ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0093.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depression; anxiety; emotional distress; HADS; GDS; Health Centre
Online: 11 August 2016 (11:05:44 CEST)
Objective: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the mental health of Cypriot citizens, living in the current difficult period of economic recession. Specific objective was to investigate the different factors (gender, age, socio-economic factors, etc.) that may affect the levels of emotional distress, anxiety and depression in visitors of the Rural Health Centre of Kofinou. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of total 300 Cypriots who visited Kofinou Health Centre in the period between August and September 2015. For the middle-aged citizens the Greek version of the HADS scale (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale) was administered to 150 persons (Michopoulos I., 2007), while for the visiting senior citizens (aged over 65 years) the Greek version of the GDS scale (Geriatric Depression Scale) was used (Fountoulakis K., et al., 1999). All analyses were performed with the social science analysis package SPSS (version 21). Results: HADS: A total of 150 people of average age 47±11,5 years (23-64), were 56% women, while the 77.3% stated they had drastic reduction of income as well as 46.7% suffered from chronic disease. The 36.6% and 28.7% of the visitors showed moderate and severe forms of anxiety and depression, accordingly. Higher emotional distress is associated with lower educational level (p<0,001). Moreover, patients with low income have higher levels of anxiety (p=0,003), depression (p=0,036) and total emotional distress (p=0,007), while those with chronic disease have a higher stress (p<0,001), depression (p<0,001) and total emotional distress symptoms (p<0,001) compared to non - patients. GDS: 150 patients out of which 77 were women (51.3%). The average age of participants was 72±5,5 years. 93(62%) participants declared a drastic reduction of income due to the financial crisis while 139 (92.7%) stated they had chronic disease. 53 participants (35.3%) think they have symptoms of depression after the economic crisis. The women showed higher level of geriatric depression symptoms than men (p<0.001). Higher levels of depression is associated with lower income (p=0.001). Conclusions: The study shows that stress levels, depression and emotional distress are increased in specific population groups. The main factors affecting the mental health of the participants are the presence of chronic disease, income and level of education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0550.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: burnout; occupational therapist; emotional exhaustion; health; stress; coping; personality
Online: 29 November 2022 (11:55:47 CET)
1) Background: There are few studies of burnout syndrome (BS) in occupational therapists (OTs), and protective factors of BS has received little attention in the scientific literature. This research aimed to estimate the prevalence of BS, characterize the associated psychosocial factors, and analyze their relationship with health in a sample of Spanish OTs. (2) Methods A total of 127 therapists completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and other standardized questionnaires measuring: personality traits (reduced five-factor personality inventory, NEO-FFI), coping styles (Coping Strategies Questionnaire, CAE), work-family conflict (Survey Work-Home Interaction Nijmegen, SWING), professional factors (role ambiguity/clarity and modified role conflict questionnaires), and the perception of health (Goldberg’s General Health Questionnaire). Several correlational and multiple regression analyses were performed to study the psychosocial predictors of burnout and its relationship with health perception. (3) Results showed that 15.8% of the professionals presented BS, with emotional exhaustion (EE; 38.7%) being the most compromised dimension. Neuroticism, role conflict, negative work-family interaction, and open emotional expression (OE) significantly predicted a higher EE. The main predictors of cynicism (CY) were being male, role conflict, and OE. Finally, role conflict and role ambiguity and social support-seeking were significant predictors of reduced professional eﬃciency (PE). (4) Conclusion: A high percentage of OTs with BS advocates becoming aware of the importance of this syndrome in the health community, it would be critical to consider the protective factors (i.e., emotional management, social support) that help promote OTs’ well-being and health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0006.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Covid-19; School Closure; Elementary School; Emotional Symptoms; Japan
Online: 2 June 2020 (14:58:33 CEST)
In Japan, schools were suddenly closed all over the country with one month left at the end of the school year to prevent the spread of new coronavirus infections. Although previous studies have shown that quarantine and isolation have a negative impact on mental health, the impact of school closure on children's mental health is not clear. This study examined mental health indicators, such as emotional symptoms, in addition to behavior during school closure and anxiety after school resumes, among children in three primary schools for which survey data existed in December before school closure. No cases of infection have been confirmed in the area where the school was located at the time of the survey. As a result, anxiety about whether they would be able to return to their normal routine after school resumed was associated with mental health. In addition, there was a worsening of emotional symptoms in those who were in medium group of school adjustment as of December.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0306.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Empathy; Emotional Education; Emotional Intelligence; Emotional competences; pre-primary Education
Online: 16 December 2022 (14:05:19 CET)
Today, concepts such as Emotional Education and Emotional Intelligence are recognized by many authors and researchers, emphasizing the importance of their development in all people, but especially in schools, specifically in teachers or educators and children. However, we still find many shortcomings within the schools that are needed to continue working. The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of emotional intelligence and empathy in teachers, through a sample of 42 participants. The research was conducted based on two validated and highly reliable assessment tools, called TMMS-24 and TECA. The results of the TMMS-24 indicate that a large percentage of participants have an adequate score of emotional intelligence. The results of the TECA indicate that most of the participants are in the middle, high or extremely high scores in relation to the level of empathy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0219.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: women; health; psycho-emotional well-being; factors; attitudes towards parents; attachment
Online: 9 December 2020 (11:10:52 CET)
The present study is aimed to determine the predicting role of objective (lifestyle) and subjective factors of middle-aged women’s psycho-emotional health such as their attitude towards parents, attachment and separation types. Women who are overloaded with professional and family roles have high stress level, their indicators of psychological well-being and emotional level decrease when they have to give everyday care to their elderly parents. (2) Methods: Sample consists of 146 women aged 38 to 56 ( =41.1, ó=3.5), married (70.5%) and divorced (29.5%), having children of 14-28 years old; giving everyday care to elderly parents for more than 1.5 yrs. Some live separately (62.3 %), or have to cohabitate with parents (37.7%). All women evaluate their life situation as difficult and manifest signs of high psycho-emotional stress. We used methods adapted for the Russian-speaking sample: getting socio-demographic information, an interview; Attachment style and Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaires (study 1); Psychological Separation Inventory, Purpose-in-Life Test, projective methods of incomplete sentences and metaphors` analysis (study 2), mathematical statistics. (3) Results: A number of factors and indicators of women`s psycho-emotional health decrease in the situation of role overload have been identified. Among the factors there are four main types of women’s attitudes towards parents: strong (anxious), distancing, ambivalent, normative closeness, predicting low indicators of psycho-emotional health: dependence on the others` opinions and feedbacks in making decisions, a lack of meaningfulness of life; reduced sense of control over life are showing the decrease. Anxiety about future and neurotic symptoms (increased demands on oneself, irritability, reduced emotional background) distinguish these respondents. (4) Conclusions: The study confirms that middle-aged Russian women`s psycho-emotional health depends on contextual factors (difficult role-overloaded lifestyle) and factors integrating women`s attitudes towards parents, attachment and separation types. Among the most important risk factors there are a difficult life situation, conflict separation type and gilt.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0474.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: COVID-19; fear of COVID-19; mental health; emotional distress; social effects
Online: 18 March 2021 (11:01:24 CET)
The aim of the article is to determine the predictors of mental health among Polish society. Research was conducted after the first wave of the pandemic. Due to such an approach, it was possible to determine whether secondary effects of the pandemic have impact on mental health, apart from socio-demographic and psychological factors. In order to gather the research material, the CAWI on-line survey method was applied and carried out within the framework of the Ariadna Research Panel on the sample of 1079 Poles aged 15 and over. The FCV-19S scale, which is used to measure the fear of COVID-19 was applied in the measurement. It is a verified diagnostic instrument used to measure mental health in a lot of countries. The results of a hierarchical regression analysis have shown that the factors which increase the level of fear of COVID-19 are demographic, social and psychological features as well as attitudes towards the pandemic. The results of research indicate the significance of social context in the analysis and explanation of the effects of disasters and cataclysms.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0620.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: mental health risk, transpersonal gratitude, emotional intelligence, life contentment, adolescents, young adults
Online: 25 July 2020 (18:14:54 CEST)
World statistics demonstrate that around 970 million people around the globe suffer from mental health problems (Ritchie & Roser, 2019), a major proportion of which comprised of adolescents and young adults (UNODC, 2018). Also, because of increased mental health issues the problems like substance use, suicide, depression, anxiety, and stress are also increasing (Armstrong, 2019; Bandelow & Michaelis, 2015; Ritchie & Roser, 2018; United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime [UNODC], 2019). It is thus a dire need to address the issue. The present coneptual paper proposed the role of transpersonal gratitude, emotional intelligence, and life contentment for reducing mental health risk among the adolescents and young adults.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: COVID-19; emotional profiling; emotional impact; PAD; Russell; emotional concern; searching behavior
Online: 7 April 2021 (17:55:08 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has left no one indifferent: all around the globe, people have felt the massive impact of a virus that has stopped the world in its tracks. Many countries have been forced to impose strict lockdowns, causing devastating damage to the overall economy and welfare state, but also leaving an unprecedented emotional footprint on almost everyone. In this paper, we aim to quantify, by building our own method how, this pandemic has affected people emotionally by detecting the shifts in the emotional profile of representative users in selected countries. Our method processes the social media stream adapting the Pleasure-Arousal-Dominance (PAD) approach to measure emotional states on the Russell Circumplex plane, allowing for not only an overall emotional shift quantification but also a detailed analysis at mood level. By focusing on certain emotions and searching behavior, we establish a relationship between the pandemic and the emotional response. Although the method can be applied to any location with a significant and varied amount of geo-localized social media streams, the scope of this paper covers the most representative cities in Europe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0065.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: embodiment; CBT; interpersonal synchrony; therapeutic alliance; emotional regulation; emotional field; emotional mastery
Online: 15 September 2017 (11:37:32 CEST)
The Embodied Cognitive Behavior Therapy (ECBT) approach for the treatment of emotional disorders in clinical settings is presented. The model integrates cognitive behavioral theory, neuroscience and embodied cognition. ECBT draws from evidence of bidirectional effects between modes of bottom up (sensori-motor simulations giving rise to important basis of knowledge) and top down (abstract mental representations of knowledge) processes in psychotherapy. The paper first describes the dominance of the traditional mentalistic view of cognition and its limitations. Evidence for the embodied model of cognition and emotion is reviewed whilst highlighting its advantages as a complimentary process model to deepen and broaden talking therapies. An overview is given of the switch (e.g., the technique of balancing) between top-down and bottom-up orientation in the ECBT model as well as a clear description of the method for emotional regulation, acceptance of unwanted emotions and emotional mastery. ECBT builds on and extends the unconscious processes of the ‘Interpersonal Synchrony’ (IS) model identified by Koole and Tschacher , to enhance the therapeutic alliance for emotional co-regulation. A new idea is proposed that both embraces and extends the IS model: embodiment techniques of imitation and movement synchronization in the Emotional Field of our method be used in a conscious way to speed up the calming effects of co-regulation and the client’s self-regulatory capacity. The paper ends with an outline of the criteria needed to become an embodied therapist. A case study is given highlighting these aspects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1148.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: neurodevelopmental disabilities; intervention; autism; theater; benefits; social skills; mental health; ASD; emotional control
Online: 18 October 2023 (11:38:53 CEST)
The aim of this study is to determine the importance and effectiveness of different interventions aimed at improving social skills in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) through theatrical techniques. It aims to establish a direct relationship between the interventions and the benefits for socioemotional reciprocity, nonverbal communication behaviors used for social interactions and the development, establishment and understanding of interpersonal relationships. For this purpose, a systematic review of the literature published from 2011 to 2021 in the ERIC, Web of Science, EuropePMC, PubPsych, Índices-Csic, Redalyc, Roderic, Scopus, PubMed, Scielo and Dialnet databases was carried out, and a total of 29 articles were reviewed. The results indicate that theater creates a safe environment in which people with ASD can engage with their own emotions and those of others, thereby offering a therapeutic setting in which to promote communication, motor development and social coexistence. The implications and limitations of the study are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1505.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Quality of life; Mediterranean diet; , MEDAS-14; type 2 diabetes; physical dimension; emotional dimension
Online: 22 May 2023 (10:47:21 CEST)
Introduction: When analyzing the current situation in Spain, derived from our current lifestyles far from following a Mediterranean lifestyle, there is an alarming prevalence of diabesity, which increases the global risk of suffering from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and decreases the quality of life related to health (QLRH). In order to guarantee, beyond glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2), adequate control of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in DM2, it will be necessary to carry out a community intervention focused on the application of education programs focused on promoting the acquisition of healthy eating habits through the Mediterranean diet (DMED). This dietary pattern, together with physical exercise, has been shown to contribute to improving the QLRH of patients. Objective: To analyze the quality of life related to health, present in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes, to determine the possible relationship between this and the degree of adherence to the Mediterranean diet and to examine whether there are differences between the sexes. Material and methods: Observational descriptive study in 93 patients diagnosed with DM2 with poor glycemic control (1Ac ≥ 7%), carried out in various health centers in Albacete and Cuenca, in which the baseline relationship between adherence to DMed and the HRQoL. They were administered a data collection sheet that included a survey of the degree of adherence to the DMed (MEDAS-14) and QLRH (SF-12v2) in the Primary Care (PC) medical and nursing consultations. The variables were analyzed: age groups, sex, years of evolution of DM2, body mass index (BMI), as well as basal glycemia (GB) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). The “MEDAS-14” (adherence to DMED) was the main variable and the “SF-12v2” (QLRH) was the secondary variable. Material and methods: Observational descriptive study in 93 patients diagnosed with DM2 with poor glycemic control (1Ac ≥ 7%), carried out in various health centers in Albacete and Cuenca, in which the baseline relationship between adherence to DMed and the HRQoL. They were administered a data collection sheet that included a survey of the degree of adherence to the DMed (MEDAS-14) and QLRH (SF-12v2) in the Primary Care (PC) medical and nursing consultations. The variables were analyzed: age groups, sex, years of evolution of DM2, body mass index (BMI), as well as basal glycemia (GB) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). The “MEDAS-14” (adherence to DMED) was the main variable and the “SF-12v2” (QLRH) was the secondary variable. Results: Patients with poorly controlled DM2 and with low adherence to the MedDM show a non-significantly greater affectation in the physical sphere: fair general state of health, physical function I (limitation to make moderate efforts such as moving a table, vacuuming or walk more than an hour), physical function II (limitation to climb several flights of stairs), physical role (problems at work or daily activities doing less than loved ones), physical role II (they had to stop performing some tasks at work or activities of daily living) and regular body pain. Presenting less affectation in the mental field: emotional role I, emotional role II, mental health I, vitality and mental health II. Without affectation in the social function since they consider that rarely the emotional or physical problems have hindered their social activities. Conclusions: Diabetic patients with poor glycemic control have low adherence to the MedMD (<9 points) and have poor QLRH. Low adherence to the DMed and obesity are related to a greater affectation in the physical dimension and less affectation in the mental dimension without affectation in the "social function".
