REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0578.v1
Subject: Applied Psychology, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: HPV, HPV vaccine; Social Media; Mobile Technology; HPV vaccine intervention; RE-AIM Framework
Online: 28 January 2021 (08:15:38 CET)
Social media HPV vaccination interventions show promise for increasing HPV vaccination rates. An important consideration for the implementation of effective interventions into real-world practice in the translation potential, or external validity, of the intervention. To this end, we conducted a systematic literature review to describe the current body of evidence regarding the external validity of social media HPV vaccination-related interventions. Constructs related to external validity were based on the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance) framework. Seventeen articles published between 2006 and 2020 met inclusion criteria. Three researchers independently coded each article using a validated RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness/efficacy, adoption, implementation, maintenance) framework. Discrepant codes were discussed with a fourth reviewer to gain consensus. Of these 17 studies, three were pilot efficacy studies, 10 were RCTs to evaluate effectiveness, one was a population-based study, and three did not explicitly state which type of study was conducted. Reflecting this distribution of study types, across all studies the mean level of reporting RE-AIM dimensions varied with reach recording 90.8%, effectiveness (72.1%), adoption (40.3%), implementation (45.6%), and maintenance (26.5%). This review suggests that while the current HPV vaccination social media-driven interventions provide sufficient information on internal validity (reach and effectiveness), few have aimed to gather data on external validity needed to translate the interventions into real world implementation. Our data suggest that implementation research is needed to move HPV vaccination-related interventions into practice. Included in this review are recommendations for enhancing the design and reporting of these HPV vaccination social media-related interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0577.v1
Subject: Acoustics, Physical Sciences Keywords: Tracking; Magnetic tracking; Eye tracking; Sensor Array; Eye Motion
Online: 28 January 2021 (08:10:19 CET)
We characterize the performance of a system based on a magnetoresistor array. This instrument is developed to map the magnetic field, and to track a dipolar magnetic source in the presence of a static homogeneous field. The position and orientation of the magnetic source with respect to the sensor frame is retrieved together with the orientation of the frame with respect to the environmental field. A nonlinear best-fit procedure is used, and its precision, time performance, and reliability are analyzed. This analysis is performed in view of the practical application for which the system is designed that is an eye-tracking diagnostics and rehabilitative tool for medical purposes, which require high speed ($\ge 100$~Sa/s) and sub-millimetric spatial resolution. A throughout investigation on the results makes it possible to list several observations, suggestions, and hints, which will be useful in the design of similar setups.
Subject: Biochemistry, Life Sciences Keywords: web server; rational design; functionalizing enzymes; enzyme discovery; user-friendly tools
Online: 28 January 2021 (07:51:45 CET)
Enzymes are in high demand for very diverse biotechnological applications. However, natural biocatalysts often need to be engineered for fine-tuning their properties towards the end applications, such as the activity, selectivity, stability to temperature or co-solvents, and solubility. Computational methods are increasingly used in this task, providing predictions that narrow down the space of possible mutations significantly and can enormously reduce the experimental burden. Many computational tools are available as web-based platforms, making them accessible to non-expert users. These platforms are typically user-friendly, contain walk-throughs, and do not require deep expertise and installations. Here we describe some of the most recent outstanding web-tools for enzyme engineering and formulate future perspectives in this field.
Wed, 27 January 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0576.v1
Subject: Atmospheric Science, Earth Sciences Keywords: metals; arsenic; leachates; pollution; Mexico
Online: 27 January 2021 (21:32:27 CET)
The soil and water contamination by metals from hazardous waste confined with urban solid wastes, highlights the importance of enhance the monitoring of disposal sites once closed. It is common to fail to comply with the regulations on their location, operation and post-closure, and located in areas that affect the environment and the health of the population. In the closed dump of Morelia, contamination of the soil and groundwater by leachates with heavy metals in the water from supply wells has been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of heavy metals and arsenic in the confined wastes of the Morelia closed dump, in order to diagnose the affectation from the contaminants. Composition, degradation status and the presence of heavy metals were analyzed in samples of confined solid wastes from eight wells with different age of confinement. The results of this study ratify the contamination of the leachates of the site and are associated with the contamination of the water for human consumption in the area. The actual regulation does not apply in the case of urban solid waste, so it is crucial to regulate monitoring and management for correct decision-making during post-closure management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0575.v1
Subject: Allergology, Medicine & Pharmacology Keywords: wearable respiratory monitors; smart garment; lung volume; respiratory inductance plethysmography; chest expansion; inhalation topography
Online: 27 January 2021 (21:27:53 CET)
Background: Natural environment inhalation topography provides useful information for toxicant exposure, risk assessment and cardiopulmonary performance. Commercially available Wearable Respiratory Monitors (WRM), which are currently used to measure a variety of physiological parameters such as heart rate and breathing frequency, can be leveraged to obtain inhalation topography, yet little work has been done. This paper assesses the feasibility of adapting these WRMs for measuring inhalation topography. Methods: Commercially available WRMs were compiled and assessed for the ability to report chest motion, data analysis software features, ambulatory observation capabilities, participant acceptability, purchasing constraints and affordability. Results: The following WRMs were found: LifeShirt, Equivital EQ02 LifeMonitor, Smartex WWS, Hexoskin Smart Garment, Zephyr BioHarness, Nox T3&A1, BioRadio, SleepSense Inductance Band, and ezRIP & zRIP Durabelt. None of the WRMs satisfied all six assessment criteria in a manner enabling them to be used for inhalation topography without modification and development. Conclusion: The results indicate that there are WRMs with core technologies and characteristics that can be built upon for ambulatory inhalation topography measurement in the NE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0574.v1
Subject: Automotive Engineering, Engineering Keywords: nanotechnologies; pavement engineering; scientific principles; material compatible design; mineralogy; safety, applicability and compatibility of new technologies; engineering principles
Online: 27 January 2021 (21:26:22 CET)
Good transportation systems are pre-requisites to economic development. Materials used for road construction are traditionally classified based of empirically developed archaic tests, often classifying naturally available materials as unsuitable for use in the load-bearing road pavement layers. Consequently, design standards usually require the use of imported materials at considerable costs, severely restricting road network development under scenarios of limited funding. New technologies and test methods based on sound engineering criteria, incorporating basic material sciences can substantially change this scenario. Nano-silane technologies can be utilised to improve naturally available materials to meet the engineering requirements of all layers in road structures. Material test and design methods have been developed and successfully tested in South Africa to build New-age Modified Emulsion (NME) stabilised layers in roads, meeting all engineering requirements. Accelerated Pavement Tests (APT) done on actual roads, proved the concept. This work is based on a scientific approach and identification of various factors that will impact on the successful application of applicable nanotechnology solutions. This paper aims to identify these fundamental factors that are a pre-requisite for the evaluation of nanotechnology solutions to ensure that new technologies are introduced into pavement engineering designs at a low risk to any implementing.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0573.v1
Subject: Allergology, Medicine & Pharmacology Keywords: Adverse Outcome Pathways; COVID-19; mechanisms; systematic organization; interdisciplinary
Online: 27 January 2021 (17:01:44 CET)
Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOP) provide structured frameworks for systematic organization of research data and knowledge. The AOP framework follows a set of key principles that allow for broad application across diverse disciplines related to human health, including toxicology, pharmacology, virology and medical research. The COVID-19 pandemic engages a great number of scientists world-wide and data is increasing with exponential speed. Diligent data management strategies are employed but approaches for systematically organizing the data-derived information and knowledge are lacking. We believe AOPs can play an important role in improving interpretation and efficient application of scientific understanding of COVID-19. Here, we outline a newly initiated effort to streamline collaboration between scientists across the world towards development of AOPs for COVID-19, and describe the overarching aims of the effort, as well as the expected outcomes and research support that they will provide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0572.v1
Subject: Atmospheric Science, Earth Sciences Keywords: waterlogging; vulnerability; risk; participatory survey; GIS; Chattogram
Online: 27 January 2021 (16:48:08 CET)
In recent years, rainfall-induced waterlogging has become a common hazard in the highly urbanized coastal city of Chattogram, Bangladesh resulting in high magnitude of property damage and economic loss. Therefore, the primary objective of this research is to prepare a waterlogging inventory map and understand the spatial variation of the risk by means of hazard intensity, exposure, and vulnerability of waterlogging. In this research, the inventory map and factors influencing waterlogging hazard were determined from a participatory survey and other spatial data including land elevation, population, and structural data were collected from secondary sources. Analytical Hierarchy Process was applied to measure the hazard intensity and the exposure and vulnerability were estimated by overlaying the spatial data onto the hazard intensity map. A total of 58 locations in 22 wards have been identified as waterlogging affected, which covers ~8.42% of the city area. Obtained waterlogging vulnerability index map suggests that ward no. 5, 6, 16, 17, and 33 are greatly vulnerable to waterlogging in terms of their social, infrastructure, critical facilities, economic and environmental vulnerability. We show that ~2.71% of the study area is at very high risk, while the risk score is considerably higher for ward no. 5, 8, 17, 19, and 33.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0571.v1
Online: 27 January 2021 (16:35:15 CET)
In the pursuit of better treatments, the concept of a chemically-active material, responding to local conditions by causing reactions, or reacting to produce substances that are deemed beneficial, seems laudable. Ultimately, the goal appears to be to recruit natural biological processes such that a natural ‘repair’ is effected. This goal seems to be the reason for prefixing “bio-“ to many terms with a view to advertising the desire, yet without presenting evidence that it has occurred, or indeed that it is capable of occurring, relying instead on non-biological processes to justify the claims. The dogma is such that all work where local ‘responsive’ chemistry is involved must receive the label “bioactive” to legitimize and promote. Nevertheless, the primary evidence adduced is flawed, and the claim must fail. A rethink to restore scientific sense and confidence in the endeavour is essential if real progress is to be made.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0570.v1
Subject: Allergology, Medicine & Pharmacology Keywords: Advanced glycation end-products; contact dermatitis; granuloma annulare; insulin; lipoatrophy; lipohypertrophy; necrobiosis lipoidica; skin autofluorescence
Online: 27 January 2021 (16:24:01 CET)
Skin involvement is an overlooked aspect in the management of paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes. A comprehensive search of published literature using the PubMed database was carried out using the following key terms: “children”, “pediatric/paediatric patients”, “skin”, “skin disorders”, “type 1 diabetes”. Dermatological side effects are frequently observed among diabetic children and adolescents. Insulin-induced lipodystrophies and allergic contact dermatitis caused by insulin pumps or glycaemic sensors are the most common skin reactions in these patients. Furthermore, several diabetes-associated skin diseases such as necrobiosis lipoidica, granuloma annulare, vitiligo, and bullosis diabeticorum may already be present in paediatric age. Paediatric diabetes specialists should pay attention to their patients’ skin so as to recognize these disorders, identify the potential causes, and choose the most suitable treatment. Finally, the evaluation of skin concentrations of advanced glycation end-products using non-invasive diagnostic techniques may be used to assess the risk of chronic complications of diabetes as early as adolescence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0569.v1
Subject: Algebra & Number Theory, Mathematics & Computer Science Keywords: Saddlepoint approximations; Probability mass function; Probability distribution function; Poisson random variable, Linear combination
Online: 27 January 2021 (16:18:06 CET)
In this study, we investigate the performance of the saddlepoint approximation of the probability mass function and the cumulative distribution function for the weighted sum of independent Poisson random variables. The goal is to approximate the hazard rate function for this complicated model. The better performance of this method is shown by numerical simulations and comparison with a performance of other approximation methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0568.v1
Subject: Accounting, Social Sciences Keywords: service accessibility; dementia knowledge; affordability; carer role strain; self-criticism; negative emotions
Online: 27 January 2021 (16:15:14 CET)
Because of an often complicated and difficult-to-access care system, help-seeking for people with suspected dementia can be stressful. Difficulty in help-seeking may contribute to carer burden, in addition to other known stressors in dementia care. This study examined the relationship between perceived help-seeking difficulty and carer burden, and the barriers contributing to perceived difficulty. We interviewed 110 carers accessing a community-based dementia assessment service for suspected dementia of a family member for their perceived difficulty, delays, and barriers in help-seeking, and carers burden in terms of role strain, self-criticism, and negative emotions. Linear regression models showed that perceived help-seeking difficulty is associated with carer self-criticism, while carer role strain and negative emotions are associated with symptom severity of the person with dementia but not help-seeking difficulty. Inadequate knowledge about symptoms, service accessibility, and affordability together explained more than half of the variance in perceived help-seeking difficulty (Nagelkerke R2 = .56). Public awareness about symptoms, support in navigating service, and financial support may reduce perceived difficulty in help-seeking, which in turn may reduce carer self-criticism during the early course of illness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0567.v1
Subject: Forestry, Biology Keywords: post-extraction residues; fir wood greenery; bioconversion; protein feed additive; Pleurotus pulmonarius; chemical composition
Online: 27 January 2021 (16:05:16 CET)
The effectiveness of forest resources depends on the comprehensiveness and rationality of their consumption and processing into finished products. This article discusses a problem of utilising solid fir wood greenery residues generated during the industrial production of essential oils. Bioconversion is considered to be the most promising utilization method. The objective of this research was to study the chemical composition of bioconversion products of fir wood greenery-based substrates. The РР-3.2 strain of Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quél was used as a biodestructor. In the process of bioconversion, the contents of polysaccharides and lignin substances is reduced to 38 and 28 % respectively. Up to 20 % of protein accumulates in bioconversion products of fir wood greenery. The amount of nucleic acids is not more than 1.5 g per 1 kg, the contents of heavy metals, such as mercury, cadmium, arsenic, lead, do not exceed maximum permissible concentration standards. The substrate weight loss reaches 15 %. When fallen leaves and post-extraction poplar bud residues are added to the substrate, the substrate-destroying activity of fungi rises, as well as the protein content increases by 3 %. The digestibility of products as a result of bioconversion increases 1.6–2.8 times depending on the substrate composition. The obtained data enable to recommend post-fermented substrates based on fir wood greenery and balsam poplar biomass for use as a protein feed additive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0566.v1
Subject: Biochemistry, Life Sciences Keywords: Air puff, CorvisST; ORA; Airflow pressure of NCT,; Physical dimension of jet stream; Temporal and spatial distribution of the air puff
Online: 27 January 2021 (16:02:22 CET)
(1) Aim of the study was to investigate the spatial and temporal characteristics of the airflow created by two commercially available non-contact tonometers, the CorvisST and the Ocular Re-sponse Analyser. (2) The airflow pressure was measured using a MEMS pressure sensor to inves-tigate the spatial and temporal distribution. The airflow from the CorvisST and Ocular Response Analyser were mapped to a 600µm and a 1mm resolution grid, respectively. (3) Central airflow pressure of the CorvisST (96.4 ± 1.4)mmHg was higher than the Ocular Response Analyser (91.7 ± 0.7)mmHg. The duration of the air-puffs also differed, with the CorvisST showing a shorter du-ration (21.483 ± 0.2881)ms than the ORA (23.061 ± 0.1872)ms. The rising edge of the CorvisST airflow pressure profile demonstrated a lower gradient (+8.94mmHg/ms) compared to the Oc-ular Response Analyser (+11.00mmHg/ms). Both had similar decay response edges; CorvisST -11.18mmHg/ms, Ocular Response Analyser -11.65mmHg/ms. (4) The study presents a valid method to investigate physical dimensions of the airflow pressure of non-contact tonometers. Novel findings relating to the magnitude, duration and spatial characteristics of the respective airflow pressures are reported. It is anticipated that this information will better inform clinical studies and theoretical models relating to ocular biomechanics.
