BRIEF REPORT Download: 14| View: 43| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0394.v2
Online: 30 March 2020 (08:25:51 CEST)
The recent outbreak of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 or 2019-nCoV) and its spread to the whole world is currently posing one of the major threats to human health and the world economy. It has been suggested that SARS-CoV-2 is similar to SARS-CoV based on the genome sequence comparison. Despite the genomic similarity between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, the spike glycoprotein and receptor binding domain in SARS-CoV-2 shows considerable difference compared to SARS-CoV, due to the presence of several point mutations. We analyzed the receptor binding domain (RBD) from recently published 3D structure of spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 and compared with RBD of SARS-CoV. The observations highlight few important features of RBD in the light of the recently published findings from the 3D structures of spike glycoprotein and its complex with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) (Yan, R., et al. (2020); Wrapp, D., et al. (2020); Walls, A. C., et al. (2020)).
ARTICLE Download: 9| View: 19| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0028.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: photovoltaic; solar spectrum; tandem cell; energy yield model; on-Si tandem; terminal
Online: 30 March 2020 (08:23:32 CEST)
The outdoor field test of the 4-terminal on Si tandem photovoltaic module (specifically, InGaP/GaAs on Si) was investigated and performance model, considering spectrum change affected by fluctuation of atmospheric parameters, was developed and validated. The 4-terminal on Si tandem photovoltaic module had about 40 % advantage in seasonal performance loss compared with standard InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs 2-terminal tandem photovoltaic module. This advantage is expanded in (subarctic zone) < (temperate zone) < (subtropical zone). The developed and validated model used all-climate spectrum model and considered fluctuation of atmospheric parameters, and can be applied every type of on-Si tandem solar cells.
ARTICLE Download: 8| View: 23| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0131.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: quantum mechanics; wave-particle duality; Young's Double Slits; interference of double subwaves; quantum probabilistic entanglement
Online: 30 March 2020 (08:20:57 CEST)
This paper uncovers that quantum uncertain principle makes the single particle with global property have no certain path, and then wave of quantum particle can simultaneously do pass the double slits. The two subwaves after passing Young’s double slits are entanglement, they may form interference of subwaves. Consequently, we find a kind of quantum probabilistic entanglements with Wheeler's delayed choice. Quantum particles such as photons, electrons, neutrons, protons etc mean that wave of the quantum particle can simultaneously do pass through Young's double slits, rather than individual quantum particle may pass through Young's double slits at the same time. When considering wave property, we cannot consider particle property (Just as in the photoelectric effect, considering the particle nature of the system, people cannot consider wave property, otherwise the photoelectric effect cannot appear). Therefore, this paper discovers that the ability of single photon to hit electrons out in photoelectric effect is complementarily equivalent to the ability of wave of the single photon to simultaneously pass through Young's double slits in wave-particle duality. Objective criteria for distinguishing classical and quantum particles are discovered and objectively give the applicable realm of quantum mechanics for the first time. The crisis of the single particle’s simultaneously passing through Young's double slits, which has been plaguing physicists in the whole world up to now for decades, is solved, in which the studies are classified as classical and quantum particles, the classical particle and quantum particle wave cannot and can pass the Young’s slits, respectively. This paper discovers both the new physics mechanism of passing the double slits of the wave with the amplitude of 4-dimensional momentum representation wave function reflecting particle nature and the principle of self-adaptive emergence of wave-particle duality, and then using the principle, this paper gives both direct explanations to the current experiments and new predictions of new some experiments for wave-particle duality. All the deduced results here are consistent with all relevant physics experiments.
REVIEW Download: 22| View: 43| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0410.v2
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Coronavirus; 2019-nCoV; COVID-19; bat, pangolin
Online: 30 March 2020 (08:16:22 CEST)
The world is puzzling over the origin of the current outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that is caused by a novel coronavirus-2019 (2019-nCoV). As of 26th March 2020, the World Health Organization has reported 46,2,684 confirmed cases and 20,834 confirmed deaths in total due to COVID-19. To this end, two unique mammals namely bats and pangolins are being investigated for their potential link to COVID-19. However, the evidence so far gathered in this context is far from clear. This paper aimed to: (i) enlighten the major aspects of life of bats and pangolins; (ii) briefly discusses their potential link to COVID-19; and also (iii) to highlight the way forward. The outcomes may contribute to future research on the subject.