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0182.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Keywords: emotional distress: pregnancy; comorbidities; COVID-19; emotional support.
Online: 5 September 2023 (03:25:35 CEST)
Pregnant women have been considered a high-risk group for SARS-CoV-2 infection; the impact of the disease on the health of a mother and her child is still being studied. The emotional impact of the pandemic on pregnant women has been extensively studied. Emotional distress is proposed as a perspective to explain the emotional manifestations of women during this stage as something common rather than pathological. The objective of this study was to know the emotional experience of women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 towards the end of their pregnancy, during the first and second waves of COVID in Mexico. A qualitative study was carried out: 18 pregnant women with COVID were interviewed. A thematic analysis of the data was performed, resulting in three main themes and 14 subthemes. The COVID-infected mothers-to-be experienced mild to moderate emotional distress. It was more intense for those with comorbidities. This distress was aggravated during obstetrical complications and comorbidities, as well as during COVID and postpartum. The emotional distress was appeased by both the perception of medical care and social support. The emotional distress of pregnant women with COVID requires emotional accompaniment to reduce its impact.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Emotional Intelligence; Academic Achievement; Creativity; Emotional Awareness; School Setting; Prisma Methodology
Online: 31 October 2023 (08:03:03 CET)
The concept of Emotional Intelligence (EI) has gained prominence due to its substantial impact on a range of life outcomes, including academic performance. The present study aims to examine the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and academic accomplishment in the context of a school environment. Analyzing students' emotional skills and competencies makes it possible to uncover the potential of emotional intelligence (EI) in predicting their academic achievement. Additionally, the study emphasizes the importance of integrating emotional intelligence (EI) training within the educational curriculum. Developing students' emotional awareness, empathy, self-regulation, and social skills can yield notable academic benefits, cultivating an environment more favorable to learning. This systematic review examines the relationship between emotional intelligence and its impact on children and teachers by synthesizing several relevant research studies. This study encompasses a comprehensive review conducted from 2016 to 2023. A total of 64 publications were examined in this study, specifically chosen based on their relevance to the review's parameters. These articles were sourced from reputable academic databases, including Scopus, PsycINFO, PubMed, and WoS. The study revealed a correlation between the five dimensions of personality and emotional intelligence, creativity, resilience, the educational framework, and specific experimental programs about its education. The results mentioned above are of great significance, as they demonstrate that emotional intelligence (EI) is not solely a non-essential skill but a vital factor in education that can provide significant perspectives for students, educators, and politicians.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0619.v3
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Wealth curve; Intelligence quotient (IQ); Emotional Intelligence (EI); Emotional Awareness (EA)
Online: 23 April 2023 (06:05:04 CEST)
The authors developed a wealth curve (bell curve) that can predict a group of individuals’ wealth based on the composite intelligence score which is calculated based on the sum of the intelligence quotient and emotional awareness score. The intelligence quotient was defined as one's ability to perform, comprehend and learn, and emotional awareness was defined as the emotional ability to recognize and make sense of emotions. To move towards the right on the X-axis of the Kabir wealth curve (e.g., accumulate more wealth), individuals must improve emotional awareness and choose a professional career path that lands higher income, calculated risk-taking, and being connected with individuals that can lead to financial deals. Similarly, those facing social injustice can accumulate more wealth by improving emotional awareness, which will help them navigate challenging environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0528.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Education; Health; Emotions; Materials; Physical Education; Emotional Intelligence; Emotional Education; Elderly
Online: 31 August 2022 (02:46:14 CEST)
This research is aimed at the knowledge of the effectiveness of the material resources in the sensa-tions of exploratory procedures in 365 older people who take part in the physical activity that the Sport Municipal Institute (SMI) offers in the different sports centers assigned to it in the city of Se-ville, using a descriptive design and with a questionnaire developed and validated previously by the Delphi method; showing the relationship between the basic emotions that seniors experience when handling sport, and the materials. So it is claimed that exist a relation between older people, which practice exercise with the materials that they use on it.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0584.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Autism; Autistic; Mental health; emotional wellbeing; family caregivers; Low and middle in-come countries; review; international
Online: 9 November 2023 (07:29:10 CET)
The rising prevalence of autism internationally has been accompanied with an increased appreciation of the poorer mental health experienced by people with this condition and also of their family care-givers. In particular higher incidences of anxiety and depression are reported in high income nations and these conditions are likely to be under-recognised and under-reported in lower resourced regions or countries. Mainstream mental health services seem to be ill-equipped to respond adequately to the needs of autistic persons and their care-givers. This scoping review of 30 recently published literature reviews covering over 1,000 journal articles, summarises the insights and strategies that have been shown to promote the mental health and emotional wellbeing of autistic persons. In particular, a focus on family-centred, community-based supports is needed that aim to enhance social communication, extend social connections and promote an individual’s self-esteem, self-determination and social motivation. These low-cost interventions are especially pertinent in low resourced settings but they can be used internationally to prevent mental illness and assist in the treatment of anxiety and depression in autistic persons and their family carers. The priority is to focus on primary care responses with cross-sectoral working rather than investing in high-cost psychiatric provision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0463.v1
Online: 20 May 2021 (09:34:11 CEST)
The Ranau Earthquake that struck on 5, June 2015 and follow by February 2018 and April 2021, were a new disaster in Sabah and caused many Sabahan to panic. The unpredicted disaster also caused a serious impact on all aspects of life in Sabah. The earthquake has caused severe damage to eight primary schools in the vicinity of the epicenter; although no casualties were reported. However, the disaster has passing deep psychological effects among students. In this study, we examine how the primary school teachers enabled the student to be resilient during and after the disaster. Based on the interviews of 16 primary school students it was revealed that most of the teachers used WhatsApp to support resilience during and after the earthquake. Interviews with 16 primary school teachers revealed there were two main reasons for them to communicate with students namely, delivering emotional aid and monitoring their stress. Based on student interviews, five content categories of emotional support were identified: caring, reassuring, emotion sharing, belonging, and distracting. The main contribution of this study is social media can be used as a spontaneously and proactive tool to support student's resilience during and after the earthquake trauma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0221.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Engagement; Emotional Intelligence; Nurses; sexo.
Online: 14 June 2018 (14:34:29 CEST)
1) Background: Aware that engagement in the healthcare field needs high levels of emotional intelligence, we began this study in to the relationship between engagement and emotional intelligence in nurses. The objective of this study was to determine the explanatory value of the components of emotional intelligence for engagement in a sample of nurses, and to identify which of the emotional intelligence components have the greatest explanatory value for dimensions of engagement, by sex.; 2) Methods: The final study sample was made up of 2126 working nursing professionals with a mean age of 31.66 (SD=6.66). To compile the data, an ad hoc questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic information, and to collect professional and employment information, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and the Reduced Emotional Intelligence Inventory for Adults.; 3) Results: The results show that nurses with higher levels of emotional intelligence also scored more highly in engagement, with the Interpersonal factor being the greatest predictor of engagement.; and 4) Conclusions: This study have significant practical implications for the creation of intervention programs and activities to improve the performance of nurses in the workplace.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0155.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: cardiac-brain interaction; context-familiarity; naturalistic paradigm; mixed effect modelling; emotional film; emotional arousal; introception
Online: 18 April 2022 (05:43:25 CEST)
Our brain continuously interacts with the body as we engage with the world. Although we are mostly unaware of internal bodily processes, such as our heartbeats, they may be influenced by and in turn influence our perception and emotional feelings. While there is a recent focus on understanding cardiac interoceptive activity and interaction with brain activity during emotion processing, the investigation of cardiac-brain interactions with more ecologically valid naturalistic emotional stimuli is still very limited. We also do not understand how an essential aspect of emotions like context familiarity influences affective feelings and is linked to cardiac-brain interactions. Hence to answer these questions, we designed an exploratory study by recording ECG and EEG signals for the emotional events while participants were watching emotional movie clips. Participants also rated their familiarity with the stimulus on the familiarity scale. Linear mixed effect modelling was performed in which the ECG power and familiarity were considered as predictors of EEG power. We focused on three brain regions, including prefrontal (PF), frontocentral (FC) and parietooccipital (PO). The analyses showed that cardiac-brain interaction is dependent on familiarity such that the interaction is stronger with high familiarity. In addition, the results indicate that arousal is predicted by cardiac-brain interaction, which also depends on familiarity. The results support emotional theories that emphasize context dependency and interoception. Multimodal studies with more realistic stimuli would further enable us to understand and predict different aspects of emotional experience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1124.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: parents of children with disabilities; mental health; work-family facilitation; emotional regulation strategies; optimism; posttraumatic growth; social support; recovery management
Online: 18 July 2023 (13:42:45 CEST)
Quantitative research on positive aspects of work-life integration and the well-being of families with children with disabilities is scarce, especially in the national context. The aim of this study was to examine the contributions of some personal and environmental resources in explaining work-to-family (WFF) and family-to-work (FWF) facilitation and mental health of parents of children with disabilities residing in Croatia. The mediational role of WFF and FWF in the relationship between the resources and mental health was tested, while controlling for some general socio-demographic variables. A total of 571 employed parents of a child/children with disabilities completed an online self-assessment questionnaire. The results showed higher WFF (19%) was predicted by higher levels of social support at work, a higher level of education, posttraumatic growth (PTG) of personal strength, and recovery management. Higher FWF (46%) was predicted by higher levels of social support in the family, PTG of personal strength, the emotional regulation strategy of reorienting to planning, optimism, a lower age, the male gender, a greater number of children, and a higher level of education. A higher level of mental health (47%) was predicted directly by higher levels of optimism, recovery management, FWF, emotional regulation strategies of positive refocusing and planning, and a greater number of children, and indirectly by all the predictors of FWF, through a higher level of FWF (but not WFF).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0033.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: emotional-intelligence; life-skills; vulnerable-populations
Online: 5 October 2022 (10:55:00 CEST)
Children living in residential care homes (RCH) often present conditions of abandonment due to separation, abuse and mistreatment; circumstances that are detrimental to proper emotional development, resulting in poor self-confidence, aggressive behaviors, low self-esteem, anxiety, among other developmental problems. Additionally, pandemic lockdown hinders access to mental health services for RCH service providers, and limits children to external mental health support and resources. The objective of this study was to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a remote-applied Emotional-Intelligence-based intervention program (RA-EIBI) for children living in RCH during pandemic lockdown. A non-parametric pre-test, treatment, post-test comparative design was used to evaluate effectiveness of the intervention program. Seven children living in RCH during pandemic lockdown were initially assessed using Evaluation of Neurological Soft Signs, and Empathy Quotient (EQ-I) to estimate emotional intelligence quotient. A 10 session RA-EIBI program was designed and applied to the children after initial assessment, and a final evaluation was conducted to perform related samples comparisons. Results shown a non-significant mean increase of intrapersonal, interpersonal, stress management, adaptability, and emotional state, all emotional intelligence-related skills. A RA-EIBI program is an accessible resource for RCH, and children living under this condition. EI skills were maintained along the social isolation period due to COVID-19. Followup of emotional conditions of children demonstrated an improvement in self-perceived well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0307.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: emotional intelligence; brain injury; cognitive impairment
Online: 20 September 2022 (13:14:54 CEST)
Background: Cognitive-behavioral alterations can occur after an acquired brain injury. It is a stressful situa-tion for patient and relatives. Objectives: To develop and evaluate a synchronous online training program on emotional intelligence (EI) for caregivers of adult patients with cognitive-behavioral impairment due to acquired brain injury. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was designed, a target population of ten caregivers attended to a one-month virtual synchronous course about EI. The emotional status of caregivers was registered one-month-previous and one-month-post program using comparative measures: The Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS-24) and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Results: Median age of the ten caregivers was 48 years, 80% of women with a median care-time of 6 years. 50% of them were spouses of the patients. 60% of the patients were affected by stroke (hemorrhagic or ischemic cause). The main cognitive impairment of the patients reported by relatives was memory deficit. After re-ceiving training, favorable changes were found regarding emotional affect measured with the PANAS, both positive (increase) and negative (decrease), as well as with the TMMS-24-mood-repair area (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Training in EI helps caregivers to make their mood more positive and improve aspects of their emotional intelligence such as emotional regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0519.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: personality; emotional aspects; communication; work activity
Online: 21 November 2018 (07:06:12 CET)
One of the trends in current research in psychology explores how personal variables can determine a person’s communication style. Our objective was to find out the moderating effect of Mood in the relationship between the five big personality traits and an aggressive verbal communication style risk factor from work activity in a sample of nursing professionals. This study is a quantitative descriptive design. The final sample was 596 nurses with a range of 22 to 56 years. An ad hoc questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data, the 10-item Big Five Inventory, the Communication Styles Inventory, and the Brief Emotional Intelligence Inventory for Senior Citizens. This study showed that for nursing professionals, the “Agreeableness”, “Conscientiousness” and “Neuroticism” traits have a close relationship with aggressive verbal communication. Even though Mood moderates this relationship, it is only significant for those individuals with high scores in “Neuroticism”. Because personality dimensions are considered relatively stable over time and consistent from one situation to another, organizations should hold workshops and other types of practical activities to train workers in communication skills and Emotional Intelligence in order to promote employee health and that of their patients and avoid risk factor from work activity in nursing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0005.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Physical Education; social and emotional learning; Sport Education model; subjective well-being; trait emotional intelligence; social anxiety