Subject: Biochemistry, Life Sciences Keywords: structural entropy; dimensionality; flow dynamics; spin; directed network; scale-free
Online: 27 January 2021 (15:35:38 CET)
Complex systems can be described as the network of interactions between their components. In directed networks, information, energy and matter flow in dominant directions. Undirected networks, on the other hand, cannot easily capture these asymmetries. The local flow of information depends on the node spin, which is a function of the number of incoming and outgoing links attached to it. And yet, how the heterogeneous association between in-degree and out-degree constraints global dynamics remains poorly understood. Here, we develop a new theoretical model to study the relationship between node directionality and global flow dynamics. Our computational analysis of random and scale-free directed networks indicates that structural diversity constrains the dimensionality of reachable dynamical space. These results suggest how local directionality might be an universal driver of global dynamics in many systems, from social networks, to technological systems to the connectome.
Online: 27 January 2021 (15:08:12 CET)
To date, uncertainty remains about how long the protective immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 persists and reports of suspected reinfection began to be described in recovered patients months after the first episode. Viral evolution may favor reinfections, and the recently described spike mutations, particularly in the receptor binding domain (RBD) in SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating in the UK, South Africa, and most recently in Brazil, have raised concern on their potential impact in infectivity, immune escape and reinfection. We report a case of reinfection from distinct SARS-CoV-2 lineages presenting the E484K mutation in Brazil, a variant associated with escape from neutralizing antibodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0564.v1
Subject: Automotive Engineering, Engineering Keywords: alternative fuels; power-to-liquid; synthetic fuel; synthetic kerosene; aviation fuel; sustainable fuel; power-to-x; e-fuel; fischer-tropsch; renewable fuel
Online: 27 January 2021 (15:04:53 CET)
Synthetic fuels play an important role in the defossilization of future aviation transport. To reduce the ecological impact of remote airports due to long range transportation of kerosene, a decentralized on-site-production of synthetic paraffinic kerosene is applicable, preferably as near-drop-in fuel or alternatively as blend. One possible solution for such a production of synthetic kerosene is the Power-to-Liquid process. The basic development of a simplified plant layout addressing the specific challenges of a decentralized kerosene production which differ from most current approaches for infrastructural well-connected regions is described. The decisive influence of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on the PtL process is shown by means of a steady-state reactor model which was developed in Python and serves as basis for further development of a modular environment able to represent entire process chains. The reactor model is based on reaction kinetics according current literature. The effects of adjustments of the main operation parameters on the reactor behavior are evaluated and the impacts on up- and downstream processes are described. The results prove the governing influence of the Fischer-Tropsch reactor on the PtL process and show its flexibility regarding the desired product fraction output, which makes it an appropriate solution for a decentralized kerosene production.
Subject: Accounting, Social Sciences Keywords: disability; COVID-19; pandemic; social care; lockdown; social distancing; information
Online: 27 January 2021 (13:44:10 CET)
This paper reports on in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with 69 disabled people in England and Scotland, and with 28 key informants from infrastructure organisations in the voluntary and statutory sectors, about the impact of COVID-19, and measures taken to control it. Participants were recruited through voluntary organisations. As with everyone, the Pandemic has had a huge impact: we discuss the dislocations it has caused in everyday life; the failures of social care; the use of new technologies; and participants’ view on leadership and communication. We conclude with suggestions for urgent short term and medium term responses, so that the United Kingdom and other countries can respond better to this and other pandemics, and build a more inclusive world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0562.v1
Subject: Particle & Field Physics, Physical Sciences Keywords: zero-point energy density, vacuum energy density, Standard Model parameters, mass spectrum, Renormalization Group flow, Higgs mechanism, cosmological constant problem.
Online: 27 January 2021 (13:11:39 CET)
The textbook analysis of vacuum energy density (VED) in flat spacetime follows from Pauli’s lectures of 1951, in which quantum vacuum is modeled as a reservoir of free harmonic oscillators. In his lectures, Pauli shows that deriving a nearly vanishing VED is contingent upon fulfilling three corollary conditions called polynomial-in-mass-constraints. The goal of this work is to evaluate Pauli’s constraints against the Standard Model parameters and the Higgs mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking.
Subject: Pharmacology & Toxicology, Medicine & Pharmacology Keywords: wound infections; snakebites; Taiwan cobra; Naja atra
Online: 27 January 2021 (13:06:10 CET)
Taiwan cobra (Naja atra) bites account for approximately 20% of all venomous snakebites in Taiwan. In Taiwan, the rates of wound necrosis and secondary infection from Taiwan cobra bites are higher than those associated with other venomous snakebites. Clinical tools to evaluate the infection risk after Taiwan cobra bites are lacking. Therefore, in this study, we developed a useful clinical tool to evaluate the infection risk after Taiwan cobra bites. Moreover, we investigated wound infection bacteriology. We analyzed the data of patients bitten by N. atra who had undergone freeze-dried neurotoxic antivenin treatment in emergency rooms of the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital network, which comprises seven hospitals and the largest medical system in Taiwan, from January 2001 to May 2017. Because patients with wound necrosis required antibiotics for infection treatment, we included only patients with wound infection but without tissue necrosis in the development of our Cobra Bacteriology of Infections in Taiwanese snake Envenomation (Cobra BITE) score by using univariate and multiple logistic regression. In total, 8,295,497 emergency department visits occurred from January 2001 to May 2017, and 195 patients were diagnosed has having cobra bites. Among them, 23 and 30 patients had wound necrosis and wound infection, respectively. The wound infection rate was 27.2% (53/195). Regardless of whether the patients had necrosis, Enterococcus faecalis and Morganella morganii were the main bacteria identified in the culture report. Gentamicin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin are the ideal first-line antibiotics for treating N. atra bite wounds in Taiwan. As per our Cobra BITE score, the three factors predicting secondary wound infection after cobra bites are hospital admission, a white blood cell count (in 103/µL) × by neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio value of ≥114.23, and the use of antivenin medication. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the Cobra BITE score system was 0.88. The ideal sensitivity and specificity were 0.89 and 0.76, respectively, and the optimal cutoff point for Cobra BITE score was 7. The Hosmer–Lemeshow p value was 0.4. In conclusion, our Cobra BITE study established a new practical clinical tool for clinicians to evaluate infection risk after N. atra bites. This score system enables the assessment of wound infections after N. atra bites, and it could be modified and improved in future for other Naja spp. bites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0560.v1
Subject: Biomaterials, Materials Science Keywords: relaxation; dissipation; microindentation; polyacrylamide hydrogels; viscoelasticity
Online: 27 January 2021 (12:56:04 CET)
Following the general aim of recapitulating the native mechanical properties of tissues and organs in vitro, the field of materials science and engineering has benefited from recent progress in developing compliant substrates with similar physical and chemical properties. In particular, in the field of mechanobiology, soft hydrogels can now reproduce the precise range of stiffnesses of healthy and pathological tissues to study the mechanisms behind cell response to mechanics. However, it was shown that biological tissues are not only elastic but also relax at different timescales. Cells can indeed perceive and actually need this dissipation because it is a critical signal integrated with other signals to define adhesion, spreading and even more complicated functions. The mechanical definition of hydrogels used in mechanobiology is however commonly limited to the elastic stiffness (Young’s modulus) and this value is known to depend greatly on the measurement conditions that are rarely reported. Here, we report that a simple relaxation test performed under well defined conditions can provide all the necessary information to characterize soft materials mechanically, by fitting the dissipation behavior with a generalized Maxwell model (GMM). The method was validated using soft polyacrylamide hydrogels and proved to be very useful to unveil precise mechanical properties of gels that cells can sense and offer a set of characteristic values that can be compared with what is typically reported from microindentation tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0559.v1
Subject: Accounting, Social Sciences Keywords: Keywords; Police Treatment of Suspects, Community Partnership, Rule of Law; Police Station.
Online: 27 January 2021 (12:33:08 CET)
The police occupy a very important position in the entire criminal justice system in Nigeria. The nature of police relationship with the people and the manner in which the public were handled at the station and on the street daily within the community affects the way the people perceive them and the level of cooperation they get from the people in curbing crime in the society. The study took place in Zaria, Kaduna state, Northern Nigeria .The study population was the police in Zaria. Three police stations (Zaria City, Sabon Gari and Samaru police stations) were purposively selected reflecting the socio-cultural and demographic backgrounds of Zaria residence and population. The Divisional Police officers and police officers in-charge of crime were interviewed. The police crime and incidence records were examined while the general conduct and social atmosphere of the police and police stations were observed. Using in- depth interview, observational method and police records, it was discovered that the socio economic status of suspects affected how they were treated by the police in the police stations studied. Also the environment a suspect lives affected how they were treated too by the police. It was recommended that the police make the rule of law their guide in the handling of suspects in the police stations irrespective of socio-demographic variable or area of habitation of the suspects. Police brutality and violations of citizen’s rights should be checked by senior police officers while community-policing style should be implemented across communities in Nigeria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0558.v1
Online: 27 January 2021 (12:31:24 CET)
Additive manufacturing (AM) provides opportunities to design objects differently than traditional manufacturing methods allow, but only if designers understand the possibilities AM presents. In this study, we examined whether an AM workshop combined with an idea generation session could inspire engineering professionals to use AM solutions to solve current technical problems they face. All subjects were employees at an organization that will be referred to as Company X, a multinational commercial organization based in North America. During the study, we collected ideas for 24 projects generated before and after a training workshop focused on design for AM. In the workshop, we provided three hours of instruction about design for two metal-based AM processes. The participants’ ideas were assessed using four specific metrics: (1) cost, (2) time,(3) completeness of solution, and (4) quality, which was a function of feasibility, usefulness, and novelty. Using these data, we explored whether the workshop was effective in inspiring the participants to use AM methods and techniques from AM research in their concept generation and whether participants’ AM solutions showed improvement in cost, implementation time, and quality over non-AM designs generated before the workshop.
