ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0412.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: deep learning; hydraulic conductivity; convolutional neural networks; groundwater
Online: 15 April 2021 (12:25:05 CEST)
We confirm that energy dissipation weighting provides the most accurate approach to determining the effective hydraulic conductivity (Keff) of a binary K grid. A deep learning algorithm (UNET) can infer Keff with extremely high accuracy (R2 > 0.99). The UNET architecture could be trained to infer the energy dissipation weighting pattern from an image of the K distribution with high fidelity, although it was less accurate for cases with highly localized structures that controlled flow. Furthermore, the UNET architecture learned to infer the energy dissipation weighting even if it was not trained on this information directly. However, the weights were represented within the UNET in a way that was not immediately interpretable by a human user. This reiterates the idea that even if ML/DL algorithms are trained to make some hydrologic predictions accurately, they must be designed and trained to provide each user-required output if their results are to be used to improve our understanding of hydrologic systems most effectively.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0618.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Interpolation; Hydraulic Conductivity; Multi-Point Geostatistics; Training Image
Online: 26 February 2021 (12:47:53 CET)
Hydraulic conductivity is the key and one of the most uncertain parameters in groundwater modeling. The grid based numerical simulation require spatial distribution of sampled hydraulic conductivity at un-sampled locations in the study area. This spatial interpolation has been routinely performed using variogram based models (two-point geostatistics methods). These traditional techniques fail to capture the complex geological structures, provides smoothing effects and ignore the higher order moments of subsurface heterogeneities. In this work, a multiple-point geostatistics (MPS) method is applied to interpolate hydraulic conductivity data which will be further used in WASH123D numerical groundwater simulation model for regional smart groundwater management. To do this, MPS need ‘training images (TIs) as a key input. TI is a conceptual model of subsurface geological heterogeneity which was developed by using concept of ages, topographic slope as an index criteria and knowledge of geologist. After considerations of full physics of study area, an example shows the advantages of using multiple-point geostatistics compared with the traditional two-point geostatistics methods (such as Kriging) for the interpolation of hydraulic conductivity data in a complex geological formation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0138.v2
Online: 13 October 2020 (14:16:33 CEST)
The hydraulic fracturing is studied by using dimensional analysis. A universal scaling law of the hydraulic fracturing is obtained. This simple relation has not been seen in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0147.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: energy dissipation; hydraulic jump; Froude number; stilling basin with shallow-water cushion; large eddy simulation; hydraulic characteristics
Online: 23 October 2017 (08:30:57 CEST)
The water cushion depth of stilling basin with shallow-water cushion is a key factor that affects the flow regime of hydraulic jump in the basin. However, the specific depth at which the water cushion is considered as “shallow” has not be stated clearly for now, and only conceptual description is provided. This paper attempts to specify the best water cushion depth based on the flow regime of hydraulic jump and underflow speed; namely, in case of critical hydraulic jump in the basin, the best water cushion depth is located where the minimum distance to the bottom plate of the stilling basin is 1/5~1/4 of the water cushion depth. The theoretical analysis indicates, at different inclinations of discharge chute (θ) and depth ratios of inlet (m), instead of monotonic change, the Froude number (Fr) at inlet of the stilling basin with shallow-water cushion firstly reduces and then increases as the flow velocity at discharge chute inlet (V) increases; the parameters of inflection point (critical flow velocity and critical Fr) increase as the inclinations of discharge chute (θ) and depth ratios of inlet (m) increase. Such regularity is the theoretical basis for selecting representative study cases. The reliability of the large eddy simulation calculation results are verified by a model test; in the paper, 30 cases including five different Froude numbers and six shallow-water cushion depths are selected, for calculating the hydraulic factors such as flow profile, flow regime and flow velocity in the stilling basin with shallow-water cushion; and the varying pattern between the best depth of stilling basin with shallow-water cushion (depth-to-length ratio) and the inflow Froude number is obtained which indicates that the best depth of stilling basin with shallow-water cushion varies little as the change of the Froude number before reaching the critical Froude number; however, the best depth-to-length ratio of stilling basin with shallow-water cushion increases as the Froude number increases after the critical Froude number is reached. The study results in this paper are of reference significance to design and calculation of the stilling basin with shallow-water cushion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0376.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: flood damage methodology; hydraulic infrastructure; resilience; indicators
Online: 25 January 2022 (10:27:21 CET)
Critical infrastructures are those that are essential. For this type of infrastructure, it is necessary to implement analytical methodologies that will allow us to quickly obtain the susceptibility or resilience and possible damage generated in extreme precipitation episodes, through a holistic perspective in which the factors linked to hydrological risk intervene. In particular, urban hydraulic infrastructures are analyzed considering the degree of criticality, defined as the number of interactions on the different activities of the population. For this purpose, a hydrological risk analysis methodology is required. This methodology is focused on an integral approach of the system indicators to be analyzed and linked to the hydrological threat. This work proposes to delimit and analyze those factors that involve risk using an analytical expression. This model will estimate the damage to these infrastructures breaking down the factors involved in the risk equation and analyzing their variability according to the intrinsic characteristics linked to them as well as the interaction with external factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0400.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: gauging weirs; impact; swimming performance; hydraulic barriers
Online: 22 November 2021 (14:05:33 CET)
The monitoring of river discharge is vital for the correct management of water resources. A worldwide facility used for measuring discharge are flat-V gauging weirs. These structures consist of a small weir, with a triangular cross-section and a flat “V”-shaped notch. Their extensive use is a consequence of their utility in the measurement of both low and high flow conditions. However, depending on their size, local morphology and river discharge can act as full or partial hydraulic barriers to fish migration. To give answer to this question, the present work studies fish passage performance over flat-V weirs considering their hydraulic performance. For this, radio-tracking and video monitoring observations were combined with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models in two flat-V weirs, using Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei) as target species. Results show that fish passage is conditioned by both hydraulic and behavioral processes, providing evidences about the scenarios where flat-V weirs may act as full or partial barriers to upstream movements. For the studied flat-V weirs, a discharge range of 0.27-8 m3/s, with a water drop difference between upstream and downstream water levels lower than 0.7 m and a depth downstream the weir higher than 0.30 m can be considered as an effective passage situation for barbels. These findings are of interest to quantify flat-V weir impacts, for engineering applications and to establish managing or retrofitting actions when required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0198.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: transplanter; hydraulic oil; temperature; viscosity; proportional valve
Online: 18 January 2020 (09:24:36 CET)
This study was conducted to develop a PID control algorithm considering viscosity for the planting depth control system of a rice transplanter using various hydraulic oils at different temperatures and to evaluate the performance of the control algorithm, and compare the performance of the PID control algorithm without considering viscosity and considering viscosity. In this study, the simulation model of the planting depth control system and a PID control algorithm were developed based on the power flow of the rice transplanter (ERP60DS). The primary PID coefficients were determined using the Ziegler–Nichols (Z–N) second method. Routh’s stability criteria were applied to optimize the coefficients. The pole and double zero points of the PID controller were also applied to minimize the sustained oscillations of the responses. The performance of the PID control algorithm was evaluated for three ISO (The International Organization for Standardization) standard viscosity grade (VG) hydraulic oils (VG 32, 46, and 68). The results show that the control algorithm considering viscosity is able to control the pressure of the proportional valve, which is associated with the actuator displacement for various types of hydraulic oils. It was noticed that the maximum pressure was 15.405 bars at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 ℃ for all of the hydraulic oils. The settling time and steady-state errors were 0.45 s at 100 ℃ for VG 32, and 0% for all of the conditions. The maximum overshoots were found to be 17.50% at 100 ℃ for VG 32. On the other hand, the PID control algorithm without considering viscosity could not control the planting depth, because the response was slow and did not satisfy the boundary conditions. The PID control algorithm considering viscosity could sufficiently compensate for the nonlinearity of the hydraulic system and was able to perform for any of temperature-dependent viscosity of the hydraulic oils. In addition, the rice transplanter requires a faster response for accurately controlling and maintaining the planting depth. Planting depth is highly associated with actuator displacement. Finally, this control algorithm considering viscosity could be helpful in minimizing the tilting of the seedlings planted using the rice transplanter. Ultimately, it would improve the transplanter performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0308.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: PLC programming, hydraulic pulse system, state machine programming,
