable adjunct in selected cases. Depending on the type of TMD, many treatment modalities have been proposed, ranging from conservative options to open surgical procedures. In this review, the authors discuss the present thinking in the etiology and classification of TMD, followed by the diagnostic approach and the current trend and controversies in management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0484.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Steroid injection; synovial joint; first metatarsophalangeal joint; hallux limitus; hallux rigidus; hallux valgus; gout; arthrofibrosis
Online: 31 October 2022 (10:27:07 CET)
Introduction. A needle is inserted into a joint for arthrocentesis or injection of a therapeutic medication(s), commonly a corticosteroid. The aim of this paper is to discuss the first theme identified from a scoping review of corticosteroid injections for the pathology of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Pathology. The two most common pathologies affecting the first metatarsophalangeal joint are osteoarthritis and bunions. An arthritic joint is regularly injected with a corticosteroid, but bunions are not. Other pathologies that may receive an injection include rheumatoid arthritis, gout, sesamoiditis and post-operative arthrofibrosis. Discussion. Most available evidence discusses corticosteroid injections for osteoarthritis, but there is a paucity of high-quality evidence, especially for corticosteroid use in other pathological conditions. Conclusion. Whilst the evidence base suggests that corticosteroid injections are safe short- and mid-term treatment options for a range of soft tissue and joint pathology, the specific indications, and short/long-term outcomes in the first metatarsophalangeal joint pathologies are not clear and warrant further study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0514.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Running; Joint force; Barefoot; Osteoarthritis; Injury
Online: 28 November 2022 (10:53:28 CET)
Objectives The aim of this study was to measure the magnitude of forces in the joints of the lower limb whilst running barefoot and compare them to the forces generated whilst wearing running shoes with a thick midsole.MethodsTwenty-three volunteers who utilised running as their main sport or a training aid ran as training aid were included in this study. Each volunteer would run down a fourteen-meter-long corridor both barefoot and with running shoes. Forces for joints of the lower limb were collected using a Vicon motion analysis system and force plates. The joint forces for the ankles, knees and hips were taken as the largest joint force experienced during the stance phase and then averaged over five running trials.ResultsThere was significant reduction in the joint forces for the ankles, knees, and hips when barefoot running compared to the shod condition.ConclusionBarefoot running could be utilised to prevent both acute and degenerative injuries of the lower limb.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0259.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: compound flooding event; vine copula; trivariate joint analysis; joint return period; conditional return period; hydrologic risk
Online: 20 June 2022 (05:17:56 CEST)
The interaction between oceanographic, meteorological, and hydrological factors can result in an extreme flooding scenario in the low-lying coastal area, called compound flooding (CF) events. For instance, rainfall and storm surge (or high river discharge) can be driven by the same meteorological, tropical or extra-tropical cyclones, resulting in a CF phenomenon. The trivariate distributional framework can significantly explain compound events' statistical behaviour reducing the associated high-impact flood risk. Resolving heterogenous dependency of the multidimensional CF events by incorporating traditional 3-D symmetric or fully nested Archimedean copula is quite complex. The main challenge is to preserve all lower-level dependencies. An approach based on decomposing the full multivariate density into simple local building blocks via conditional independence called vine or pair-copulas is a much more comprehensive way of approximating the trivariate flood dependence structure. In this study, a parametric vine copula of a drawable (D-vine) structure is introduced in the trivariate modelling of flooding events with 46 years of observations of the west Coast of Canada. This trivariate framework searches dependency by combining the joint impact of annual maximum 24-hr rainfall and the highest storm surge and river discharge observed within the time ±1 day of the highest rainfall event. The D-vine structures are constructed in three alternative ways by permutation of the conditioning variables. The most appropriate D-vine structure is selected using the fitness test statistics and estimating trivariate joint and conditional joint return periods. The investigation confirms that the D-vine copula can effectively define the compound phenomenon's dependency. The failure probability (FP) method is also adopted in assessing the trivariate hydrologic risk. It is observed that hydrologic events defined in the trivariate case produce higher FP than in the bivariate (or univariate) case. It is also concluded that hydrologic risk increases (i) with an increase in the service design life of the hydraulic facilities and (ii) with a decrease in return periods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0155.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: temporomandibular joint disorders; arthrocentesis; TMJ; arthralgia; lavage
Online: 6 August 2020 (10:36:53 CEST)
The aim of this study was to assess the best timing to perform arthrocentesis in the management of temporomandibular disorders with regards to conservative treatment. A systematic search based on PRISMA guidelines, including a computer search with specific keywords, reference list search, and manual search was done. Relevant articles were selected after 3 search rounds for final review based on 6 predefined inclusion criteria, followed by a round of critical appraisal. Eleven publications, including 5 randomized controlled trials and 6 prospective clinical studies informed this review. The studies were divided into 3 groups based on the timing of arthrocentesis: 1). Arthrocentesis as the initial treatment, 2). Early arthrocentesis, and 3). Late arthrocentesis. Meta-analyses compared the efficacy of improvement in mouth opening and pain reduction in the 3 groups. The results were statistically significant and favoured early arthrocentesis, followed by late arthrocentesis in terms of both improvements in mouth opening and pain reduction. All 3 groups showed improvement in mouth opening and pain reduction. We conclude that early arthrocentesis may be able to produce the best clinical results, while arthrocentesis before attempting conservative treatment may produce less favourable outcomes.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0669.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Osteoarthritis; Stifle joint arthrodesis; Medial patellar luxation; Lameness
Online: 9 May 2023 (14:41:00 CEST)
A two-year-old male Pomeranian dog visited the hospital due to side effects of surgical correction for patellar luxation. Stifle joint arthrodesis (SJA) was performed on the patient’s right leg using autologous bone grafting techniques. The right leg’s femur and tibial joint were angled 120-130◦ and the SJA plate was fixed on the front of the two bones. After performing joint fusion of the right limb, medial patellar luxation (MPL)-corrective surgery was performed to cut the tibial tuberosity on the left leg and the fixing force was increased using the figure-of-eight tension band wiring technique. The results were observed for walking and trotting of the right hind limb, evaluated for 27 days after surgery. It was difficult for the patient to walk because weight loading was not performed for 3 days after surgery; short strides and partial weight bearing were possible 5 to 7 days after surgery. After 10 days, the patient was able to move while bearing weight with a slight disruption. For trotting, the patient showed intermittent normal steps 5 to 7 days after surgery, but the disruption continued. After 14 days, trotting was possible and movements were shown to be maintained during everyday activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0007.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: Facet joint syndrome; adipose tissue-derived regenerative cells
Online: 1 February 2023 (04:40:12 CET)
Background: Chronic Back Pain due to Facet Joint Syndrome is a common and debilitating con-dition. Advances in regenerative medicine have shown that Autologous Unmodified Adipose Tissue-Derived Regenerative Cells (ADRC) provide several beneficial effects [1,2]. These regen-erative cells can differentiate into various tissues  and exhibit a strong anti-inflammatory po-tential. ADRCs can be obtained from a small amount of fatty tissue derived from the patient´s abdominal fat. Methods: We report long-term results of 37 patients (age 31-78 years, mean 62.5) suffering from “Facet Joint Syndrome” The pathology was confirmed by clinical, radiological examinations and fluoroscopically guided test injections. Then liposuction was performed. 50-100 cc of fat were harvested. To recover stem cells from adipose tissue, we use the CE-certified Transpose RT™ system from InGeneron GmbH. The cells were then injected under fluoroscopic control in the periarticular fat. Follow-up examinations were performed at one week 1 and 5 years. Results: Every patient reported improved VAS pain at any follow-up (1 week, 1, and 5 years) with ADRCs compared to the baseline. Conclusion: Our observational data indicate that facet joint syndrome patients treated with unmodified adipose tissue-derived regenerative cells experience improved quality of life in the long term.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0158.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: subtalar joint instability; chronic ankle instability; footprint osteoarthritis
Online: 9 January 2023 (09:22:22 CET)
This study aimed to clarify the relationship between the joint and ligament structures of the subtalar joint and degeneration of the subtalar articular facet. We examined 50 feet from 25 Japanese cadavers. The number of articular facets, joint congruence, and intersecting angle were measured for the joint structure of the subtalar joint, and the footprint areas of the ligament attachments of the cervical ligament, interosseous talocalcaneal ligament (ITCL), and anterior capsular ligament were measured for the ligament structure. Also, subtalar joint facets were classified into Degeneration (+) and (-) groups according to degeneration of the talus and calcaneus. No significant relationship was identified between the joint structure of the subtalar joint and degeneration of the subtalar articular facet. In contrast, footprint area of the ITCL was significantly higher in the Degeneration (+) group than in the Degeneration (-) group for the subtalar joint facet. These results suggest that the joint structure of the subtalar joint may not affect degeneration of the subtalar articular facet. Degeneration of the subtalar articular facet may be related to the size of the ITCL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0566.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Temporomandibular joint; Osteoarthritis; Semaphorin 4D; Plexin-B1; Osteoblast
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:07:01 CEST)
Subchondral bone loss is an important pathological feature of early-stage temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis (OA). Previous studies focused mainly on the bone resorption by osteoclasts in early-stage OA, but the bone formation feature has not drawn enough attention. Sema4D/Plexin-B1 is a pair of molecules expressed by osteoclast/osteoblast, which is capable of inhibiting bone formation by osteoblasts. The present study found that subchondral bone loss in early-stage TMJ OA was accompanied by up-regulated expression of Sema4D in cartilage and subchondral bone and Plexin-B1 in subchondral bone. Reducing Sema4D level could inhibit the subchondral bone loss and cartilage degeneration of early-stage TMJ OA. In vitro, results revealed that Sema4D could reduce the expression of osteocalcin (OCN) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and increase the migrating capability of Plexin-B1-positive osteoblasts. Our results revealed that elevated Sema4D expression in early-stage TMJ OA might decrease the bone formation activity of osteoblasts in the subchondral bone by binding to Plexin-B1 expressed by osteoblasts. Inhibiting Sema4D/Plexin-B1 signaling in the early-stage OA holds promise as a strategy for new therapeutic approaches to osteoarthritis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0458.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Monitoring system; joint station; BP neural network; PID
Online: 20 May 2021 (09:07:15 CEST)