Online: 27 January 2021 (12:28:53 CET)
The Umbulan Water Supply Project is categorized by the Shipping Infrastructure Acceleration Committee in the list of Accelerated National Strategic Projects through Presidential Regulation Number 3 of 2016 concerning the Acceleration of the Implementation of National Strategic Projects, targeted to operate in mid-2019. This is what will be the focus of the stakeholders of the Umbulan Water Supply Project. This study was to identifying and analyzing networks among stakeholders. Method: This study used a qualitative approach with exploratory methods combined with meta-analysis identification design Identification of stakeholder mapping in the context of early detection of stakeholder involvement in the implementation of the Umbulan Water Supply Project at various levels starting from the National, Provincial (East Java), District/City (Pasuruan, Sidoarjo, Surabaya, to Gresik), Sub-District (Winongan, Gondang Wetan, and Pohtjentrek). The conclusion of this study was based on in-depth interviews and focus group discussions in describing the determination of stakeholders which were divided into two, namely primary stakeholder and secondary stakeholder, and outline the result of the indicators analysis on the stakeholder network of Umbulan Water Supply Project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0556.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Fluid-Structure Interaction; OpenFOAM; One-way approach; Structural Analysis
Online: 27 January 2021 (12:10:19 CET)
This study addressed a Fluid-Structure Interaction of an open Water test for vp1304 propeller to predict pressure and stress distributions with a low cost and high precision method. The most striking aspect of such a method(one-way coupling) is to use one hydrodynamic solution for the number of different structural sets involved in other materials or different layup methods and combinations of layers. An open-access software(OpenFOAM) with an open-source code solver is used to simulate the fluid domain. Abaqus is used To evaluate and predict the deformation and strength of the blade with the Finite Element Method(FEM). The coupling approach is based on dry condition, which means the added mass effects due to propeller blades vibration is neglected. The pressures imposed on the blades are extracted from the fluid solver for each time step. Then, These pressures role as a load condition for the structure solver. This approach was verified in the last paper(wedge impact); a key factor for the present solution is the rotational rate interrelated between two solution domains, which is explained in this paper. Finally, the blades' stress and strain are calculated and compared in each advance coefficient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0555.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: composite polymers; magnetoactive elastomers; dynamic and mechanical properties; concentration; anisotropy; fineness
Online: 27 January 2021 (11:50:59 CET)
The paper describes the research findings on dynamic and mechanical properties of composite elastomers with high permeability magnetic filling agent capable of rapidly and reversibly changing its properties when exposed to an external magnetic field, which makes it a perspective material for application in a wide range of engineering areas. The research has analyzed the trends in the strength properties of the materials obtained through the use of filling agents of different fineness, content, and structural organization in the final polymer, under different conditions. This allowed to obtain the correlations between the influence of the filler's relative fineness on the dynamic and mechanical properties of composite polymers, and to estimate the trends in the parameters describing the material strength under the complex magnetic and thermal influence. The results obtained by the authors allowed to ground the composition and structural organization of the final material with the best set of dynamic and mechanical properties.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Silver nano dots; DNA; Biobar code assays; nano sensors; nano medicine
Online: 27 January 2021 (11:44:48 CET)
Nano medicine seeks to deliver a valuable set of research tools and clinically useful devices in the near future. The current medical field is in dire need of new commercial applications in the pharmaceutical industry that may include advanced drug delivery systems, new therapies, and in vivo imaging. Here in this experimental study, the nano materials used in DNA biosensors like silver nano dots were incorporated as nano biosensors are used for both therapeutic and diagnostic applications. The most important step while preparing a DNA biosensor is the immobilization of DNA probe on the surface of a sensing device such as an electrode. The amount of immobilized DNA probe will influence the accuracy sensitivity, selectivity and life of a DNA biosensor directly. Because of the high surface to volume ratio and excellent biological compatibility, nano materials can enlarge the sensing surface area to increase the amount of immobilized DNA and the DNA mixed with nano materials can keep its biologically activity well.In this study,silver nano dots created in our lab were functionalized with thio nucleides and were used as nano sensor probes in bio bar code assays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0553.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Nutrition; family day care; intervention; implementation science; ECEC; child day care centres; RE-AIM; Public Health
Online: 27 January 2021 (10:49:48 CET)
Objective: To highlight opportunities for future nutrition intervention research within early childhood and education care (ECEC) settings, with a focus on generating evidence that has applicability to real-world policy and practice. Methods: An overview of opportunities to progress the field was developed by authors using a collaborative writing approach and informed by recent research in the field. The group developed a list of recommendations aligned with the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. Pairs of authors drafted individual sections of the manuscript, which was then reviewed by a separate pair. The first and senior author consolidated all sections of the manuscript and sought critical input on draft iterations of the manuscript. Results: Interventions that employ digital platforms (Reach) in ECEC settings, as well as research in the family day care setting (Effectiveness) were identified as areas of opportunities. Research understanding the determinants of and effective strategies for dissemination (Adoption), implementation of nutrition programs, in addition to de-implementation (Implementation) of inappropriate nutrition practices, is warranted. For maintenance, there is a need to better understand sustainability and sustainment of interventions, in addition to undertaking policy-relevant research. Conclusions: The ECEC setting is prime for innovative and practical nutrition intervention research.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: organoid; induced pluripotent stem cell; Parkinson’s disease; neurotransmission; neuroimmunity; neuroinflammation; chikungunya; neuroinvasive
Online: 27 January 2021 (10:31:06 CET)
Arboviruses of medical and veterinary significance have been identified on all 7 continents with every human and animal population at risk for exposure. Like arboviruses, chronic neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease are found wherever there are humans. Viral parkinsonism has been documented for a variety of human pathogens though there are few studies that evaluate the effects of viral infection on degenerative neurological diseases. Significant differences in baseline gene and protein expression have been determined between Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell lines derived from a non-Parkinson’s disease individual and from an individual with reported Parkinson’s disease. While the organoids generated from each cell line were physically indistinguishable, significant differences were observed in gene and protein expression for neurotransmission and immunity. It was hypothesized that these inherent differences would impact cerebral organoid responses to viral infection. In this preliminary observational study, cerebral organoids from a non-Parkinson’s and Parkinson’s patient were infected with Chikungunya virus and observed for 2 weeks. Parkinson’s organoids lost mass and exhibited a dysfunctional antiviral response. Neurotransmission data from both non-Parkinson’s and Parkinson’s organoids had dysregulation of IL-1, IL-10, IL-6. These cytokines are associated with mood and could be contributing to persistent depression seen in patients following CHIKV infection. Both organoid types had increased expression of CCR5 and CXCL10 which are linked to demyelination, highlighting a potential mechanism for virus-associated parkinsonism. The dysfunctional antiviral response of Parkinson’s organoids highlights the need for more research in neurotropic infections in a neurologically compromised host.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0551.v1
Online: 27 January 2021 (10:24:09 CET)
The data for the study on the epidemiology of bovine mastitis were collected fromNovember 2015 to February 2016 to investigate the prevalence of mastitis in administrative towns of three selected districts of Arsi zone, Oromia Regional State, namely Iteya, Sagure, and Asella, Ethiopia; and to analyze the association between the risk factors and mastitis occurrence. Sample cows were selected and examined for clinical mastitis and at the same time, milk samples were evaluated both clinically and using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). Some parameters of the cows which have biological relation with this disease together with other potential risk factors were collected along with primary data collection. The analysis of the primary data showed that overall mastitis prevalence in the locations covered by the study was 28.6% of which 83.3% was subclinical, while 16.7% were clinical mastitis cases. Analysis related to the investigation of the existence of an association between risk factors and mastitis revealed that there was a significant association between the occurrence of mastitis and two of the risk factors evaluated, breed and age of the cow. The other risk factors investigated (i.e. parity, location, and lactation stage had no significant association with mastitis occurrence). Since mastitis is a complex disease that results from the interaction of different factors, it may be difficult to limit it to only some given factors. Environment and management factors and their combination may also have an additional impact on the epidemiology of the disease. A prevalence with the indicated magnitude together with the added effect of a lower level of awareness of the society about milk-associated zoonoses implies that this disease causes significant public health problems. In addition, mastitis may cause silent economic loss through unnoticed production loss along with reduced milk yield from subclinical and clinical (e.g. blind teats) cases. Due to a lack of awareness about mastitis and/or negligence, farmers in all corners of the country are suffering from economic and public health problems imposed by mastitis. This lack of awareness about mastitis-associated problems and/or negligence could be a possible reason for the use of raw milk which is a common scenario particularly in pastoral areas and the selling of adulterated milk which is becoming increasingly practiced in Ethiopia which is also true in these specific localities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0550.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: edge-computing; processors; hardware acceleration
Online: 27 January 2021 (09:59:46 CET)
Computing in the cloud-edge continuum, as opposed to cloud computing, relies on high performance processing on the extreme edge of the IoT hierarchy. Hardware acceleration is a mandatory solution to achieve the performance requirements, yet it can be tightly tied to particular computation kernels, even within the same application. Vector-oriented hardware acceleration has gained renewed interest to support AI applications like convolutional networks or classification algorithms. We present a comprehensive investigation of the performance and power efficiency achievable by configurable vector acceleration subsystems, obtaining evidence of both the high potential of the proposed microarchitecture and the advantage of hardware customization in total transparency to the software program.