Online: 17 September 2018 (12:19:56 CEST)
In the paper is described the control electronics for an industrial pneumatic – hydraulic system based on a low-cost PLC. The developed system is a hydraulic pulse system and it generates series of high pressure hydraulic pulses (max. 200 bar). We describe requirements, an overall concept of the embedded control system, user interface, security features and network connectivity. In the description of the software solution we describe implementation of hierarchical ordered program threads (multithreaded program) and main control state machine. At the conclusion, we describe the calibration method of the system and calibration curves and we present the schematic diagram and a photo of a functional prototype of the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0202.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: urban flood; hydrologic and hydraulic modeling; retention structures
Online: 15 May 2018 (06:03:58 CEST)
Flooding and overflows are recurring problems in several Brazilian cities, which usually undergo disorderly development. Their causes vary from increased impervious surface areas, deficiency/inefficiency of drainage structures and their maintenance, siltation of rivers, channel obstructions, and climatic factors. This situation is aggravated in the major cities. The Anhangabau watershed lies in the central portion of the city of Sao Paulo – Brazil and covers a drainage area of 5.4 km². The region is highly urbanized and crossed by a major north-south road connection. During heavy rain events, portions of this interconnection passage become compromised, disrupting the flow of vehicles, creating a chaotic situation for the population, as well as losses to the national economy. Observed rainfall records and an existing IDF (intensity duration frequency) curve for the region are used to obtain design storms. To account for climate change, a well know procedure, the equidistance quantile matching method for updating IDF curves under climate change, was applied to the existing historical data. Several different global climate models (GCM) and one regional model were applied to obtain and update rainfall design storm. The GCMs and future scenarios used were from the IPCC Assessment Report 5 (AR5) and two future projections: RCP (representative concentration pathway) 4.5 and 8.5. Alternatives previously proposed to solve to flooding issue are briefly reviewed. On one of the latest studies , a few modern concepts of water resources management are presented, and the linear retention measure was found to offer higher potential to mitigate the flooding problem in the lower valley of the watershed. Therefore, this alternative was used to evaluate different design storms scenarios combined with return periods of 25 and 100-years as well as the updated IDF under climate change for RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. To model the complex network, representing both road and drainage systems and their interconnections, PCSWMM/SWMM software was applied. Results are presented as flooding maps and show the impacts of the proposed linear retention measure based on the existing IDF curves and the updated IDF curves under climate change for two different drainage system conditions, current and improved with the use of linear retention reservoirs. Results show that the prosed changes on the drainage system help reduce the risk and damage to flooding. The climate change scenarios, however, impose a significant threat and need immediate attention from city planners and stakeholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0179.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: methane; desorption; hydraulic; thermal; high pressure water injection
Online: 10 May 2018 (08:22:23 CEST)
Moisture and thermal are the key factors for influencing methane desorption during CBM exploitation. Using high pressure water injection technology into coalbed, new fractures and pathways are formed to methane transport. It is existed a phenomenon of water inhibiting gas flow. This study is focused on various water pressures impacted on gas adsorbed coal samples, then the desorption capacity could be revealed under different conditions. And the results are shown that methane desorption capacity was decreased with water pressure increased at room temperature and the downtrend would be steady until water pressure was large enough. Heating could promote gas desorption capacity effectively, with the increasing of water injection pressures, the promotion of thermal on desorption became more obvious. These results are expected to provide a clearer understanding of theoretical efficiency of heat water or steam injection into coalbed, they can provide some theoretical and experimental guidance on CBM production and methane control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0077.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: energy saving; PAT; Urban Hydraulic Network; numerical modeling
Online: 19 October 2016 (10:17:33 CEST)
Small and micro hydropower represents an attractive solution for electricity generation, with low cost and low environmental impact. The pump-as-turbine (PAT) approach has promise in this application owing to its low purchase and maintenance costs. In this paper, a new method to predict the inverse characteristic of industrial centrifugal pumps is presented. This method is based on results of simulations performed with commercial three-dimensional CFD software. Model results have been first validated in pumping mode using data supplied by pump manufacturers. Then, results have been compared to experimental data for a pump running in reverse condition. Experimentation has been performed on a dedicated test bench installed in the Department of Civil Construction and Environmental Engineering of the University of Naples Federico II. Three different pumps, with different specific speeds, have been analyzed. Using the model results, the inverse characteristic and the best efficiency point have been evaluated. Finally, results of this methodology have been compared to prediction methods available in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0194.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: urban drainage; SWMM5.1; land use; hydraulic performance; Shire Endaslasse
Online: 9 October 2020 (10:26:40 CEST)
The stormwater drainage problem is one of the major challenges facing in Shire Endaslasse town, Ethiopia. In a town, Street flooding and overtopping drainage system problems are occurring during the rainy season. This causes ponding which poses difficulties in ease of transportation and it hinders the day-to-day activity of the people. So, the study focuses on the performance of the stormwater drainage system in Shire Endaslasse town using Arc GIS and SWMM5.1. For this study, the primary data were collected by field surveys and interviews with the council body. Simulation results for storm events show that in some of the drainage systems in different regions of Shire Endaslasse town have flooded. During the field observation, the drainage structures are filled with solid wastes, inadequate inlet and outlet structures and some of the top element of the manhole have been broken this may cause a problem of aesthetic and healthy at large it may increase flood risk. The flooding risk in the drainage systems is very high due to the drainage system is undersized to cope with the current rainfall rates, but also is very limited to face the upcoming predicted rainfall.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0149.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Water Demand; Water Supply; Performance; Hydraulic Modeling; Water GEMSV8i
Online: 11 February 2020 (14:52:17 CET)
This study was conducted generally by aiming assessment of the hydraulic performance of water distribution systems of Addis Ababa Science and Technology University (AASTU). In line with the main objective, this study addressed, (1) pinpointing problems of existing water supply versus demand deficit (2) evaluating the hydraulic performance of water distribution system using water GEMS and (3) recommended alternative methods for improving water demand scenarios. The University’s water supply distribution network layout was a looped system and the flow of water derived by both gravity and pressurized system. The gravity flow served for the academic and administrative staffs whereas the pressurized system of the network fed the students dormitories, cafeteria’s etc. The study revealed the existence of unmet minimum pressure requirement around the student dormitories which accounts 25.64% below the country’s building code standard during the peak hour consumption. The result of the water demand projection showed an increment of 2.5 liter per capita demand (LPCD) in every five years. Hence, first, the university’s water demand was projected and then hydraulic parameters such as; pressure, head loss and velocity were modeled for both the existing and the improved water supply distribution. The finding of the study was recommended to the university’s water supply project and institutional development offices for its future modification and rehabilitation works.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0050.v3
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: MPM Formula, Shield’s Number, Sediment Transport, Sediment Motion, Hydraulic Regime
Online: 9 April 2019 (12:31:43 CEST)
In this paper is discussed sediment transport as a mechanical process that characterises a natural stream or channel flow regime. The objective of experimental work presented in this paper is to recall and to give another prospect of well-known Meyer-Peter and Müller approach for estimation of Shield’s number (θ_c,θ) in laboratory conditions, and calibration of dimensionless MPM number (A). For this purpose two different experiments are conducted, during the first experiment water amount flushed on the flume and bed slope was changed simultaneously until equilibrium state is achieved, meanwhile is estimated the critical Shield’s number (θ_c). While, during the second experiment, water amount was kept constant, only bed slope of flume was continuously tilted, meanwhile sediment, discharge and Shield’s number (θ) was determined for given hydraulic conditions. In addition calibration of dimensionless MPM number (A) was performed, where several iteration were considered until for (A=3.42), sediment discharge measured become almost equal with sediment discharge computed by using MPM formula. After these experiments, is concluded that MPM formula can be used also for other certain initial condition and similar procedure may be adopted to calibrate the dimensionless MPM number (A) .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0282.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: hydraulic fracturing; hollow cylinder; single fracture; fault activation; induced seismicity