Online: 3 January 2019 (09:34:10 CET)
The aim of this article has been to evaluate the impact of a physical-sport education programme, based on the pedagogical model of Sport Education within the framework of quality Physical Education and approached from the field of social and emotional learning, on a set of psychological variables: subjective well-being (quality of life related to health, positive affect and negative affect); trait emotional intelligence and social anxiety. A total number of 113 Compulsory Secondary Education students were involved, aged 12 to 15 years old, 44 of whom belonged to the control group (CG) and 69 to the experimental group (EG). A quasiexperimental design of repeated pretest and posttest measures with the CG was used. The results obtained in this investigation revealed that the intervention programme caused significant improvements in the subjective well-being and the trait emotional intelligence for the EG. These findings reinforce the pedagogical efficiency of the programme with regards to the aim that has been set. Likewise, the findings also highlight the suitability and appropriateness in terms of innovative teaching proposals. In the same way, the results showed relevant empirical contributions in this given school context due to its psychological benefits and the encouragement of healthy living.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2021.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: emotional prosody; mismatch response; sex differences; infancy
Online: 3 October 2023 (03:44:18 CEST)
This study examined infants' neural responses to emotional prosody in natural speech. A multi-feature oddball paradigm was used with 34 3~11 month-old infants. Results showed distinct early (100-200 ms) and late (300-500 ms) mismatch responses to different emotional prosodies. Older infants had more negative early responses with happy and angry prosodies evoking stronger responses compared to sad prosody while younger infants showed a clearer distinction between angry and sad prosodies. In the late time window, angry prosody elicited more negative responses than sad prosody with younger infants showing more distinct responses between these two prosodies. Males exhibited stronger early mismatch responses than females. These findings call for further research on the implications for socio-emotional and language development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0927.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Emotional consumption; Psychological flexibility; Healthy diet; Adults
Online: 14 September 2023 (03:03:43 CEST)
The aim is to understand the relationship between psychological inflexibility, emotional eating, and the rate of healthy eating. A total of 705 Spanish adults participated (65.2% women); the mean age was 27.21 years (SD = 10.67). The instruments used were Acceptance and Action Ques-tionnaire, Eating and Appraisal Due to Emotions and Stress Questionnaire and the Healthy Eating Index for the Spanish population. The women showed significantly higher scores in psychological inflexibility than men (p < .001). No differences have been described in the Emotional Eating scale (p = .085) differences have been reported on the Self-efficacy in Emotion -and Stress-Related Eating subscale, where men do better at managing eating (p < .001). Females indicate better diet quality (p < .001). Those who show less psychological inflexibility obtain emotional eating scores indicative of less coping with emotions through food (p < .001). Groups formed according to psychological inflexibility do not differ in diet quality (p = .898). The importance of psychological inflexibility is due to its role and strong association with a variety of problems related to eating behavior, but especially because it is a construct that can be intervened upon and modified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0585.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: babble noise; lexical tone; emotional prosody; masking
Online: 8 September 2023 (11:14:25 CEST)
How people recognize linguistic and emotional prosody in different listening conditions is essential for understanding the complex interplay between social context, cognition, and communication. The perception of both lexical tones and emotional prosody depends on prosodic features including pitch, intensity, duration, and voice quality. However, it is unclear which aspect of prosody is perceptually more salient and resistant to noise. This study aimed to investigate the relative perceptual robustness of emotional prosody and lexical tone recognition in quiet and in the presence of multi-talker babble noise. Forty young adults with normal hearing listened to monosyllables either with or without background babble noise and completed two identification tasks, one for emotion recognition and the other for lexical tone recognition. Compared with emotional prosody, lexical tones were more perceptually salient in multi-talker babble noise. Native Mandarin Chinese participants identified lexical tones more accurately and quickly than vocal emotions at the same signal-to-noise ratio. Lexical tone perception is also more robust against babble speech noise degradation than emotional prosody perception for native Mandarin Chinese listeners. Acoustic and cognitive dissimilarities between linguistic prosody and emotional prosody may have led to the phenomenon, which calls for further explorations into the underlying psychobiological and neurophysiological mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0415.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: emotional regulation; sleep habits; anxiety; children; adolescents
Online: 6 July 2023 (10:56:27 CEST)
Background: Previous research studies have suggested the importance of studying the relationship between emotional regulation and sleep habits. Some investigations have especially focused on how emotional regulation could impact sleep habits in children and adolescents. Therefore, these researchers have stated there exists a two-way direction in this relationship. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the influence of emotional regulation on sleep habits in Spanish children and adolescents, and the mediating role of anxiety in this relationship. Method: Participants were 953 Spanish parents who completed the assessment protocol according to their children and adolescents’ information. Results: The results revealed moderate-strong correlations between emotional regulation problems and sleep habits disturbances (r=0.375, p<0.001), trait (r=0.488, p<0.001) and state (r=0.589, p<0.001) anxiety. Also, emotional regulation showed a direct impact on sleep habits (β=0.011, p=0.005). Trait and state anxiety demonstrated a significant mediating role in the relationship between emotional regulation and sleep habits. Conclusions: Emotional regulation may have an impact on sleep habits during childhood and adolescence, suggesting the importance of early intervention focused on the emotions management and the prevention of sleep habits disturbances.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0533.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Emotional intelligence; job satisfaction; teacher; Scoping review
Online: 7 June 2023 (10:16:56 CEST)
Recent trends in assessing teachers' psychological aspects have led to considering emotional intelligence (EI) as one of the main factors determining teachers' job satisfaction. The present study aims to explore the different effects of emotional intelligence on teachers' job satisfaction. This study used the Scoping review method and focused specifically on studies conducted from January 2014 to February 2023, and 21 studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall, the results indicated that emotional intelligence has both direct and indirect positive effects on teachers' job satisfaction. However, the results on the effects of various EI models on teachers' job satisfaction were inconsistent. The findings suggest that more research is needed to investigate the impact of the ability model of EI on teachers’ job satisfaction, as well as longitudinal studies to understand the long-term effects of this relationship. Finally, studies are also needed to determine whether demographic factors influence the effects of EI on teachers’ job satisfaction in different countries and contexts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1130.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: emotions; emotional intelligence; intellectual performance; learning; stress
Online: 16 May 2023 (08:57:25 CEST)
Emotional instability and stress are main disturbances that condition the learning process, affecting both teachers and students. The main objective of this review is to analyze the influence of stress and emotions (as part of stress) on the learning process. The quality and intensity of emotions will not depend exclusively on a particular situation, but also on the subjective evaluation that the person makes of the situation in terms of a set of assessment dimensions. Emotions lead to sentimental, cognitive, behavioral and physiological changes, which will have a strong influence on intellectual performance. Stress is a physiological mechanism that the organism develops to adapt and survive in external and internal environments. Although it seems that it is a general pattern of response to emotions, it could be assumed that each emotion seems to have its own pattern of physiological reaction. In conclusion, extreme stress situations can generate anxiety and frustration in students. The activation of coping strategies constitutes a key mechanism for dealing positively with problems and challenges, generating positive emotions essential for the self-regulation of learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0911.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: emotional intelligence; adolescents; social networks; social desirability
Online: 25 April 2023 (09:43:26 CEST)
Social networks have become an ubiquitous aspect of adolescents' life, providing new ways to connect and communicate with peers. However, little is known about the impact of social net-works on adolescents' emotional intelligence (EI), a crucial skill for social and identity development. The aim of the present study is to explore the time spent and reasons for using social net-works and their relationship with emotional intelligence in adolescents and young adults (15-19 years). After signing informed consent, participants completed a battery of questionnaires offered via secure online form. The results showed that teenagers spend more than 3 h/day on Whatsapp, more than 2 h/day on Instagram and less on Facebook (26m per day); girls prefer to use Whatsapp and Instagram, boys opt for Facebook. Most participants use social media when bored and/or to communicate with friends. Moreover, time spent on social media has a relationship with stress management with some aspects of EI (assertiveness, self-actualization, optimism, etc.). EI and social desirability have a significant relationship, especially in the sphere of adaptability. Based on the results obtained, future perspectives and training are suggested with the aim of adapting to the constant changes in the new technological reality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0012.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: emotional intelligence; mountain sports; life satisfaction; resilience
Online: 1 February 2023 (11:42:54 CET)
High-level performance in mountain sports would be unlikely unless different emotional factors are taken into account through the analysis of psychological characteristics such as mood, resilience or motivation, among many others. In this study, 788 people with a sports degree from the Spanish Federation of Mountain Sports and Climbing (FEDME) participated, 75.3% are men and 24.5% are women. The mean age of the participants was 49.8 years (±12.8), ranging from 18 to 76 years. The Wong Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS-S), the RS-14 Resilience Scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) instrument were used. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship between the dimensions of emotional intelligence, resilience and life satisfaction. The results showed a relationship between several of the dimensions from the instruments used (p<.01). In terms of gender, higher scores were found for women than for men. The regression model shows that both the dimensions of emotional intelligence [Appraisal of own emotions (β=.104; p<.001); Use of emotions (β=.30; p<.001); Emotional Regulation (β=.103; p<.001)] and resilience [Personal competence (β=.402; p<.001)], are predictors of greater life satisfaction, with 44.1% positively explained by the regression model. Further proposals should extend the results obtained with the analysis of more sports modalities and provide evidence that would complement those extracted in this research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0237.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Social; Emotional; Intellectual Development; Children; Adolescents; Schools
Online: 16 June 2022 (10:46:01 CEST)
Educating children to be informed, responsible, socially adept citizens who care about others is an overarching purpose for schools. A rising variety of preventive and child development initiatives are being implemented in schools. Insufficient coordination with other school activities and neglect of implementation and assessment variables essential for a significant program impact these programs' current implications. They are not doomed to failure in the long term. The other challenges for scholars in school-based action research are identifying practical models to prevent problem characteristics, promoting positive child development, and supporting widespread development and sustainability of evidence-based preschool through educational practice. To conceptualize good youth development programs through Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) in schools, this research presents integrated social, emotional, and intellectual education (ISEIE). School interventions are necessary to implement the social and emotional skills on self-understanding, social knowledge, self-management, relationship management, responsibility, and decision-making. Schools are the best place to implement all these programs to create a better generation. To back up this viewpoint, this study looks at research from illustrative studies and research syntheses. In the end, this paper provides suggestions for implementing programs that combine social, emotional, and intellectual development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0013.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Social support; emotional maturity; anxiety; online learning
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:26:27 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia makes a significant impact both physically and psychologically. One month after the President of the Republic of Indonesia announced about the COVID-19 patient cases, the Indonesian Child Protection Commission data during April 2020, depicted that 76.7% of children were not happy to participate in distance learning because 81.8% were only given assignments by the teacher and 73.2% felt they had a heavy task and had a short period of time to complete. This reaction is an indicator of the children’s anxiety about distance learning. The anxiety that occurs in these students is assumed to depend on their social support and emotional maturity. When students get optimal family support and are able to control their emotions in the face of a pandemic, they can reduce anxiety in facing online learning. The subjects of this study were 202 junior high and high school students. The results showed that social support and emotional maturity simultaneously affect anxiety in online learning (Freg = 45.066, p = 0.00 <0.01). These results can be used as a basis for providing psycho-education to increase family support and emotional maturity to reduce anxiety in online learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0040.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: adolescents; emotional sphere; ethnic-related peculiarities; North
Online: 3 March 2020 (11:33:20 CET)
The combined ecological, geophysical, climatic, and social factors of the Northeast of Russia influence the organism from the early childhood being too intense for the functional systems. The purpose of the research is to study the emotional characteristics of adolescents of different ethnic groups in the northeast of Russia. Presented in the paper are results of the study that covered 826 adolescents (445 females and 381 males) at the age of 15–17, different by ethnic origin. We used standard methods of psycho-diagnostics. Our study has showed that the formation of the adolescents’ emotional sphere in the North is undoubtedly influenced not only by the climatic and socio-economic environmental factors but also by ethnic features. There are intergroup differences in the aggressiveness profile of older adolescents living in the remote settlement vs. the regional center. It is shown that high school students in the remote settlement of Evensk, compared to their peers in Magadan, regardless of gender and ethnicity, are characterized by more pronounced hostile and auto-aggressive reactions. In adolescents of the Aboriginal population, as compared with their age mate Caucasians, the indicators of impairment in the field of Neuro Psychic Adaptation, Situational and Personal Anxiety, and Social Frustration are significantly more pronounced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0298.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: emotional intelligence; organized sport; children; elementary education
Online: 15 October 2018 (10:31:47 CEST)
Taking into account Bar-On’s postulations about social-emotional intelligence, the aim of the current work is to find out the differences in the five dimensions of this intelligence between children that practice organized sport and those children that do not practice it at elementary school level, to show that an increasing in the number of hours per day performing this activity causes differences in some of these dimensions. Hence, a sample of 940 children from elementary schools, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years old, attending different schools from the Autonomous Community of Extremadura (Spain), was used. Results showed that children who practiced organized sport had better coping abilities for stress, adaptability, and mood states, and that they are more emotionally intelligent than those who did not. Moreover, children who practiced for fewer hours daily (up to 2 hours) had better stress coping than those who practiced more. To conclude, it is important to promote the sport federative practice in elementary education, in order to ensure that children learn to better regulate and manage their emotions, without increasing it to an excessive number of hours per day, which may generate greater stress that might be difficult to control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1458.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: emotional intelligence; ChatGPT; GPT-4; EI; EQ; artificial empathy; experiential EI; strategic EI; 4 branch model of emotional intelligence