Abstract: The Hanqu Joint Station of the Dingbian Oil Production Plant of Yanchang Oilfield Co., Ltd is located at the edge of the desert in northern China. the bad field conditions and strong sandstorm, the hardware of computer monitoring system of Joint Station is often damaged. At the same time, the core equipment of the joint station three-phase separator oil chamber liquid level is hard to achieve high precision constant value control, the general control algorithm is difficult to meet the control requirements.This paper proposed a design scheme of a oilfield joint station computer monitoring system based on the Siemens S7-300 PLC, the hardware of the monitoring system adopts the redundancy scheme of dual monitoring computers, dual programmable logic controllers (PLCs), and dual industrial Ethernet. The BP neural network PID control algorithm was used to realize constant value control of the oil chamber liquid level of the three-phase separator of the core equipment of the joint station，and realized high control precision. The monitoring system could well adapt to the harsh environment of the scene, and showed high reliability and efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0023.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: temporomandibular joint disc; reconstituted collagen template; tissue regeneration
Online: 11 July 2017 (16:23:01 CEST)
Previous study demonstrated the reconstituted type I collagen matrix extracted from rabbit tendons enabled to regenerate the TMJ disc in the rabbit. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and mechanisms of regeneration in TMJ disc. In 36 New Zealand rabbits that underwent a partial discectomy, discs were replaced with reconstituted collagen templates for 3 months. A histological analysis showed that moderate to severe degeneration appeared in partially discectomized joints without implantation. In contrast, discs that received the reconstituted collagen template regenerated, and returned to normal to protect the joint. Cells in the regenerative tissue expressed ECM, and fibers became regular and compact due to tissue remodeling over time. Reparative cells differentiated into chondroblasts, and showed highly dense pericellular fibers. The morphology and collagen composition of the disc and condyle in the 3-month experimental group were similar to those of normal tissues. In conclusion, the reconstituted collagen template facilitated the regeneration of surgically discectomized discs. Type I and type II collagens play a crucial role in the regeneration of articular discs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0640.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Arthroplasty; prosthetic joint replacement; prosthetic joint infection; systemic antibiotic prophylaxis; Antibiotics; chlorhexidine gluconate; coagulase-negative staphylococci; tuf gene sequencing; staphylome; microbiome
Online: 25 November 2020 (12:56:25 CET)
The aim was to study alterations of bacterial communities in patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty to assess the impact of chlorhexidine gluconate soap decolonisation and systemic antibiotic prophylaxis. A Swedish multicentre, prospective collection of samples obtained from elective arthroplasty patients (n=83) by swabbing anterior nares, skin sites in the groin and the site of planned surgery, before and after arthroplasty surgery, was analysed by 16S rRNA (V3-V4) gene sequencing and a complementary targeted tuf gene sequencing approach to comprehensively characterise alterations in staphylococcal communities. Significant reductions in alpha diversity was detected for both bacterial (p=0.04) and staphylococcal (p=0.03) groin communities after arthroplasty surgery with significant reductions in relative Corynebacterium (p=0.001) abundance and S. hominis (p=0.01) relative staphylococcal abundance. In nares, significant reductions occurred for S. hominis (p=0.02), S. haemolyticus (p=0.02), and S. pasteuri (p=0.003) relative to other staphylococci. S. aureus colonised 35% of anterior nares before and 26% after arthroplasty surgery. S. epidermidis was the most abundant staphylococcal species at all sampling sites. No bacterial genus or staphylococcal species increased significantly after arthroplasty surgery. Application of a targeted tuf gene sequencing approach provided auxiliary staphylococcal community profiles and allowed species-level characterisation directly from low biomass clinical samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0580.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: Temporomandibular joint disorders; parafunctional habits; risk factors; chronic diseases
Online: 9 May 2023 (07:10:29 CEST)
Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) are characterized by their multifactorial etiology and pathogenesis. A 3-year prospective study was conducted in a Portuguese TMD department to study the prevalence of different TMD signs and symptoms and their association with risk factors and comorbidities. Five hundred ninety-five patients were included using an online database: EUROTMJ. Most patients were female (80.50 %), with a mean age of 38.20±15.73 years. The main complaints were temporomandibular joint (TMJ) clicking (13.26%), pain (12.49%), and masticatory muscle tension (12.15%). The main clinical findings were myalgia (74%), TMJ clicking (60-62%) and arthralgia (31-36%). Risk factors such as clenching (60%) and bruxism (30%) were positively associated with TMJ pain and myalgia. Orthodontic treatment (20%) and wisdom tooth removal (19%) were positively associated with TMJ clicking, while jaw trauma (6%) tracheal intubation (4%) and orthognathic surgery (1%) were positively associated with TMJ crepitus, limited man-dibular range of motion and TMJ pain, respectively. 42.88% of TMD patients had other associated chronic diseases, most of them were mental behavioral or neurodevelopmental disorders (33.76%), namely, anxiety (20%) and depression (13%). The authors also observed a positively association of mental disorders with the degree of TMJ pain and myalgia. Online database seems to be a relevant scientific instrument for healthcare providers who treat TMD. The authors expect that EUROTMJ database can serve as a milestone for other TMD departments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0179.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: anterior knee laxity; stiffness; general joint laxity; genu recurvatum
Online: 19 April 2022 (10:28:50 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in anterior knee laxity (AKL), stiffness, general joint laxity (GJL), and genu recurvatum (GR) during the menstrual cycle in female non-athletes and female athletes with normal and irregular menstrual cycles. Participants were 19 female non-athletes (eumenorrhea, n=11; oligomenorrhea, n=8) and 15 female athletes (eumenorrhea, n=8; oligomenorrhea, n=7). AKL was measured as the amount of anterior tibial displacement at 67 N - 133 N. Stiffness was calculated as change in (Δ)force/Δ anterior displacement. The Beighton method was used to evaluate the GJL. The GR was measured as the maximum angle of passive knee joint extension. AKL, stiffness, GJL, and GR were measured twice in four phases during the menstrual cycle. Stiffness was significantly higher in oligomenorrhea groups than in eumenorrhea groups, although no significant differences between menstrual cycle phases were evident in female non-athletes. GR was significantly higher in the late follicular, ovulation, and luteal phases than in the early follicular phase, although no significant differences between groups were seen in female athletes. Estradiol may affect the stiffness of the periarticular muscles in the knee, suggesting that GR in female athletes may change during the menstrual cycle.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: mixed dentition period; temporomandibular joint; mandibular condyle; panoramic radiograph
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:13:27 CEST)
Introduction: During mixed dentition period, the growth and development process of dentocraniofacial complex occurs, with temporomandibular joint as one of its centers of growth. The condition of temporomandibular joint can be seen from its condylar head shape; therefore, it is essential to understand the normal morphology of condylar head during mixed dentition period. Objective: this research aims to view the general morphology of condylar head during mixed dentition period. Method: Samples of panoramic radiographs were collected from Ma-ranatha Dental Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. It consists of 70 male and 70 female subjects, di-vided into three groups according to their phase of mixed dentition period. Shape of subjects' condylar heads was determined by analyzing and comparing the tracing results of condyle in panoramic radiograph. Result: Study showed in first transitional period of mixed dentition, condylar head shape is dominated by round, as growth and development go on, the domination of condylar head shape is changed into convex on second transitional period. Conclusion: Mostly condylar head shape morphology during mixed dentition period is round-headed in first transitional and inter-transitional period, and convex-headed in second transitional period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0192.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: compressive sensing; coalition; sparsity; belief propagation; joint sparse recovery
Online: 14 May 2018 (11:59:00 CEST)
Compressive sensing originates in the field of signal processing and has recently become a topic of energy-efficient data gathering in wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose an energy efficient distributed compressive sensing solution for sensor networks. Proposed solution utilizes sparsity distribution of signals to group sensor nodes into several coalitions and then implements localized compressive sensing inside coalitions. This solution improves data-gathering performance in terms of both data accuracy and energy consumption. The approach curbs both data-transmission costs and number of measurements. Coalition-based data gathering cuts transmission cost, and the number of measurements is reduced by scheduling sensor nodes and adjusting their sampling frequency. Our simulation showed that our approach enhances network performance by minimizing energy cost and improving data accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0017.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: beam-column joint; fibre-based section modeling; joint shear hinge; substandard beam-column joints; stiffness and strength deterioration; reinforced concrete; seismic vulnerability; risk
Online: 4 October 2022 (10:38:02 CEST)
The paper discusses how joint damage and deterioration affect the seismic response of existing reinforced concrete frames with sub-standard beam-column joints. The available simplified modeling techniques are critically reviewed to propose a robust, yet computationally efficient technique for simulating the nonlinear behavior of substandard beam-column joints. Improvements over the existing models include simulation of the cyclic deterioration of joint stiffness and strength as well as pinching in the hysteretic response, implemented considering a deteriorating hysteretic rule. A fibre-section forced-based inelastic beam-column element is developed; considering improved material models and fixed-end rotation due to bond failure, rebars-slip and inelastic extension, to simulate the deteriorating cyclic behavior of existing pre-cracked beam-column members. For the assessment of frames with substandard exterior beam-column joints, a nonlinear model for the exterior joint is developed and validated through a full-scale quasi-static cyclic test performed on a substandard T-joint connection. The proposed model allows considering structural performance in risk assessment while accounting for true inelastic mechanisms at the joints.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0556.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: angles app; goniometry; range of motion; assessment; telemedicine; joint examination
Online: 31 August 2021 (10:26:11 CEST)
In time, osteoarthritis (OA) generates the misalignment of the affected joint structures. However, due to the nature of bipedal gait, OA in the lower limb can also cause pathological gait patterns, which can generate instability and falls, with great consequence, especially in the aged population. With goniometry used to evaluate the range of motion of joints (ROM), we wanted to evaluate how gender impacts gait dynamics in OA patients. For this study we have compared 106 OA patients (male=32, female=74) to age matched controls. All participants had their right leg as dominant. Video recording of normal gait was analysed with a digital goniometry tool phone application, and the knee’s ROM was measured in midstance and midswing of the gait. During midstance, significant extension and flexion of the knee excursion have been observed in both males and females. During midswing, knee OA presents more differences, whereas subjects with hip and knee OA present changes on the dominant knee. Midstance changes suggest that the knee’s joint degenerative changes can be linked to hip OA secondary changes. Midswing changes in lower limb OA suggest a connection to the activities of daily life. Gender differences generated by OA must furthermore be studied in both lower limbs so that the best therapeutic approach can be chosen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0778.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: angles app; goniometry; range of motion; assessment; telemedicine; joint examination