Tue, 26 January 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0545.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Solar radiation; Satellite-derived irradiance; Global Horizontal Irradiance; Clear sky model; ground stations; validation
Online: 26 January 2021 (20:19:03 CET)
Access to reliable, clean, modern cooking enhances life chances. One option is photovoltaic cooking systems. Accurate solar data is needed to ascertain to what extent these can satisfy the needs of local people. This paper investigates how to choose the most accurate satellite derived solar irradiance database for use in Africa. This is necessary because there is a general shortage of ground measurements for Africa. The solar data is needed to model the output of solar cooking systems, for instance, a solar panel, battery and electric pressure cooker. Four easily accessible satellite databases are validated against ground measurements using a range of statistical tests. Results demonstrate the impact of the mathematical measure used and the phenomenon of balancing errors. Fitting of the satellite model to appropriate climate zone and/or nearby measurements improves accuracy, as does higher spatial and temporal resolution of input parameters. That said, all the four databases reviewed were found to be suitable for simulating PV yield in East Africa.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0549.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Japanese encephalitis virus; birds; genotype shift; JEV genotype I; JEV genotype III
Online: 26 January 2021 (16:47:47 CET)
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a vaccine preventable disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), which is primarily prevalent in Asia. JEV is a Flavivirus, classified into a single serotype with five genetically distinct genotypes (I, II, III, IV, and V). JEV genotype III (GIII) had been the most dominant strain and caused numerous out breaks in the JEV endemic countries until 1990. However, recent data shows the emergence of genotype I (GI) as a dominant genotype and it is gradually displacing GIII. The exact mechanism of this genotype displacement is still unclear. The virus can replicate in mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts to maintain its zoonotic life cycle; pigs and aquatic wading birds act as an amplifying/reservoir hosts, and humans and equines are the dead end hosts. The important role of pigs as an amplifying host for JEV is well known. However, the influence of other domestic animals especially birds that live in high abundance and close proximity to human is not well studied. Here, we strive to briefly highlight the role of birds in JEV zoonotic transmission, discovery of birds as a natural reservoirs and amplifying host for JEV, species of birds susceptible to JEV infection, and the proposed effect of JEV on poultry industry in future perspective which have been neglected for a long times. We also discussed the recent in vitro and in vivo studies which show that the newly emerged GI viruses replicated more efficiently in bird-derived cells and ducklings/chicks than GIII, and an important role of birds in the JEV genotype shift from GIII to GI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0547.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: obesity; irisin; whole-body vibration; exercise; weight loss; rehabilitation; weight management; muscle strength
Online: 26 January 2021 (16:27:26 CET)
The use of whole-body vibration (WBV) for therapeutic purposes is far from being standardized and only very recently an empirical foundation for reporting guidelines for human WBV studies has been published. Controversies about safety and therapeutic dosage stll exist. The present study aimed to investigate the metabolic and mechanical effects of low-intensity WBV in according to the ISO 2631 norm on subjects with obesity. 41 obese subjects (BMI≥ 35 kg/mˆ2) were recruited to participate in a 3-week multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation program including fitness training and WBV training. During WBV the posture was monitored with an optoelectronic system with 6 infrared cameras (Vicon, Vicon Motion System, Oxford, UK). The primary endpoints were: variation in body composition, factors of the metabolic syndrome, functional activity (sit-to-stand and 6-min walking test), muscle strength, and quality of life. Secondary endpoints were: modification of irisin, testosterone, growth hormone, IGF1 levels. We observed significant changes in salivary irisin levels, Group 2 (p<0.01) as compared to the control group, while muscle strength, function, and other metabolic and hormonal factors did not change after a 3-week low-intensity WBV training respect control group. Future studies are needed to deeper investigate the potential metabolic effect of low-intensity WBV in managing weight.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0548.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Community; Human Capital; Socio-Cultural; Mobilization; Partnership; Development
Online: 26 January 2021 (16:24:22 CET)
Community is a veritable ingredient for social change and development in a society. The potentials of individuals and groups in the community are a great source or resource for promoting unity, development and patriotism. The general objective of this study is to examine the influence of diversity in community composition, on the operation of community policing style in Nigeria. The study adopted qualitative research approach to collect and analyze data. In-depth interview is the instrument of data collection while content analysis is the method of data analysis. The study took place in Kwara State, North central Nigeria. Twenty community leaders and youth groups heads were purposefully selected through snowball sampling method. Where this great resource or human capital is adequately galvanized by the leaders and community heads, the community becomes formidable and capable of solving her social problems together. However, these benefits of community are hampered by other socio-cultural and economic variables in its members. Community on its own cannot achieve much until members are mobilized to support and partner with government in any developmental projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0546.v1
Online: 26 January 2021 (16:20:42 CET)
Wide-scale adoption of binder jet 3D printing for mission-critical components in aerospace, biomedical, defense, and energy applications requires improvement in mechanical properties and performance characteristics of end-use components. Increased fidelity may be achieved with better understanding of the interfacial physics and complex fluid-particle interactions fundamental to the process. In this work, an experimental testing apparatus and procedure is developed to investigate the fluid and particle dynamics occurring upon impact of jetted binder droplets onto a powder bed. High-speed, microscopic imaging is employed to capture short time-scale phenomena such as ballistic particle ejection, capillary flow, and particle clustering. The effects of different process parameters (e.g., translational printhead velocity, jetting frequency, and impact velocity) on the dynamics of Inconel powder are studied. These experiments reveal that the fluid-particle interaction is significantly affected by a combination of printing parameters, ultimately governing the quality and performance of binder jet 3D printed components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0543.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Blueberry; Pre-breeding; hybridization; V. elliottii; Fruit quality
Online: 26 January 2021 (15:55:14 CET)
Wild germplasm can be classified as the raw material essential for crop improvement. Introgression of wild germplasm is normally used in breeding to increase crop quality or resilience to evolving biotic and abiotic threats. Here, we explore the potential of introgressing Vaccinium elliottii into commercial blueberry germplasm. Vaccinium elliottii is a wild diploid blueberry species endemic to the southeastern United States that possesses highly desirable and economically important traits for blueberry breeding such as: short bloom to ripe period, adaptation to upland sandy soils, disease resistance, firmness, and pleasant flavor. To examine the potential of hybridization, we evaluated populations of interspecific hybrids across multiples stages of breeding (i.e., F1, F2, and backcrosses) in two crop seasons. We used our extensive pedigree data to generate breeding values for pre-breeding blueberry hybrid populations. Hybrid performance was evaluated considering fitness (i.e., plant vigor and plant height) in addition to evaluating six fruit-quality and marketable-related traits (i.e., size, firmness, acidity, soluble solids, weight, and yield). Overall, F2 and backcrosses rapidly achieved market thresholds, presenting values not significantly different from commercial blueberry germplasm. Our results confirmed the potential of exploiting the high genetic variability contained in V. elliotii for interspecific hybridization. Additionally, we developed germplasm resources that can be further evaluated and utilized in the breeding process, advancing selections for fruit quality and environmental adaptation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0544.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Clifford algebras Cl(3,0) and Cl(0,3); center of Cl(3); two dimensional spacetime of time-volume; constant uniform acceleration; Rindler coordinates; FLRW metric; scale factor; AdS and de Sitter models
Online: 26 January 2021 (15:55:06 CET)
The recently proposed model of the "unified two-dimensional spacetime" shows substantial conformity to Clifford algebras Cl3,0 and Cl0,3. As shown, such two-dimensional spacetime of time and volume corresponds to two Clifford coordinates given by a center of the respective algebra. In the application to comoving frame, the model results in the exact form of the scale factor of the FLRW metric of modern cosmology. This paper formulates and formalizes the approach using Clifford algebras. The study concludes that the Clifford algebra of space (APS)Cen(Cl3,0) has an intrinsic correspondence with the anti-de Sitter (AdS) flat universe and the negative cosmological term that results in an oscillating model of the universe. The approach with anti-Euclidean Clifford algebra Cen(Cl0,3) leads to the de Sitter model with a positive cosmological term. As reviewed, the Clifford algebra has isomorphic algebras and Lie groups corresponding to different from Minkowski spacetime, such as SO(4); therefore, further study may be required regarding their relation to gravitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0542.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Automotive Engineering, Electric Bus, CFD, Numerical Fluid Mechanics, Electromobility, Noise, Eco-Design
Online: 26 January 2021 (15:23:24 CET)
The dynamic development of electromobility poses challenges to designers regarding not only the efficiency of energy transformation but also the battery life, which is influenced by the stability of its operating temperature. Designing cooling systems is connected not only with the optimization of energy management but also with other environmental parameters, such as noise emission. The paper presents the numerical optimization of an innovative radiator for use in electric buses in terms of energy consumption and noise emission. The results of the numerical studies were verified in laboratory and field conditions, showing a very good convergence of the model with the results of the experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0533.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Conductivity; Corrosion; Corrosion inhibitor; Zinc Metal; Lignosulfonate
Online: 26 January 2021 (14:39:09 CET)
The electrical conductivity method was successfully applied to monitor the corrosion and corrosion inhibition processes of zinc metal. Measurements of electrical conductivity at 20.0 oC of three different corrosive solutions (NaCl, HCl and NaOH) were performed with two different concentrations (0.10 and 1.00 M) containing zinc sheets in the absence and presence of four different concentrations of sodium lignosulfonate (1.0, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 mM). The analysis of curves that illustrates the changes in electrical conductivity of these solutions provides qualitative information about the strength of corrosion as well as the extent of corrosion inhibition behavior. The results obtained from electrical conductivity measurements revealed that sodium lignosulfonate was an effective corrosion inhibitor in acidic medium (for both 0.10 and 1.00 M HCl) in which it converted into lignosulfonic acid, but was less effective in salt and alkaline media.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0513.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Aleppo pine; conifers; phytosulfokine; plant growth regulators; somatic embryogenesis
Online: 26 January 2021 (14:21:31 CET)
Organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis have been widely applied as the two main regeneration pathways in plant tissue culture. However, recalcitrance is still a main restriction in the clonal propagation of many woody species, especially in conifers. They undergo a “phase change” that leads to significant loss of organogenic and embryogenic capacity, thus reducing the responsive tissues or organs to juvenile material, and narrowing the competence window. In this sense, in vitro regeneration of mature conifer trees has been a long-cherished goal in many laboratories worldwide. In this work, apical shoot buds were used as explants for both organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in order to cloning mature trees of Aleppo pine. Reinvigorated axillary shoots were submitted to somatic embryogenesis induction through the manipulation of culture media, including the use of auxins such as 2,4-D and NAA, cytokinins (BA and kinetin) and phytosulfokine (50, 100 and 200 nM). Although somatic embryos could not be obtained, embryogenic-like tissue was produced followed by the appearance of actively proliferating non-embryogenic calli and differences between treatments were found, especially when phytosulfokine was added to the induction media. Organogenic system produced reinvigorated shoots from both BA treatments tested (22 and 44 µM), from juvenile somatic trees and adult trees, and ex-vitro acclimatized plants were developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0541.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Bioremediation; gut microbiota; lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacterales; lead; cadmium; aluminum; Probiotics; ICP-MS
Online: 26 January 2021 (13:26:26 CET)
Hazardous toxic metals, such as lead and cadmium, and to a lesser extent aluminum, are extensively recognized as detrimental for health following ingestion within food and water, or following inhalation. Gut and food-derived microbes, by interacting with heavy metals, may actively or passively modulate their bioavailability inside the gut, either by adsorption or by sequestration. Such a bioremediation within the gut implies the selection of safe microbes, based on their specific capacities to immobilize metals. We investigated the metal removal ability of 225 bacteria toward the potential harmful trace elements lead, cadmium and aluminum in vitro, using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analysis. Interspecies and intraspecies comparisons were addressed and discussed among bacteria from the phylum Firmicutes, which are mostly lactic acid bacteria, including Lactobacillus spp, with some Lactococcus, Pediococcus and Carnobacterium representatives, Actinobacteria as well as Proteobacteria. The effect on mixture of lead and cadmium was also investigated. Although the purpose of such a screening is so far not to elucidate each of the various strain specific- and metal dependent- mechanisms of heavy metal removal, we identified potential bacteria which are able to alleviate Pb(II) and Cd(II) concerns in order to propose performing candidate probiotics for metal xenobiotic bioremediation.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Authentication Schemwes; Galois Rings; Gray map
Online: 26 January 2021 (13:25:14 CET)
We give three new systematic authentication schemes, two using Gray map, finite fields and Galois rings, and one using only Galois rings. In the first scheme, we increase the size and simplify the scheme’s source space in . In the second scheme, we reduce the key space of the first scheme. Finally, by not considering Gray map, used in the previous schemes, we give a third scheme on Galois rings, which generalizes the scheme over finite fields given in . The introduced schemes obtain optimal impersonation and substitution probabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0539.v1
Online: 26 January 2021 (12:18:45 CET)
Traditional metals such as stainless steel, titanium and cobalt chrome are used in biomedical applications (implants, scaffolds etc.) but suffer from issues such as osseointegration and compatibility with existing bone. One way to improve traditional biomaterials is to incorporate ceramics with these metals so that their mechanical properties can be similar to cortical bones. Tricalcium phosphate is such a ceramic with properties so that it can be used in human body. This research explores the use of binder jetting based additive manufacturing process to create a novel biocomposite made of cobalt chrome and tricalcium phosphate. Experiments were conducted and processing parameters were varied to study their effect on the printing of this biocomposite. Layer thickness, binder saturation and drying time affected the dimensional tolerance and the density of the green samples. This effect is important to understand so that the material can be optimized for use in specific applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0538.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: neutrino; period doubling; muon decay; elementary charge; electron mass; Planck units
Online: 26 January 2021 (12:16:30 CET)
According to observations leptons are always produced in pairs. Both particles can be electrically charged, or just one, in which case the charged particle is accompanied by a particle specific neutrino. The period doubling process in nonlinear dynamical systems creates stable pair structures from the Planck units. The electron-positron pair is one of the stable structures, and the rest mass, electric charge and magnetic moment can be accurately calculated by the period doubling process. That the pair structure is stable means, that e.g., an electron and a positron are always born together. In the muon decay one of the pair is charged, while the other remains chargeless because there is only one charge available. It is suggested in this article that neutrino is the chargeless part of the lepton pair.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0537.v1
Online: 26 January 2021 (11:57:26 CET)
The International Health Regulations (2005) promote national capacity in core institutions so countries can better detect, respond to and recover from public health emergencies. In accordance with the ‘all hazards’ approach to public health risk, this systematic review examines poisoning and toxic exposures in Myanmar. A systematic literature search was undertaken to find articles pertaining to poisoning in Myanmar published between 1998 and 2020. A number of poisoning risks are identified in this review including snakebites, heavy metals, drugs of abuse, agro-chemicals and traditional medicine. Patterns of poisoning presented in the literature diverge from poisoning priorities reported in other lower-middle income countries in the region. The expe-rience of professionals working in a Yangon-based poison treatment unit indicates that frequently observed poisoning as a result of substances including pharmaceuticals, methanol, and petroleum products were absent from the literature. Other notable gaps in the available research include assessments of the public health burden of poisoning through self-harm, household exposures to chemicals, paediatric risk and women’s occupational risk of poisoning. There is a limited amount of research available on poisoning outcomes and routes of exposure in Myanmar. Further inves-tigation and research is warranted to provide a more complete assessment of poisoning risk and incidence.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE); repetition; iteration
Online: 26 January 2021 (11:37:54 CET)
Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) provide students with opportunities for the same gains that apprenticed research with faculty members offer. As their popularity increases, it is important that critical elements of CUREs are supported by thoughtful design. Student experiences in CUREs can provide important insights into why CUREs are so effective. We present evidence from students who participated in CUREs at the introductory, intermediate, and advanced levels, as well as from graduate teaching assistants for an introductory lab course that included a CURE. Students and teaching assistants describe repetition as a valuable element in CUREs and other laboratory experiences. We used student work and open-ended interviews to identify which of five previously described elements of CUREs students found important. Because repetition was particularly salient, we characterized how students described repetition as they experienced it in courses that contained full-length or “micro”-CUREs. In prompted interviews, students described how repetition in CUREs provided cognitive (learning concepts) and practical (learning technical skills) value. Recent graduates who had participated in CUREs at each level of their Biology education were particularly aware that they placed value in repetition and acknowledged it as motivational in their own learning. Many students described repetition in metacognitive terms, which also suggests that as students advance through laboratory and CURE curricula, their understanding of how repetition supports their learning becomes more sophisticated. Finally, we integrated student descriptions to suggest ways in which repetition can be designed into CUREs or other laboratory courses to support scientific learning and enhance students’ sense of scientific identity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0181.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: metamaterials; negative effective mass; negative density; negative thermal capacity; resonance.