Online: 22 May 2018 (05:04:47 CEST)
Pre-existing fracture and secondary cracks in rock mass are formed by natural power, such as magma condensed to igneous rocks and tectonic movement. The orientation and inclination of these fractures obey certain laws relating to the stress, temperature, minerals, water and so on. Therefore, cracks react differently under the same external loading on the condition of various inclination, fissure apertures, stiffness and joint roughness. To simulate the crack propagation, experiments on hollow cylinder cut by one oblique interface mimicking single fracture accumulated numerous data discovering the failure criterion in accordance with the Mohr-Coulomb criterion. And theory on the Terzaghi’s effective principle take an essential role in controlling the behavior of triggering fault. This paper introduced a series of oblique plane cutting the cylinder regarded as fractures at different inclination to concentrate on how the fracture characteristics effect the stress and strain distribution inside the specimen, especially, the relationship between displacement and water head. The key point of this numerical simulation is coupling the solid phase and the fluid phase, specifically, the mechanic and seepage field. According to the statics, curves referring to deformation and water head could be described as increasing lines. Besides, simulation on coupling solid phase and fluid phase can supply crucial evaluation on activating existing fault, and thus predicting induced seismicity in reservoirs or estimating damage in shale gas exploration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0345.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: cobalt-rich crusts; mobile drilling rig; hydraulic propulsion system; dynamic simulation
Online: 14 December 2020 (14:42:57 CET)
At present, the drilling rig for deep seabed shallow strata is widely used in the exploration of ocean cobalt-rich crust resources and other fields, which not only can obtain solid core samples at a specific station, but the operation process is relatively safe. This paper mainly presents the structure and mechanism of mobile drilling rig in acquiring the seafloor cores (up to 1.5 m long). Based on the function of the AMESim software, the hydraulic propulsion system model of mobile drilling rig is established, which is the basis and core part of the mobile drilling rig. Moreover, the control methods of closed-loop and PID are respectively used to control the hydraulic propulsion system for simulation analysis. Through the comparison of simulation results, it is found that the PID control method is more convincing in verifying the design rationality of hydraulic propulsion system. In the simulation of the PID-controlled hydraulic propulsion system, the co-simulation technology of AMESim and Matlab/Simulink not only establishes the hydraulic model and control model, but also determines the relevant simulation parameters, which is helpful to improve the system simulation efficiency. In its verification deployment in the South China Sea, the mobile drilling rig has been operated for many times at different depths, and some cores have been successfully obtained. Furthermore, the mobile drilling rig has been used during the 55th Voyage of China Oceanic Scientific Expedition supported by China Ocean Mineral Resources R&D Association. Several sites were explored and a large number of cobalt-rich crust cores were obtained. The powerful theory and sea trails are provided to support for the further research on survey of the abyssal resource.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0425.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: hydraulic conductivity; pedotransfer function; prediction uncertainty; random forest; soil water retention
Online: 28 February 2020 (12:06:14 CET)
Soil hydraulic properties are often derived indirectly, i.e. computed from easily available soil properties with pedotransfer functions (PTFs), when those are needed for catchment, regional or continental scale applications. When predicted soil hydraulic parameters are used for the modelling of the state and flux of water in soils, uncertainty of the computed values can provide more detailed information when drawing conclusions. The aim of this study was to update the previously published European PTFs (Tóth et al., 2015, euptf v1.4.0) by providing prediction uncertainty calculation built into the transfer functions. The new set of algorithms was derived for point predictions of soil water content at saturation (0 cm matric potential head), field capacity (both -100 and -330 cm matric potential head), wilting point (-15.000 cm matric potential head), plant available water, and saturated hydraulic conductivity, as well as the Mualem-van Genuchten model parameters of the moisture retention and hydraulic conductivity curve. The minimum set of input properties for the prediction is soil depth and sand, silt and clay content. The effect of including additional information like soil organic carbon content, bulk density, calcium carbonate content, pH and cation exchange capacity were extensively analysed. The PTFs were derived adopting the random forest method. The advantage of the new PTFs is that they i) provide information about prediction uncertainty, ii) are significantly more accurate than the euptfv1, iii) can be applied for more predictor variable combinations than the euptfv1, 32 instead of 5, and iv) are now also derived for the prediction of water content at -100 cm matric potential head and plant available water content.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0300.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Hardy cross method; pipe networks; piping systems; hydraulic networks; gas distribution
Online: 28 January 2019 (11:05:06 CET)
Hardy Cross originally proposed a method for analysis of flow in networks of conduits or conductors in 1936. His method was the first really useful engineering method in the field of pipe network calculation. Only electrical analogs of hydraulic networks were used before the Hardy Cross method. A problem with the flow resistance versus the electrical resistance makes these electrical analog methods obsolete. The method by Hardy Cross is taught extensively at faculties and it still remains an important tool for analysis of looped pipe systems. Engineers today mostly use a modified Hardy Cross method which threats the whole looped network of pipes simultaneously (use of these methods without computers is practically impossible). A method from the Russian practice published during 1930s, which is similar to the Hardy Cross method, is described, too. Some notes from the life of Hardy Cross are also shown. Finally, an improved version of the Hardy Cross method, which significantly reduces number of iterations, is presented and discussed. Also we tested multi-point iterative methods which can be used as substitution for the Newton-Raphson approach used by Hardy Cross, but this approach didn’t reduce number of required iterations to reach the final balanced solution. Although, many new models have been developed since the time of Hardy Cross, main purpose of this paper is to illustrate the very beginning of modeling of gas and water pipe networks or ventilation systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0044.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: pump hydraulic performance; optimization design; response surface method; parameterization; meridional plane
Online: 5 February 2018 (16:05:10 CET)
This paper studies the optimization method of pump hydraulic performance based on the response surface method. A parametric model of impeller and diffuser is established. Three-dimensional optimization is carried out on the basis of the initial model obtained by one-dimensional design method. We select the pump hydraulic efficiency and the head as objective function and constraint function. Response surface models are constructed to analyze the relationship between the objectives and the design variables, and the global optimization of hydraulic performance is realized. According to the internal flow characteristics of pump, this paper proposes the strategy of two steps optimization, which aims at meridional plane and blade shape, respectively, to solve the problem of large numbers of design parameters and computational cost. The optimization results show that the hydraulic efficiency of pump increased by 3.7%, and the head is nearly the same.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0078.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: printed circuit heat exchanger; airfoil fin; supercritical LNG; thermal-hydraulic performance
Online: 12 October 2017 (05:19:21 CEST)
As a new kind of highly compact and efficient micro-channel heat exchanger, printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) is a promising candidate satisfying the heat exchange requirements of liquefied natural gas (LNG) vaporization at low and high pressure. The effects of airfoil fin arrangement on heat transfer an flow resistance were numerically investigated using supercritical liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a working fluid. The thermal properties of supercritical LNG were tested by utilizing a REFPROF software database. Numerical simulation was performed using FLUENT. The inlet temperature of supercritical LNG was 121 K,and its pressure was 10.5MPa. The reference mass flow rate of LNG was set 1.22 g/s for the vertical pitch Lv = 1.67 mm and the staggered pitch Ls = 0 mm, with the Reynolds number of about 3750. The SST k-ω model with enhanced wall treatment was selected by comparing with the experimental data. The airfoil fin PCHE had better thermal-hydraulic performance than that of the straight channel PCHE. Moreover, the airfoil fins with staggered arrangement displayed better thermal performance than that of the fins with parallel arrangement. The thermal-hydraulic performance of airfoil fin PCHE was improved with increasing Ls and Lv. Moreover, Lv affected on the Nusselt number and pressure drop of airfoil fin PCHE more obviously. In conclusion, a sparser staggered arrangement of fins showed a better thermal-hydraulic performance in airfoil fin PCHE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0738.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: coastal wind jets; Red Sea; Lagrangian pathways; hydraulics; dust storms; hydraulic jumps
Online: 30 September 2020 (10:41:43 CEST)