Online: 31 May 2021 (13:45:22 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Sports medicine, orthopaedic and rehabilitation physicians use gait analysis and goniometry to evaluate and diagnose patients with neuro-musculo-skeletal diseases. Goniometry is a measuring method that shows the joint’s range of motion. Three-dimensional goniometry has been used in order to assess the patients in a kinematic manner, but they are not affordable, so, phone apps come handy to any orthopaedic or rehabilitation physician so we can have a clear image of the progress made by the patient after the rehabilitation program or should something happen and the patient cannot come to the facility, such as the Covid-19 pandemic, when some orthopaedic and most of the rehabilitation facilities have been temporarily closed. Midstance has been chosen as the moment of the gait evaluation in this paper since it has an important role in stability. The objective of this paper is to figure out if the measurements taken during midstance at the knee joint of the subjects can be statistically significant and used during usual examinations. Materials and Methods: Four groups of subjects: patients suffering from hip, knee, hip and knee osteoarthritis and a control group volunteered their participation, being asked to normally walk while their gait was recorded and uploaded into Angles App – a phone based videogoniometer. Results: Patients suffering from hip osteoarthritis have a higher knee angle on the right side than the ones suffering from knee osteoarthritis, hip and knee osteoarthritis and the control group. Female patients suffering from hip osteoarthritis also presented a more flexed knee than the ones suffering from knee osteoarthritis and the ones in the control group, the knee flexion presenting itself as a compensation mechanism. Conclusion: Video goniometry can help us make an orthopaedic, rehabilitation or neurology database for each assessment with constant updates of the evolution of the osteoarthritis patient’s treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0016.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: development; adolescents; perceptual inhibition; joint visual search task; executive function
Online: 1 February 2021 (11:38:03 CET)
Recent studies suggest that the developmental curves in adolescence, related to the development of executive functions, could be fitted to a non-linear trajectory of development with progressions and retrogressions. Therefore, the present study proposes to analyze the pattern of development in Perceptual Inhibition (PI), considering all stages of adolescence (early, middle, and late) in intervals of one year. To this aim, we worked with a sample of 275 participants between 10 and 25 years, who performed a joint visual and search task (to measure PI). We have fitted exGaussian functions to the probability distributions of the mean response time across the sample and performed a covariance analysis (ANCOVA). The results showed that the 10- to 13-year-old groups performed similarly in the task and differ from the 14- to 19-year-old participants. We found significant differences between the older group and all the rest of the groups. We discuss the important changes that can be observed in relation to the nonlinear trajectory of development that would show the PI during adolescence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0229.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: masonry structures; stiffening walls; wall joints; connectors; bed joint reinforcement
Online: 17 December 2019 (10:46:57 CET)
Joints between walls are very important for structural analysis of each masonry building at the global and local level. This issue was often neglected in case of traditional joints and relatively squat walls. Nowadays the issue of wall joints is becoming particularly important due to the continuous strive for simplifying structures, introducing new technologies and materials. Eurocode 6 and other standards (USA, Canadian, Chinese, and Japanese) recommend inspecting joints between walls, but no detail procedures have been specified. This paper presents our own tests on joints between walls made of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) masonry units. Tests included reference models composed of two wall panels joined perpendicularly with a masonry bond (6 models), traditional steel and modified connectors (12 models). A shape and size of test models and structure of a test stand were determined on the basis of the analysis of the current knowledge, pilot studies and numerical analyses of FEM. The analysis referred to the morphology and failure mechanism of models. Load-displacement relationships for different types of joints were compared and obtained results were referred to results for reference models. A mechanism of cracking and failure was found to vary, and clear differences in behaviour and load capacity of each type of joints were observed. Individual working phases of joints were determined and defined, and the empirical approach was suggested to determine forces and displacement of wall joints.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0506.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: dissimilar metal; torch brazing; interface joint; intermetallic compound; shear strength
Online: 26 July 2018 (08:25:19 CEST)
Joining of aluminium alloys to steels has been extensively studied, especially in the automotive sector. However, aluminium alloys are known to be difficult to join with steels when methods involving fusion welding are used because of hot cracking problem. Hence, a high strength joint between these dissimilar metals would be of benefit especially in reducing the weight of products. In this work the torch brazing method was applied to join AR500 steel with AA7075 aluminium alloy using Al-Si-Zn base filler metal at various flame times. The effect of the brazing work on the intermetallic phase formation and the mechanical strength of the joints were investigated. In this work, the maximum shear load obtained was 6460 N and the presence of the intermetallic phases had reduced the shear strength of the brazed joints. However, the torch brazing process using Al-Si-Zn filler metal had successfully facilitated the joining of these dissimilar metals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0367.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: kinect; depth calibration; RGB-D; media art; skeletal joint data
Online: 24 June 2018 (11:19:41 CEST)
Kinect is a device that has been widely used in many areas since it was released in 2010. Kinect SDK was announced in 2011 and used in many other areas than its original purpose, which was a controller for gaming. In particular, it has been used by a number of artists in digital media art since it is inexpensive and has a fast recognition rate. However, there is a problem. Kinect create 3D coordinates with a single 2D RGB image for x, y value - single depth image for z value. And this creates a significant limitation on the installation for interactivity of media art. Because the Cartesian XY coordinate and the spherical Z coordinate system are used in combination, depth error depending on the distance is generated, which makes real-time rotation recognition and coordinate correction difficult above coordinate system. This paper proposes a real-time calibration method of Kinect recognition range expansion for useful application in the digital media art area. The proposed method can recognize the viewer accurately by calibrating a coordinate in any direction in front of the viewer. 3,400 datasets witch acquire from experiment were measured as five stances: the 1m attention stance, 1m hands-up stance, 2m attention stance, 2m hands-up stance, and 2m hands-half-up stance, which were taken and recorded every 0.5 sec. The experimental results showed that the accuracy rate was improved about 11.5% compared with front measurement data according to Kinect reference installation method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0030.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Joint entropy; NDVI; temperature; precipitation; groundwater depth; Hei River basin
Online: 8 August 2017 (08:42:54 CEST)
Terrestrial vegetation dynamics are closely influenced by a multitude of factors. This study investigated the relationships between vegetation patterns and their main influencing factors. The joint entropy method was employed to evaluate the dependence between normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and coupled variables in the middle reaches of Hei River basin. Based on the spatial distribution of mutual information, the whole study area was divided into five sub-regions. In each sub-region, nested statistical models were applied to model the NDVI on the grid and regional scales, respectively. Results showed that the annual average NDVI increased with a rate of 0.005/a in recent 11 years. In the desert regions, the NDVI increased significantly with an increase in precipitation and temperature, and high accuracy of retrieving NDVI model was obtained by coupling precipitation and temperature, especially in sub-region I. In the oasis regions, groundwater was also an important factor driving vegetation growth, and the rise of groundwater level contributed to the growth of vegetation. However, the relationship was weaker in artificial oasis regions (sub-region III and sub-region V) due to the influence of human activities, such as irrigation. The overall correlation coefficient between the observed NDVI and modeled NDVI was observed to be 0.97. Outcomes of this study are suitable for ecosystem monitoring, especially under the realm of climate change. Further studies are necessary and should consider more factors, such as runoff and irrigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0324.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: joint shear capacity; ACI-318-19; ductility factor; IMRF; reinforced concrete
Online: 21 October 2022 (08:37:06 CEST)
Multi-level shaking table tests were performed on 1:3 reduced scale two-story RC IMRF frames conforming to ACI-318-19. The exterior joints lacked shear reinforcement to assess the viability of the ACI model recommended for determining the design shear strength of the beam-column joint panel. The Northridge-1994 earthquake accelerogram was input to the frame for multi-level shaking table testing. Plastic hinges developed in beams under base input motion with a maximum acceleration equal to 0.40g. The exterior joints incurred extensive damage under base input motion with a maximum acceleration equal to 0.70g. The frame achieved displacement ductility and overstrength factors equal to 2.40 and 2.50 respectively. This gives a response modification factor equal to 6. The satisfactory performance of the frame is attributed to the high efficiency of the beam-column joint, which was confined by spandrel beams on two faces, and the high strength of the concrete. The inherent minimal confinement is sufficient to ensure good seismic behavior. The analysis confirmed overstrength equal to 1.58 for joint shear strength in comparison to the design strength determined using the ACI model. The data might serve as a reference for calibrating and validating numerical modeling techniques for performance evaluation, which are crucial in the context of performance-based engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0179.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Ankle joint rehabilitation robot; Parallel mechanism; Statics analysis; Kinematics analysis; Workspace
Online: 18 February 2022 (13:06:23 CET)
In-depth research on the rehabilitation mechanism and motion characteristics of a rehabilitation training robot based on 4-UPUS parallel mechanism. The overall design and the working principle of each key component are explained, and the robot rehabilitation scheme is described. The static analysis and modal analysis of the robot bearing structure are carried out to verify whether the static mechanical characteristics of the mechanism meet the application requirements under working conditions.A simplified mathematical model of the six-bar linkage mechanism is established, and the kinematics of the mechanism is solved by the geometric analysis method. The motion characteristic diagram of each key point is obtained through simulation calculation. Establish the motion model of the parallel mechanism, and discuss the working space and motion performance analysis of the mechanism. The forward solution analysis of the mechanism position is carried out by using the numerical analysis method, and the three-dimensional graphics of the attitude angle and linear displacement of the reachable working space are obtained.Taking the UPUS single branch chain as the analysis object, the single open chain analysis method is used to solve the kinematics image of the corresponding surface in the working space of the mechanism, which verifies the correctness of the kinematics theoretical solution and the feasibility of simulation.The research results show that the 4-UPUS parallel mechanism rehabilitation training robot can cooperate with the ankle joint for rehabilitation training. It makes up for the single movement of the current lower limb rehabilitation robot and the unsatisfactory rehabilitation effect, and provides a reference for the practical application of the subsequent ankle joint rehabilitation robot system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0088.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: joint patent application; the structure of collaboration; open innovation; long tail