Online: 26 January 2021 (11:36:03 CET)
One-dimensional chain of core-shell pairs connected by ideal springs enables design of the metamaterial demonstrating the negative effective density and negative specific thermal capacity. We assume that the molar thermal capacity of the reported metamaterial is governed by the Dulong-Petit law in its high temperature limit. The specific thermal capacity depends of the density of the metamaterial; thus, it is expected to be negative, when the effective density of the chain is negative. The range of the frequencies enabling the effect of the negative thermal capacity is established. Dependence of the effective thermal capacity on the exciting frequency for various core/shell mass ratios is elucidated. The effective thermal capacity becomes negative in the vicinity of the local resonance frequency ω0 in the situation when the frequency ω approaches ω0 from above. The effect of the negative effective thermal capacity is expected in metals in the vicinity of the plasma frequency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0535.v1
Subject: Keywords: annual weeds; conservation agriculture; perennial weeds; reduced tillage; weed seedbank
Online: 26 January 2021 (11:35:27 CET)
When farmers first shift from conventional tillage (CT) to conservation agriculture (CA) practice the control of weeds may be more difficult due to the absence of tillage. However, in the longer term (3-5 years), CA changes to weed dynamics may alter the weed seedbank. The nature of weed seedbank changes over time in intensively cropped rice-based rotations, that are typical of the Eastern Gangetic Plain, are not well understood. Three long term CA experiments were sampled (at Rajbari after 3 years and Rajshahi after 5 years) for effects of decreased soil disturbance strip planting (SP) and bed planting (BP) at both sites and Zero tillage (ZT) at Rajbari, increased retention of standing residues of previous crops (20 vs 50 %). The weed seedbank in 0-15 cm soil was quantified by assessing emergence from trays a net-house experiment during January-December 2016. The year-round count of emerged weeds revealed the fewest number of weed species (especially broadleaf weeds) and lowest weed density in SP followed by CT, BP, and ZT with 50% crop residues. The SP, BP, and ZT produced a higher number of perennials weeds than annual weeds, which was the opposite of CT. The continuous practice of SP and increased crop residue retention for 3 or more years decreased the size of weed seedbank but increased the relative proliferation of perennial weeds compared to CT. Weed seedbank size in SP was even smaller than BP and ZT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0293.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Hsp70; biomarker; glioblastoma; NK cells; clinical study
Online: 26 January 2021 (11:33:34 CET)
Despite rapid progress in the treatment of many cancers, glioblastoma remains a devastating disease with dismal prognosis. The aim of this study was to identify immune-related biomarkers that more effectively predict outcome of glioblastoma. Since heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and IL-2 are known to increase the expression of activatory NK cell receptors, recognizing aggressive human tumor cells that present Hsp70 on their cell surface, extracellular Hsp70 levels were determined in glioma patients together with activatory NK cell receptors. All gliomas are membrane Hsp70-positive (mHsp70+) and high grade gliomas more frequently show an overexpression of Hsp70 in the nucleus and cytosol. Significantly increased extracellular Hsp70 levels are detected predominantly in glioblastomas with large necrotic areas. Overall survival (OS) is more favorable in patients with low Hsp70 serum levels indicating that a high Hsp70 expression is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. Elevated frequencies of NK cells are associated with a more favorable outcome. Of caution, a glucocorticoid therapy reduces the prevalence of NK cells. In summary, elevated frequencies of Hsp70-reactive NK cells at diagnosis and lower Hsp70 levels predict a more favorable prognosis in glioblastoma patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0534.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: fruit occlusion; deep learning; machine vision; yield estimation; fruit count; neural network; CNN; tree crop; Mangifera indica; MLP; canopy
Online: 26 January 2021 (11:29:49 CET)
Imaging systems mounted to ground vehicles are used to image fruit tree canopies for estimation of fruit load, but frequently need correction for fruit occluded by branches, foliage or other fruits. This can be achieved using an orchard ‘occlusion factor’, estimated from a manual count of fruit load on a sample of trees (referred to as the reference method). It was hypothesised that canopy images could hold information related to the number of occluded fruit. Five approaches to correct for occluded fruit based on canopy images were compared using data of three mango orchards in two seasons. However, no attribute correlates to the number of hidden fruit were identified. Several image features obtained through segmentation of fruit and canopy areas, such as the proportion of fruit that were partly occluded, were used in training Random forest and multi-layered perceptron (MLP) models for estimation of a correction factor per tree. In another approach, deep learning convolutional neural networks (CNNs) were directly trained against harvest fruit count on trees. The supervised machine learning methods for direct estimation of fruit load per tree delivered an improved prediction outcome over the reference method for data of the season/orchard from which training data was acquired. For a set of 2017 season tree images (n=98 trees), a R2 of 0.98 was achieved for the correlation of the number of fruits predicted by a Random forest model and the ground truth fruit count on the trees, compared to a R2 of 0.68 for the reference method. The best prediction of whole orchard (n = 880 trees) fruit load, in the season of the training data, was achieved by the MLP model, with an error to packhouse count of 1.6% compared to the reference method error of 13.6%. However, the performance of these models on new season data (test set images) was at best equivalent and generally poorer than the reference method. This result indicates that training on one season of data was insufficient for the development of a robust model. This outcome was attributed to variability in tree architecture and foliage density between seasons and between orchards, such that the characters of the canopy visible from the interrow that relate to the proportion of hidden fruit are not consistent. Training of these models across several seasons and orchards is recommended.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0533.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle & Field Physics Keywords: neutrino; standard model; entanglement; flavor conservation
Online: 26 January 2021 (11:25:49 CET)
This work argues the mass term in the neutrino wavefunction propagator is due to entanglement with its associated origins. The implication being that neutrino flavor is conserved in weak processes and shared among all particles emanating from the last interaction with a nucleon. In so doing, the neutrino mass propagator is real but not ascribed to the neutrino outside of entanglement. The proposed theory will be readily testable in that reactor and solar neutrinos will oscillate but both muon decay neutrinos and accelerator neutrinos created by pure lepton interactions will not oscillate..
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0532.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: cavitation bubble; keyhole; nanoparticles; fume; spatter
Online: 26 January 2021 (11:06:59 CET)
Directed Energy Deposition (DED) is a process that enables high-speed deposition with a sub-millimeter thickness using laser technology. Thus far, defect studies on additive manufacturing, including DED, have focused mostly on preventing pores and crack defects that reduce fatigue strength. On the other hand, evaporation products, fumes and spatters, generated by the high energy have often been neglected despite being some of the main causes of porosity and defects. In high-quality metal deposition, the problems caused by evaporation products are difficult to solve, but they have not yet caught the attention of metallurgists and physicists. This review examines the effect of the laser, material, and process parameters on the evaporation products to help obtain a high-quality metal film layer in thin-DED.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0531.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Priming; RNAi; Tribolium castaneum; Host-parasite interaction; Bacillus thuringiensis
Online: 26 January 2021 (10:50:41 CET)
Insects possess an array of defense molecules allowing them to fight infections. They can also show a form of immune memory, named priming. However, the involvement of insect immune defense mechanisms in priming is unclear, since invertebrates lack the molecular machinery present in vertebrates to build an immune memory. In the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, larvae can be primed via the oral route with Bacillus thurigiensis var. tenebrionids (Btt). This results in changes in the expression of a large number of genes, among which some belong to families of ancient defense genes. In the present work, we tested whether three chosen candidate genes (a Thaumatin, a C-type Lectin and an Osiris-like gene) could be involved in the survival to a Btt exposure, as well as in the priming phenotype. We assessed changes in their expression over time and according to the priming treatment, knocked them down individually by RNA interference (RNAi), and observed how it affected survival upon challenge. The quantification of gene expression patterns in our larvae with RT-qPCR showed that up- and/or down-regulation of the genes, after the priming treatment, was quite volatile and time dependent. Upon knock-down, we did not observe the expected decrease in survival to Btt or the abolishment of the priming phenotype. We conclude that knocking down genes individually is probably insufficient to affect survival and priming in our system. This gives us insight into the complexity of the molecular processes underpinning priming.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0107.v3
Online: 26 January 2021 (10:46:51 CET)
Qualitative and quantitative values estimation is a crucial aspect of social data science and plays a vital role in social and psychological research. Numerous methods of personal values measurement such as Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) and its re-modified versions have been proposed and invented, but many are challenged with one or more limitations. In this article, an alternative approach in a new paradigm of values measurement called Kabiru’s Value Survey (KVS) was proposed to measure the relative degree of importance or significance attached to particular value-actions of an individual(s) in a given population over a period. The methodological innovations in KVS unlike other existing methods of human value measurement include the use of habitually reported practices associated with a particular value-action in place of judging the series of Schwartz hypothetical statements, the use of multiple dependent variables rather than a single coded hypothetical statement. In terms of data analysis, a new approach of multivariate compression is introduced which merges the chain of multiple dependent variables into one coded scale. Psychometric result interpretation is also another innovative aspect of KVS methodology. Finally, the proposed methodology however solved some of the criticized limitations of the other methods of human value measurement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0689.v3
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Meme; memetic; culture; propagation; equilibrium; inheritance; extinction; resistance; evolution; natural selection; Fermi Paradox
Online: 26 January 2021 (10:24:54 CET)
Background: The term meme includes vertical trait transmission and laterally transmitted ideas that can be lasting or transient. Memes may sometimes follow the logic of population genetics, e.g. learned birdsong, but not when laterally transmitted. Much current work focuses on selection of memes rather than hosts. This paper investigates mathematically the interaction of behaviorally transmitted traits with host selection fitness. Methods: We analyze equilibrium between gene-meme and meme-meme competing propagators and consider whether a meme is linked to reproduction (e.g. vertical culture transmission), or not. We employ a genetic component and combined meme-induced fitness components for hosts, while memes have replication factors to distinguish from what’s good for the host (fitness). We use a Monte Carlo simulation roughly calibrated to the Industrial Revolution to study meme effects on population stability. Results: A basic effective calculus of memetic trait competition and interaction with genes is derived and analyzed. The transient nature of many lateral memes may be a defense against accumulation of deleterious memes. Laterally transmitted (panmictic) memes with high spreading rate will often not equalize with a genetic trait, spreading outside of natural selection of the hosts, presenting a cumulative existential threat. Vertical transmission reduces replication rate and allows group selection against deleterious memes. Competing mutually exclusive memes contribute to inequality and altruism, but compete through adverse fitness since exclusivity assumes low conversion. Conclusions: The advantage of a portfolio of groups or species may not accrue to a single group. This understanding elevates meme-risk to the level of a candidate solution to the so-called Fermi Paradox.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0530.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; biomarker; prognosis; P53; mass spectrometry
Online: 26 January 2021 (10:01:35 CET)
Despite the increasing number of individuals affected by Alzheimer’s disease (AD) every year, no effective therapy has been developed to treat this neurodegenerative disease yet. The current methods for AD diagnosis are effective for clinical confirmation of the disease only when symptoms become apparent, years after molecular damage started within the patients’ brains. As higher expression of a conformationally altered p53 has been correlated with AD, we developed a mass spectrometry-based method for highly sensitive, specific, and reproducible quantification of a p53 conformational variant in plasma samples of patients with known clinical outcome. In particular, we tested the prognostic performance of an AD-specific 2D3A8-immunoselected p53 peptide (AZ 284™) in different sets of individuals progressing from both cognitively unimpaired (CU) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients progressing to AD dementia. Our data showed that quantitative analysis of AZ 284™ is a reliable tool for predicting AD progression up to 6 years prior to dementia onset with AUC >90%. Taken together, these results support the implementation of p53 conformational variant quantification as an affordable and powerful diagnostic tool for early, non-invasive AD diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0529.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: radio frequency; microwave; spectrum analyzer; integrated; photonic
Online: 26 January 2021 (09:57:01 CET)
We report an all-optical radio-frequency (RF) spectrum analyzer with a bandwidth greater than 5 terahertz (THz), based on a 50-cm long spiral waveguide in a CMOS-compatible high-index doped silica platform. By carefully mapping out the dispersion profile of the waveguides for different thicknesses, we identify the optimal design to achieve near zero dispersion in the C-band. To demonstrate the capability of the RF spectrum analyzer, we measure the optical output of a femtosecond fiber laser with an ultrafast optical RF spectrum in the terahertz regime.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0528.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: global optimization, particle swarm optimization (PSO), exploration, exploitation
Online: 26 January 2021 (08:57:39 CET)
Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is an effective algorithm to solve the optimization problem in case that derivative of target function is inexistent or difficult to be determined. Because PSO has many parameters and variants, I propose a general framework of PSO called GPSO which aggregates important parameters and generalizes important variants so that researchers can customize PSO easily. Moreover, two main properties of PSO are exploration and exploitation. The exploration property aims to avoid premature converging so as to reach global optimal solution whereas the exploitation property aims to motivate PSO to converge as fast as possible. These two aspects are equally important. Therefore, GPSO also aims to balance the exploration and the exploitation. It is expected that GPSO supports users to tune parameters for not only solving premature problem but also fast convergence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0527.v1