Online: 23 October 2023 (16:16:45 CEST)
Current neural network models can demonstrate reasonable-looking behavior, considered by some developers and researchers human-like. For example, a large language model GPT-3 is susceptible to human-like cognitive biases. Yet there is no data of such models solving emotional intelligence (EI) tasks. They are connected to the abilities that has been previously considered as specifically human EI is an important aspect of human communication. The ability to understand and respond to emotional cues is essential for effective communication. Therefore, it is crucial to determine the ways AI models such as ChatGPT demonstrate EI. The present research aims to measure the EI of GPT-4, a large language model trained by OpenAI. Russian version of the Mayer–Salovey–Caruzo Emotional Intelligence Test sections B, C, D, F, G and H were used in this research. High points were obtained in Understanding emotions scale and Strategic EI. Mean points are obtained in Managing emotions scale. Low and less reliable values are obtained in Using emotions to facilitate thought scale. Thus, GPT-4 seems already capable of identifying emotions in text and describing techniques for managing them. However, complex cases and irregular situations requiring emotions qualitative analysis would be a hard task for GPT-4.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1110.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: needs; schema therapy; attachment; core emotional needs; schemas
Online: 28 April 2023 (04:41:45 CEST)
Several theories have been proposed on the subject of fundamental psychological human needs. A brief overview was given for some of these major theories. A more recent theory on core emotional needs, derived from the vantage point of schema therapy, was also proposed and comparisons were drawn with the other models, each with different psychological boundaries. Implications and what these psychological needs mean to parents were also discussed covering cultural norms that may inadvertently inflict harm on young children and adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0394.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: emotional intelligence; happiness; education level; students; general population
Online: 21 December 2022 (08:55:30 CET)
Emotional intelligence and educational level are commonly associated with success in life and well-being. While multiple studies have explored these concepts independently, few studies have examined the impact of educational level on emotional intelligence and associated variables, such as well-being. A total of N = 202 participants were recruited online. Participants completed measures of emotional intelligence, well-being (i.e., happiness, self-esteem, personal growth). Overall, participants who previously obtained a bachelor’s degree displayed higher levels of emotional intelligence, happiness, self-esteem, and personal growth compared to those without an undergraduate degree. However, no differences were observed on any variable between individuals currently enrolled in a university and non-students. The results suggest that, while completing a university degree increases emotional intelligence and well-being, the stress of being a student may negatively impact the benefits obtained from attending university. Limitations and possible directions for future research are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0373.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: professional competence; academic success; emotional intelligence; students; nursing
Online: 19 January 2021 (11:00:04 CET)
This study was conducted to investigate the correlations between social-emotional competence (SEC) and academic achievement (AA) among nursing students and to compare students’ level of each core skill of SEC (critical thinking disposition, self-directed learning, creativity, emotional intelligence, problem-solving, and collaboration) and academic achievement (clinical performance and subjective academic achievement). A cross-sectional design was adapted. Data were collected from 195 nursing students in the junior and senior years who had participated in clinical practicum from four universities in South Korea. General characteristics, levels of critical thinking disposition, self-directed learning, creativity, emotional intelligence, problem-solving, collaboration, and academic achievement were collected via self-reported questionnaire. Canonical correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between SEC and AA. The canonical correlation coefficient between SEC and AA was .762. Critical thinking disposition (Rs = .89), problem-solving (Rs = .86), cooperation (Rs = .80) made the most important contributions to SEC. Clinical performance (Rs=.95) and subjective AA (Rs=.57) were correlated with AA. SEC should be addressed to improve the AA of nursing students. All core skills of SEC should be regularly promoted. It is particularly urgent for nursing students to improve their creativity.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: substance use; emotional intelligence; resilience; family functioning; adolescents
Online: 22 April 2019 (10:48:50 CEST)
The use of alcohol and tobacco is related to several variables which act as risk or protective factors, depending on the circumstances. The objectives of this study were to analyze the relationship between emotional intelligence, resilience and family functioning in adolescent use of alcohol and tobacco and to find emotional profiles for their use considering self-concept. The sample was made up of 317 high school students aged 13 to 18 who filled out the Brief Emotional Intelligence Inventory, the Resilience Scale for Adolescents, the APGAR Scale, the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire - Adolescents and the Five-Factor Self-Concept Questionnaire. The results revealed that emotional intelligence and resilience, specifically, stress management and family cohesion were significant in the group of nonusers. Family functioning acts as a predictor factor for onset of use of tobacco and alcohol. Positive expectancies about drinking alcohol were found to be a risk factor and the intrapersonal factor to be protective. Both stress management and family cohesion were protective factors against smoking. Furthermore, cluster analysis revealed emotional profiles for users of both substances based on self-concept. Finally, the importance of the direction of the relationship between the variables studied for intervention in this problem should be mentioned. Responsible use by improving adolescent decision-making is one of the results expected from this type of intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0271.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: family functioning; aggressive behavior; emotional intelligence; adolescent values
Online: 24 December 2018 (05:19:54 CET)
Aggressive behavior in adolescence is influenced by a diversity of individual, family and social variables. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between family functioning, emotional intelligence and values for development of different types of aggression, as well as to establish profiles according to the predictor variables of aggression. To do this, a sample of 317 high school students aged 13 to 18 were administered the Peer Conflict Scale, the Family Functionality Scale, the Brief Emotional Intelligence Inventory for Senior Citizens and the Values for Adolescent Development Scales. The study showed that stress management, positive adolescent development and family functioning predominated in nonaggressive subjects with higher scores than aggressors. There was also a negative relationship between the different types of aggression and emotional intelligence, positive values and family functioning. In addition, two different profiles were found. The first had low scores on all the variables, while the second profile had higher scores on all the variables except family functioning which was higher.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0505.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: emotional prosody; multi-feature oddball; mismatch negativity (MMN); P3a
Online: 29 March 2023 (10:55:44 CEST)
Purpose: Emotional voice conveys important social cues that demand listeners’ attention and timely processing. This event-related potential study investigated the feasibility of a multi-feature oddball paradigm to examine adult listeners’ neural responses to detecting emotional prosody changes in non-repeating naturally spoken words. Method: Thirty-three adult listeners completed the experiment by passively listening to the words in neutral and three alternating emotions while watching a silent movie. Previous research documented pre-attentive change-detection electrophysiological responses (e.g., MMN, P3a) to emotions carried by fixed syllables or words. Given that the MMN and P3a have also been shown to reflect extraction of abstract regularities over repetitive acoustic patterns, the current study employed a multi-feature oddball paradigm to compare listeners’ MMN and P3a to emotional prosody change from neutral to angry, happy, and sad emotions delivered with hundreds of non-repeating words in a single recording session. Results: Both MMN and P3a were successfully elicited by the emotional prosodic change over the varying linguistic context. Angry prosody elicited the strongest MMN compared to happy and sad prosodies. Happy prosody elicited the strongest P3a in the centro-frontal electrodes, and angry prosody elicited the smallest P3a. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that listeners were able to extract the acoustic patterns for each emotional prosody category over constantly changing spoken words. The findings confirm the feasibility of the multi-feature oddball paradigm in investigating emotional speech processing beyond simple acoustic change detection, which may potentially be applied to pediatric and clinical populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0424.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: emotional speech processing; communication channel; emotion category; task type
Online: 27 October 2022 (08:04:59 CEST)
How language mediates emotional perception and experience is poorly understood. The present event-related potential (ERP) study examined the explicit and implicit processing of emotional speech to differentiate the relative influences of communication channel, emotion category and task type in the prosodic salience effect. Thirty participants (15 women) were presented with spoken words denoting happiness, sadness and neutrality in either the prosodic or semantic channel. They were asked to judge the emotional content (explicit task) and speakers’ gender (implicit task) of the stimuli. Results indicated that emotional prosody (relative to semantics) triggered larger N100 and P200 amplitudes with greater delta, theta and alpha inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) values in the corresponding early time windows, and continued to produce larger LPC amplitudes and faster responses during late stages of higher-order cognitive processing. The relative salience of prosodic and semantics was modulated by emotion and task, though such modulatory effects varied across different processing stages. The prosodic salience effect was reduced for sadness processing and in the implicit task during early auditory processing and decision-making but reduced for happiness processing in the explicit task during conscious emotion processing. Additionally, across-trial synchronization of delta, theta and alpha bands predicted the ERP components with higher ITPC values significantly associated with stronger N100, P200 and LPC enhancement. These findings reveal the neurocognitive dynamics of emotional speech processing with prosodic salience tied to stage-dependent emotion- and task-specific effects, which can reveal insights to research reconciling language and emotion processing from cross-linguistic/cultural and clinical perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0445.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Adult children's education; parental longevity; truncated regression; emotional support.
Online: 26 August 2022 (04:18:44 CEST)
Background: Some developing countries, such as China, population is aging rapidly, meanwhile, the average years of schooling for residents is constantly increasing. However, the question of whether adult children’s education has an effect on the longevity of older parents, remains inadequately studied. Methods: This paper uses China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS) data to estimate the causal impact of adult children's education on their parents' longevity. Identification is achieved by using the truncated regression model and using historical education data as instrument variables for adult children’s education. Results: For every unit increase in adult children’s education, the father’s and mother’s longevity increased by 0.89 years and 0.75 years, respectively. Mechanism analysis shows that adult children's education has a significant positive impact on parents' emotional support, financial support and self-reported health. Further evidence shows that for every unit increase in adult children’s education, the father-in-law’s and mother-in-law’s longevity increased by 0.40 years and 0.46 years, respectively. Conclusions: It is conclusion that improving the level of adult children’s education can increase parents’ and parents-in-law’s longevity. Adult children’s education might contribute to the longevity of older parents by three channels that providing emotional, economic support and affecting parents’ health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0521.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: emotional processing; disgust; cocaine dependence; alcohol dependence; face; body
Online: 31 December 2021 (12:58:19 CET)
Background: Different drugs damage the frontal cortices, particularly the prefrontal areas involved in both emotional and cognitive functions, with a consequence of decoding emotion deficits for people with substance abuse. The present study aims to explore the cognitive impairments in drug abusers through facial, body and disgust emotion recognition, expanding the investigation of emotions, processing, measuring accuracy and response velocity. Method: We enrolled 13 addicted to cocaine and 12 alcohol patients attending treatment services in Italy, comparing them with 33 matched controls. Facial emotion and body posture recognition tasks, a disgust rating task, and the Barrat Impulsivity Scale were included in the experimental assessment. Results: We found that emotional processes are differently influenced by cocaine and alcohol, suggesting that these substances impact diverse cerebral systems. Conclusion: The contribution made by the duration of consumption on emotional processing seems far less important than for cognitive processes. Drug abusers seem to be slower on elaboration of emotions and, in particular, of disgust emotion. Considering that the participants were not impaired in cognition, our data support the hypothesis that emotional impairments emerge independently from damage to cognitive functions.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Alzheimer's Disease; Loneliness; Social-Emotional; Social Acceptance; Attention Focused
Online: 28 June 2020 (09:28:29 CEST)
The aim of the present research to identify the differences between the social acceptance, attention, and emotional and social loneliness feeling in women suffering from Alzheimer's and normal. The sample was analyzed in this study included 39 women age 51 to 69 years with the scope of that 19 of them with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 18 people had normal cognitive function and healthy in the city of Gorgan in the winter 1395 in the study. Identification of Alzheimer's sufferers and healthy based on the diagnosis of the physician and cognitive status questionnaire (SPMSQ) and they were asked to answer the social acceptance of the scale questionnaire Marlow and Craven, affective and social adults alone feel scale (SELSA-S), Spotlight questionnaire (FAQ). The data using analysis of variance, multivariate factor test method (MANOVA) were studied. The results of this test indicate that it is totally focused attention between petty scale, the Spotlight focused on the notion of social acceptance of social interaction and social-emotional feeling lonely scale in women suffering from Alzheimer's and normal according to the analysis of the one-way variance of a significant difference in the context of manova level (P < 0.001). But in the other scale retail spotlight focused on his research, a significant difference was not observed. According to the results of the research in general can be found stating that to provide family-centered care and the implementation of the health-welfare interventions by relevant organs with different educational, supportive, emotional and consultation approaches, can be effective on health promotion of public health and the actual need in the community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0264.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: emotional intelligence; job satisfaction; military context; proactive personality; resilience
Online: 23 September 2019 (07:40:31 CEST)
Although prior research has extensively examined the association of emotional intelligence (EI) with various job attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction), the empirical and systematic investigation of this link within military institutions has captured considerably less research attention. The present research analyzed the relationship between EI, teamwork communication, and job satisfaction among Spanish military cadets. We tested the potential unique contribution of EI to job satisfaction over and above demographics (i.e., gender and age), proactive personality, and resilience. Moreover, we also examined whether EI indirectly affects job satisfaction via its relationship with teamwork communication. A sample of 363 cadet officers of the Spanish General Military Academy completed questionnaires assessing EI, teamwork communication, proactive personality, resilience, and job satisfaction. Our results revealed that EI exhibited incremental variance in predicting job satisfaction even after accounting for demographics, proactive personality, and resilience. Additionally, we found that the effect of EI on job satisfaction was partially driven by enhanced teamwork communication. This research provides empirical evidence suggesting a pathway (i.e., effective teamwork communication) through which EI helps military cadets to experience higher job satisfaction. Implications for future academic programs including EI and teamwork communication to promote positive job attitudes among military personnel are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0007.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: retention policy; emotional contribution; job retention and business growth