ARTICLE Download: 35| View: 49| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0440.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; 2019-nCoV; novel corona virus; drug repurposing; chloroquine; high-risk group; asymptomatic
Online: 30 March 2020 (07:24:16 CEST)
COVID-19 (2019-nCoV) is a pandemic disease with an estimated mortality rate of 3.4% (estimated by the WHO as of March 3, 2020). Until now there is no antiviral drug and vaccine for COVID-19. The current overwhelming situation by COVID-19 patients in hospitals is likely to increase in the next few months. About 15 percent of patients with serious disease in COVID-19 require immediate health services. Rather than waiting for new anti-viral drugs or vaccines that take a few months to years to develop and test, several researchers and public health agencies are attempting to repurpose medicines that are already approved for another similar disease and have proved to be fairly effective. This study aims to identify FDA approved drugs that can be used for drug repurposing and identify biomarkers among high- risk and asymptomatic groups. In this study gene-disease association related to COVID-19 reported mild, severe symptoms and clinical outcomes were determined. The high-risk group was studied related to SARS-CoV-2 viral entry and life cycle by using Disgenet and compared with curated COVID-19 gene data sets from the CTD database. The overlapped gene sets were enriched and the selected genes were constructed for protein-protein interaction networks. Through interactome, key genes were identified for COVID-19 and also for high risk and asymptomatic groups. The key hub genes involved in COVID-19 were VEGFA, TNF, IL-6, CXCL8, IL10, CCL2, IL1B, TLR4, ICAM1, MMP9. The identified key genes were used for drug-gene interaction for drug repurposing. The chloroquine, lenalidomide, pentoxifylline, thalidome, sorafenib, pacitaxel, rapamycin, cortisol, statins were proposed to be probable drug repurposing candidates for the treatment of COVID-19. However, these predicted drug candidates need to be validated through randomized clinical trials. Also, a key gene involved in high risk and the asymptomatic group were identified, which can be used as probable biomarkers for early identification.
ARTICLE Download: 9| View: 17| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0383.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: ontology; disability; Semantic Web
Online: 30 March 2020 (07:21:42 CEST)
At least 15% of the population in the world has some type of disability. Unfortunately, this population has the problem of facing various accessibility barriers, to which technological barriers are also added. One of the most relevant obstacles is the one that arises as a result of the development of the technology itself when using the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Therefore, the objective of this article is to review the main uses of the Semantic Web tools and to group them together in order to be able to propose the design and construction of more personalized and flexible systems, which allows to help people with disabilities to perform some type of activity using ICT, in this way, knowledge can be modeled in different domains related to people who have some type of disability, using ontologies, and some ontological models can be reused for various types of disability depending on the case study. The usefulness of this study is to reveal that with the models presented, it is possible to construct a Meta ontology that includes some or all areas of disability.
REVIEW Download: 152| View: 678| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0235.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); ascorbic acid; cathelicidin; coronavirus; COVID-19; cytokine storm; influenza; observational; pneumonia, prevention; respiratory tract infection; solar radiation; treatment; UVB; vitamin C; vitamin D
Online: 30 March 2020 (05:48:43 CEST)
The world is in the grips of the COVID-19 pandemic. Public health measures that can reduce the risk of infection and death in addition to quarantines are desperately needed. This article reviews the roles of vitamin D in reducing risk of respiratory tract infections, knowledge about the epidemiology of influenza and COVID-19, and how vitamin D supplementation might be a useful measure to reduce risk. Through several mechanisms, vitamin D can reduce risk of infections. Those mechanisms include inducing cathelicidins and defensins that can lower viral replication rates and reducing concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines that produce the inflammation that injures the lining of the lungs, leading to pneumonia, as well as increase concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Several observational studies and clinical trials reported that vitamin D supplementation reduced risk of influenza, whereas others did not. Evidence supporting the role of vitamin D in reducing risk of COVID-19 includes that the outbreak occurred in winter, a time when 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations are lowest; that the number of cases in the Southern Hemisphere near the end of summer are low; that vitamin D deficiency has been found to contribute to acute respiratory distress syndrome, and that case-fatality rates increase with age and with chronic disease comorbidity, both of which are associated with lower 25(OH)D concentration. To reduce risk of infection, it is recommended that people at risk of influenza and/or COVID-19 consider taking 10,000 IU/d of vitamin D3 for a few weeks to rapidly raise 25(OH)D concentrations, followed by 5000 IU/d. The goal should be to raise 25(OH)D concentrations above 40–60 ng/ml (100–150 nmol/l). For treatment of people who become infected with COVID-19, higher vitamin D3 doses might be useful. Randomized controlled trials and large population studies should be conducted to evaluate these recommendations.