Online: 26 January 2021 (08:25:13 CET)
Keywords: lactic acid; ceramide; folate; nicotinamide; Alzheimer’s disease
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0526.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Asaia; paratransgenesis; symbiotic traits; Anopheles stephensi; genome features
Online: 26 January 2021 (08:19:00 CET)
Asaia bacteria commonly comprise part of the microbiome of many mosquito species in the genera Anopheles and Aedes, including important vectors of infectious agents. Their close association with multiple organs and tissues of their mosquito hosts enhances the potential for paratransgenesis for delivery of anti-malaria or anti-virus effectors. The molecular mechanisms involved in the interactions between Asaia and mosquito hosts, as well as Asaia and other bacterial members of the mosquito microbiome, remained unexplored. Here, we determined the genome sequence of the strain W12 isolated from Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, compared them to other Asaia species associated with plants or insects, and investigated some properties of the bacteria relevant to their symbiosis with host mosquitoes. The assembled genome of strain W12 has a size of 3.94 MB, which is the largest among Asaia spp studied so far. At least 3,585 coding sequences were predicted. The insect-associated Asaia including strain W12 carried more glycoside hydrolase (GH) encoding genes (31 per genome) than those isolated from plants (22 per genome). W12 had the most predicted regulatory protein components (213) among the selected Asaia (ranging from 131 to 211), indicating its great capability to adapt to frequent environmental changes in the mosquito gut. Two complete operons encoding cytochrome bo3-type ubiquinol terminal oxidases (cyoABCD-1 and cyoABCD-2) were found in most of Asaia genomes, which possibly offer alternative terminal oxidases and allow the flexible transition of respiratory pathways. Genes involved in the production of acetoin and 2,3-butandiol have been identified in Asaia sp. W12.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0525.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: DNA Damage; Base Excision Repair; SMUG1; 5-hmdU; Cancer
Online: 26 January 2021 (08:17:11 CET)
Single-stand selective monofunctional uracil DNA glycosylase 1 (SMUG1) works to remove uracil and certain oxidized bases from DNA during base excision repair (BER). This review provides a historical characterization of SMUG1 and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (5-hmdU) one important substrate of this enzyme. Biochemical and structural analyses provide remarkable insight into the mechanism of this glycosylase revealing SMUG1 has a unique helical wedge which influences damage recognition during repair. Rodent studies suggest that, while SMUG1 shares substrate specificity with another uracil glycosylase UNG2, loss of SMUG1 can have unique cellular phenotypes. This review highlights the multiple roles SMUG1 may play in preserving genome stability, and how the loss of SMUG1 activity may promote cancer. Finally, we discuss recent studies indicating SMUG1 has moonlighting functions beyond BER, playing a critical role in RNA processing including the RNA component of telomerase.
Mon, 25 January 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0524.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear & High Energy Physics Keywords: Early universe; Elementary dimensions; Gravitational collapse; High energy physics; The Quark Guon-Plasma; the expansion of the universe; gravitational lensing
Online: 25 January 2021 (21:07:08 CET)
In this study, we discuss the properties of absolute void space or the universe at zero seconds, and how these properties play a vital role in creating a mechanism in which the very first particle gets created and we find the limit in which when the absolute void volume reaches will lead to the collapse that leads to the creation of the first particle. Later we discuss the standard model explanation through the elementary dimensions theory, as according to the elementary dimensions theory study that was peer-reviewed at the end of 2020, everything in the universe is made from four elementary dimensions, these dimensions are the three spatial dimensions (X, Y, and Z) and the force equivalent.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0657.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: hypnosis; multimodal monitoring; entropy; qNOX; qCON; bispectral index; surgical plethismographic index; general anaesthesia; patient safety
Online: 25 January 2021 (17:02:57 CET)
With the development of general anesthesia techniques and anesthetic substances, brought new horizons for the expansion and improvement of surgical techniques. Nevertheless, more complex surgical procedures brought a higher complexity and longer duration for general anesthesia that led to a series of adverse events such as hemodynamic instability, under- or overdosage of anesthetic drugs, as well as an increased number of post-anesthetic events. In order to adapt the anesthesia according to the particularities of each patient, the multimodal monitoring of these patients is highly recommended. Classically, general anesthesia monitoring consists of the analysis of vital functions and gas exchange. Multimodal monitoring refers to the concomitant monitoring of the degree of hypnosis and the nociceptive-antinociceptive balance. By titrating anesthetic drugs according to these parameters, clinical benefits can be obtained, such as hemodynamic stabilization, reduction of awakening times, and the reduction of post-operative complications. Another important aspect is the impact on the status of inflammation and the redox balance. By minimizing inflammatory and oxidative impact one can achieve a faster recovery that will lead to both increased patient satisfaction and an increase in patient safety. The purpose of this literature review is to present the most modern multimodal monitoring techniques, respectively to discuss the particularities of each technique.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Power-law duality; Classical and quantum mechanics; Semiclassical quantization; Supersymmetric quantum mechanics; Quark confinement
Online: 25 January 2021 (16:42:35 CET)
The Newton-Hooke duality and its generalization to arbitrary power laws in classical, semiclassical and quantum mechanics are discussed. We pursue a view that the power-law duality is a symmetry of the action under a set of duality operations. The power dual symmetry is defined by invariance and reciprocity of the action in the form of Hamilton’s characteristic function. We find that the power-law duality is basically a classical notion and breaks down at the level of angular quantization. We propose an ad hoc procedure to preserve the dual symmetry in quantum mechanics. The energy-coupling exchange maps required as part of the duality operations that take one system to another lead to an energy formula that relates the new energy to the old energy. The transformation property of Green function satisfying the radial Schrödinger equation yields a formula that relates the new Green function to the old one. The energy spectrum of the linear motion in a fractional power potential is semiclassically evaluated. We find a way to show the Coulomb-Hooke duality in the supersymmetric semiclassical action. We also study the confinement potential problem with the help of the dual structure of a two-term power potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0522.v1
Online: 25 January 2021 (16:38:03 CET)
Hydroxyapatite (HA) and other forms of bioceramics coatings had been reported to stimulate bone healing, which helps in initial implant integration. This study was to evaluate the effectiveness of air blasting with two combinations of bioceramic powders (hydroxyapatite and calcium oxide) on the selected implant surfaces for surface deposition. Five different types of implant disks were tested, namely Commercially pure (Cp), Sandblasted (SB), Sandblasted and etched(SBE), SLActive®, Roxolid®. The studied samples were blasted with apatite abrasive bioceramic powders, 95% Hydroxyapatite (HA)/5% Calcium Oxide (CaO) and 90% Hydroxyapatite (HA)/10% Calcium Oxide (CaO). The surface and elemental differences between the blasted samples were compared using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Results after surface treatment had demonstrated changes in surface morphologies; most evidently on the Cp implant discs. All treated surfaces revealed a non-uniform distribution of the treatment on the surface layer, with dispersed patches of bioceramic powders over the surfaces. The experimental blasting method used in this study has demonstrated the ability to deposit bioceramic materials on different implant surfaces.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0521.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Data integration; multi-omics; integration strategies; genomics
Online: 25 January 2021 (16:19:31 CET)
Metabolomics deals with multiple and complex chemical reactions within living organisms and how these are influenced by external or internal perturbations. It lies at the heart of omics profiling technologies not only as the underlying biochemical layer that reflects information expressed by the genome, the transcriptome and the proteome, but also as the closest layer to the phenome. The combination of metabolomics data with the information available from genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics offers unprecedented possibilities to enhance current understanding of biological functions, elucidate their underlying mechanisms and uncover hidden associations between omics variables. As a result, a vast array of computational tools have been developed to assist with integrative analysis of metabolomics data with different omics. Here, we review and propose five criteria – hypothesis, data types, strategies, study design and study focus – to classify statistical multi-omics data integration approaches into state-of-the-art classes under which all existing statistical methods fall. The purpose of this review is to look at various aspects that lead the choice of the statistical integrative analysis pipeline in terms of the different classes. We will draw a particular attention to metabolomics and genomics data to assist those new to this field in the choice of the integrative analysis pipeline.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0520.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: mast cell; psoriasis; inflammation; cytokine; Il-37; IL-38; IL-1Ra
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:57:19 CET)
Psoriasis (PS) is an autoimmune skin disease mediated by immune cells that typically presents inflammatory erythematous plaques, and it is associated with many comorbidities. PS exhibits excessive keratinocyte proliferation, and a high number of immune cells including macrophages, neutrophils, Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes, and mast cells (MCs). MCs are of hematopoietic origin, derived from bone marrow cells, which migrate, mature and reside in vascularized tissues. They can be activated by antigen provoking overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and release a number of mediators including interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-33. IL-1, released by activated keratinocytes and MCs, stimulates skin macrophage to release IL-36, a powerful pro-inflammatory IL-1 family member. IL-36 mediates both innate and adaptive immunity, including chronic pro-inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis. Suppressing IL-36 results in a noticeable improvement in the treatment of psoriasis. IL-36 is inhibited by IL-36Ra which binds on to IL-36 receptor ligand, but suppression can also occur by binding IL-38 to the IL-36R receptor. IL-38 specifically binds only to IL-36R and inhibits human mononuclear cells stimulated with IL-36 in vitro, sharing the effect with IL-36Ra. Here, we report that inflammation in psoriasis is mediated by IL-1 generated by MCs, a process that activates macrophages to secrete pro-inflammatory IL-36 inhibited by IL-38. In this article we confirm that IL-38 and IL-37 cytokines emerge as inhibitors of inflammation in psoriasis and hold promise of an innovative therapeutic tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0519.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: machine learning; additive manufacturing; conditional generative adversarial network; in-situ monitoring
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:55:32 CET)
Conditional generative adversarial networks (CGANs) learn a mapping from conditional input to observed image and perform tasks in image generation, manipulation and translation. In-situ monitoring uses sensors to obtain real-time information of additive manufacturing (AM) processes that relate to process stability and part quality. Understanding the correlations between process inputs and in-situ process signatures through machine learning can enable experimental-driven predictions of future process inputs. In this research, in-situ data obtained during a metallic powder bed fusion AM process is mapped with a CGAN. A single build of two turbine blades is monitored using EOSTATE Exposure OT, a near-infrared optical tomography system of the EOS M290 system. Layerwise images generated from the in-situ monitoring system were paired with a conditional image that labeled the specimen cross-section, laser-scan stripe overlap and z-distance to part surfaces. A CGAN was trained using the turbine blade data set and employed to generate new in-situ layerwise images for unseen conditional inputs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0518.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: mobile phones; health promotions; short message service; health students
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:53:53 CET)
Students are regarded as frequent users of mobile phones which has proven to be a convenient and acceptable method to promote healthy lifestyle. Students usually engage in relatively high levels of risky behavior and make unhealthy lifestyle choices, a study that investigates how health students access health information is necessary. The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional study which was undertaken among third-year nursing students from three nurses training institutions in Ghana. A total of 270 students participated in the study. Most of the respondents who were currently subscribers of the health messages reported that they usually received health information on reproductive health issues, nutrition, and practicing safe sex. Most of the health students revealed that they needed more information on safe sex, diet, managing weight, and stress management. The results also show that health students are likely to remember and share short messages with friends. The findings serve as an ‘eye-opener’ for health educators and mobile service providers concerning factors that should be taken into consideration when framing health text messages that will attract health students.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0517.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Gram-negative bacterial; Metabolite transporter; pathways; metabolic engineering approaches
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:49:13 CET)
Metabolite transport across cellular membranes is a key feature of living organisms. Specialized proteins or protein complexes mediate such transport processes and are accessible to genetic engineering approaches. This special issue will reflect on the different transport between cellular compartments. It will provide an overview about different transporter classes and metabolic engineering approaches in different organisms ranging from Bacteria to Eukarya. The transport mechanisms energetics of these compounds were thought little of, and most consideration was given to the designing of metabolic pathways. Gram-negative microbes discharge a wide scope of proteins whose capacities incorporate biogenesis of organelles, for example, pilli and flagella, supplement securing, destructiveness, and efflux of medications and different poisons. Six particular emission frameworks have been appeared to intervene protein send out through the inward and external layers of Gram-negative microbes. These pathways are exceptionally monitored all through the Gram-negative bacterial species. In Gram-positive microscopic organisms, discharged proteins are usually moved across the single layer by the Sec pathway or the two-arginine (Tat) pathway. Recently efforts focused on transporter and metabolite engineering, visualize the improvement and enhancement of microbial cell to pass such metabolites these metabolite carrier proteins are inserted into the inner membrane of mitochondria across the inner membrane, specialized carrier proteins are necessary that mediate the transport into and out of the mitochondrial matrix. Two main strategies for metabolic engineering in plants: the introduction of genes encoding new enzymes and the use of TFs controlling specialized metabolic pathways