Online: 1 September 2019 (10:11:07 CEST)
This study investigates aspects of job retention and business growth in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). It examines how employers think about retention policy in relation to business growth, in contrast to previous studies’ main focus on employee motivation, job retention, and turnover. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted face-to-face with Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of Engineering and Informational Technology SMEs in South Korea. The results show that an important factor influencing job retention policies of SMEs is the motivation of employees to make voluntary effort, rather than offering them additional financial rewards or using other Human Resource Management (HRM) practices to improve individual performances. Interviewees believed that job retention and business growth are closely related and they discussed various ways of eliciting emotional contributions from employees. Unlike research on larger firms, these suggestions did not involve financial rewards. How employers think about the roles played by employees strongly influences their firm’s productivity and competitiveness. The SME CEOs examined in this study considered this issue central to their firm’s survival and growth. This study suggests SME employers adjust their retention policy correspondingly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2002.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: social support; psychological well-being; happiness; emotional intelligence; life satisfaction
Online: 31 October 2023 (10:02:51 CET)
The well-being in the people is a key aspect of the field of psychology. Hence, it is important to an-alyse the variables that are related to life satisfaction and happiness as perceived by individuals and that, therefore, increase their overall well-being. The main objective of this study was to ana-lyse the predictive capacity of emotional intelligence and perceived social support on both the level of life satisfaction and perceived happiness. A total of 380 psychology students completed the Trait Meta Mood Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. The results show that both emotional intelligence and social support are related to and predictive of subjective happiness and life satisfaction. The importance of developing the components of emotional intelligence and promoting an adequate social network in young people is highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1234.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: acute emotional stress; sympathetic activity; vagal activity; endothelin; bradyarrhythmias; tachyarrhythmias
Online: 19 September 2023 (11:25:02 CEST)
The ubiquitous peptide endothelin is currently under investigation as a modulatory factor of autonomic responses to acute emotional stress. Baseline plasma levels of endothelin alter blood pressor responses, but it remains unclear whether autonomic activity and arrhythmogenesis are affected. We recorded sympathetic and vagal indices (derived from heart rate variability analysis), rhythm disturbances, voluntary motion, and blood pressure after acute emotional stress in conscious rats with implanted telemetry devices. Two strains were compared, namely wild-type and ETB-deficient rats, the latter displaying elevated plasma endothelin. No differences in heart rate or blood pressure were evident, but sympathetic responses were blunted in ETB-deficient rats, contrasting prompt activation in wild-type rats. Vagal withdrawal was observed in both strains at the onset of stress, but vagal activity was subsequently restored in ETB-deficient rats, accompanied by low voluntary motion during recovery. Reflecting such distinct autonomic patterns, frequent premature ventricular contractions were recorded in wild-type rats, as opposed to sinus pauses in ETB-deficient rats. Thus, chronically elevated plasma endothelin levels blunt autonomic responses to acute emotional stress, resulting in vagal dominance and bradyarrhythmias. Our findings provide further insights into the pathophysiology of stress-induced tachyarrhythmias and syncope.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0443.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Algerian dialect; Opinion mining; Sentiment analysis; Emotional detection; Social web
Online: 25 January 2023 (04:11:49 CET)
Social networking services such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube are fertile ground for analyzing texts, extracting opinions, and identifying feelings, due to the large number of texts and their diversity in all areas of life. In this manuscript, we apply four algorithms to classify tweets written in the Algerian dialect. To extract feelings, we used six features based on three polarities. In the presented work, we manually annotate a corpus of 2,891 texts and create an Algerian lexicon of idioms that contains 1328 annotated words. Our results show that there are improvements gained on the accuracy of the system, where we have achieved a better accuracy of 85.31%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: emotional loneliness; social loneliness; nursing homes; older adults; social isolation
Online: 27 January 2022 (13:25:59 CET)
(1) Background: Loneliness, little studied in Nursing Homes (NHs), can affect physical and mental health. We aimed to verify the prevalence of loneliness in 5 NHs and its associated factors. (2) Methods: Cross-sectional study. Older adults aged 65 or over with preserved cognitive status were included. The De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale was used to assess overall, social, and emotional loneliness; sociodemographic and health-related variables were collected. The chi-square (or Fisher’s) test and logistic regression were used for bivariate and multivariate analysis respectively. (3) Results: The final sample consisted of 65 participants (81.5% female) with a mean age of 84±7.13. Prevalence of overall loneliness was 70.7% (95%CI:58.2-81.4), social loneliness 44.6% (95% CI: 33.1-56.6) and emotional loneliness 46.2% (95% CI: 34.5–58.1). Overall loneliness was associated with lower perceived quality of life (Odds Ratio-OR= 5.52, 95% CI:1.25-24.38) and NH with state subsidized places (OR=0.19, 95% CI: 0.05-0.74); social loneliness with having 0-1 children (OR=0.25, 95% CI: 0.08-0.77), and emotional loneliness with depression (OR=4.54, 95% CI: 1.28-16.08) and urinary incontinence (UI) (OR=4.65, 95% CI: 1.23-17.52). (4) Conclusions: Loneliness was present in almost 71% of residents and was associated with the type of NH and poorer quality of life, emotional loneliness with depression and UI and social loneliness with having less than 2 children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0364.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Teachers; Mindfulness; Emotion regulation; COVID-19; Work engagement; Emotional distress
Online: 22 December 2021 (12:28:23 CET)
The COVID-19 has dramatically affected mental health and work environment of many labor sectors, including the educational sector. Our primary aim was to investigate preschool teachers’ psychological distress and work engagement during the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak, while examining the possible protective role of participating in mindfulness-based intervention (C2C-IT) and emotion regulation. Emotional distress, work engagement and COVID-19 concerns’ prevalence were evaluated among 165 preschool teachers in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak in Israel, using self-report questionnaires. Findings show that preschool teachers have experienced increased emotional distress. Teachers who had participated in the C2C-IT intervention six month before the pandemic outbreak (N=41) reported lower emotional distress, higher use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies and higher work engagement, compared to their counterparts that had not participated in the mindfulness training (N = 124). Emotion regulation strategies mediated the link between participating in the CTC-IT intervention and emotional distress and work engagement. Teaching is a highly demanding occupation, especially during a pandemic, therefore it is important to invest resources in empowering this population. According to the findings of the current study, implementation of mindfulness-based intervention during the school year, may benefit teachers’ well-being, even during stressful events such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0334.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: University; emotional education; social ambit; cognitive domain; physical education degree
Online: 21 December 2021 (13:21:11 CET)
The objective of the present study was to apply an intervention program based on emotional ed-ucation and self-knowledge, in students of the degree in Education to verify changes in wisdom. For this, the 3S-WS questionnaire was administered before and after 8 weeks of intervention, an-alyzing aspects related to affective, cognitive and reflective wisdom. The sample consisted of 100 students (40 men and 60 women, aged between 20 and 29 years). After the intervention program, students improved reflective wisdom without difference between sexes. On the other hand, men had higher values in all variables than women. In conclusion, the program to improve personal development and self-awareness could be useful to improve wisdom (especially reflective wis-dom) in 3rd and 4th year students of the degree in Education, specializing in Physical Education. At the same time, it is intended that these students understand the foundations of the intervention so that in the future it can be replicated in their classrooms and contribute to the sustainable de-velopment of the 2030 Agenda.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0372.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: 3MDR; treatment-resistant PTSD; military; veterans; mental health; emotional regulation
Online: 26 October 2021 (09:51:46 CEST)
Multi-modal Motion-assisted Memory Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy (3MDR), an interactive, virtual-reality assisted, exposure-based intervention for PTSD, has shown promising results for treatment-resistant Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (TR-PTSD) among military members (MMs) and Veterans in Randomized Controlled Trials. Previous research has suggested that emotional regulation (ER) and emotional dysregulation (ED) may be factors which are correlated with symptom severity and maintenance of TR-PTSD. This embedded mixed-methods pilot study (n=9) sought to explore the impact of 3MDR on ER and ED of MMs and Veterans. Difficulties in Emotional Regulation Scale (DERS-18) data was collected at baseline, prior to each session, and at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months post-intervention and analyzed using a Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. Qualitative data collected from sessions, debriefs, and follow-up interviews were transcribed and descriptively analyzed. Results demonstrated statistically significant decreases in DERS-18 scores from pre-intervention to post-intervention at each timepoint. Qualitatively, participants perceived improvements in ER within specified DERS-18 domains. We describe how 3MDR’s unique and novel approach may address ED through cognitive-motor stimulation, narration, divergent thinking, reappraisal of aversive stimuli, dual-task processing, and reconsolidation of traumatic memories. Further investigation is underway to better understand the underlying neurobiological mechanisms by which 3MDR addresses ER and PTSD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: EEG; music therapy; acoustic features; machine learning; emotional-response predictions
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:12:19 CEST)
Music has the ability to evoke a wide variety of emotions in human listeners. Research has shown that treatment for depression and mental health disorders is significantly more effective when it is complemented by music therapy. However, because each human experiences music-induced emotions differently, there is no systematic way to accurately predict how people will respond to different types of music at an individual level. In this experiment, a model is created to predict humans’ emotional responses to music from both their electroencephalographic data (EEG) and the acoustic features of the music. By using recursive feature elimination (RFE) to extract the most relevant and performing features from the EEG and music, a regression model is fit and accurately correlates the patient’s actual music-induced emotional responses and model’s predicted responses. By reaching a mean correlation of r = 0.788, this model is significantly more accurate than previous works attempting to predict music-induced emotions (e.g. a 370% increase in accuracy as compared to Daly et al. (2015)). The results of this regression fit suggest that accurately predicting how people respond to music from brain activity is possible. Furthermore, by testing this model on specific features extracted from any musical clip, music that is most likely to evoke a happier and pleasant emotional state in an individual can be determined. This may allow music therapy practitioners, as well as music-listeners more broadly, to select music that will improve mood and mental health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0763.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Autonomy support coaching; Emotional intelligence; Interruption intention; Social competence; Symmetry
Online: 28 April 2021 (17:30:35 CEST)
Objective: Studies in Sports Psychology and Sociology have validated causality in team-sport athletes by using emotional intelligence as a variable. This study aimed to examine the causal relationship between the types of autonomy support coaching, emotional intelligence, and interruption intention as psychosocial variables among current taekwondo athletes in Korea.Methods: In this study, 217 adult or university athletes registered in the Korea Taekwondo Association in 2020 were evaluated for the type of autonomy support coaching, emotional intelligence, and interruption intention. Results: Autonomy support coaching recognized by taekwondo athletes has a negative and positive effect on interruption intention and emotional intelligence, respectively. Moreover, emotional intelligence has a negative effect on interruption intention. which revealed that autonomy support coaching has a negative effect on interruption intention through emotional intelligence.Conclusions: Such outcomes can serve as a foundation for athletes to have the opportunity to participate in sports in a mature manner and promote positive changes in sports culture. In other words, the sensibility of the athletes can be harmoniously symmetry.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0649.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Autonomy support coaching; Emotional intelligence; Interruption intention; Social competence; Symmetry
Online: 26 April 2021 (10:24:55 CEST)
Objective: Studies in Sports Psychology and Sociology have validated causality in team-sport athletes by using emotional intelligence as a variable. This study aimed to examine the causal relationship between the types of autonomy support coaching, emotional intelligence, and interruption intention as psychosocial variables among current taekwondo athletes in Korea. Methods: In this study, 217 adult or university athletes registered in the Korea Taekwondo Association in 2020 were evaluated for the type of autonomy support coaching, emotional intelligence, and interruption intention. Results: Autonomy support coaching recognized by taekwondo athletes has a negative and positive effect on interruption intention and emotional intelligence, respectively. Moreover, emotional intelligence has a negative effect on interruption intention. which revealed that autonomy support coaching has a negative effect on interruption intention through emotional intelligence. Conclusions: Such outcomes can serve as a foundation for athletes to have the opportunity to participate in sports in a mature manner and promote positive changes in sports culture. In other words, the sensibility of the athletes can be harmoniously symmetry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0626.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Sexism; social networks; adolescence; digital gender gap, emotional well-being
Online: 23 April 2021 (10:01:04 CEST)
Despite gender equality being present in the social and political sphere, we still encounter aspects that are characteristic of sexism. Such aspects impact upon gender inequality and different types of violence towards women. The present article aims to examine the behaviour of adolescents from Huelva with regards to ambivalent sexism towards women on social networks and their influence on health. Further, we seek to uncover adolescent’s perceptions with regards to gender differences in the use of social networks, the relationship between sexism and women's emotional well-being was observed. The study sample was formed by young people aged between 14 and 16 years who were residing in rural and urban zones in the south of Spain. A mixed methods approach was taken. At a quantitative level, a sample of 400 young people was recruited. These were administered a questionnaire about sexism which was composed of two scales and has been validated at a national and international level. At a qualitative level, the study counted on 33 young people who participated in in-depth discussions via interviews and discussion groups. The results showed that sexism emerges in adolescence in the analysed sample from the south of Spain. This favoured a digital gender gap and was reinforced through social networks such as Instagram and Snapchat. Rising awareness and a critical view of the aforementioned sexism was shown on the behalf of females, particularly those from urban backgrounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0325.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: COVID-19; Food intake; Lifestyle; Emotional eating; Home confinement; Lockdown.