The Lagrangian and Eulerian structure and dynamics of a strong wind event in the Tokar Gap region are described using a WRF model hindcast for 2008. Winds in the Tokar Gap reach 25 m s-1 and remain coherent as a jet far out over the Red Sea, whereas equally strong wind jets occurring in neighboring gaps are attenuated abruptly by a jump-like hydraulic transition that occur just offshore of the Sudan coast. The transition is made possible by the supercritical nature of the jets, which are fed by air that spills down from passes at relatively high elevation. By contrast, the spilling flow in the ravine-like Tokar Gap does not become substantially supercritical and therefore does not undergo a jump, and also carries more total horizontal momentum. The Tokar Wind Jet carries some air parcels across the Red Sea and into Saudi Arabia, whereas air parcel trajectories in the neighboring jets ascend as they cross through the jumps, then veer sharply to the southeast and do not cross the Red Sea. The mountain parameter Nh/U is estimated to lie in the rage 1.0-4.0 for the general region, a result roughly consistent with a primary gap jet having a long extension, and supercritical jets spilling down from higher elevation passes. The strong event is marked by the formation of a cyclonic cell near the upstream entrance to the Tokar Gap, a feature absent from the more moderate events that occur throughout the summer. The cell contains descending air parcels that are fed into the primary and secondary jets. An analysis of the Bernoulli function along air parcel trajectories reveals an approximate balance between the loss of potential energy and gain of internal energy and pressure, with surprisingly little contribution from kinetic energy, along the path of the descending flow. All jets attain the critical wind speed nominally required to loft dust into the atmosphere, though only the Tokar Gap has a broad, delta region with plentiful deposits of silt.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0310.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: hydraulic fracturing; energized fracturing fluid; tight gas; reservoir stimulation; frac fluid rheology
Online: 28 April 2019 (10:39:53 CEST)
Hydraulic fracturing is the most effective method of stimulation for hydrocarbon reservoirs. However the use of water-based fracturing fluids, can be a problem in water-sensitive formations due to the permeability damage hazard caused by clay minerals swelling. For this reason, the foamed fracturing fluids with addition of natural, fast hydrating guar gum were examined. The rheology and filtration coefficients of foamed fracturing fluids were examined and compared to the properties of conventional water-based fracturing fluid. Laboratory results provided the input for numerical simulation of the fractures geometry for water-based fracturing fluids and 50% N2 foamed fluids. The results show, that the foamed fluids were able to create shorter and thinner fractures compared to the fractures induced by the non-foamed fluid. The simulation proved that the concentration of proppant in the fracture and its conductivity are similar or slightly higher when using the foamed fluid. Moreover such fluids are able to significantly reduce the amount of water necessary for fracturing treatments, limiting clay minerals swelling, and reducing the reservoir permeability damage. The foamed fluids, when injected to the reservoir, provide additional energy, that allow for more effective flowback, and maintain the proper fracture geometry and proppant placing. The results of laboratory work in combination with the 3D simulation showed, that the foamed fluids have suitable viscosity which allows opening the fracture, and transport the proppant into the fracture, providing successful fracturing operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0302.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: unsaturated hydraulic conductivity; water restoration; cumulative transpiration; particle size distribution; grazed grassland
Online: 17 August 2018 (12:01:57 CEST)
The objective of this study was to investigate successional changes in water flow as a result of changes in soil hydraulic properties after crop abandonment under drought and non-drought conditions, and under water uptake by co-occurring perennial plant species to clarify the observation that typical perennial grass species are seldom observed in abandoned fields. Soil hydraulic properties were measured in croplands which had been abandoned for different periods (2, 9, and 18 years from abandonment) and in a grazed grassland site. Hydrological processes in the soil profiles were simulated with soil hydraulic properties under drought and non-drought summer conditions with water uptake from perennial grass species Suction in the surface soils increased with the period of abandonment, with this trend being particularly obvious in a drought year. Available water appears to be restricted in the later successional stage of abandoned fields and in grazed grassland for plants that have drought tolerance. Dry soil and climate conditions are important factors determining the intrusion of the typical perennial grass, S. krylovii, into degraded abandoned fields. This abiotic interaction between soil hydraulic properties and climate conditions may play an important role for plant succession in abandoned cropland.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0302.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Organic mulching; rainfall simulator; Hydraulic Tilting flume system; Sediment concentration; Sediment outflow rate
Online: 29 April 2022 (12:52:48 CEST)
Trash mulches are very effective in preventing soil erosion; reduce sediment transport rate, runoff rate and increasing infiltration. The study was carried out with the objectives to observe the sediment outflow from sugar cane leaf (trash) mulch treatments at selected land slopes under simulated rainfall conditions by using rainfall simulator of size 10 m × 1.2 m × 0.5 m with the locally available soil material collected from Pantnagar. In the present study, trash mulches with different quantities were selected to observe the effect of mulching in soil loss reduction. The quantity of mulch was taken as, 6 t/ha, 8 t/ha and 10 t/ha, three rainfall intensities viz. 11cm/h, 13cm/h and 14.65cm/h at 0%, 2% and 4% land slopes were selected. The duration of rainfall was fixed (10 minutes) for every mulch treatment. The total runoff volume was found to be varying with different mulch rates for particular rainfall input and land slope. The runoff distribution pattern was observed to be increasing with the increase in land slope. The average sediment concentration (SC) and outflow was found to be increasing with the increasing land slope, but SC and outflow decreased with increasing mulch rate for particular land slope and rainfall intensity. The SOR (SOR) for no mulch treated land was higher as compared to trash mulch treated lands. Mathematical relationships were developed for relating SOR, SC, land slope and rainfall intensity for a particular mulch treatment. It was observed that values of SOR and average SC had a good correlation with rainfall intensity and land slope for each mulch treatment. The correlation coefficients of developed models were found to be more than 90%.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: hydraulic pump; micro-dosing; peristaltic; hyper-elasticity; viscoelasticity; holistic design methodology; elastomer compound
Online: 21 July 2021 (10:12:28 CEST)
Low pressure fluid transport (1) applications often require low and precise volumetric flow rates (2) including low leakage to reduce additional costly and complex sensors. A peristaltic pump de-sign (3) was realized, with the fluid’s flexible transport channel formed by a solid cavity and the wobbling plate comprising a rigid and a soft layer (4). In operation, the wobbling plate is driven externally by an electric motor, hence, the soft layer is contracted and unloaded (5) during pump-cycles transporting fluid from low to high pressure sides. A thorough characterization of the pump system is required to design and dimension the components of the peristaltic pump. To capture all these parameters and their dependencies on various operation-states, often complex and long-lasting dynamic 3D FE-simulations are required. We present, here, a holistic design methodology (6) including analytical as well as numerical calculations, and experimental valida-tions for a peristaltic pump with certain specifications of flow-rate range, maximum pressures, and temperatures. An experimental material selection process is established and material data of candidate materials (7) (liquid silicone rubber, acrylonitrile rubber, thermoplastic-elastomer) are directly applied to predict the required drive torque. For the prediction, a semi-physical, analyti-cal model was derived and validated by characterizing the pump prototype.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0058.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Deep Learning; LSTM Autoencoder; Supervised Learning, Hydraulic Test Rig; Sensor Faults; Component Faults
Online: 2 December 2020 (11:08:40 CET)
Anomaly occurrences in hydraulic machinery may lead to massive systems shut down, jeopardizing the safety of the machinery and its surrounding human operator(s) and environment, and the severe economic implications succeeding the faults and their associated damage. Hydraulics are mostly placed in ruthless environments, where they are consistently vulnerable to many faults. Hence, not only the machines and their components are prone to anomalies, but also the sensors attached to them, which monitor and report their health and behavioral changes. In this work, a comprehensive applicational analysis of anomalies in hydraulic systems extracted from a hydraulic test rig is thoroughly achieved. Firstly, we provided a combination of a new architecture of LSTM autoencoders and supervised machine and deep learning methodologies to perform two separate stages of fault detection and diagnosis. The two phases are condensed by: the detection phase using the LSTM autoencoder. Followed by the fault diagnosis phase represented by the classification schema. The previously mentioned framework is applied to both component and sensor faults in hydraulic systems, deployed in the form of two in-depth applicational experiments. Moreover, a thorough literature review of the past decade related work for the two stages separately is successfully conducted in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0177.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: digital hydraulics; switched inertance hydraulic systems; four-port switching valves; efficient fluid power
Online: 27 April 2017 (03:01:46 CEST)