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0516.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: MAFLD; NAFLD; fatty liver; metabolic syndrome; obesity; children; nomenclature
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:36:49 CET)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the world, which predispose to more serious hepatic conditions. It ranges from simple liver steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which may progress to cirrhosis and even end-stage liver disease. Since obesity became one of the most important health concerns wordwide, a considerable increase in the prevalance of NAFLD and other metabolic implications has been observed, both in adults, and children. Due to the coexistence of visceral obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, NAFLD is considered to be the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome (MetS). These relationship between NAFLD and MetS led to set up in adults new term combining both of these conditions, called metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). Based of these findings, we propose set of criteria, which may be useful to diagnose MAFLD in children and adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0515.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Entropy; Black hole physics; Radiation mechanism: thermal; Relativity; Methods: analytical; Astronomical databases: miscellaneous
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:32:41 CET)
Is it possible to quantify in General Relativity, GR, the entropy generated by supermassive black holes, BHs, during its evaporation time, since the intrinsic Hawking radiation in the infinity that, although insignificant, is important in the effects on the thermal quantum atmosphere?The purpose was to develop a formula that allows us to measure the entropy generated during the evaporation time of different types of BHs of: i. remnant BH of the binary black holes’ merger, BBH: GW150914, GW151226 and LTV151012 detected by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), and ii. Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordström, Kerr and Kerr-Newman, and thus quantify in GR the “insignificant” quantum effects involved, in order to contribute to the validity of the generalized second law (GSL) that directly links the laws of black hole mechanics to the ordinary laws of thermodynamics, as a starting point for unifying quantum effects with GR. This formula could have some relationship with the detection of the shadow’s image of the event horizon of a BH.This formula was developed in dimensional analysis, using the constants of nature and the possible evaporation time of a black hole, to quantify the entropy generated during that time. The energy-stress tensor was calculated with the 4 metrics to obtain the material content and apply the proposed formula.The entropy of the evaporation time of BHs proved to be insignificant, its temperature is barely above absolute zero, however, the calculation of this type of entropy allows us to argue about the importance of the quantum effects of Hawking radiation mentioned by authors who have studied the quantum effects with arguments that are fundamentally based on the presence of the surrounding thermal atmosphere of the black hole.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0514.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Senescence; Immortalization; Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition; Carcinogenesis; Hypothesis
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:31:18 CET)
The origin of cancer remains one of the most important enigmas in modern biology. The prevailing paradigm has failed to grasp a comprehensive view of the disease. Naturally, therapies developed under the current assumptions are inadequate and cancer is practically an incurable disease. Meanwhile, descriptive studies continuously extend the molecular complexity of cancer without an equivalent advancement in its understanding. Furthermore, they tend to accumulate inconsistencies inexplicable under the classical view. This paper presents a compelling theory of the origin of carcinomas. By hypothesis, a series of generic events in epithelial tissues promoted by cellular aging and inflammation enables the reactivation of developmental programs. The origin of carcinomas in vivo is described as the time-ordered cell state transitions undergone by epithelial cells in the hyperplasia due to replicative senescence and inflammation towards a mesenchymal undifferentiated endogenous cell state with cancerous behavior. In support of the theory, the molecular, cellular, and histopathological evidence is critically reviewed. A plausible model for the origin of carcinomas is presented to explain the mechanism underlying carcinogenesis from an evolutive and developmental perspective. The implications of the hypothesis in the current strategies for cancer prevention and treatment are discussed along with rational alternatives and some predictions for possible experimental validation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0512.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: fish; functional data analysis; long-term monitoring; habitat; occupancy; modeling; California
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:11:52 CET)
Abundance of estuarine fish species has declined globally. In the San Francisco Estuary (SFE), long-term monitoring documented declines of many species including the anadromous species Longfin Smelt (Spirinchus thaleichthys). To improve management and recovery planning, we identified patterns in the timing, seasonal occupancy, and distribution of Longfin Smelt in a monitoring study (San Francisco Bay Study) for five regions of the SFE using a generalized additive model. We then investigated the year-to-year variability in the shape of the seasonal relationships using functional data analysis (FDA). FDA separated the variability due to population size from variability due to differences in occupancy timing. We found that Longfin Smelt have a consistent seasonal distribution pattern, that two trawl types were needed to accurately describe the pattern, and that the pattern is largely consistent with the hypothesized conceptual model. After accounting for variability in occupancy due to year-class strength, the timing of occupancy has shifted in three regions. The most variable period for the upstream regions Suisun Bay and Confluence was age-0 summer and for the downstream region Central Bay, was age-0 late fall. This manifested as a recent delay in the typical fall re-occupation of upstream regions, reducing Longfin Smelt abundance as calculated by another monitoring study (Fall Midwater Trawl); thus, a portion of recent reductions in Fall Midwater Trawl abundance of Longfin Smelt result from changes in behavior rather than a decline in abundance. The presence of multiple monitoring surveys allowed analysis of distribution from one data set to interpret patterns in abundance of another. Future investigations will examine environmental conditions as covariates during these periods and could improve our understanding of what conditions contribute to the shifting occupancy timing of Longfin Smelt, and possibly provide insight into the long-term quality of the San Francisco Estuary as habitat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0511.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Kaluza-Klein theory; Relativistic wave equation; AharonovBohm eﬀect; special functions.
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:07:52 CET)
The non-inertial eﬀects on spin-0 scalar particle that interacts with scalar potentials of Cornell-type in cylindrical system and Coulomb-type in the magnetic cosmic string space-time using Kaluza-Klein theory is analyzed. We show that the energy eigenvalue and eigenfunction depend on the global parameters characterizing the space-time, and the gravitational analogue of the Aharonov-Bohm eﬀect for bound states is observed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0510.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Frozen-Thawed Embryo Transfer; Birthweight; Endometrial Preparation; Ovulatory Cycle; Artificial Cycle
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:06:40 CET)
Background: It is unknown whether prolonged artificial hormonal environment during early fetal development affects the birthweight of singletons born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET). Methods: A retrospective observational study included singleton births>22 weeks of gestation obtained after FET between 2013-2019 after endometrial preparation with ovulatory cycle (OC) or artificial cycle (AC). Our primary objective was to compare birthweight of singletons after FET between endometrial preparation by OC or AC. Secondary objectives included prolonged pregnancies, high birthweight, low birthweight, SGA and LGA rates. Multivariate analyses were performed considering potential confounding factors. Results: Among 198 singleton live births after FET, 112 were obtained with OC and 86 with AC. Prolonged pregnancies rate was higher in AC (25.6% vs. 7.1%, respectively, p=0.001). Mean birthweight was higher (+219g) in AC (3386g vs. 3167g, p=0.01; adjusted-p=0.052), as well as the rate of babies exceeding 4000g (16.3% vs. 2.7%, p=0.03, adjusted-p=0.015). The rate of babies <2500g was lower in AC (3.5% vs. 11.6%, respectively, p=0.050, adjusted-p=0.049). Conclusions: Since OC does not strain the chances of pregnancy and in the incomplete knowledge of the consequences of neonatal overweight on the future health of children, OC preparation could be advocated as first-line endometrial preparation in FET.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0509.v1
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:05:04 CET)
Otodus megalodon is known as the biggest shark ever alive and recent records show this species was only existed in America, Africa and Europe continents in the last Miocene period 20 million years ago (Ma). Recently, megalodon teeth have been discovered in South coast of West Java. Here this study aims to present and model the presence of O. megalodon. The length of the excavated tooth was ranging from 13 to 19 cm. The lithological analysis shows that the tooth was found in Miocene rock layers. Paleogeographic model shows that during Miocene southern parts of Java island were submerged including the recent locations where the megalodon tooth have been found. Half parts of the modeled West Java were an ocean with depth ranging from 0 to 200 m. High habitat use preferences by juvenile megalodon were estimated in the shelf (depth 0-40 m) with the size of 1365 km2 . Whereas habitat use preference by adult megalodon was low at this depth. Both juvenile and adult habitat use frequencies were low at a depth of between 80 m and 160 m. Habitat use preferences were increasing at a depth of > 200 m. After Miocene, the paleoclimate records show a decline in temperature and lead to the decline of whale population in ocean. The declining of megalodon’s prey explains the declining of this giant shark especially in post Miocene and early Pliocene periods.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: 18F-FDG PET/CT; contrast-enhanced CT; melanoma; metastases; tyrosine kinase inhibitors; Immune checkpoint inhibitors; follow-up; therapy monitoring
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:01:17 CET)
Aim To perform a comprehensive analysis of discordances between contrast-enhanced CT (ceCT) and 18F-FDG PET/CT in the evaluation of the extra-cerebral treatment monitoring in patients with stage IV melanoma. Materials and methods We conducted a retrospective monocentric observational study over a 3 years period in patients referred for 18F-FDG PET/CT and ceCT in the framework of therapy monitoring of immune checkpoint or tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ICIs or TKIs) as of January-2017. Imaging reports were analysed by two physicians in consensus. Anatomical site responsible for discordances, as well as induced changes in treatment were noted. Results Eighty patients were included and 195 couples of scans analysed. Overall, discordances occurred in 65 cases (33%). Eighty percent of the discordances (52/65) were due to 18F-FDG PET/CT scans upstaging the patient. Amongst these discordances, 17/52 (33%) led to change in patient’s management, the most frequent being radiotherapy of a progressing site. ceCT represented 13/65 (20%) of discordances and induced changes in patients’ management in 2/13 cases (15%). The more frequent anatomical site involved was subcutaneous for 18F-FDG PET/CT findings and lung or liver for ceCT. Conclusions Treatment monitoring with 18F-FDG
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0507.v1
Online: 25 January 2021 (14:53:39 CET)
The main focus of this paper is to analyze the effect of local public finance on spatial land use through economic models and empirical evidence from Israel. The theoretic models extends the Alonso-Mill-Muth model by incorporating local public finance. The first finding is that steady population growth provides a channel for land capitalization through the mechanism of long term land property right. This implies a possible conflict of interest if ownership of land leasing revenue and the ad valorem property tax are not consistent. The empirical section examines one of the implications derived from the models highlighting a possible inconsistency between central and local governments due to land ownership centralization. This causes local tax revenue inequality among Israeli municipalities. Statistical evidence shows that cities with a larger share business land use can generate more tax without assistance from the central government, and are therefore more fiscal independent. Fiscal status has a significant effect on the planning time of residential construction. Municipalities with higher local tax revenues have shorter planning time(higher probability of acceptance) conditional on the plan’s size and other features.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0181.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Miscanthus x giganteus; Miscanthus sinensis; Miscanthus robustus; Miscanthus nagara; lignin; monolignol ratio; low-input crops
Online: 25 January 2021 (14:51:06 CET)
Abstract: As a low-input crop, Miscanthus offers numerous advantages that, in addition to agricultural applications, permits its exploitation for energy, fuel, and material production. Depending on the Miscanthus genotype, season, and harvest time as well as plant component (leaf versus stem), correlations between structure and properties of the corresponding isolated lignins differ. Here, a comparative study is presented between lignins isolated from M. x giganteus, M. sinensis, M. robustus and M. nagara using a catalyst-free organosolv pulping process. The lignins from different plant constituents are also compared regarding their similarities and differences regarding monolignol ratio and important linkages. Results showed that the plant genotype has the weakest influence on monolignol content and interunit linkages. In contrast, structural differences are more significant among lignins of different harvest time and/or season. Analyses were performed using fast and simple methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Data was assigned to four different linkages (A: b-O-4 linkage, B: phenylcoumaran, C: resinol, D: b-unsaturated ester). In conclusion, A content is particularly high in leaf-derived lignins at just under 70 % and significantly lower in stem and mixture lignins at around 60 % and almost 65 %. The second most common linkage pattern is D in all isolated lignins, the proportion of which is also strongly dependent on the crop portion. Both stem and mixture lignins, have a relatively high share of approximately 20 % or more (maximum is M. sinensis Sin2 with over 30 %). In the leaf-derived lignins, the proportions are significantly lower on average. Stem samples should be chosen if the highest possible lignin content is desired, specifically from the M. x giganteus genotype, which revealed lignin contents up to 27 %. Due to the better frost resistance and higher stem stability, M. nagara offers some advantages compared to M. x giganteus. Miscanthus crops are shown to be very attractive lignocellulose feedstock (LCF) for second generation biorefineries and lignin generation in Europe.