Online: 15 October 2020 (14:07:18 CEST)
As consequence of COVID-19, millions of households suffered mobility restrictions and changes in their lifestyle during several months. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of COVID-19 home confinement in food habits, lifestyle and emotional balance of the Spanish population. This cross-sectional study used data collected via an anonymous online questionnaire during the last month before lockdown finished in Spain in a total of 675 participants. 38.8% of the respondents experienced weight gain while 31.1% lost weight during confinement. The increase in body weight was positively correlated with the age (Rs = 0.14, p <0.05) and BMI (Rs = 0.20, p <0.05). We also identified that 39.7% reported poorer quality sleep, it was positively correlated with BMI (Rs = -0.18, p <0.05) and with age (Rs = -0.21, p <0.05). 44.7% of the participants had not performed physical exercise during confinement with differences by sex (p <0.05), by age (p <0.05), by BMI (p <0.05) and sleep quality (p <0.05). According to emotional-eater questionnaire, 21.8% and 11% were classified as emotional eater and very emotional eater, respectively. We emphasize the importance of adopting a healthy lifestyle, as the COVID-19 pandemic nowadays is ongoing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0295.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: learning dispositif; emotional attachment; learning journey; inclusion; scaffolding; student engagement
Online: 24 November 2019 (16:23:55 CET)
This research investigated the significance of learning dispositif (LD) and emotional attachment (EA) on perceived learning success (LS) across a diaspora of Western, Russian, Asian, Middle Eastern and Chinese student cohorts. Foucault’s LD captures the disparate socio-cultural contexts, institutional milieus and more or less didactic teaching styles that moderate learning. EA is a multi-dimensional notion involving affective bonds that emerged in child psychology and spread to marketing and other fields. The sequential explanatory research reviewed the learning and EA literatures and generated an LD–EA framework to structure the quantitative phase of its mixed investigations. In 2017 and 2018, the research collected 150 responses and used a range of statistical techniques for quantitative analysis. It found that LS varied significantly across cohorts, intimating that dispositifs influence learning. Nonparametric analysis suggested that EA also influenced learning, but regressions were inconclusive. Exploratory techniques hint at a dynamic mix of emotional or cognitive motivations during the student learning journey, involving structural breaks in student/instructor relationships. Cluster analysis identified distinct student groupings, linked to years of learning. Separately, qualitative analysis of open-ended survey questions and expert interviews intimates that frequent teacher interactions can increase EA. The synthesis of quantitative with qualitative results and pedagogical reflection suggests that LD and EA both influence learning in a complex, dynamic system. The key constituents for EA are Affection, Connection, Social Presence (SP), Teaching Presence (TP) and Flow but student emotional engagement is conditioned by the socio-cultural milieu (LD) and associated factors like relationships and trust. Unlike in the Community of Learning framework, in the EA framework Cognitive Presence (CP) is an outcome of the interaction between these EA constituents, associated factors and the socio-cultural milieu. Finally, whilst awareness of culture and emotions is a useful pedagogical consideration, learning mainstays remain inclusive educational systems that identify student needs and support well-designed programmes. Within these, scaffolded modules should include a variety of engaging learning activities with non-threatening formative and trustworthy summative feedback. We acknowledge some statistical study limitations, but its tentative findings make a useful preliminary contribution
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0209.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Urban green areas; health; urban health; emotional health; physical health; well-being; nature; environmental medicine; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; Vienna; Austria, environmental perception; pandemic; human nature relationship; recreation; age
Online: 14 September 2022 (12:08:02 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic drew public attention back to the living conditions related to housing, access to green areas in close neighbourhood and nearby recreation. Several studies confirm that visiting green spaces improved the health and wellbeing in times of crisis. This representative study for the metropolitan area of Vienna, Austria’s capital, confirms the high relevance of contact with nature, particularly for citizens to cope with the negative consequences and perceived stress, anxiety, nervousness and many other negative symptoms experienced during the health crisis. It highlights the importance of nearby smaller but also medium to large scale green areas in cities for health and wellbeing of the population. Moreover, it specifically adds novel insights on age effects in use and perception of urban green spaces during COVID-19 pandemic. The online panel survey (n=1012) was conducted in summer 2021. In order to obtain a representative sample reflective of the population’s characteristics, a (stratified) random sample was selected by applying the quota method. The objective was to obtain a sample which represented gender, age and regional distribution of the population of the City of Vienna as well as the immediately surrounding local communities. Interestingly, particularly young people spent more time outside in green areas during the pandemic, discovered novel spaces for the first time and stated a high relevance of contact with nature for their wellbeing. Elderly people above sixty five, on the contrary, stayed more frequently at home. Significant differences are visible between the age groups also with regard to negative symptoms experienced in case of restricted access to green areas due to strict pandemic measures such as lockdowns and quarantine. All age groups, however, similarly acknowledged the importance of green areas for their physical, mental and emotional health in general during the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0693.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Intercultural competence; Cross-cultural experiences; Emotional intelligence; Global citizenship; Immersive pedagogy
Online: 29 June 2021 (08:40:01 CEST)
Over recent years globalisation has occasioned a dramatic rise in cross-cultural interactions – until this was disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic (OECD 2018, Nelson & Luetz 2021). The ability to competently engage in a multicultural world is often considered the “literacy of the future” (UNESCO 2013, OECD 2018). Global interconnectedness has brought studies into intercultural competence to centre stage (UNDP 2004, Bissessar 2018, Nelson et al. 2019). This has increased the demand for cross-cultural education experiences that facilitate such learning. However, there is a dearth of empirical research into the issues and effects surrounding short-term cross-cultural educational experiences for adolescents. This mixed methods study extends previous research by looking specifically into what impact short-term cross-cultural experiences may have on the formation of intercultural competence and emotional intelligence of Australian high school students. This study used two instruments for measuring intercultural competence and emotional intelligence in a pre- and posttest quasi-experimental design (n=14), the GENE Scale and TEQ. Moreover, it conducted in-depth post experience qualitative interviews (n=7) that broadly followed a phenomenological paradigm of inquiry. The findings suggest that fully embodied cross-cultural immersive experiences offer benefits in areas of intercultural competence and emotional intelligence and can offer meaningful application in areas of current affairs. A greater understanding of the linkages between immersive cross-cultural experiences and intercultural competence offers prospects for policy makers, educators, pastoral carers, and other relevant stakeholders who might employ such experiential learning to foster more interculturally and interracially harmonious human relations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0621.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Type 1 Diabetes; Emotions; Emotional Intelligence; Health Behaviour; Emotions, Diabetes Management.
Online: 26 February 2021 (14:04:29 CET)
The functioning of the parents’ emotional sphere is very important to a child’s mental and physical health. This study focused on investigating the association between mothers’ emotional intelligence (EI) and paediatric type I diabetes (T1DM) disease management in their children. We hypothesized that mothers’ EI is associated with T1DM outcomes. Mothers of children with T1DM aged 6-12 years were surveyed. One hundred and thirty-four mothers, the main caregivers of their diabetic children, provided measures of EI and completed a demographic questionnaire. The primary indicator of diabetes management was haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c; the main form of glycosylated haemoglobin). EI scales and subscales were associated with glycaemic management indices. Logistic regression analysis was applied for the assessment of the association between parents’ EI and their paediatric with T1DM disease management. The analysis demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between T1DM management and mothers’ ability to understand and control own emotions, to transform their own negative emotions into positive and to control own negative emotions. Mothers’ EI scales and subscales of understanding and regulating their own emotions, subscales of transforming their own negative emotions into positive ones and controlling their own negative emotions were statistically reliable predictors of glycaemic control in children with T1DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0304.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: well-being; affective support; community engagement; ageing; mental health; socio-emotional skills
Online: 3 August 2023 (08:23:38 CEST)
Aging involves several changes depending on genetic and behavioural factors, such as lifestyle and number and quality of social relationships, which in turn can be influenced by empathy. Here, the change in the perceived social support across the life span as a function of empathy was investigated, considering the mediating role of the empathy, after controlling for gender and education. 441 people (18-91 years old) filled in the Italian short version of the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL-12) and the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ6) as well as the Empathy Questionnaire (EQ) and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test (RMET). The mediation analyses with ISEL-12 showed that age and the EQ fully mediated the relationship between age and Appraisal, Belonging and Tangible scores. Further, the EQ fully mediated only the relationship between age and SSQ6-People. These results showed that empathic skills play a key role in the relationships between age and social support. This suggests: empathy can trigger social support and ultimately well-being if stimulated across the lifespan, especially since young age; this would help to form the socio-emotional competence across the years, as a sort of cushion that can be useful in the elderly to fulfil active aging.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1943.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19 victims; family members; friends; psychosocial impacts; emotional health; Informal caregiving
Online: 29 May 2023 (02:08:03 CEST)
There exists a plethora of studies examining the psychological and physical impacts of COVID-19 on infected victims. Fewer studies have been published assessing the different types of impacts that an individual’s COVID-19 infection has on close friends and family members. This is the first scoping review to gauge the reported psychosocial issues and daily hassles that impact the relatives and friends of infected individuals. This study was conducted by inputting key terms/MeSH terms into selected internet databases to locate prospective studies. The frameworks of scoping reviews by Arksey et al. and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) were utilized in the methodology for identifying and selecting the studies. After data extraction, 37 studies were deemed suitable for analysis. The findings generated from each study was placed into combined categories. A total of 16 combined categories were generated from the amalgamation of the findings. The results show that psychosocial feelings (e.g., anxiety, stress, depression) was the category with the highest prevalence of grouped findings. The results from this study may serve as the impetus for future interventions targeting the alleviation of psychosocial feelings or day to day hassles associated with having a loved one inflicted with a severe illness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0403.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: visual perception; emotion; emoji; emoticon; sex differences; anger; fear; emotional communication; texting
Online: 23 January 2023 (08:43:06 CET)
Emojis are colorful ideograms resembling stylized faces commonly used for expressing emotions in instant messaging, in social network sites and in email communication. Notwithstanding their increasing and pervasive use in electronic communication, they are not much investigated in terms of their psychological properties and communicative efficacy. Here we presented 112 different human facial expressions and emojis (expressing neutrality, joy, surprise, sadness, anger, fear and disgust) to a group of 96 female and male university students engaged in the recognition of their emotional meaning. Both Analysis of Variance and Wilcoxon tests showed that men were significantly better than women at recognizing emojis (especially negative ones) while women were better than men at recognizing human facial expressions. Quite interestingly, men were better at recognizing emojis than human facial expressions per se. These findings are in line with more recent evidences suggesting how men may be more competent and inclined to use emojis to express their emotions in messaging (especially sarcasm, tease and love) than previously thought. Finally, the data indicate how emojis are less ambiguous than facial expressions (except for neutral and surprise emotions), possibly because of the limited number of fine-grained details, and the lack of morphological features conveying facial identity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0423.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: sensory-processing sensitivity; depression; agression; emotional intelligence; decision-making style; gender differences
Online: 23 November 2021 (14:07:37 CET)
While the link between Sensory-processing sensitivity (SPS) and internalizing symptoms has been well-established, a link to externalizing problems is still to be explored. This study aimed to further examine the relation between SPS and behavioral problems by testing the potential mediating roles of trait emotional intelligence (TEI) and decision-making styles. Pathway analyses were conducted on data from 268 community sample participants (Mage= 25.81, SD=2.41, 61.2% females). Results indicated gender differences in the pathway level outcomes of SPS, as well as potential partial mediators in men and women. SPS both directly and via the mediating effects of well-being factor (TEI) and avoidant decision-making influenced depression, regardless of gender. Direct effects on aggression were, however, obtained only in the male sample. Indirect effects of SPS on aggression were found in spontaneous decision-making for men, and in self-control and sociability factors of TEI for women. Directions for future research were discussed. sensory-processing sensitivity, depression, aggression, emotional intelligence, decision-making style, gender differences
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: educational impacts; emotional impacts; behavioral impacts; psychological impacts; physical impacts; religious impacts
Online: 29 August 2016 (12:24:27 CEST)
Cartoons in the era of digital media are among the most prevalent medium of entertainment for the children, parents also encourage them to view such contents to engage the children which make an area need to be explained exhaustively by adopting new approaches. There are lot of studies in the past conducted to explain the impacts of the cartoons on the children however, it is remarkable fact that there is lack of the studies in the literature which directly address the observation about the above mentioned impacts in view of the teacher’s. This study deals with the educational, emotional, behavioral and Religious etc. impacts of cartoons on kids in view of teachers of the primary schools as they are considered as the one who can observer these impacts in a profound way. of the of Multan. Different areas of impacts have been analyzed in this study by using survey technique and analysis is conducted and presented in the teacher’s views in this study to examine what they feel that how cartoons are effecting the personalities of the children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1449.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: emotion expressions; kinematics; lateralization; happiness; emotional induction; motor contagion; voluntary mimicry; dynamic patterns