Online: 29 July 2016 (06:48:53 CEST)
The way people innovate and create new ideas and bring them to the market is undergoing a fundamental change from closed innovation to open innovation. Why and how do firms perform open innovation? Firms’ open innovation is measured through the levels of firms’ joint patent applications. Next, we analyze network structures and characters of firms’ joint patent applications such as betweenness and degree centrality, structure hole, and closure. From this research, we drew conclusions as follows. First, the structure of collaboration networks has both direct and indirect effects on firms’ innovative performance. Second, in the process of joint patent applications, there is a long tail phenomenon in networks of joint patent applications. Third, the number of patents and International Patent Classification (IPC) subclasses together constitute a meaningful measure of the innovation performance of firms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0201.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Joint flood risks, Grand River watershed, probability analysis, copula, disaster management, Canada
Online: 11 April 2023 (05:25:54 CEST)
According to the World Meteorological Organization, since 2000, there has been an increase in global flood-related disasters by 134 percent as compared to the two previous decades. Efficient flood risk management strategies necessitate a holistic approach to evaluating flood vulnerabilities and risks. Catastrophic losses can occur when the peak flow values in the rivers in a basin coincide. Therefore, estimating the joint flood risks in a region is vital, especially when frequent occurrences of extreme events are experienced. This study focuses on estimating the joint flood risks due to river flow extremes in the Grand River watershed in Canada. Determining the interdependence of floods at multiple locations using state-of-the-art tools, the associated damage probabilities, and their costs will be beneficial to various stakeholders, such as the insurance industry, the disaster management sector, and most importantly, the public.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0030.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Coccidioides; coccidioidomycosis dissemination; skeletal infection; fungal osteomyelitis; fungal synovitis; arthritis; knee joint
Online: 2 March 2023 (04:12:01 CET)
Valley fever or coccidioidomycosis is a pulmonary infection caused by several species of coccidi-oides (Cocci) fungi that is endemic to California and Arizona. Skeletal coccidioidomycosis ac-counts for about half of disseminated infections, with the vertebral spine being the preferred site of dissemination. Most cases of skeletal coccidioidomycosis progress to bone destruction or spread to adjacent structures such as joints, tendons, and other soft tissues causing significant pain and restricting mobility. Manifestations of such cases are usually non-specific, making di-agnosis very challenging, especially in non-endemic areas. In this review, we explore case reports of dissemination of coccidioidomycosis to bones and/or joints to highlight key differential fea-tures with other conditions or diseases and highlight opportunities for mechanistic and pre-clinical studies that can help improve diagnostics, prognostics, and treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0520.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Energy diplomacy; Malaysia-Thailand Joint Development Area; ASEAN Power Grid; Regional cooperation
Online: 28 January 2023 (07:51:01 CET)
From the standpoint of Neoliberal Institutionalism, this study explores Malaysia's participation in activities that make energy the topic and/or object of foreign policies, whether through bilateral or multilateral engagements. This research, which aims to evaluate the relevance of energy in Malaysia's economy and diplomacy and to explain Malaysia's reason for its involvement in these cooperations, is necessary because of Malaysia's growing involvement in the global energy market. Information for this study was gathered from a variety of government sources, interviews, published statistical data, and previous studies. The study demonstrates how vital energy is to Malaysia's economy. The Lao PDR-Thailand-Malaysia-Singapore Power Integration Project (LTMS-PIP) initiative, in which Malaysia is participating, is evidence of the viability of multilateral power commerce in the area. The Peninsula Gas Utilisation (PGU) pipeline in Peninsular Malaysia and the Four-Fuel Diversification Policy 1981 (4FDP 1981), which increases natural gas utilisation, are related to Malaysia's participation in the Malaysia-Thailand Joint Development Area (MT-JDA). Malaysia would want to think about streamlining its energy administration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0120.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Brain; sensitivity to EMFs; EEG; ERPs; N400; LPP; joint processing effects (JPEs)
Online: 7 July 2022 (09:19:44 CEST)
The effects of transcranial magnetic stimulations (TMS) show that the human brain is impacted by some magnetic fields (EMFs). Moreover, after a delay, it produces potentials that reveal a subsequent processing of this impact. The human brain might also be sensitive to very weak magnetic fields of extremely low frequencies (vwEMFelf). Namely, to the vwEMelf produced by the brain of other persons when they process visual stimuli. In effect, two studies report that the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) that are evoked by presenting a picture to a participant can be modulated by simultaneously presenting a picture to a partner. To confirm it here, we followed most of the methods of these studies. We recorded the ERPs evoked by presenting, at each trial, the photograph of a face. Simultaneously and, most importantly, privately, we presented a partner with the same or with a different face photograph. ERPs of participants were found to depend on that sameness (p0.001), unbeknownst to them. These joint processing effects (JPEs), confirm a sensitivity of the human brain to the vwEMFelf produced by other brains.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0641.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: three-dimensional laser scanning; rock discontinuity; rock fracture; rock joint; discontinuity orientation.
Online: 23 April 2021 (13:15:02 CEST)
Manual measurement of rock discontinuities is time-consuming and subjective according to the experience of the surveyor. This work proposes a three-dimensional laser scanning-based method for the semi-automatic identification of rock discontinuities. Multisite cloud scanning is performed with real-time kinematic (RTK)-assisted orientation to estimate the rock fracturing degree; then, discontinuity orientations are extracted with the man–machine interactive method or automatic method. The proposed method was applied to actual examples to illustrate its accuracy at identifying rock discontinuities. The sensitivity of the identification accuracy to different parameters was investigated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0383.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Inflammatory; cytokines; biomarkers; intra-articular fracture; cartilage; joint injury; synovial fluid; osteoarthritis
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:08:12 CET)
Intra-articular fractures are a major cause of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Despite adequate surgical treatment, the long-term risk for PTOA is high. Previous studies reported that joint injuries initiate an inflammatory cascade characterized by elevation of synovial pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can lead to cartilage degradation and PTOA development. This review summarizes the literature on the post-injury regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the markers of cartilage destruction in patients suffering from intra-articular fractures. METHODS We searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases (1960–February 2020) and included studies that were performed on human participants and included control groups. Two investigators assessed the quality of the included studies using Covidence and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS Based on the surveyed literature, several synovial pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p70, interferon-y, and tumor necrosis factor-α, were significantly elevated in patients suffering from intra-articular fractures compared to control. A simultaneous elevation of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and IL-1RA was also observed. In contrast, IL-13, CTX-II, and aggrecan concentrations did not differ significantly between the compared cohorts. CONCLUSIONS Overall, intra-articular fractures are associated with an increase in inflammation-related synovial cytokines. However, more standardized studies which focus on the ratio of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines at different time points are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0202.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: musculoskeletal; kinematics; dynamics; muscle forces; joint reactions; ground reactions; inertial measurement units
Online: 26 February 2021 (12:07:54 CET)
This study aims to explore the possibility of estimating a multitude of kinematic and dynamic quantities using subject-specific musculoskeletal models in real-time. The framework was designed to operate with marker-based and inertial measurement units enabling extensions far beyond dedicated motion capture laboratories. We present the technical details for calculating the kinematics, generalized forces, muscle forces, joint reaction loads, and predicting ground reaction wrenches during walking. Emphasis was given to reduce computational latency while maintaining accuracy as compared to the offline counterpart. Notably, we highlight the influence of adequate filtering and differentiation under noisy conditions and its importance for consequent dynamic calculations. Real-time estimates of the joint moments, muscle forces, and reaction loads closely resemble OpenSim's offline analyses. Model-based estimation of ground reaction wrenches demonstrates that even a small error can negatively affect other estimated quantities. An application of the developed system is demonstrated in the context of rehabilitation and gait retraining. We expect that such a system will find numerous applications in laboratory settings and outdoor conditions with the advent of predicting or sensing environment interactions. Therefore, we hope that this open-source framework will be a significant milestone for solving this grand challenge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Cruciform joint; fatigue; semi-elliptical crack; cooling; weld magnification factor; Fracture Mechanics
Online: 1 December 2017 (06:52:06 CET)
The objective of this research is to develop an experimental-theoretical analysis about the influence of the cooling medium and the geometry of the welding bead profile in fatigue life and associated parameters with structural integrity of welded joints. A welded joint with cruciform geometry is considered using SMAW, plates in structural steel ASTM A36 HR of 8 mm of thickness and E6013 electrode input. A three-dimensional computational model of the cruciform joint was created using the finite element method. For this model, the surface undulation of the cord and differentiation in the mechanical properties of the fusion zone were considered, the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and base material, respectively. In addition, an initial residual stress field which was established experimentally was considered. The results were a set of analytical expressions for the weld magnification factor Mk. It was found that values for the latter decrease markedly in function of the intensity of the cooling medium used in the post welding cooling phase, mainly due to the effect of the residual compressive stresses. The obtained models of behavior of the weld magnification factor are compared with the results from other researchers with some small differences, mainly due to the inclusion of the cooling effect of the post weld and the variation of the leg of the weld bead. The obtained analytical equations in the present research for Mk can be used in management models of life and structural integrity for this type of welded joint.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0084.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: robot joint; virtual torque sensor; Gaussian process regression; harmonic drive compliance model