The switched inertance hydraulic system (SIHS) is a novel high-bandwidth and energy-efficient digital device which can adjust or control flow and pressure by a means that does not rely on throttling the flow and dissipation of power. An SIHS can provide an efficient step-up or step-down of pressure or flow rate by using a digital control signal. In this article, analytical models of an SIHS in a four-port high-speed switching valve configuration are proposed, and the system dynamics and performance are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The flow responses, system characteristics and power consumption can be predicted effectively and accurately by using the proposed models, which were validated by comparing with experiments and with numerical simulation. The four-port configuration is compared with the three-port configuration, and it is concluded that the former one is less efficient for valves of the same size, but provides a bi-direction control capability. As bi-direction control is a common requirement, this constitutes an important contribution to the development of efficient digital hydraulics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0243.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Colebrook equation; Hydraulic flow friction; Wright ω-function; explicit approximations; symbolic regression; computational intelligence
Online: 14 May 2020 (15:15:38 CEST)
Using only a limited number of computationally expensive functions, we show a way how to construct accurate and computationally efficient approximations of the Colebrook equation for flow friction. The presented approximations are based on the asymptotic series expansion of the Wright ω-function and symbolic regression. The results are verified with 8 million of Quasi-Monte Carlo points covering the domain of interest for engineers. In comparison with the built-in “wrightOmega” feature of Matlab R2016a, the herein introduced related approximations of the Wright ω-function significantly accelerate the computation. With only two logarithms and several basic arithmetic operations used, the presented approximations are not only computationally efficient but also extremely accurate. The maximal relative error of the most promising approximation which is given in the form suitable for engineers’ use is limited to 0.0012%, while for a little bit more complex variant is limited to 0.000024%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0310.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: mathematical modeling; characteristic points; extreme pressure; hydraulic jump; pressure fluctuations; standard deviation; stilling basin
Online: 26 January 2020 (07:32:50 CET)
Pressure fluctuations beneath hydraulic jumps downstream of Ogee spillways potentially damage stilling basin beds. This paper deals with the extreme pressures underneath free hydraulic jumps along a smooth stilling basin. The experiments were conducted in a laboratory flume. From the probability distribution of measured instantaneous pressures, the pressures with different non-exceedance probabilities (P*a%) could be determined. It was verified that the maximum pressure fluctuations, as well as the negative pressures, are located at the positions closest to the spillway toe. The minimum pressure fluctuations are located at the downstream of hydraulic jumps. It was possible to assess the cumulative curves of P*a% related to the characteristic points along the basin, and different Froude numbers. To benchmark, the results, the dimensionless forms of mean pressures, standard deviations, and pressures with different non-exceedance probabilities were assessed. It was found that an existing methodology can be used to interpret the present data, and pressure distribution in similar conditions, by using a new third-order polynomial relationship for the standard deviation (σ*X) with the determination coefficient (R2) equal to 0.717. It was verified that the new optimized adjustment gives more accurate results for the estimation of the maximum extreme pressures than the minimum extreme pressures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0007.v3
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: uncertain water demand; scaling laws; scenario generation; scenario reduction; water distribution networks; hydraulic simulation
Online: 11 February 2019 (11:33:12 CET)
A numerical approach for generating a limited number of water demand scenarios and estimating their occurrence probabilities in a Water Distribution Network (WDN) is proposed. This approach makes use of the demand scaling laws in order to consider the natural variability and spatial correlation of nodal consumptions. The scaling laws are employed to determine the statistics of nodal consumption as a function of the number of users and the main statistical features of the unitary user's demand. Besides, consumption at each node is considered to follow a Gamma probability distribution. A high number of groups of cross-correlated demands, i.e., scenarios, for the entire network were generated using Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) and the numerical procedure proposed by Iman and Conover. The Kantorovich distance is used to reduce the number of scenarios and estimate their corresponding probabilities, while keeping the statistical information on nodal consumptions. By hydraulic simulation, the whole number of generated demand scenarios was used to obtain a corresponding number of pressure scenarios on which the same reduction procedure was applied. The probabilities of the reduced scenarios of pressure were compared with the corresponding probabilities of demand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0650.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: TRMM; HEC-HMS; HEC-RAS; GIS; hydrological model; hydraulic model; flood; Chitral River Basin
Online: 29 October 2018 (04:28:08 CET)
Flash flooding, a hazard which is triggered by heavy rainfall is a major concern in many regions of the world often with devastating results in mountainous elevated regions. We adapted remote sensing modelling methods to analyse one flood in July 2015, and believe the process can be applicable to other regions in the world. The isolated thunderstorm rainfall occurred in the Chitral River Basin (CRB), which is fed by melting glaciers and snow from the highly elevated Hindu Kush Mountains (Tirick Mir peak’s elevation is 7708 m). The devastating cascade, or domino effect, resulted in a flash flood which destroyed many houses, roads, and bridges and washed out agricultural land. CRB had experienced devastating flood events in the past, but there was no hydraulic modelling and mapping zones available for the entire CRB region. That is why modelling analyses and predictions are important for disaster mitigation activities. For this flash flood event, we developed an integrated methodology for a regional scale flood model that integrates the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, Geographic Information System (GIS), hydrological (HEC-HMS) and hydraulic (HEC-RAS) modelling tools. We collected and use driver discharge and flood depth observation data for five river sub-stream areas, which were acquired in cooperation with the Aga Khan Rural Support Program (AKRSP) organization. This data was used for the model’s calibration and verification. This modelling methodology is applicable for other regional studies especially for rough mountainous areas which lack local observations and river discharge gauges. The results of flood modelling are useful for the development of a regional early flood warning system and flood mitigation in hazardous flood risk areas. The flood simulations and prepared connected video visualization can be used for local communities. This approach is applicable for flood mitigation strategies in other regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0277.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Calculation methods, Flow rate equation, Hydraulic pipeline systems, Natural gas distribution systems, Pipeline networks
Online: 15 August 2018 (15:56:29 CEST)
Today, two very efficient methods for calculation of flow distribution per branches of a looped gas pipeline are available. Most common is improved Hardy Cross method, while the second one is so-called unified node-loop method. For gas pipeline, gas flow rate through a pipe can be determined using Colebrook equation modified by AGA (American Gas Association) for calculation of friction factor accompanied with Darcy-Weisbach equation for pressure drop and second approach is using Renouard equation adopted for gas pipeline calculation. For the development of Renouard equation for gas pipelines some additional thermodynamic properties are involved in comparisons with Colebrook and Darcy-Weisbach model. These differences will be explained. Both equations, the Colebrook’s (accompanied with Darcy-Weisbach scheme) and Renouard’s will be used for calculation of flow through the pipes of one gas pipeline with eight closed loops which are formed by pipes. Consequently four different cases will be examined because the network is calculated using improved Hardy Cross method and unified node-loop method. Some remarks on optimization in this area of engineering also will be mentioned.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0092.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: hyporheic zone; Darcian flux; channel bend; vertical hydraulic conductivity; stream topography; grain size; porosity
Online: 26 February 2017 (10:07:31 CET)
Channel bends are one of the most important characteristic features of natural streams. These bends often create the conditions for a hyporheic zone, which has been recognized as a critical component of stream ecosystems. The streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv), vertical hydraulic gradient (VHG) and Darcian flux (DF) in the hyporheic zone were estimated at 61 locations along a channel bend of the Beiluo River during July 2015 and January 2016. All the streambed attributes showed great spatial variability along the channel bend. Both upward fluxes and downward fluxes occurred during the two test periods, most of studied stream sections were controlled by downwelling, indicating stream water discharge into the subsurface. The average downward flux was higher at the downstream side than at the upstream side of the channel bend, especially in July 2015. The distribution of streambed sediment grain size has a significant influence on the variability of Kv; high percentages of silt and clay sediments generally lead to low Kv values. Higher Kv at the depositional left bank at the upstream site shifted toward the erosional right bank at the downstream site, with Kv values positively correlated with the water depth. This study suggested that the variabilities of Kv and VHG were influenced by the stream geomorphology and that the distribution of Kv was inversely related, to a certain extent, to the distribution of VHG across the channel bend. Kv and VHG were found to have opposite effects on the DF, and the close relationship between Kv and DF indicated that the water fluxes were mainly controlled by Kv.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0750.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Solar thermal; flat-plate collector; stagnation; steam range; two-phase mixture model; thermal-hydraulic model.
