Pham, T.M.; Erichsen, J.L.; Kowal, J.M.; Overgaard, S.; Schmal, H. Elevation of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Levels Following Intra-Articular Fractures—A Systematic Review. Cells2021, 10, 902.
Pham, T.M.; Erichsen, J.L.; Kowal, J.M.; Overgaard, S.; Schmal, H. Elevation of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Levels Following Intra-Articular Fractures—A Systematic Review. Cells 2021, 10, 902.
Intra-articular fractures are a major cause of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Despite adequate surgical treatment, the long-term risk for PTOA is high. Previous studies reported that joint injuries initiate an inflammatory cascade characterized by elevation of synovial pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can lead to cartilage degradation and PTOA development. This review summarizes the literature on the post-injury regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the markers of cartilage destruction in patients suffering from intra-articular fractures. METHODS We searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases (1960–February 2020) and included studies that were performed on human participants and included control groups. Two investigators assessed the quality of the included studies using Covidence and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS Based on the surveyed literature, several synovial pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p70, interferon-y, and tumor necrosis factor-α, were significantly elevated in patients suffering from intra-articular fractures compared to control. A simultaneous elevation of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and IL-1RA was also observed. In contrast, IL-13, CTX-II, and aggrecan concentrations did not differ significantly between the compared cohorts. CONCLUSIONS Overall, intra-articular fractures are associated with an increase in inflammation-related synovial cytokines. However, more standardized studies which focus on the ratio of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines at different time points are needed.
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