Online: 23 September 2016 (09:52:45 CEST)
In this paper, a method is developed for presenting a novel virtual torque sensor based on precise model and position measurements avoids the need of traditional strain gauges and amplifiers. More specifically, the harmonic drive compliance model and the Gaussian process regression (GPR) technique are used together to achieve virtual torque sensor measurement. While the harmonic drive compliance model provides the analytic part, the Gaussian process regression method is used to reconstruct the unmolded part based on motor-side and link-side joint angles as well as motor current. After an automatic offline calibration, the method allows for a lean online implementation. The virtual torque sensor measurement is compared with measurements of a commercial torque sensor, and the results have attested the effectiveness of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0049.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: Quantum Liouville equation; metric compatibility condition; Joint probability; Binary Data Matrix; Ricci flow
Online: 25 February 2022 (02:34:16 CET)
In this paper after introducing a model of binary data matrix (BDM) for physical parameters of an evolving system (of particles), we develop a Hilbert space as an ambient space to derive induced metric tensor on embedded parametric manifold identified by associated joint probabilities of particles observables (parameters). Parameter manifold assumed as space-like hypersurface evolving along time axis, an approach that resembles 3+1 formalism of ADM and numerical relativity. We show the relation of endowed metric with related density matrix. Identification of system density matrix by this metric tensor, leads to the equivalence of quantum Liouville equation and metric compatibility condition while covariant derivative of metric tensor has been calculated respect to Wick rotated time or spatial coordinates. After deriving a formula for expected energy per particles, we prove the equality of this expected energy with local scalar curvature of related manifold. We show the compatibility of BDM model with Hamilton-Jacobi formalism and canonical forms. On the basis of the model, I derive the Ricci flow like dynamics as the governing dynamics and subsequently derive the action of BDM model and Einstein field equations. Given examples clarify the compatibility of the results with well-known principles such as equipartition energy principle and Landauer’s principle. This model provides a background for geometrization of quantum mechanics compatible with curved manifolds and information geometry. Finally, we conclude a “bit density principle” which predicts the Planck equation, De Broglie wave particle relation, , Beckenstein bound and Bremermann limit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0270.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Subsurface temperatures; Kriging with External Drift; Conductive Numerical Modeling; Joint Interpolation; Geostatistics; Simulation
Online: 14 September 2018 (16:31:59 CEST)
Subsurface temperature is the key parameter in geothermal exploration. An accurate estimation of the reservoir temperature is of high importance and usually done either by interpolation of borehole temperature measurement data or numerical modeling. However, temperature measurements at depths which are of interest for deep geothermal applications (usually deeper than 2 km) are generally sparse. A pure interpolation of such sparse data always involves large uncertainties and usually neglects knowledge of the 3D reservoir geometry or the rock and reservoir properties governing the heat transport. Classical numerical modeling approaches at regional scale usually only include conductive heat transport and do not reflect thermal anomalies along faults created by convective transport. These thermal anomalies however are usually the target of geothermal exploitation. Kriging with trend does allow including secondary data to improve the interpolation of the primary one. Using this approach temperature measurements of depths larger than 1,000 m of the federal state of Hessen/Germany have been interpolated in 3D. A 3D numerical conductive temperature model was used as secondary information. This way the interpolation result reflects thermal anomalies detected by direct temperature measurements as well as the geological structure. This results in a considerable quality increase of the subsurface temperature estimation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0131.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Geometry And Topology Keywords: joint probability density; tensor properties; probability on Riemannian manifold; covariant derivative; contravariant derivative
Online: 31 October 2016 (02:39:45 CET)
We show the tensor properties of joint probabilities on a Riemannian parametric manifold. Initially we develop a binary data matrix for parameter measurements of a large number of particles confining in a closed system in order to retrieve the joint probability densities of related parameters. By introducing a new generalized inner product as a multilinear operation on dual basis of parametric space, we extract the set of joint probabilities and prove them to meet contravariant tensor properties in a general Riemannian parametric space. We show these contravariant tensors reduce to classical ordinary partial derivatives definition in ordinary Euclidean parametric space. Finally we prove by a theorem that symmetrized iterative contravariant derivative of cumulative probability function on Riemannian manifold gives the set of joint probabilities in those manifold. We bring some examples for compatibility with physical tensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0701.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: vision-based system; deep learning; image processing; road surface damage; expansion joint, concrete pavement
Online: 10 May 2023 (07:58:06 CEST)
The appropriate maintenance of highway roads is critical for the safe operation of road networks and conserves maintenance costs. Multiple methods have been developed to investigate the surface of roads for various types of cracks and potholes, among other damage. Like road surface damage, the condition of expansion joints in concrete pavement is important to avoid unexpected hazardous situations. Thus, in this study, a new system is proposed for autonomous expansion joint monitoring using a vision-based system. The system consists of the following three key parts: (1) a camera-mounted vehicle, (2) indication marks on the expansion joints, and (3) a deep learning-based automatic evaluation algorithm. With paired marks indicating the expansion joints in a concrete pavement, they can be automatically detected. An inspection vehicle is equipped with an action camera that acquires images of the expansion joints in the road. You Only Look Once (YOLO) automatically detects the expansion joints with indication marks, which has a performance accuracy of 95%. The width of the detected expansion joint is calculated using an image processing algorithm. Based on the calculated width, the expansion joint is classified into the following two types: normal and dangerous. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed system is very efficient in terms of speed and accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0198.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: autistic spectrum disorder; anorexia nervosa; female; prevalence; Bayes’ Theorem; diagnosis; management; generalized joint hypermobility.
Online: 10 November 2022 (11:02:35 CET)
It appears that up to 80% of females with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) have not been diagnosed by 18 years of age. This translates to a prevalence of about 5-6%, and if true has serious implications for female mental health. One way of finding the true value is to use Bayes’ Theorem with a comorbid condition as a more easily recognizable flag. An obvious choice is anorexia nervosa (AN), but it transpires that the proportion of women with ASD who develop AN is unknown. This study uses published data in novel ways to provide two methods of estimating a range for this variable, and gives a median value of 8.3% for AN in ASD and with four other methods a median prevalence of 6% for female ASD. The clinical implications for diagnosis and management of ASD and comorbidities are discussed and a solution is provided for the rate of ASD in generalized joint hypermobility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0131.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Adversarial examples; Remote sensing images; Universal adversarial patch; Object detection; Joint optimization; Scale factor.
Online: 11 October 2022 (02:34:23 CEST)
Although deep learning has received extensive attention and achieved excellent performances in various of scenarios, it suffers from adversarial examples to some extent. Especially, physical attack poses more threats than digital attack. However, existing researches pay less attention to physical attack of object detection in remote sensing images (RSIs). In this work, we systematically analyze the universal adversarial patch attack for multi-scale objects in the remote sensing field. There are two challenges for adversarial attack in RSIs. On one hand, the number of objects in remote sensing images is more than that of natural images. Therefore, it is difficult for adversarial patch to show adversarial effect on all objects when attacking a detector of RSIs. On the other hand, the wide range of height of photography platform causes that the size of objects diverse a lot, which brings challenges for generating universal adversarial perturbation for multi-scale objects. To this end, we propose an adversarial attack method on object detection for remote sensing data. One of the key ideas of the proposed method is the novel optimization of adversarial patch. We aim to attack as many objects as possible by formulating a joint optimization problem. Besides, we raise a scale factor to generate a universal adversarial patch that adapts to multi-scale objects, which ensures the adversarial patch is valid for multi-scale objects in the real world. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superiority of our method against state-of-the-art methods on YOLO-v3 and YOLO-v5. In addition, we also validate the effectiveness of our method in real-world applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0617.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Hexagon joint, Helical pile, Bearing capacity, Static pile load test, Dynamic pile load test
Online: 31 July 2018 (10:07:54 CEST)
This study aims to improve the shaft with hexagon joints to be a type not requiring welding or bolts in the static load test . In order to evaluate the bearing capacity of helical piles, two sites were selected to conduct pile installation for the field test and the pile load test. For the pile load test, the static pile load test and the dynamic pile load test were carried out, and torque was measured during pile installation for the field test to compare and analyze expected bearing capacity and thus assess the feasibility of the method for estimating the bearing capacity. The field pile load test revealed the bearing capacity of the gravity grout pile was the same or greater than 600kN in the static pile load test in accordance with AC 358 Code. The non-grout pile showed the bearing capacity the same or smaller than 600kN, suggesting gravity grouting is required. Moreover, the field pile load test was used to establish the bearing capacity equation considering the torque in pile installation, and a small number of samples were used to establish the equation which can be used as a basic data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0087.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: physical model test; rock joint; strata and surface movement; final slope mining; surface settlement
Online: 19 September 2017 (07:30:14 CEST)
Strata and surface movement induced by mining under open-pit final slope is a huge threat to mine safety. Physical model test is an important method to study mining-induced strata and surface movement laws. Because of rock joints predominantly control rock mass deformation and failure, thus physical model test leaving out of consideration of rock joints is difficult to reflect the influence of rock joints on rock mass deformation. Therefore, this paper presents a three-dimensional physical model test considering simplified dominant rock joints. This test process includes the design of testing equipment, the construction of physical model with dominant rock joint sets, conduction of mining and deformation monitoring. And mining under eastern final slope of Yanqianshan iron mine was selected as a case to study the behavior of mining-induced strata and surface movement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0099.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: double strap joint; failure load prediction; finite element analysis; steel; stress-based failure criterion.