Online: 30 December 2020 (10:02:25 CET)
Stagnation is the transient state of a solar thermal system under high solar irradiation where the useful solar gain is zero. Both flat-plate collectors with selective absorber coatings and vacuum-tube collectors exhibit stagnation temperatures far above the saturation temperature of the glycol-based heat carriers within the range of typical system pressures. Therefore, stagnation is always associated with vaporization and propagation of vapor into the pipes of the solar circuit. It is therefore essential to design the system in such a way that vapor never reaches components that cannot withstand high temperatures. In this article, a thermal-hydraulic model based on the integral form of a two-phase mixture model and a drift-flux correlation is presented. The model is applicable to solar thermal flat-plate collectors with meander-shaped absorber tubes and selective absorber coatings. Experimental data from stagnation experiments on two systems, which are identical except for the optical properties of the absorber coating, allowed comparison with simulations carried out under the same boundary conditions. The absorber of one system features a conventional highly selective coating, while the absorber of the other system features a thermochromic coating, which exhibits a significantly lower stagnation temperature. Comparison of simulation results and experimental data show good conformity. This model is implemented into an open-source software tool called “THD” for the thermal-hydraulic dimensioning of solar systems. The latest version of THD, updated by the results of this article, enables planners to achieve cost-optimal design of solar thermal systems and to ensure failsafe operation by predicting the steam range under the initial and boundary conditions of worst-case scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0211.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Colebrook equation; Colebrook-White; iterative methods; three-point methods; turbulent flow; hydraulic resistances; pipes; explicit approximations;
Online: 11 August 2018 (18:56:29 CEST)
The Colebrook equation ζ is implicitly given in respect to the unknown flow friction factor λ ; λ=ζ(Re,ε*,λ) which cannot be expressed explicitly in exact way without simplifications and use of approximate calculus. Common approach to solve it is through the Newton-Raphson iterative procedure or through the fixed-point iterative procedure. Both requires in some case even eight iterations. On the other hand numerous more powerful iterative methods such as three-or two-point methods, etc. are available. The purpose is to choose optimal iterative method in order to solve the implicit Colebrook equation for flow friction accurately using the least possible number of iterations. The methods are thoroughly tested and those which require the least possible number of iterations to reach the accurate solution are identified. The most powerful three-point methods require in worst case only two iterations to reach final solution. The recommended representatives are Sharma-Guha-Gupta, Sharma-Sharma, Sharma-Arora, Džunić-Petković-Petković; Bi-Ren-Wu, Chun-Neta based on Kung-Traub, Neta, and Jain method based on Steffensen scheme. The recommended iterative methods can reach the final accurate solution with the least possible number of iterations. The approach is hybrid between iterative procedure and one-step explicit approximations and can be used in engineering design for initial rough, but also for final fine calculations.
Subject: Keywords: Snow avalanches; mathematical models; snow entrainment; Voellmy and Grigorian friction laws; hydraulic models; runout distance; analytic solutions
Online: 6 February 2020 (09:11:48 CET)
This note first summarizes the history of the manuscript "On a Continuum Model for Avalanche Flow and Its Simplified Variants" by Grigorian and Ostroumov―published in the Special Issue on snow avalanche dynamics of Geosciences―since the early 1990s and explains the guiding principles in editing it for publication. The changes are then detailed and some explanatory notes given for the benefit of readers who are not familiar with the early Russian work on snow avalanche dynamics. Finally, the editor's personal views as to why he still considers this paper of relevance for avalanche dynamics research today are presented in brief essays on key aspects of the paper, namely the role of simple and complex models in avalanche research and mitigation work, the status and possible applications of Grigorian's stress-limited friction law, and non-monotonicity of the dynamics of the Grigorian–Ostroumov model in the friction coefficient. A comparison of the erosion model proposed by those authors with two other models suggests to enhance it with an additional equation for the balance of tangential momentum across the shock front. A preliminary analysis indicates that continuous scouring entrainment is possible only in a restricted parameter range and that there is a second erosion regime with delayed entrainment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0464.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: harmonic identification; adaptive linear neutral network; least mean M-estimate; electro-hydraulic servo shaking table; harmonic distortion
Online: 28 June 2018 (10:55:10 CEST)
Since the electro-hydraulic servo shaking table exists many nonlinear elements, such as, dead zone, friction and blacklash, its acceleration response has higher harmonics which result in acceleration harmonic distortion, when the electro-hydraulic system is excited by sinusoidal signal. For suppressing the harmonic distortion and precisely identify harmonics, a combination of the adaptive linear neural network and least mean M-estimate (ADALINE-LMM), is proposed to identify the amplitude and phase of each harmonic component. Namely, the Hampel’s three-part M-estimator is applied to provide thresholds for detecting and suppressing the error signal. Harmonic generators are used by this harmonic identification scheme to create input vectors and the value of the identified acceleration signal is subtracted from the true value of the system acceleration response to construct the criterion function. The weight vector of the ADALINE is updated iteratively by the LMM algorithm, and the amplitude and phase of each harmonic, even the results of harmonic components, can be computed directly online. The simulation and experiment are performed to validate the performance of the proposed algorithm. According to the experiment result, the above method of harmonic identification possesses great real-time performance and it has not only good convergence performance but also high identification precision.
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Proppant; Hydraulic Fracturing; Unconventional Reservoir; Sand; Settling Rate; Crush Rate; Mesh Size; Grain Diameter; Proppant composition; Micro proppant
Online: 11 July 2020 (08:50:26 CEST)
The paper investigates the possible use of a low strength domestic sand (D) (up to today useless – not considered as proppant source) of small particle sizes, instead to that of high strength imported commercial sand (C), as a prospective micro-proppant for low permeability reservoirs in Poland. There is need to develop national unconventional gas resources like tight gas, shale gas and coalbed methane. An important energy source of value and readily available in Poland is coal. The basins of this resource are large and bears low permeability coalbed methane reservoirs which needs to be developed to contribute to the energy security, economy and environmental needs of the country. These reservoirs need technological assistance such as hydraulic fracturing which makes use of proppants for development. Most of the commonly used proppants over the years for fracturing have been large grain size commercial proppants of high strength material content bought abroad. Investigated finer proppants are known to have the ability to penetrate narrow fracture networks to ensure effective high reservoir volume and conductivity for production. Results from presented laboratory research shows the D - proppant, which is cheaper and readily available, has the 3K class with low settling rates as a potential micro-proppant for effective transportation, enhancement of conductivity and production rate in the narrow fractures of low permeability reservoirs. Future using of domestic proppant will decrease stimulation cost and will have positive impact on the environment due to omitting long distance transportation from abroad.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0545.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Colebrook equation; hydraulic resistance; Lambert W-function; Wright Ω-function; explicit approximations; computational burden; turbulent flow; friction factor
Online: 23 October 2018 (16:28:10 CEST)
The Colebrook equation is a popular model for estimating friction loss coefficients in water and gas pipes. The model is implicit in the unknown flow friction factor . To date, the captured flow friction factor can be extracted from the logarithmic form analytically only in the term of the Lambert -function. The purpose of this study is to find an accurate and computationally efficient solution based on the shifted Lambert -function also known as the Wright -function. The Wright -function is more suitable because it overcomes the problem with the overflow error by switching the fast growing term of the Lambert -function to the series expansions that further can be easily evaluated in computers without causing overflow run-time errors. Although the Colebrook equation transformed through the Lambert -function is identical to the original expression in term of accuracy, a further evaluation of the Lambert -function can be only approximate. Very accurate explicit approximations of the Colebrook equation that contains only one or two logarithms are shown. The final result is an accurate explicit approximation of the Colebrook equation with the relative error of no more than 0.0096%. The presented approximations are in the form suitable for everyday engineering use, they are both accurate and computationally efficient.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0049.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: hydraulic transients; water-hammer; fluid-structure interaction; degrees-of-freedom; junction coupling; Poisson coupling; friction coupling; Bourdon coupling
Online: 4 September 2018 (03:38:31 CEST)
The present review paper aims at collecting and discussing the research work, numerical and experimental, carried out in the field of Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) in one-dimensional (1D) pressurized transient flow in the time-domain approach. Background theory and basic definitions are provided for the proper understanding of the assessed literature. A novel frame of reference is proposed for the classification of FSI models based on pipe degrees-of-freedom. Numerical research is organized according to this classification, while an extensive review on experimental research is presented by institution. Engineering applications of FSI models are described and historical accidents and post-accident analyses documented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0187.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Colebrook equation; Colebrook-White; flow friction; iterative procedure; logarithms; Padé polynomials; hydraulic resistances; turbulent flow; pipes; computational burden
Online: 11 July 2018 (03:44:28 CEST)
The eighty years old empirical Colebrook function widely used as an informal standard for hydraulic resistance relates implicitly the unknown flow friction factor , with the known Reynolds number and the known relative roughness of a pipe inner surface ; . It is based on logarithmic law in the form that captures the unknown flow friction factor in a way from which it cannot be extracted analytically. As an alternative to the explicit approximations or to the iterative procedures that require at least a few evaluations of computationally expensive logarithmic function or non-integer powers, this paper offers an accurate and computationally cheap iterative algorithm based on Padé polynomials with only one -call in total for the whole procedure (expensive -calls are substituted with Padé polynomials in each iteration with the exception of the first). The proposed modification is computationally less demanding compared with the standard approaches of engineering practice, but does not influence the accuracy or the number of iterations required to reach the final balanced solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0247.v2
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: fault detection; retraction/extension (R/E) hydraulic system; bond graph-linear fractional trans-formation technique; interval analytic redundancy relations; uncertainty; fault signature matrix; residuals; thresholds
Online: 17 August 2022 (03:53:54 CEST)
Various factors, such as uncertainty of component parameters and uncertainty of sensor meas-urement values, contribute to the difficulty of fault detection in the landing gear retrac-tion/extension hydraulic system. In this paper, we introduce linear fractional transformation technology and uncertainty analysis theory for the construction of the diagnostic bond graph of the landing gear retraction/extension hydraulic system. In this way, interval analytical redundancy relations and fault signature matrix can be derived. Using the fault signature matrix, existing faults of the system can be preliminarily detected and isolated. Additionally, interval analytical re-dundancy relations can be used to detect system faults in detail, and cases analysis can be carried out to determine if the actuator is externally or internally leaky, and if the landing gear selector valve is reversing stuck. Compared to the traditional analytical redundancy relations, this method takes into account the negative factors of uncertainty; and compared to the traditional absolute diagnostic threshold, the interval diagnostic threshold is more accurate and sensitive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0184.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: health assessment; landing gear retraction and extension hydraulic system; improved risk coefficient; fuzzy comprehensive evaluation; fault simulation; maintenance manual
Online: 20 April 2022 (04:52:38 CEST)
The health of the landing gear retraction and extension hydraulic system may be assessed using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE), however the traditional FCE method depends solely on human assessment by specialists, which is excessively subjective. To address the issue of excessive human subjective variables in the assessment, an improved FCE model based on enhanced risk coefficient is provided, which includes four consideration indexes: failure probability, failure severity, failure detection difficulty, and failure repair difficulty. To reduce subjective human judgment errors entirely due to expert experience, the improved FCE takes into account the likelihood of failure using a statistical method, the severity of failure using a fault simulation analysis based on the LMS Imagine.Lab AMESim simulation platform, and the difficulty of fault detection and repair using the aircraft manufacturer's professional maintenance information. As part of the evaluation model, the range of health assessment values and accompanying treatment methods are included, making it easier to implement on a daily basis in aircraft maintenance. As a final step, the simulation is evaluated and the simulated faults are calculated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0042.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Turbulent flow; Laminar flow; Pipes; Friction factor; Hydraulics; Monotonic roughness, Inflectional roughness; Smooth curve contact; Moody diagram; Hydraulic resistance.