ARTICLE Download: 13| View: 33| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0439.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: non-ionizing radiation; lung cancer; millimeter waves; cell morphology; 75-110 GHz
Online: 30 March 2020 (05:03:23 CEST)
Efficiently targeted cancer therapy without causing detrimental side effects is necessary for alleviating patient care and improving survival rates. This paper presents observations of morphological changes in H1299 human lung cancer cells following MMW irradiation (75 – 105 GHz) at a non-thermal power density of 0.2 mW/cm2, investigated over 14 days of subsequent physiological incubation following exposure. Microscopic analyses of physical parameters measured indicate MMW irradiation induces significant morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis and senescence. The Immediate short-term stress responses translate into long-term effects, retained over the duration of the experiment(s); reminiscent of the phenomenon of Accelerated Cellular Senescence (ACS) achieving terminal tumorigenic cell growth. Further, results were observed to be treatment-specific in energy (dose) dependent manner and were achieved without the use of chemotherapeutic agents, ionizing radiation or thermal ablation employed in conventional methods; thereby overcome associated side effects. Adaptation of the experimental parameters of this study in clinical oncology concomitant with current developmental trends of non-invasive medical endoscopy alleviates MMW therapy as an effective treatment procedure for human non-small cell lung cancer (NSLC)
SHORT NOTE Download: 15| View: 35| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0289.v4
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: COVID-19; proton affinity; calcium oxalate; isoleucine; valine; glycine; prophylactic approach
Online: 30 March 2020 (04:56:42 CEST)
The current pneumonia epidemic in China could evolve into a pandemic on a global scale if not effectively contained. The COVID-19 possesses a 61-amino acid open reading frame resembling SARS-CoV virulence factor - ORF6 peptide. The isoleucine content is 15.9% in ORF6 of SARS-CoV versus 16.4% of that in COVID-19. Given the proton affinity in the carbonyl oxygen in isoleucine, augmented proton traffic can enhance proton-ion antiport and prompt cell swelling. Calorie restriction has been confirmed in animal studies to extend lifespan, and its underlying mechanism is not fully known. As the content of essential amino acids in the open reading frame of COVID-19 reaches 57.4%, a starch/vitamin diet served for short period of time does not give rise to essential amino acids and halts virion production, which could be adopted as prophylactic approach of many viral infections. Plant-based diet or fasting/boiled rice water can also minimize the intake of essential amino acids or all amino acids respectively. Furthermore, several proteins of COVID-19 possess high valine plus glycine content which is implicated in heart disease, justifying the aforementioned approaches.
REVIEW Download: 6| View: 13| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0438.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: history of science; study of invertebrates; research patterns; study of velvet worms
Online: 30 March 2020 (04:46:22 CEST)
Velvet worms, or onychophorans, include placental species and, as a phylum, have survived all mass extinctions since the Cambrian. They capture prey with an extraordinary adhesive net that appears in an instant. The first naturalist to formally mention them was Lansdown Guilding (1797-1831), a British priest from the Caribbean island of Saint Vincent. His life is as little known as the history of the field he initiated, onychophorology. This is the first general history of onychophorology, and I have divided it into half century periods. The beginning, 1826-1879, was defined by former students of great names in the history of biology, like Cuvier and von Baer. This generation included Milne-Edwars and Blanchard, and the greatest advances came from France, with smaller but still important contributions from England and Germany. In the 1880-1929 period, work concentrated in anatomy, behavior, biogeography and ecology, but of course the most important work was Bouvier’s mammoth monograph. The next half century, 1930-1979, was important for the discovery of Cambrian species; Vachon’s explanation of how ancient distribution defined the existence of two families; Pioneer DNA and electron microscopy from Brazil; and primitive attempts at systematics using embryology or isolated anatomical characteristics. Finally, the 1980-2020 period, with research centered in Australia, Brazil, Costa Rica and Germany, is marked by an evolutionary approach to everything, from body and behavior to distribution; for the solution of the old problem of how they form their adhesive net and how the glue works; the reconstruction of Cambrian onychophoran communities, the first experimental taphonomy; the first country-wide map of conservation status (from Costa Rica); the first model of why they survive in cities; the discovery of new phenomena like food hiding, parental feeding investment and ontogenetic diet shift; and for the birth of a new research branch, Onychophoran Ethnobiology, founded in 2015. While a few names appear often in the literature, most knowledge was produced by a mass of researchers who entered the field only briefly.
ARTICLE Download: 24| View: 71| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0437.v1
Online: 30 March 2020 (03:34:26 CEST)
All RNA viruses deliver their genomes into target host cells through processes distinct from normal trafficking of cellular RNA transcripts. The delivery of viral RNA into most cells hence triggers innate antiviral defenses that recognize viral RNA as foreign. In turn, viruses have evolved mechanisms to subvert these defenses, allowing them to thrive in target cells. Therefore, drugs activating defense to foreign or exogenous RNA could serve as broad-spectrum antiviral drugs. Here we show that transcriptional signatures associated with cellular responses to the delivery of a non-viral exogenous RNA sequence into human cells predicts small molecules with broad-spectrum antiviral activity. In particular, transcriptional responses to the delivery of cas9 mRNA into human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) highly matches those triggered by small molecules with broad-spectrum antiviral activity such as emetine, homoharringtonine, pyrvinium pamoate and anisomycin, indicating that these drugs are potentially active against other RNA viruses. Furthermore, these drugs have been approved for other indications and could thereby be repurposed to novel viruses. We propose that the antiviral activity of these drugs to SARS-CoV-2 should therefore be determined as they have been shown as active against other coronaviruses including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. These drugs could also be explored as potential adjuvants to COVID-19 vaccines in development due to their potential effect on the innate antiviral defenses that could bolster adaptive immunity when delivered alongside vaccine antigens.