Online: 21 June 2017 (03:26:57 CEST)
In the current study, the failure behavior of retrofitted steel structures was studied experimentally and theoretically with steel/CFRP double strap joints (DSJs) under quasi-static tensile loading. A series of DSJs with different bonding lengths are also considered and examined to experimentally assess the effective bond length. To predict the failure load values of the tested specimens, a new stress-based criterion, namely the point stress (PS) criterion is proposed. Although some theoretical predictive modelling for the strength between steel/CFRP joints under various loading conditions has been presented, in this work by using the new proposed approach, one can calculate rapidly and conveniently the failure loads of the steel/CFRP specimens. Furthermore, to assess the validity of the new proposed criterion, further experimental data on steel/CFRP DSJs available in the open literature are predicted using the PS criterion. Finally, it was found that a good agreement exists between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions based on the PS criterion.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0562.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: Facet joint injection; Chronic low back pain; Normal saline; Meta-analysis; Patient Reported Clinical Outcomes
Online: 9 May 2023 (04:22:14 CEST)
Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis compared the patient-reported outcomes of intra-articular facet joint injections of normal saline and selected active substances to identify a more effective agent for treating subacute and chronic low back pain (LBP). Methods: The PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and CENTRAL databases were searched for randomized controlled trials and observational studies published in English. A research quality assessment was performed using ROB2 and ROBINS-I. A meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model, and the mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) in efficacy outcomes, including pain, numbness, disability, and quality of life, were assessed. Results: Of the 2,467 potential studies, three were included (247 patients). The active substances and normal saline had similar therapeutic effects on pain within 1 h, after 1-1.5 months, and after 3-6 months, with MD and 95% CI of 2.43 and -11.61 to 16.50, -0.63 and -7.97 to 6.72, and 1.90 and -16.03 to 19.83, respectively, as well as the quality of life after 1 and 6 months. Conclusion: The short- and long-term clinical effects of intra-articular facet joint injections of normal saline are comparable to those of other active substances in patients with LBP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0346.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: INS/APS single beacon navigation; tightly coupled navigation; passive synthetic aperture; joint DOA/OWTT estimation
Online: 21 February 2023 (01:56:42 CET)
Unlike aerial or terrestrial navigation, the Global Navigation satellite system (GNSS) is not available underwater. This is a big challenge for underwater navigation. The inertial navigation system (INS) aided by the single-beacon acoustic positioning system (APS) provides one solution, but the long-range case is limited by low SNR conditions. Inspired by passive synthetic aperture detection, we proposed a new tightly coupled navigation algorithm based on spatial synthesis and one-way-travel-time (OWTT) range measurement. We design two estimators: the DOA/Range estimator using the model-based method and the tightly coupled INS/APS navigation estimator. Based on the improved UKF, all information is combined. Simulation is carried out in MATLAB. Compared with range-only tightly coupled INS/APS navigation, synthetic long baseline (SLBL) algorithm and Doppler velocity logger (DVL) aided centralized extended Kalman filter (CEKF) based single beacon INS/OWTT navigation, the proposed method's performance is proven. The main contributions of this work are: 1. Propose a new architecture of underwater integrated navigation; 2. Apply the passive acoustic detecting method in the navigation to improve accuracy. 3. Apply the tightly coupled method to improve availability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0189.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Joint reduction of oxides; high heating rate; Mg/C combined reducer; dysynergistic effect; activation energy
Online: 9 August 2021 (10:19:22 CEST)
Understanding of the decisive role of the interaction mechanism and kinetics in the combustion processes is highly relevant for the elaboration of optimal conditions for obtaining Mo-Cu composite powders. From this perspective, the efficient delivery of the reduction mechanism of copper and molybdenum oxides with combined Mg + C reducing agents at high heating rates is crucial to develop a valuable approach for the combustion synthesis of Mo-Cu composite powders. Herein, we shed light on the mechanism of the reactions in all the studied binary, ternary and quaternary systems contemporaneously demonstrating the effect of the heating rate on the conversion degree. The combination of two highly exothermic and speedy reactions (MoO3+3Mg and CuO+Mg vs MoO3+CuO+4Mg) led to a slow interaction with weak self-heating (dysynergistic effect) due to a change in the reaction mechanism. On the other hand, it has been shown that during the simultaneous utilization of the Mg and C reducing agents, the process begins exclusively with carbothermic reduction, and at relatively high temperatures it continues with magnesiothermic one. The effective activation energy values of the magnesiothermic stages of the studied reactions were determined by Kissinger isoconversional method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0162.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Special Economic Zones; Small Medium Enterprises; Joint Ventures; Export Lead Industrialization; Developing Economies; Industrial Clusters
Online: 13 February 2020 (10:10:33 CET)
Over the last three decades, special economic zones (SEZs) have given new impetus to the ever-growing export-oriented industrialization in developing countries. Where various economies have benefited from SEZs, many zones have ended up becoming enclaves with trifling advantage. The SEZs in Pakistan have experienced the same fate and failed to contribute to exports, employment and creating linkages with the domestic economy. Recently under China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), SEZs are proposed to be set up in Pakistan; with a hope to fuel the stuttering economy. However, it is pertinent to first understand the local context and device policies considering stakeholders' perspectives. This study aims to identify the factors for the successful implementation of SEZs derived from the regional context of Pakistan. In-depth interviews are conducted from most relevant stakeholders, who have been involved in the development of SEZs. The results pointed towards the removal of political influence over zones and government taking the lead role in deciding the types of industry to be invited in these zones. Each zone should have a clear vision of development based on its regional advantage. The zone promotions should be based on competitiveness rather than fiscal incentives. Joint ventures and PPP to be encouraged inside the zones for sustainable operations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0362.v2
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Wearable devices; Wearable sensors; Data glove; Biomechatronic design; Hand kinematics; Joint measurement; Flex sensors; Biomedical engineering
Online: 27 February 2023 (10:40:17 CET)
For technical or medical applications, the knowledge of the exact kinematics of the human hand is key to utilizing its capability to handle and manipulate objects and to communicate with other humans or machines. The optimal relationship between the number of measurement parameters, measurement accuracy as well as complexity, usability and cost of the measuring systems is hard to find. Biomechanic assumptions, the concepts of a biomechatronic system and the mechatronic design process as well as commercially available components are used to develop a sensorized glove. The proposed wearable can measure 14 of 15 angular values of a simplified hand model introduced in this paper. Additionally, five contact pressure values at the fingertips and inertial data of the whole hand with a degree of freedom of six are gathered. Due to the modular design and a hand size examination based on anthropometric parameters, the concept of the wearable is applicable for a large variety of hand sizes and adaptable to different use cases. Validations show a combined root-mean-square error of 0.99° to 2.38° for the measurement of all joint angles at one finger, surpassing the human perception threshold and the current state of the art in science and technology for comparable systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0182.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: patella mobility; displacement; instability; patella; patellofemoral joint; instrumented measurement; anterior knee pain; knee anatomy; measurement reliability
Online: 9 December 2022 (13:14:04 CET)
(1) Background: The mediolateral patella displacement is of interest for diagnostics and clinically relevant research questions. Apart from manual testing, no standardized method is currently available. Proper quantification of patella mobility is necessary to understand pathologies at the patellofemoral joint better; (2) Methods: Patella mobility was assessed in 25 healthy individuals using a Patellostabilometer, a new prototype instrument for quantification of the mediolateral patella displacement. The participants underwent measurements of the mediolateral displacement three times using the Patellostabilometer. A maximal force of 10N was applied for patella movement. Additionally, leg length, circumference of the knee, upper- and lower leg was measured. (3) Results: Lateral patella displacement of 18.27±3.76 mm (range 15.85-20.64mm, interquartile range (IQR) of 4.79) was measured. The medial patella displacement showed 24.47±6.59mm (range 19.29-29.76mm, IQR of 10.47). The test-retest measurement error was 2.32±1.76mm (IQR of 2.38mm), with five outliers. There was greater test-retest variability between the measurements of the medial displacement comparing to the lateral one (4) Conclusions: The test-retest variability reached 7% of the patella displacement. Other parameters provided no significant correlations. Based on the natural patellofemoral mobility a precise and clinically relevant quantification of patella mobility is allowed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0412.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler; Rational finite element; Absolute nodal coordinate formulation; Variable-length finite element; Sliding joint
Online: 27 January 2022 (11:05:54 CET)
The variable-length arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE)-ANCF finite element, which employ nonrational interpolating polynomials, cannot exactly describe the rational cubic Bezier curves such as conic and circular curves. The rational absolute nodal coordinate formulation (RANCF) finite element, whose reference length (undeformed length) is constant, can exactly represent the rational cubic Bezier curves. A new variable-length finite element called the ALE-RANCF finite element, which is capable of accurately describe the rational cubic Bezier curves, is proposed by combining the desirable features of the ALE-ANCF and RANCF finite element. In order to control the reference length of ALE-RANCF element within a suitable range, element segmentation and merging schemes are proposed. It is demonstrated that exact geometry and mechanic is maintained after the ALE-RANCF element is divided into two shorter ones, and compared with the ALE-ANCF elements, there are smaller deviations and oscillations after two ALE-RANCF elements are merged into a longer one. Numerical examples are presented and the feasibility and advantages of the ALE-RANCF finite element are demonstrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0092.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Climate clubs; Article 6 of the Paris Agreement; assetization; effort-sharing; joint certification mechanism; carbon neutrality
Online: 5 October 2021 (16:04:49 CEST)
Recent times have witnessed an increasing number of countries and private firms pledging carbon neutrality by mid-century. Whilst representing a significant improvement in intentions to tackle climate change, such pledges lack substance and structure. For instance, individual pledges lack coordination and aggregation among peers, while strategies and measures to achieve ambitious targets are largely absent. Moreover, current disagreements obstructing progress in international climate change negotiations further undermine the reliability of carbon neutrality objectives. Effective international policies are needed to foster aggregate mitigation ambitions and the creation of adequate supporting mechanisms. This theoretical paper describes a governance innovation aimed at overcoming such shortfalls and disagreements through a unifying yet customizable pathway towards carbon neutrality. It does so by first outlining a political governance framework based on a climate club interpretation of Article 6 of the Paris Agreement. Secondly, it proposes carbon emission mitigation effort sharing on a per capita basis to ensure efficiency, equity and political feasibility. Thirdly, this paper describes how the supply of certified mitigations of carbon emissions required to satisfy effort sharing-based demand can be assetized as carbon credits by operationalizing Article 6 as a joint certification mechanism. The resulting governance architecture for managing demand and supply of mitigations shifts efforts to tackle climate change from a ‘problem-driven’ cost approach to ‘opportunity-driven’ value creation pathways towards carbon neutrality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0645.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Tectonic joint; Pressure-ridge, Active uplift, Mantle rocks; St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago; Equatorial Atlantic