Online: 3 October 2018 (11:38:49 CEST)
This paper gives a new unified formula for the Newtonian fluids valid for all pipe flow regimes from laminar to the fully rough turbulent. It includes laminar, unstable sharp jump from laminar to turbulent, and all types of the turbulent regimes: smooth turbulent regime, partial non-fully developed turbulent and fully developed rough turbulent regime. The formula follows the inflectional form of curves as suggested in Nikuradse’s experiment rather than monotonic shape proposed by Colebrook and White. The composition of the proposed unified formula consists of switching functions and of the interchangeable formulas for laminar, smooth turbulent and fully rough turbulent flow. The proposed switching functions provide a smooth and a computationally cheap transition among hydraulic regimes. Thus, the here presented formulation represents a coherent hydraulic model suitable for engineering use. The model is compared to existing literature models, and shows smooth and computationally cheap transitions among hydraulic regimes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0014.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: air pollution; soil hydraulic parameters; geochemical characterization of soils; aquifer vulnerability to contamination; health assessment; multi-criteria environmental analysis
Online: 2 June 2017 (06:25:00 CEST)
This paper deals with the environmental characterization of a large and densely populated area, with a poor reputation for contamination, considering the contribution of environmental features (air, soil, soil hydraulic and groundwater) and the potential effects on human health. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) has made possible a georeferenced inventory and, by overlaying environmental information, an operational synthesis of comprehensive environmental conditions. The cumulative effects on environmental features were evaluated, taking into account superposition effects, by means of the spatial multicriteria decision analysis (S-MCDA). The application of the S-MCDA for converging the combination of heterogeneous factors, related to soil, land and water, deeply studied by heterogeneous groups of experts, constitutes the novelty of the paper. The results confirmed an overall higher potential of exposure to contaminants in the environment and higher mortality rates in the study area for some tumours, but hospital admissions for tumours were generally similar to the regional trend. Besides, mortality data may be strictly dependent on the poor socioeconomic conditions, quality of therapy and a lack of welfare in the area relative to the rest of Italy. Finally, as regards the possible relationship between presence of contaminants in the environment and health conditions of the population no definite conclusions can be drawn, although the present study encourages the use of the new proposed methods, that increase the possibilities for studying the combined effect of more environmental factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0015.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: colebrook equation; colebrook-white; moody diagram; turbulent flow; hydraulic resistance; darcy friction; pipes; genetic algorithms; optimization techniques; error analysis
Online: 2 March 2017 (07:57:54 CET)
Today, Colebrook’s equation is mostly accepted as an informal standard for modeling of turbulent flow in hydraulically smooth and rough pipes including transient zone in between. The empirical Colebrook’s equation relates the unknown flow friction factor (λ) with the known Reynolds number (R) and the known relative roughness of inner pipe surface (ε/D). It is implicit in unknown friction factor (λ). Implicit Colebrook’s equation cannot be rearranged to derive friction factor (λ) directly and therefore it can be solved only iteratively [λ=f(λ, R, ε/D)] or using its explicit approximations [λ≈f(R, ε/D)]. Of course, approximations carry in certain error compared with the iterative solution where the highest level of accuracy can be reached after enough number of iterations. The explicit approximations give a relatively good prediction of the friction factor (λ) and can reproduce accurately Colebrook’s equation and its Moody’s plot. Usually, more complex models of approximations are more accurate and vice versa. In this paper, numerical values of parameters in various existing approximations are changed (optimized) using genetic algorithms to reduce maximal relative error. After this improvement computational burden stays unchanged while accuracy of approximations increases in some of the cases very significantly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0431.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: masonry; composite; short fibers; natural hydraulic lime; sisal; three-point bending test; fracture energy; strengthening; preservation; sustainability; carbon foot print
Online: 20 July 2021 (09:31:59 CEST)
The present work aims to characterize the mechanical behavior of a new composite material for the conservation and development of the vast historical and architectural heritage that is particularly vulnerable to environmental and seismic actions. The new composite consists of natural hydraulic lime (NHL) -based mortar, reinforced by sisal short fibers randomly oriented in the mortar matrix. The NHL-based mortar ensures the chemical-physical compatibility with the original feature of the historical masonry structures (mostly in stone and clay) aiming to pursue both the effectiveness and durability of the intervention. The use of vegetable fibers (i.e. the sisal one) is an exciting challenge for the construction industry since they require a lower degree of industrialization for their processing, and therefore, their costs are also low, as compared to the most common synthetic/metal fibers. Beams of sisal-composite sizing 160x40x40 mm3 with a central notch are tested in three-point bending, aiming to evaluate both their bending strength and fracture energy. Also, tensile tests and compressive tests were performed on the composite samples, while water retention test and slump test were performed on the fresh mix. Finally, the tensile tests on the Sisal strand were carried out to evaluate the tensile strength of both strand and wire. A final comparison with unreinforced mortar specimens shows that the proposed composite ensures great workability and good performances in term of ductility and strength and it can be considered a promising alternative to the classic fiber-reinforcing systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0177.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Hydraulic resistance; Colebrook flow friction; Lambert W-function; Excel Macro Programming; Visual Basic for Applications (VBA); User Defined Functions (UDFs)
Online: 6 April 2021 (13:27:55 CEST)
This review paper gives Excel functions for highly precise Colebrook’s pipe flow friction approximations developed by users. All shown codes are implemented as User Defined Functions – UDFs written in Visual Basic for Applications – VBA, a common programming language for MS Excel spreadsheet solver. Accuracy of the friction factor computed using nine to date the most accurate explicit approximations is compared with the sufficiently accurate solution obtained through an iterative scheme which gives satisfying results after sufficient number of iterations. The codes are given for the presented approximations, for the used iterative scheme and for the Colebrook equation expressed through the Lambert W-function (including its cognate Wright ω-function). The developed code for the principal branch of the Lambert W-function has additional and more general application for solving different problems from variety branches of engineering and physics. The approach from this review paper automates computational processes and speeds up manual tasks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2040061
Subject: Keywords: industry4.0; fault detection; fault diagnosis; random forest; diagnostic graph; distributed diagnosis; model-based; data-driven; hybrid approach; hydraulic test rig
Online: 24 September 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
In this work, a hybrid component Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) approach for industrial sensor systems is established and analyzed, to provide a hybrid schema that combines the advantages and eliminates the drawbacks of both model-based and data-driven methods of diagnosis. Moreover, it shines the light on a new utilization of Random Forest (RF) together with model-based diagnosis, beyond its ordinary data-driven application. RF is trained and hyperparameter tuned using three-fold cross validation over a random grid of parameters using random search, to finally generate diagnostic graphs as the dynamic, data-driven part of this system. This is followed by translating those graphs into model-based rules in the form of if-else statements, SQL queries or semantic queries such as SPARQL, in order to feed the dynamic rules into a structured model essential for further diagnosis. The RF hyperparameters are consistently updated online using the newly generated sensor data to maintain the dynamicity and accuracy of the generated graphs and rules thereafter. The architecture of the proposed method is demonstrated in a comprehensive manner, and the dynamic rules extraction phase is applied using a case study on condition monitoring of a hydraulic test rig using time-series multivariate sensor readings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0548.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: industry4.0; fault detection; fault diagnosis; random forest; diagnostic graph; distributed diagnosis; model-based; data-driven; hybrid approach; hydraulic test rig