Online: 21 July 2023 (10:16:59 CEST)
Humans can recombine thousands of different facial expressions. This variability is due to the ability to voluntarily or involuntarily modulate emotional expressions, which, in turn, depends on the existence of two anatomically separate pathways. The Voluntary (VP) and Involuntary (IP) pathways mediate the production of posed and spontaneous facial expressions, respectively, and might also affect the left and right sides of the face differently. This is a neglected aspect in the emotion literature, where posed expressions instead of genuine expressions are often used as stimuli. Two experiments with different induction methods were specifically designed to inves-tigate the unfolding of spontaneous and posed facial expressions of happiness along the facial vertical axis (left, right) with a high-definition 3D optoelectronic system. The results showed that spontaneous expressions were distinguished from posed facial movements as revealed by relia-ble spatial and speed key kinematic patterns in both experiments. Moreover, VP activation pro-duced a lateralization effect: compared with the felt smile, the posed smile involved an initial acceleration of the left corner of the mouth, while an early deceleration of the right corner oc-curred in the second phase of the movement, after the velocity peak.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0283.v3
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Emotional intelligence; intelligence quotient; national income; wealth code; human capital; corruption perception index
Online: 9 November 2021 (13:20:02 CET)
Background: Intelligence quotient (IQ) is a measure of intellectual ability of performing, comprehension, and learning. Previous studies reported that intelligence measures predict various measures of job performance and income. Emotional awareness (EA) is the measure of emotional capacity to recognize and make sense of one’s emotions, as well as those of others. A high level of emotional awareness (EA) indicates one can learn from expressed emotions quickly. Both IQ and EA are important for personal and professional success.Objective: This study tests the hypothesis that the average national income rank is best predicted by the combined effect of the population's average intelligence quotient (one's ability to perform and learn) and emotional awareness (ability to recognize and make sense of emotions).Method: The population’s average intelligence quotient (IQ), emotional awareness (EA), and indices of good governance, which include corruption perception index and educational expenses for each country, were obtained from public data sources. The outcome variable was per capita gross national income. All the variables that are statistically significant in univariate analysis were included in the multivariate regression analyses but excluded from the final model if not statistically significant.Result: The total number of countries included in the final analysis was 81 because of missing values in different variables. Intelligence quotient (IQ) and emotional awareness (EA) were found to be highly correlated, at 0.77 and 0.32 respectively, with the per capita gross national income. The independent effects of intelligence quotient (IQ) and emotional awareness (EA) were found significant in the multivariate model after adjusting for measures of good governance. The R square value for the final multivariate model was 0.82. The corruption perception index (CPI) and educational expenses were strongly correlated with other measures of good governance such as democracy index, functioning of government, electoral process and pluralism, political participation, and civil liberty, but these variables were found not significant in the multivariate model. Conclusion: The study concludes the effect of intelligence quotient (IQ) and emotional awareness (EA) are complementary to each other but intelligence quotient (IQ) is a stronger predictor than emotional awareness (EA) for gross national income or wealth. We also find that indicators of good governance, including corruption perception index and educational expenses, have important associations with per capita gross national income. This study implies a nation may build more wealth if the educational system focuses on developing emotional awareness in addition to intelligence. The study concludes the effect of intelligence quotient (IQ) and emotional awareness (EA) are complementary to each other but intelligence quotient (IQ) is a stronger predictor than emotional awareness (EA) for gross national income or wealth. We also find that indicators of good governance, including corruption perception index and educational expenses, have important associations with per capita gross national income. This study implies a nation may build more wealth if the educational system focuses on developing emotional awareness in addition to intelligence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2097.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: emotional eating; eating disorder; binge-eating disorder; bulimia nervosa; virtual reality; treatment; somatic marker
Online: 1 November 2023 (03:53:18 CET)
Emotional eating (EE) can be understood as a manifestation of difficulties with emotion regulation (ER) among individuals with eating disorders. Existing interventions do not always successfully treat EE. We developed a novel ER intervention based upon virtual reality to improve EE among adults with an eating disorder diagnosis. The design pivoted to non-immersive virtual delivery to increase access, particularly given heightened demand during COVID-19 for EE treatment. The study aimed to investigate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary signals of effectiveness of this novel ER protocol that utilized evidence-based strategies such as mindfulness and imagery rescripting as well as innovative techniques such as virtual reality. Twenty-one adults with a history of an eating disorder diagnosis and self-reported EE were recruited from the Adult Eating Disorders Program within Stanford University to receive seven weekly one-hour virtual experiences (VE) focusing on ER. Participants chose between the novel VE-Emotion Regulation (VE-ER) intervention or continuing with their current treatment as usual. Before and after the seven sessions, participants completed an assessment by filling out online questionnaires. Overall, VE-ER treatment was feasible (100% completion), and participant and therapist acceptability of VE-ER treatment was fairly high. In terms of preliminary effectiveness, the results showed a significant reduction in the frequencies of disordered eating behaviors in both groups, but a greater improvement in EE in the VE-ER group. The VE-ER group also had a significant reduction in emotion dysregulation after the treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1302.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Big 5; Child Personality; Elementary School Mathematic Performance; Socio Emotional Effects; Educational Data Mining
Online: 18 August 2023 (09:56:56 CEST)
children is challenging. An important advance is the 15-questions Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children. A study on students from 10 to 13 years old in Poland validated the questionnaire but with some observations. Thus, there is a need for replication and stronger evi-dence in this age group. In Chile, we replicated the study with 3,423 4th-graders (9 to 12 years old). Teachers, in regular sessions, applied the questionnaire to their entire classes. We found similar results, including that asexual pictograms worked well in both genders. We also found positive relationships between conscientiousness, openness, and extraversion with mathematical performance. Furthermore, a combination of these three traits has a relationship with math performance twice as big as each trait alone. Moreover, students with the lowest scores in this combination of personality traits (6.6% of students) have 0.27 standard deviations less in mathematical performance than those with the highest score, which is 74.3% of students. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a study finds a strong relationship between a combination of personality traits gathered with a 15-question questionnaire and fourth-graders´ math perfor-mances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0008.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Secondary emotions; emotional speech synthesis; fundamental frequency contour; Fujisaki model; low-resource; empathetic speech
Online: 3 January 2023 (07:29:37 CET)
A low-resource emotional speech synthesis system for empathetic speech synthesis based on modelling prosody features is presented here. Secondary emotions, identified to be needed for empathetic speech, are modelled and synthesised in this paper. As secondary emotions are subtle in nature, they are difficult to model compared to primary emotions. They are also less explored, and this is one of the few studies that model secondary emotions in speech. Current speech synthesis research uses large databases and deep learning techniques to develop emotion models. There are many secondary emotions, and hence, developing large databases for each of the secondary emotions is expensive. This research presents a proof-of-concept using hand-crafted feature extraction and modelling of these features using a low resource-intensive machine learning approach, thus creating synthetic speech with secondary emotions. Here, a quantitative model-based transformation is used to shape the emotional speech fundamental frequency contour. Speech rate and mean intensity are modelled via rule-based approaches. Using these models, an emotional text-to-speech synthesis system to synthesise five secondary emotions - anxious, apologetic, confident, enthusiastic and worried is developed. A perception test to evaluate the synthesised emotional speech is also conducted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0044.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: child maltreatment; administrative data; domestic violence/abuse; physical abuse; burns; neglect; emotional abuse; poverty
Online: 5 May 2022 (15:47:14 CEST)
Good child protection systems and processes require reliable and accurate data. A retrospective study of the case records of 452 children referred to a major UK children’s tertiary centre for suspected child maltreatment was undertaken to determine whether routinely collected data on a child’s journey through the child protection system, together with a study of related multidimensional factors, can be used to develop an enhanced dataset to protect children in the UK and in other countries. Child maltreatment was substantiated in 65% of referred cases, with the vast majority of referrals coming from children living in the most deprived neighbourhoods in the country. Domestic violence and abuse, and the child’s previous involvement with statutory bodies was associated with case substantiation. Physical abuse predominated, with soft tissue injuries, including dog bites, and burns. Burns were related almost exclusively to supervisory neglect. There were also cases of medical neglect. Emotional abuse was associated with exposure to domestic violence and abuse, and to self-harm. The strengths and weaknesses for single centre data systems were explored, concluding with a recommendation to establish an agreed national and international minimum data set to protect children from maltreatment.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0509.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Signal Processing Keywords: EEG; Emotional States; Working Memory; Depression; Anxiety; Graph Theory; Classification; Machine Learning; Neural Networks.
Online: 6 July 2021 (12:42:59 CEST)
Functional Connectivity analysis using Electroencephalography signals is common. The EEG signals are converted to networks by transforming the signals into a correlation matrix and analyzing the resulting networks. Here, four learning models, namely, Logistic Regression, Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, and Recurrent Neural Networks, are implemented on the correlation matrix data to classify them either on their psychometric assessment or the effect of therapy; The EEG data is trail-based/event-related. The classifications based on RNN provided higher accuracy( 74-88%) than the other three models( 50-78%). Instead of using individual graph features, a correlation matrix provides an initial test of the data. When compared with the time-resolved correlation matrix, it offered a 4-5% higher accuracy. The time-resolved correlation matrix is better suited for dynamic studies here; it provides lower accuracy when compared to the correlation matrix, a static feature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0050.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: collaboration; social norms theory; emotional intelligence; quality of life; goal orientation; prosocial; internet education
Online: 8 January 2018 (08:49:59 CET)
This article assumes that collaborators who adopt a positive-sum, prosocial perspective can build trust-based relationships, which is equivalent to collaborative ability (CA). To improve a collaborator’s CA, we anticipated that content based upon a model of positive-sum collaboration, founded upon ancestral behaviours presented as social norms, might alter a zero-sum, proself, collaborator’s perspective. However, we also postulated that learner’s willingness to engage in positive-sum content may rely on pre-existing prosociality. Intervention participant’s prosociality was assessed via self-assessment of their emotional intelligence (EQ), quality of life (QoL), and goal orientation (GO). Learner’s engagement in online content was assessed by the three stage reached: examine website front matter; examine website content; learn website content. Tukey’s multiple comparison showed a statistically significant difference between stages one and three, in the mean of respondent’s self-assessed QoL. This suggests that participants who wished to learn content had, on average, higher quality of life, and potentially therefore greater prosociality. In general, these findings support a claim that any intervention designed to increase individual prosociality may need to consider the target population’s reticence to engage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0881.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: distress thermometer 1; emotion thermometer 2; emotional distress 3; anxiety 4; depression 5; cancer 6
Online: 13 July 2023 (09:56:02 CEST)
Cancer patients may experience significant distress. The “Emotion Thermometers” (ETs) are a short visual analogue scale used to screen patients for psychosocial risk. This study aimed to assess emotional distress in a large sample of cancer patients attending psychological services at an NGO, and to explore factors that may contribute to it. The ETs were answered by 899 cancer patients. They were, on average, 59.9 years old, the majority were female, had breast cancer, were under treatment or were disease-free survivors, and reported high levels of emotional distress, above the cut-off (≥5). A Generalized Linear Model was used to measure the association between the level of Distress and 33 items of the problem list. Four items - sadness, depression, sleep and breathing - were found to be significantly related to a higher level of Distress. Additionally, women and those who were in the palliative phase also had significantly higher levels of Distress. Conclusions: The results confirm the need for early emotional screening in cancer patients, as well as the relevance of attending to the characteristics of each patient. Additionally, they highlight the utility of the ETs for the clinical practice, allowing to optimize the referral to specialized psy-chosocial services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1641.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: emotional well-being; ideal university hostel; personal construct theory; qualitative repertory grid technique; students’ perceptions
Online: 22 June 2023 (15:34:46 CEST)
One of the ramifications of the COVID-19 pandemic is that it has lent urgency to ongoing discussions on mental well-being. While standard techniques are available to diagnose mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, and stress, ambiguity persists regarding the emotional aspect of well-being. Emotional well-being (EWB) is a recently developed concept that seeks to understand the contribution of emotions to one’s well-being. Interactive approaches for such investigations are recommended to understand people’s contextual experiences. In this study, we use a qualitative approach to examine the psychological impact of the built environment on its residents to formulate the desiderata for an ideal place based on their perceptions. We use personal construct theory and the associated qualitative repertory grid technique. We recruited 15 students from the United Arab Emirates University and obtained information on their perceptions of three built environments they experienced. The findings revealed information on the students’ emotional constructs that were associated with a set of design-related factors, and the way the ideal hostel should be characterized in response to these associations. These findings enrich our knowledge of EWB within built environments and can inform their future design by considering the emotional aspect of the well-being of residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0038.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: COVID-19; eating habits; physical activity; MEDAS-14; Emotional eating questionnaire (EEQ) and university population.