Online: 26 May 2021 (14:39:49 CEST)
This paper discusses the tectonics of the St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago (SPSPA) in the Equato-rial Atlantic Ocean, based on the joint-system geometry which show a North-South shorten-ing/transpressional uplift tectonism, is active leading to exhumation of the sub-oceanic mantle. These islets are the summits of a sigmoidal submarine ridge formed by mantle ultramafic rocks. The ridge is crossed by the principal transform deformation zone of the northern transform fault of the St. Paul Multifault System. The South flank ridge exposes serpentinized mantle perido-tites, while the North flank exposes strongly deformed/fractured ultramylonites, recording duc-tile and brittle deformation at lithospheric conditions. The SPSPA show multiple joint systems cutting mylonitic foliation of the exposed rocks, forming three main families: high-angle paral-lel joints of tectonic origin, serpentinization-related joints with random direction and load-release low-angle parallel joints. The tectonic joints show an average direction of N31°E and N28°W, forming a conjugate system with a N1ºW compression axes, coherent with a trans-pressive stress field. Accordingly, the earthquakes focal mechanism close to the islets also shows N-S compression. The previously reported active uplift with an average rate of 1.5 mm/year and the directions of the joint system here reported agreeing with a present-day active N-S compres-sive field at a high angle with the direction of the transform fault.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: extreme water level; hydrodynamic model; Monte Carlo; joint probability; model calibration and verification; Danshuei River system
Online: 12 March 2018 (07:56:58 CET)
Estimates of extreme water level return periods in river systems are crucial for hydraulic engineering design and planning. Recorded historical water level data of Taiwan’s rivers are not long enough for traditional frequency analyses when predicting extreme water levels for different return periods. In this study, the integration of a one-dimensional flash flood routing hydrodynamic model with the Monte Carlo simulation was developed to predict extreme water levels in the Danshuei River system of northern Taiwan. The numerical model was calibrated and verified with observed water levels using four typhoon events. The results indicated a reasonable agreement between the model simulation and observation data. Seven parameters, including the astronomical tide and surge height at the mouth of the Danshuei River and the river discharge at five gauge stations, were adopted to calculate the joint probability and generate stochastic scenarios via the Monte Carlo simulation. The validated hydrodynamic model driven by the stochastic scenarios was then used to simulate extreme water levels for further frequency analysis. The design water level was estimated using different probability distributions in the frequency analysis at five stations. The design high-water levels for a 200-year return period at Guandu Bridge, Taipei Bridge, Hsin-Hai Bridge, Da-Zhi Bridge, and Chung-Cheng Bridge were 2.90 m, 5.13 m, 6.38 m, 6.05 m, and 9.94 m, respectively. The estimated design water levels plus the freeboard are proposed and recommended for further engineering design and planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0011.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: intrinsically conductive polymers; piezoresistance; polyaniline; sensing array; orthopaedic joint implants; reverse total shoulder arthroplasty; conjugated polymers
Online: 3 August 2017 (12:40:16 CEST)
Load transfer through orthopaedic joint implants is poorly understood. The longer-term outcomes of these implants are just starting to be studied, making it imperative to monitor contact loads across the entire joint implant interface to elucidate the force transmission and distribution mechanisms exhibited by these implants in service. This study proposes and demonstrates the design, implementation, and characterization of a 3D-printed smart polymer sensor array using conductive polyaniline (PANI) structures embedded within a polymeric parent phase. The piezoresistive characteristics of PANI were studied to characterize the sensing behaviours inherent to these embedded pressure sensor arrays. PANI's stable response to a continuous load, its stability throughout loading and unloading cycles, and its repeatable and linear response to incremental loading cycles together with the accuracy of these measurements were investigated. It is demonstrated that this specially developed multi-material additive manufacturing process for polyaniline is an attractive approach for the fabrication of implant components having embedded smart-polymer sensors for the measurement and analysis of joint loads in orthopaedic implants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0104.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: Bell’s theorem; EPR paradox; quantum entanglement; non-locality; classical superposition; quantum superposition; Malus’ law; joint measurements; correlation
Online: 25 November 2022 (04:36:01 CET)
The EPR paradox was caused by the provision that quantum variables must have pre-existing values. This type of “hidden property realism” was later falsified by Bell’s Theorem. Accordingly, the physical basis for action-at-a-distance between entangled quanta was removed. Yet, modern interpretations present Bell’s inequality as a Locality Criterion, as if Bell violations can only happen at the quantum level, and only with remote interactions. This is a questionable practice, considering that classical joint measurements also violate such inequalities for mutually exclusive wave properties. In particular, consecutive measurements of polarization produce the same coef-ficients of correlation as parallel measurements with entangled quanta, yet they are explicitly local. Furthermore, it is possible to combine parallel and consecutive measurements of Type I polariza-tion-entangled photons in a single experiment, conclusively showing that quantum Bell violations can be local. Surprisingly, classical phenomena also require nonlocal interpretations if pre-existing properties are taken for granted. Hence, the solution is to reject the models with pre-existing properties for both classical and quantum wave-like phenomena.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0406.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: finite element model updating; soil-structure interaction; system identification; joint system and input identification; Bayesian estimation; Millikan Library
Online: 22 November 2022 (04:23:22 CET)
We present a finite element model updating technique for soil-structure system identification of the Millikan Library building using the seismic data recorded during the 2002 Yorba Linda earthquake. A detailed finite element (FE) model of the Millikan Library building is developed in OpenSees and updated using a sequential Bayesian estimation approach for joint parameter and input identification. A two-step system identification approach is devised. First, the fixed-base structural model is updated to estimate the structural model parameters (including effective elastic modulus of structural components, distributed floor mass, and Rayleigh damping parameters) and some uncertain components of the foundation-level motion. Then, the identified structural model is used for soil-structure model updating wherein the Rayleigh damping parameters, the stiffness and viscosity of the soil subsystem (modeled using a substructure approach), and the foundation input motions (FIMs) are estimated. The identified model parameters are compared with state-of-practice recommendations. While a specific application is made for the Millikan Library, the present work offers a framework for integrating large-scale FE models with measurement data for model inversion. By utilizing this framework for different civil structures and earthquake records, key structural model parameters can be estimated from the real-world recorded data, which can subsequently be used for assessing and improving, as necessary, state-of-the-art seismic analysis and structural modeling techniques. This paper presents an effort towards using real-world measurements for large-scale FE model updating in the soil and structure, uniform soil time domain for joint parameter and input estimation, and thus paves the way for future applications in system identification, health monitoring and diagnosis of civil structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0035.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: anatomical calibration; sensor-to-segment calibration; kinematic constraints; human motion analysis; elbow joint; inertial sensor; inertial measurement unit
Online: 2 November 2022 (02:42:12 CET)
Human motion analysis using inertial measurement units (IMUs) has recently been shown to provide accuracy similar to the gold standard, marker-based optical motion capture, but at much lower costs and while being less restrictive and time-consuming. However, IMU-based motion analysis requires precise knowledge of the orientation in which the sensor is attached to the body segments. This knowledge is commonly obtained via an anatomical calibration procedure based on precisely defined poses or motions, which is time-consuming and error-prone. In the present work, we propose a self-calibrating approach for magnetometer-free joint angle tracking that is suitable for joints with two degrees of freedom (DoF), such as the elbow, ankle, and metacarpophalangeal finger joints. The proposed methods exploit kinematic constraints to simultaneously identify the joint axes and the heading offset. The experimental evaluation shows that the proposed methods are able to estimate plausible and consistent joint axes from just ten seconds of arbitrary elbow joint motion. Comparison with optical motion capture shows that the proposed methods yield joint angles with similar accuracy as a conventional IMU-based method while being much less restrictive. Therefore, the proposed methods improve the practical usability of IMU-based motion tracking in many clinical and biomedical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0645.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: composite-metal joint; electric vehicles; carbon nanotubes; polymer adhesive; thermal strain measurement; coefficient of thermal expansion; strain mismatch
Online: 30 October 2020 (14:43:01 CET)
Metallic substrates and polymer adhesive in composite-metal joints have a relatively large coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch, which is a barrier in the growing market of electric vehicles and their battery structures. It is reported that adding carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to the adhesive reduces the CTE of the CNT enhanced polymer adhesive multi-material system, therefore when used in adhesively bonded joints it would, theoretically, result in low CTE mismatch in the joint system. The current article presents the influence of two specific mass ratios of CNTs on the CTE of the enhanced polymer. It was observed that the addition of 1.0 wt% and 2.68 wt% of multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) decreased the CTE of the polymer adhesive from 7.5e-5 1/C (pristine level) to 5.87e-5 1/C and 4.43e-5 1/C, respectively by 22% and 41% reduction. The reduction in the CTE was predicted, theoretically, which showed that CTE should have been reduced to 3.6e-5 1/C (52% reduction) and 1.4e-5 1/C (81% reduction). This may be due to the fact that, Raman spectroscopy of the MWCNTs identified defects in the raw material, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) identified agglomeration of MWCNTs on the surface and cross-section of the modified polymers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0227.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Data integration; Metabolomics; Multi-tissue; Multiblock; Joint and unique multiblock analysis (JUMBA), OnPLS; Multiblock Orthogonal Component Analysis (MOCA)
Online: 11 July 2020 (04:01:03 CEST)
Data integration has been proven to provide valuable information. The information extracted using data integration in the form of multiblock analysis can pinpoint both common and unique trends in the different blocks. When working with small multiblock datasets the number of possible integration methods is drastically reduced. To investigate the application of multiblock analysis in cases where one has few number of samples, we studied a small metabolomic multiblock dataset containing six blocks (i.e. tissue types), only including common metabolites. We used a single model multiblock analysis method called Joint and unique multiblock analysis (JUMBA) and compare it to a commonly used method, concatenated PCA. These methods were used to detect trends in the dataset and identify underlying factors responsible for metabolic variations. Using JUMBA, we were able to interpret the extracted components and link them to relevant biological properties. JUMBA shows how the observations are related to one another, the stability of these relationships and to what extent each of the blocks contribute to the components. These results indicate that multiblock methods can be useful even with a small number of samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0167.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: compound flooding; D-vine copula; trivariate joint analysis; Bernstein estimator; Beta kernel estimator; parametric copulas; kernel density estimation; return periods