Online: 23 July 2020 (11:26:41 CEST)
In this work, A hybrid component Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) approach for industrial sensor systems is established and analyzed, to provide a hybrid schema that combines the advantages and eliminates the drawbacks of both model-based and data-driven methods of diagnosis. Moreover, spotting the light on a new utilization of Random Forest (RF) together with model-based diagnosis, beyond its ordinary data-driven application. RF is trained and hyperparameter tuned using 3-fold cross-validation over a random grid of parameters using random search, to finally generate diagnostic graphs as the dynamic, data-driven part of this system. Followed by translating those graphs into model-based rules in the form of if-else statements, SQL queries or semantic queries such as SPARQL, in order to feed the dynamic rules into a structured model essential for further diagnosis. The RF hyperparameters are consistently updated online using the newly generated sensor data, in order to maintain the dynamicity and accuracy of the generated graphs and rules thereafter. The architecture of the proposed method is demonstrated in a comprehensive manner, as well as the dynamic rules extraction phase is applied using a case study on condition monitoring of a hydraulic test rig using time series multivariate sensor readings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0505.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Colebrook equation; Colebrook-White; iterative methods; three-point methods; turbulent flow; hydraulic resistances; pipes; explicit approximations; Newton-Rapson; Household’s methods
Online: 26 July 2018 (04:47:16 CEST)
Empirical Colebrook equation from 1939 is still accepted as an informal standard to calculate friction factor during the turbulent flow (4000 < Re < 108) through pipes from smooth with almost negligible relative roughness (ε/D→0) to the very rough (up to ε/D = 0.05) inner surface. The Colebrook equation contains flow friction factor λ in implicit logarithmic form where it is, aside of itself; λ, a function of the Reynolds number Re and the relative roughness of inner pipe surface ε/D; λ = f (λ, Re, ε/D). To evaluate the error introduced by many available explicit approximations to the Colebrook equation, λ ≈ f(Re, ε/D), it is necessary to determinate value of the friction factor λ from the Colebrook equation as accurate as possible. The most accurate way to achieve that is using some kind of iterative methods. Usually classical approach also known as simple fixed point method requires up to 8 iterations to achieve the high level of accuracy, but does not require derivatives of the Colebrook function as here presented accelerated Householder’s approach (3rd order, 2nd order: Halley’s and Schröder’s method and 1st order: Newton-Raphson) which needs only 3 to 7 iteration and three-point iterative methods which needs only 1 to 4 iteration to achieve the same high level of accuracy. Strategies how to find derivatives of the Colebrook function in symbolic form, how to avoid use of the derivatives (Secant method) and how to choose optimal starting point for the iterative procedure are shown. Householder’s approach to the Colebrook’s equations expressed through the Lambert W-function is also analyzed. One approximation to the Colebrook equation based on the analysis from the paper with the error of no more than 0.0617% is shown.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0312.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: embryonic heart tube; extracellular matrix; cardiac jelly; hydraulic skeleton; heart skeleton; valveless pumping; blood flow; non-circular cross sections; ballooning; trabeculation
Online: 30 January 2019 (11:16:14 CET)
The early embryonic heart is a multi-layered tube consisting of (1) an outer myocardial tube; (2) an inner endocardial tube; and (3) an extracellular matrix layer interposed between myocardium and endocardium, called “cardiac jelly” (CJ). During the past decades, research on CJ has mainly focused on its molecular and cell biological aspects. This review focuses on the morphological and biomechanical aspects of CJ. Special attention is given to (1) the spatial distribution and fiber architecture of CJ; (2) the morphological dynamics of CJ during the cardiac cycle; and (3) the removal/remodeling of CJ during advanced heart looping stages, which leads to the formation of ventricular trabeculations and endocardial cushions. CJ acts as a hydraulic skeleton displaying striking structural and functional similarities with the mesoglea of jellyfish. CJ not only represents a filler substance, facilitating end-systolic occlusion of the embryonic heart lumen. Its elastic components antagonize the systolic deformations of the heart wall and thereby power the refilling phase of the ventricular tube. Non-uniform spatial distribution of CJ generates non-circular cross sections of the opened endocardial tube (initially elliptic, later deltoid), which seem to be advantageous for valveless pumping. Endocardial cushions arise from non-removed remnants of the original CJ.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0016.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: pumped storage hydro unit; guide vane closing schemes; multi-objective optimization; enhanced multi-objective bacterial-foraging chemotaxis gravitational search algorithm (EMOBCGSA); hydraulic and mechanical constraints
Online: 2 June 2017 (07:56:05 CEST)
The optimization of guide vane closing schemes (OGVCS) of pumped storage hydro unit (PSHU) is the research field of cooperative control and optimal operation of pumped storage, wind power and solar power generation. This paper presents a OGVCS model of PSHU considering the rise rate of the unit rotational speed and the specific node pressure of each hydraulic unit, as well as various complicated hydraulic and mechanical constraints. OGVCS model is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem to optimize conflictive objectives, i.e., unit rotational speed and water hammer pressure criteria. In order to realize the efficient solution of the OGVCS model, an enhanced multi-objective bacterial-foraging chemotaxis gravitational search algorithm (EMOBCGSA) is proposed to solve this problem, which adopts population reconstruction, adaptive selection chemotaxis operator of local searching strategy and Elite archive set to efficiently solve the multi-objective problem. Especially, novel constraints-handling strategy with eliminating and local search based on violation ranking is used to balance various hydraulic and mechanical constraints. Finally, simulation cases of complex extreme operating conditions (i.e., load rejection and pump outage) of ‘single tube-double units’ type PSHU system are conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed EMOBCGSA in solving OGVCS problem. The simulation results indicate that the proposed EMOBCGSA can provide lower rise rate of the unit rotational speed and smaller water hammer pressure than other method established recently while considering various complex constraints in OGVCS problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0382.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: pressure loss along length; Darcy hydraulic friction coefficient; local pressure loss in T-Junction; hydraulically short pressure pipeline; local resistance coefficient; flow rate; Reynolds number; flow rate; absolute and relative roughness of pipeline walls; turbulent flow mode
Online: 25 January 2022 (11:55:56 CET)
The aim of the studies was to test the hydraulic pressure losses along the length, local pressure losses, absolute and relative roughness values of the pipeline walls made of modern polymer material. The article presents the results of the experimental studies of hydraulic resistance of pipelines from modern polymer materials, the method of theoretical determination of resistance coefficients in the VALTEC ISO 21003 metal polymer pipeline, the classification and method of determining the values of local hydraulic resistance coefficients of T-Junctions are given, the dependence for determining the Darcy λ hydraulic friction coefficient associated with the value of the equivalent hydraulic roughness coefficient of the inner surface of pipes and the Reynolds number. The experimental data of the hydraulic coefficient of friction Darcy λ was compared with the known theoretical relationships of A.D. Altschul, Colbrooke for smooth pipes, Colbrooke and White, an alternative to the Colbrooke-White, Offengenden equation for low-shear pipes and pipes from polymer materials with Reynolds numbers Re>10^4. Dependence of hydraulic coefficient of friction on relative equivalent roughness of pipeline walls and Reynolds number, specific energy loss per one linear meter on total flow rate in system of hydraulically short pipeline is obtained. The empirical dependence of values of coefficients of local resistance ζ=f(Q2/Q3) from a ratio of the divided expenses of Q2/Q3 of the equal-pass T-Junction α=90 the pipeline to a branch up, on pass in the direct T-Junction and division of streams at various internal pipeline diameters of VALTEC.