Online: 2 December 2021 (12:52:17 CET)
(1) Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic, eating and physical activity behaviours, in a University population. A healthy diet such as the Mediterranean Diet (MD) pattern, rich in fruit and vegetables can prevent degenerative diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, etc. (2) Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study, data were collected by an anonymous online questionnaire. Participants completed a survey consisting of 3 sections: sociodemographic data; dietary and physical activity behaviour; questionnaire of the Mediterranean Diet (MEDAS-14) and the emotional eater questionnaire Garaulet (EEQ). (3) Results: A total of 168 participants completed the questionnaire 66.7% women, from Spain 79.2%, 76.8% students, living in family home 76.2% and in normal weight 66.1% . Our population did the grocery 1 or less per week (76.8%); decreased or stay the same the consumption of fruits (57.1%), vegetables (58.9%), dairy products (74.4%), pulses (73.2%), fish/seafood (76.8%), white meat (83.3%), red and processed meat (91.1%), snacks (78.6%), rice/pasta/potatoes (78.6%), nuts (83.9%), low alcohol drinks (89.3%), spirits (98.8%) and sugary drinks (91.7%) . Increased cooking time (73.2%) and decreased or stay the same their physical activity (63.7%). University Employees increased more weight (1.01±0.02) than students (0.99±0.03) (p<0.05). 79.8% of the participant obtained a Medium/High Adherence to the MD. Emotional and very emotional eaters were higher in women group (p<0.01). (4) Conclusions: In the event of further confinement, strategies should be implemented to promote a balanced and healthy diet together with the practice of physical activity, taking special care of the group of women and University Employees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0433.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Healthy lifestyles; sport studies; physical activity; socio-economic wellness; emotional wellness; occupational wellness; Psychological wellness
Online: 16 June 2021 (10:22:09 CEST)
This study compares lifestyles behaviour in Italian and Latvian university students, to assess if there are differences for sex, age, university or studies specialties. An online questionnaire investigating 8 lifestyle dimensions has been compiled by 156 (43,6 % females) from Italy and 105 from Latvia (82,9% females). Answers were collected between April and December 2020. Presence of smokers are negligible. The questionnaire showed to have a good internal consistency (Cronbach α =.929). On the total group, significant statistically differences were found for all the dimensions regarding age, sex, study specialty and university. Physical activity was associated with healthier lifestyles choices. Geographical-induced differences were found (eating and sleep behaviours, alcohol awareness) as well as socio-economic differences. Female students shown to be more stressed than males. Occupational wellness increased by age. Sport students shown more health awareness. Many of the differences found in the total group disappeared when comparing only sport students of the two university, showing females increasing their scores. This result can be explained by a masculinization effect of sport.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0759.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Healthy lifestyles; sport studies; physical activity; socio-economic wellness; emotional wellness; occupational wellness; Psychological wellness
Online: 28 April 2021 (17:09:10 CEST)
This study compares lifestyles behaviour in Italian and Latvian university students, to assess if there are differences for sex, age, university or studies specialties. An online questionnaire investigating 8 lifestyle dimensions has been compiled by 156 (43,6 % females) from Italy and 105 from Latvia (82,9% females). Answers were collected between April and December 2020. Presence of smokers are negligible. The questionnaire showed to have a good internal consistency (Cronbach α =.929). On the total group, significant statistically differences were found for all the dimensions regarding age, sex, study specialty and university. Physical activity was associated with healthier lifestyles choices. Geographical-induced differences were found (eating and sleep behaviours, alcohol awareness) as well as socio-economic differences. Female students shown to be more stressed than males. Occupational wellness increased by age. Sport students shown more health awareness. Many of the differences found in the total group disappeared when comparing only sport students of the two university, showing females increasing their scores. This result can be explained by a masculinization effect of sport.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0532.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; Lifestyle; Diet; Physical activity; Stress; Smoking; Substance; Alcohol; Emotional well-being; Social connectedness
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:39:05 CET)
Background: The primary objective worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic has been controlling disease transmission. However, lockdown measures used to mitigate transmission have affected human behavior and altered lifestyles, with a likely impact on chronic non-communicable diseases. More than a year into the pandemic, substantial peer-reviewed literature has emerged on altered lifestyles following the varying lockdown measures imposed globally to control the virus spread. Objective: To explore the impact of lockdown measures on the six lifestyle factors, namely diet, physical activity, sleep, stress, social connectedness, and the use of tobacco, alcohol, or other harmful substances.Methods: We comprehensively searched PubMed and the World Health Organization’s global literature database on COVID-19 and retrieved 649 relevant articles for the narrative review. A critical interpretative synthesis of the articles was performed.Results: Most of the articles included in the review identified the negative effect of lockdown measures on each of the lifestyle factors in many parts of the world. Interestingly, encouraging lifestyle trends were also highlighted in a few articles. Such trends can positively influence the outcome of lifestyle-related chronic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes.Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic provides an opportunity to better understand the negative impact of strict lockdown measures on lifestyles. At the same time, it helps us identify and initiate positive behavioral changes, which, if consolidated, could improve chronic disease outcomes. It is up to governments, communities, and healthcare/academic entities to derive benefit from lessons learned from the pandemic, with the ultimate objective of better educating and promoting healthy lifestyles among communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1220.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Virtual environment; Avatar customization; Avatar self-similarity; Avatar identification; Public self-consciousness; Online self-expression; Emotional expression
Online: 29 April 2023 (07:25:32 CEST)
Purpose: This study aims to analyze the factors that affect the behavior of user-defined avatars in different virtual environments, and compare the differences in public self-awareness, self-expression, and emotional expression among customized avatars in multiple virtual contexts. Methods: Using a between-subjects experimental design, two random groups of participants were asked to customize avatars for themselves in two contexts, a multiplayer online social game (MOSG) and a virtual meeting (VM). i.e. a relaxed and a serious social environment. Results: When subjects perceived a more relaxed environment, the customized avatars had less self-similarity, and the subjects exhibited a stronger self-disclosure willingness and enhanced avatar wishful identification; nevertheless, public self-consciousness was not increased. When subjects perceived a more serious environment, the customized avatars exhibited a higher degree of self-similarity, and the subjects exhibited a greater self-presentation willingness, along with enhanced identification of avatar similarity, and increased public self-consciousness. Conclusions: Participants expressed positive emotions, suggesting that avatars play a positive role in various virtual contexts. The virtual context affects the self-similarity of user-customized avatars, and avatar self-similarity affects self-presentation and self-disclosure willingness, and these factors will affect the behavior of the user-customized avatar. This study contributes suggestions to the Metaverse avatar customization platform design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0073.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: emotions; planning; participation; digital participation; physiological sensors; galvanic skin response; GSR; stress levels; emotional layer; urban; city
Online: 4 July 2018 (11:53:17 CEST)
Although our emotional connection with the physical urban setting is often valued, it is rarely recognised or used as a resource to understand future actions in city planning. Yet, despite the importance of emotion, citizens’ emotions are typically seen as difficult to quantify and individualistic, even though knowledge about people’s response to space could help planners understand people’s behaviours and learn about how citizens use and live in the city. The study explores the relationship between the physical space and emotions through identifying the links between stress levels, and specific features of the urban environment. This study aims to show the potential of integrating the use of galvanic skin response (GSR) within urban spatial analysis and city planning, in order to address the relationship between emotions and urban spaces. This method involved participants using a (GSR) device linked to location data to measure participant’s emotional responses along a walking route in a city centre environment. Findings show correlations between characteristics of environment and stress levels, as well as how specific features of the city spaces such as road crossing create stress ‘hotspots’. We suggest that the data obtained could contribute to citizens creating their own information layer - an emotional layer- that could inform urban planning decision-making. The implications of this application of this method as an approach to public participation in urban planning are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0367.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: Coping; Stress; Hemodialysis; Emotional Preoccupation; Coping with Health Injuries and problems (CHIP); Chronic Kidney Disease Stress Inventory (CKDSI)
Online: 6 September 2023 (09:42:15 CEST)
Hemodialysis (HD) patients experience significant psychological stress related HD. Coping strategies are utilized to help these patients cope with this stress. Prevalence of different types of coping strategies in relation with differential levels of HD-related stress scores and by demographics were assessed. HD patients aged 18 years and above who were seeking regular treatment in a specific HD-unit of a hospital in the upper Midwest, were surveyed between March 2020 and July 2020. Descriptive statistics, correlational analyses, and regression analyses were performed. Females could be expected to have emotional coping scores 8 units greater than males, as B = 8.017 for sex in the model, p =.000. Females could be expected to have coping scores 6.4 points higher than males when adjusted for stress levels, as: B = 6.351, p =.001 for sex in the model. For each 1point increase in Stress Score, the Coping Score could be expected to: increase 6.8 points when adjusted for Sex, where B = 6.751 and p =.000. Increased prevalence of emotional pre-occupation was only observed among female patients which increased with the increase in stress. Psychological interventions in female HD patients should be strongly considered in addressing emotional pre-occupation coping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0115.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ultrasonic vocalization; social buffering; 50-kHz calls; 22-kHz calls; distress; emotional contagion; fear contagion; aversive state; communication
Online: 6 May 2021 (16:32:04 CEST)
Abstract: Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are one of the evolutionarily oldest forms of animal communication. In order to study the communication architecture in an aversive social situation, we used a behavioral model in which one animal, the observer, is witnessing as his cagemate, the demonstrator, is experiencing a series of mild electrical foot-shocks (aversive stimuli). We studied the effect of foot-shocks experience in the observer and the influence of a warning sound (emit-ted shortly before the shock is applied) on USVs communication. These experiments revealed that such a warning seems to increase the arousal level, which differentiates the responses depending on previous experience. It can be identified by the emission of characteristic, short 22-kHz calls, of a duration below 100 ms. Furthermore, by analyzing temporally overlapping USVs, we found that in ‘Warned’ pairs with a naive observer, 22-kHz were mixed with 50-kHz calls. This fact, combined with a high fraction of very high-pitched 50-kHz calls (over 75-kHz), suggests the presence of the phenomenon of social buffering. On the other hand, in ‘Warned’ pairs with an experienced observer, pure 22-kHz overlaps were mostly found, signifying possible fear contagion with dis-tress sharing. Hence the importance of differentiating 22-kHz calls to long and short.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: coronavirus COVID-19; SARS; MERS; viral reproduction; immune response; lung infection influenza; deep breathing; diet; emotional stress; lifestyle
Online: 23 March 2020 (06:34:44 CET)
We conducted many model simulations to understand the causes of the damages of coronavirus (COVID-19) to lung tissue and constructed a diagram showing apparent viral reproduction, immune response and damage accumulation curves. We found that lung damages include virus-caused damage, tissue damage caused by immune responses and tissue damage caused by accumulated wastes. The virus-caused damage is proportional to the phase lag between the viral reproduction curve and the delayed adaptive immune response curve, while waste-induced damage is attributed to imbalance in removing viral, cellular and metabolic by-products. We found that treatment strategies should slow down viral reproduction and speed up immune response, and improve blood micro-circulation in the lungs. Consistent with the strategies, measures are taken to void direct lung infection, strengthen innate responses, promote immune responses, dilute viral concentration in lung tissue, maintain waste removal balance, protect heart and kidneys, control other infections, avoid allergic reactions and other inflammation, etc. We show that medical, dietary, emotional, lifestyle, environmental, mechanical factors, etc. may be simultaneously used to mitigate lung damages and prove that multiple factor health optimization method is magnitudes more powerful than a single factor treatment. Such a method does not depend on molecular specificity and can be used in parallel to antiviral drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0086.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: early adolescents; mobile food record; food waste; plate waste; eating behavior; portion size; dietary assessment; uncontrolled eating; cognitive restraint; emotional eating
Online: 4 August 2018 (11:37:39 CEST)
Understanding behavioral factors associated with obesity is of importance in addressing this issue. This study examined the association between cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and body mass index (BMI) and amount of food plated, consumed, leftovers, and leftover food thrown into the trash (food wasted) in early adolescent girls nine to 13 years in O’ahu, Hawai’i (n = 93). Food plated, consumed, leftovers, and food wasted were estimated using a three-day mobile food record (mFR). Weight and height were measured to compute BMI (kg/m2). The three-factor eating questionnaire provided a score from 0 to 100 for cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating. Higher scores are indicative of greater cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating. Pearson’s correlation and general linear models were computed to examine the relationship between three factor eating scores, BMI, and food plated, consumed, leftovers, and food wasted. There was no clinically significant association between cognitive restraint and amount of food wasted. Cognitive restraint was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.36, p<0.001) and with BMI z score (r=0.40, p<0.001). Uncontrolled eating and emotional eating were positively correlated with amount of leftover food at dinner (r=0.30, p=0.006; r=0.33, p=0.003, respectively). Emotional eating was positively associated with percentage of leftover food at dinner (r=0.24, p=0.30). Additional research should examine the specific roles of cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and food waste in the development of obesity in adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0193.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: binge eating; body image; cognitive control; compulsive behavior; eating disorders; emotional regulation; impulsive behavior; non-suicidal self-injury; self-injurious behavior; urgency
Online: 15 December 2019 (14:26:45 CET)
Eating disorder (ED) symptoms often co-occur with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). This comorbidity is consistent with evidence that trait negative urgency increases risk for both of these phenomena. We previously found that impaired late-stage negative emotional response inhibition (i.e., negative emotional action termination or NEAT) might represent a neurocognitive mechanism for heightened negative urgency among people with NSSI history. The current study evaluated whether relations between negative urgency and ED symptoms similarly reflect deficits in this neurocognitive process. One hundred and five community adults completed an assessment of ED symptoms, negative urgency, and an emotional response inhibition task. Results indicated that, contrary to predictions, negative urgency and NEAT contributed independent variance to the prediction of ED symptoms, while controlling for demographic covariates and NSSI history. Worse NEAT was also uniquely associated with restrictive eating, after accounting for negative urgency. Our findings suggest that difficulty inhibiting ongoing motor responses triggered by negative emotional reactions (i.e., NEAT) may be a shared neurocognitive characteristic of ED symptoms and NSSI. However, negative urgency and NEAT dysfunction capture separate variance in the prediction of ED-related cognitions and behaviors, distinct from the pattern of results we previously observed in NSSI.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0419.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Intimate partner violence; Domestic violence; Prevalence rates, forms of IPV (physical, sexual, emotional, economic); Risk factors; cultural attitudes towards violence and gender roles, GCC, Arab, Khaliji
Online: 17 April 2023 (07:22:16 CEST)
The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), locally known as Khaliji, is a group of six Arab nations, including Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health concern in the GCC region, but the research that synthesized the trend has received scant attention. The present narrative review examines existing research on the prevalence and frequency of IPV among Khaliji women in GCC nations. This review synthesized studies on physical violence, sexual violence, emotional abuse, and controlling behaviors perpetrated by an intimate partner. The prevalence rates of IPV among Khaliji women are observed to be high: women reported facing different types of abuse from their partners, namely physical (7% - 71%), sexual (3.7% - 81%), financial (21.3% - 26%) and psychological (7.5% - 89%), which is a culmination of controlling behavior (36.8%), emotional (22% - 69%) and social violence (34%). The extant studies in the GCC suggest that the most endorsed IPV was psychological abuse (89%) followed by sexual violence (81%). Qualitative content analysis of the associated factors resulted in four meaningful descriptors such as demographics of the victim, sociocultural factors, socioeconomic, and perpetrator-related issues. The study on IPV is still nascent and few. The way forward will require developing culturally appropriate interventions that address unique risk factors for IPV among Khaliji populations, strengthening institutional responses, and increasing awareness and social support for the victim of IPV.