ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0077.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: Second Language Learning; Word Learning; Cognate Effect; Synonymy; Picture Word Association
Online: 5 July 2020 (15:00:57 CEST)
The effects of cognate synonymy in L2 word learning are explored. Participants learned the names of well-known concrete concepts in a new fictional language following a picture-word association paradigm. Half of the concepts (set A) had two possible translations in the new language (i.e., both words were synonyms): one was a cognate in participants’ L1 and the other one was not. The other half of the concepts (set B) had only one possible translation in the new language, a non-cognate word. After learning the new words, participants’ memory was tested in a picture-word matching task and a translation recognition task. In line with previous findings, our results clearly indicate that cognates are much easier to learn, as we found that the cognate translation was remembered much better than both its non-cognate synonym and the non-cognate from set B. Our results also seem to suggest that non-cognates without cognate synonyms (set B) are better learned than non-cognates with cognate synonyms (set A). This suggests that, at early stages of L2 acquisition, learning a cognate would produce a poorer acquisition of its non-cognate synonym, as compared to a solely learned non-cognate. These results are discussed under the light of different theories and models of bilingual mental lexicon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0063.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Type D; Personality; Stress of Life Events; Anxiety Sensitivity; Breast Cancer
Online: 5 July 2020 (10:34:05 CEST)
Background and Aim: Cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell growth and invasion of tissues. It seems that personality differences and psychological factors are important factors that lead to different reactions to cancer. Therefore, the main purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between type D, stress level of life events, personality traits, and anxiety sensitivity in people with breast cancer attending to Tehran Bu-ali Hospital. Methods: The study was a correlational study in which 100 cancer patients referred to Bu-ali Hospital in Tehran, selected by the available sampling method from April to June 2018. The tools used included the Denollet DS-14 Type D Questionnaire, the Paykel Life events Questionnaire, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the ASI Anxiety Scale, Floyd et al., Data analysis in this study is taken place by using SPSS software, two descriptive levels (percentage, frequency, etc.) and regression. Results: The study results showed that there is a relationship between type D personality with stress of life events, neurosis, extraversion, and psychopath dimensions of personality and anxiety sensitivity in breast cancer patients. Conclusion: Psychological factors play a role in the incidence and exacerbation of breast cancer, and ultimately patients with personality type D and personality traits such as psychosis and high anxiety sensitivity and more stress of life events show more symptoms.