Online: 12 October 2022 (09:04:04 CEST)
Low-lying coastal communities are often threatened by compound flooding (CF), which can be determined through the joint occurrence of storm surges, rainfall and river discharge either successively or in close succession. The trivariate distribution can demonstrate the risk of the compound phenomenon more realistically rather than considering each contributing factor independently or in a pairwise dependency. Recently vine copula has been recognized as the highly flexible approach to constructing a higher dimensional joint density framework. In such construction, parametric class copula with parametric univariate marginal distributions is often involved. Such incorporation can lack flexibility due to parametric functions with prior distribution assumptions about their univariate marginal and/or copula joint density. This study introduces the vine copula approach in a nonparametric setting by introducing Bernstein and Beta kernel copula density in establishing trivariate flood dependence. The proposed model is applied to 46 years of flood characteristics collected on the west coast of Canada. The univariate flood marginal distribution is modelled using nonparametric kernel density estimation (KDE). The 2-D Bernstein estimator and Beta kernel copulas estimator are tested independently in capturing pairwise dependencies to establish D-vine structure in a stage-wise nesting approach in three alternative ways, each by permutating the location of the conditioning variable. The best-fitted vine structure is selected using goodness-of-fit (GOF) test statistics. The performance of the nonparametric vine approach is also compared with the vine constructed in the parametric and semiparametric fitting procedure. Investigation reveals that the D-vine constructed using Bernstein copula with normal KDE marginals nonparametrically performed well in capturing dependence of the compound events. Finally, the derived nonparametric model is used in the estimation of trivariate OR- and AND-joint return periods, further employed in estimating failure probability (FP) statistics. The trivariate return periods for the AND-joint case are higher than for the OR-joint case for the same flood combination. Also, the trivariate flood hazard results in a high-value FP than bivariate and univariate events. Ignoring the trivariate dependence could result in the underestimation of FP
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1465.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells (MSC); Synovium; Infrapatellar fat pad (IFP); CD10 (neprilysin); PRG4 (lubricin); Exosomes; Immunomodulation; Pain; Chondroprotection; Inflammatory Joint Diseases
Online: 22 May 2023 (05:17:14 CEST)
The onset and progression of human inflammatory joint diseases are strongly controlled by the activation of resident synovium/infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) pro-inflammatory and pain-transmitting signaling. We recently reported that intra-articularly injected IFP-derived Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells (IFP-MSC) acquire a potent immunomodulatory phenotype and actively degrade Substance P (SP) via neutral endopeptidase CD10 (neprilysin). Our hypothesis is that IFP-MSC robust immunomodulatory therapeutic ef-fects are largely exerted via their CD10-bound exosomal secretome (IFP-MSC EXOs) by attenuating synoviocyte pro-inflammatory activation and articular cartilage degradation. Herein, IFP-MSC EXOs were isolated from CD10High- and CD10Low-expressing IFP-MSC cultures and their exosomal miRNA cargo was assessed using multiplex methods. Functionally, we interrogated the effect of CD10High and CD10Low EXOs on stimulated by inflammatory/fibrotic cues synoviocytes monocultures and cocultures with IFP-MSC de-rived chondropellets. Finally, CD10High EXOs were tested in vivo for their therapeutic capacity in an animal model of acute synovitis/fat pad fibrosis. Our results showed that CD10High and CD10Low EXOs possess distinct miRNA profiles. Reactome analysis of miRNAs highly present in exosomes showed their involvement in the regulation of six gene groups, particularly the immune system. Stimulated synoviocytes exposed to IFP-MSC EXOs demonstrated significantly reduced proliferation and altered inflammation-related molecular profiles compared to control stimulated synoviocytes. Importantly, CD10High EXOs treatment of stimulated chondropellets/synoviocytes cocultures indicated a significant chondroprotective effects. Therapeutically, CD10High EXOs treatment resulted in robust chondroprotective effects by retaining articular cartilage structure/composition and PRG4 (lubricin)-expressing cartilage cells in the animal model of acute synovitis/IFP fibrosis. Our study suggests that CD10High EXOs possess immuno-modulatory miRNA attributes with strong chondroprotective/anabolic effects for articular cartilage in vivo. The results could serve as a foundation for EXOs-based therapeutics for the resolution of detrimental aspects of immune-mediated inflammatory joint changes associated with conditions such as osteoarthritis (OA).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0392.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: antimicrobial stewardship; detection of bacteria in chronic wounds, chronic wounds, clinical decision support; diagnostic pathway; joint commission; fluorescence imaging; wound clinic
Online: 19 October 2020 (15:35:25 CEST)
Background: In 2014 the World Health Organization (WHO) warned of an emerging world-wide crisis of antibiotic resistant microorganisms. In response, government and professional organizations recommended that health care systems adopt antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs). In the United States, the Centers for Medicare Services (CMS) mandated antimicrobial stewardship in the hospital inpatient setting. Effective January 1, 2020, the Joint Commission required ambulatory centers that prescribe antibiotics, such as wound centers, to institute an ASP. Chronic wounds often remain open for months, during which time patients may receive multiple courses of antibiotics and numerous antimicrobial topical treatments. The wound clinician plays an integral role in reducing antimicrobial resistance in the outpatient setting: antibiotics prescribed for skin and soft tissue infections are among the most common in an outpatient setting. One of the most challenging aspects of antimicrobial stewardship in treating chronic wounds is the inaccuracy of bacterial and infection diagnosis. Methods: Joint Commission lists five elements of performance (EP): (1) Identifying an antimicrobial stewardship leader, (2) establishing an annual antimicrobial stewardship goal, (3) implementing evidence-based practice guidelines related to the antimicrobial stewardship goal, (4) providing clinical staff with educational resources related to the antimicrobial stewardship goal, and (5) collecting, analyzing, and reporting data related to the antimicrobial stewardship goal. This article focuses on choosing and implementing an evidence-based ASP goal for 2020. Discussion: Clinical trials have demonstrated the ability of fluorescence imaging (MLiX) to detect clinically significant levels of bacteria in chronic wounds. Combined with clinical examination of signs and symptoms of infection, the MLiX procedure improves the clinician’s ability to diagnose infection and can guide antimicrobial use. In order to satisfy the elements of performance, the MLiX procedure was incorporated into the annual ASP goal for several wound care centers. Clinicians were educated on the fluorescence imaging device and guidelines were instituted. Collection of antimicrobial utilization data is underway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0316.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: long-span steel structure truss; variable axial force cable; 3D3S finite element model; joint plate analysis; variable system reinforcement combination stiffness; load domain
Online: 17 March 2023 (03:33:39 CET)
Long-span steel structure trusses are widely used in factory buildings, but with the growth of service time and the increase of dynamic load fatigue, a considerable part of the long-span truss with dynamic load appears serious transverse cracks at the bottom of the middle span and oblique deformation of the abdomen in the operation process. The U-shaped cracks at the bottom and belly, as well as the mid-span down deflection of the main truss, reduced the functional function of the factory building truss structure, and had to limit the original crane load, which affected the normal safety and durability of the structure. Therefore, the application principle of the variable axial force cable system in the long-span factory building truss structure and 3D3S software modeling  were used. Analyzing and studying the reinforcement method of large-span powerhouse truss can provide practical experience for subsequent similar projects. In view of the above phenomenon, the large-span powerhouse trusses of Hongcheng Powerhouse 1 and No.2 located in Tonglu, Zhejiang Province are used as the research object, and the variable axial force cable method is proposed to strengthen and lift the load. Considering the span of large-span powerhouse truss, the cable system with 22m controlling force of 400kN is proposed to be selected for powerhouse 1, and the cable system with variable axial force of 24m is proposed to be selected for Powerhouse 2. The force model of large-span truss is established by using the finite element method commonly used to analyze the force of truss. Under two working conditions, The influence of reinforcement effect is analyzed and compared from three aspects: stiffness, bearing capacity and stability. And the phenomenon of uneven stress distribution is analyzed. The stress distribution characteristics of each node are understood by simulating the most disadvantageous node plates with the greatest internal force before and after reinforcement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0415.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Precision stage; Balanced platform; Balancing weight; Drive force offset; Yaw motion; Abbe er-ror; Error prediction; Low-cost stage; Open frame stage; Linear motion guide (LM Guide); Py-thon; GEKKO; ANSYS bushing joint
Online: 23 November 2021 (09:47:56 CET)
Recently, due to the miniaturization of electronic products, printed circuit boards (PCBs) have also become smaller. This trend has led to the need for high-precision electrical test equipment to check PCBs for disconnections and short circuits. The purpose of this study is to improve the position repeatability of the platform unit up to ±2.5 μm in a linear stage type test equipment. For this purpose, the causes of position errors of the platform unit are analyzed. The platform unit holding the PCB is driven by a single-axis linear ball screw drive system offset from its geometric center due to design constraints. The yaw rotation of the platform is found to have a dominant effect on position repeatability. To address this problem, the methods of adding balancing weights to the platform unit and adjusting the stiffness of LM Guides are proposed. This reduces the yaw rotation by moving the centers of mass and stiffness closer to the linear ball screw actuator. In the verification tests, the position repeatability was decreased to less than ±1.0 μm.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0053.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Systemic risk; Systemically Important Firms(SIFs); Stock Price; Stock Price (Close); Stock Price (Open); Stock Price: Bid; Stock Price: Ask; Stock Price: Spread; Joint Probability of Distress(JPoD); Banking Stability Index (BSI); Co-Risk Model
Online: 15 February 2017 (10:40:33 CET)
The Estimation of systemic risk in India is still in its infancy stage. There are several methods which are available but none of the methods are fully compatible to forecast the systemic risk since under different circumstances the factors responsible for the risk differs. In this paper the systemic risk estimation in India being carried out based on spread in daily stock market price(Difference between the bid and ask price of a share) of the top 100 firms in India according to market capitalization for the period of July2007 to March 2016. The results were compared with the Financial Stability Report published by Reserve Bank Of India for the period of March 2010 to June 2016.The results clearly indicates that there exits relationship between market illiquidity represented by spread and risks associated with the Financial System. In most of the cases the Z score (deviation from the mean/Standard Deviation) of the spread has become negative which provides the spread which is farther from the mean, also a good indicator of volatility in market and risk to financial system. It is also seen that the Systemic Risk Survey conducted by Reserve Bank of India which started during October 2011 has supported the results.