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: urban baroque greenery; 17th-18th century; allée; Lower Silesia; preservation and renewal of heritage
Online: 25 January 2021 (14:50:59 CET)
The article is the first attempt to gather information on the beginnings of using green elements in urban compositions in Lower Silesia and border areas, in the former Neumark and Lusatia. It presents Baroque urban arrangements with the use of green ground floors, tree espaliers and avenues, from the earliest ones – occurring in the aftermath of the Thirty Years’ War – and the solutions applied in private municipalities in the Habsburg, Wettin and Hohenzollern states, which were recovering from war damage, to urban developments at the end of that period, in the areas already under Prussian rule and its strict regulations. A comparison with the achievements of Eu-ropean urban planning in this field allows us to trace the paths of inspiration, but also to uncover some innovative achievements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0504.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: z-transform; time-varying systems; time-varying difference equations; skew polynomial rings; extended Euclidean algorithm; fraction decomposition
Online: 25 January 2021 (14:50:14 CET)
A transform approach based on a variable initial time (VIT) formulation is developed for discrete-time signals and linear time-varying discrete-time systems or digital filters. The VIT transform is a formal power series in z^(-1) which converts functions given by linear time-varying difference equations into left polynomial fractions with variable coefficients, and with initial conditions incorporated into the framework. It is shown that the transform satisfies a number of properties that are analogous to those of the ordinary z-transform, and that it is possible to do scaling of z^(- i) by time functions which results in left-fraction forms for the transform of a large class of functions including sinusoids with general time-varying amplitudes and frequencies. Using the extended right Euclidean algorithm in a skew polynomial ring with time-varying coefficients, it is shown that a sum of left polynomial fractions can be written as a single fraction, which results in linear time-varying recursions for the inverse transform of the combined fraction. The extraction of a first-order term from a given polynomial fraction is carried out in terms of the evaluation of z^(i) at time functions. In the application to linear time-varying systems, it is proved that the VIT transform of the system output is equal to the product of the VIT transform of the input and the VIT transform of the unit-pulse response function. For systems given by a time-varying moving average or an autoregressive model, the transform framework is used to determine the steady-state output response resulting from various signal inputs such as the step and cosine functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0505.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Government; Citizen; Service Delivery; Integrated Statistical Management; Registration; Information
Online: 25 January 2021 (14:48:14 CET)
Statistical management policy and system plays significant role in development of any nation as it guides the planner to analyze the gaps, design programs and allocate budget in efficient manner. Globally, design and usage of statistical management system varies relying on country specific ability and resources availability. Government of Nepal has been managing database in individual as well as thematic manner. Policy wise, thematic database is in operation based on Statistics Act 1958 and individual database is in operation based on Birth, Death and Other Personal Related Events Registration Act 1976. Though civil registration related policies have been either updated or newly formed, sectoral statistic management related policy has not been updated since its first promulgation period (1958). With no policy supporting the consolidated statistical management system, government as well as non-government agencies has been investing millions of dollars annually to collect, compile and analyze individual related data and fulfill their respective objectives. It has forced the government services and performance to be paper-based, time-consuming and tedious thus creating dis-trust among citizen each passing day. Though, formulation of legal instrument promoted digital movement and mandated shift towards e-government modality, the process has been low. Theoretically, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) state the need of having advanced and efficient technology to be in place in current setting to improve governance, efficiency, accountability, transparency and trust. Also, the same theory state the requirement of strong willingness and motivation from the users (government, non-government and citizen) to adopt the technology based policy and system. As the integrated statistical management policy emphasizes on technology-based system or digital system, the perspectives of Technology Acceptance Model also termed as Information System Theory aid in understanding the context, conceptualizing and addressing the needs with an establishment and implementation of digital system or technology based system. This policy paper applied the Technology Acceptance Model (TAP) to examine the underlying opportunities and challenges associated with an integrated statistical management policy. With existing gaps in existing policy, system and practice alongside an overview of opportunities and challenges, this paper recommends the need of stand-alone integrated statistical management policy to consolidate sectoral as well as civil related information through single system based on recommended policy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0503.v1
Online: 25 January 2021 (14:15:20 CET)
Objectives: The mechanism of action of drugs that depress the central nervous system (CNS) was unknown until molecular pharmacology discovered each drug's exact role. The benefit of knowing the mechanism of action is to design a new drug that could have the same efficacy as the prototype drug but with fewer side effects. Some of the available CNS depressant drugs that were abused or illegally used could be modified to make them used medically. Methods: We reviewed various published articles in PubMed and Google Scholar that focused on CNS depressants' molecular pharmacology.Results: It was clear that at specific plasma concentrations of ethyl alcohol showed almost same mode of action of propofol by targeting the extrasynaptic GABA-A receptors, which causes tonic GABAergic inhibition. Besides, the High affinity of some benzodiazepines (e.g., midazolam) to α1 subunit of GABA-A receptor causes sedative, hypnotic, amnesic, and some antiepileptic effects; however, some other benzodiazepines (e.g., diazepam) have high affinity to α3 subunits, which causes anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, and strong antiepileptic effects. The CB1 receptor partial agonism effect of tetrahydrocannabinol has a sedative advantage over full agonism due to desensitization of CB1 receptors. Conclusion: From the molecular pharmacology prospect, it is possible to design new drugs with more specific CNS depressants effect and fewer side effects by targeting particular receptors with a precise reaction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0502.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Superstition; Scientific knowledge; Conflict; Traditional healers
Online: 25 January 2021 (14:11:54 CET)
Superstition is a belief that is not based on scientific knowledge. Traditional healers usually use superstition in their practices to manage human health problems and diseases; such practices create a conflict with the medical profession and its evidence-based practices. Medical professionals confirm that this kind of practice is not safe to human health as it is done by untrained people (e.g., tradition healers) utilizing unsterilized instruments within unhygienic environments. Most of the cases eventually develop a variety of complications, which are sometimes fatal. Female genital mutilation, uvulectomy, oral mutilation (tooth bud extraction to cure “Ibyinyo”), and eyebrow incisions are examples of the many different types of superstitious practices which occur commonly in different parts of the world. We described how these traditional practices of superstition have been and continue to be performed in various parts of the world, their complications on oral and general health, and the ways such practices hinder modern medical practices. This paper aims to increase the awareness of these superstition-driven traditional and potentially harmful practices by promoting the importance of evidence-based medical practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0501.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Timoshenko beam; rotary inertia; bending shear curvature natural frequency relationship; spring mass system vibration; closed-form solutions; first-order dynamic stiffness matrix; second-order vibration analysis
Online: 25 January 2021 (14:09:44 CET)
This study presents an analytical solution to the free vibration analysis of a uniform Timoshenko beam. The Timoshenko beam theory covers cases associated with small deflections based on shear deformation and rotary inertia considerations. A material law combining bending, shear, curvature, and natural frequency is presented. This complete study is based on this material law and closed-form solutions are found. The free vibration response of single-span systems, as well as that of spring-mass systems, is analyzed. Closed-form formulations of matrices expressing the boundary conditions are presented; the natural frequencies are determined by solving the eigenvalue problem. First-order dynamic stiffness matrices in local coordinates are determined. Finally, second-order analysis of beams resting on an elastic Winkler foundation is conducted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0500.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: origin of life; disspative structuring; prebiotic chemistry; abiogenisis; adenine
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:57:05 CET)
I describe the non-equilibrium thermodynamics and the photochemical mechanisms which may have been involved in the dissipative synthesis, proliferation, and evolution of the fundamental molecules at the origin of life from simpler and more common precursor molecules such as HCN, H2O and CO2 under the impressed UVC photon flux of the Archean. The fundamental molecules absorb strongly in this UVC region and exhibit strong coupling between their electronic excited and ground states which endows them with efficient photon disipative capacity (broad wavelength absorption and rapid radiationless dexcitation) suggestive of dissipative structuring. The autocatalytic nature of the synthesized molecules in dissipating the same photochemical potential that directed their synthesis leads to their proliferation. The non-linearity in the photochemical and chemical reaction rates provides numerous stationary states which can be reached by amplification of a molecular concentration fluctuation near a bifurcation, promoting the system into states of generally higher photon disspative efficacy. An example is given of the UV photochemical dissipative structuring, proliferation, and evolution of molecules on route to the nucleobase adenine from the common precursor molecules HCN and H2O occurring within a fatty acid vesicle. The kinetic equations are resolved under different environmental conditions, providing a non-equilibrium thermodynamic analysis of the appearance of an early important molecule for the origin of life.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0499.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Mach's Universe; Planck scale; Cosmic Angular velocity; Galactic applications; shortened radius; shortened age;
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:46:20 CET)
Unification point of view, quantum cosmology must be given a priority and one should make a note that, Spin is a basic property of quantum physics and rotation is a very common experience. In this context, we have developed a quantum model of cosmology associated with Machian universe having Planck scale origin, total dark matter, light speed rotation and equality of gravitational self energy density and thermal energy density. We would like to appeal that, observed cosmic radius and age seem to be shortened by 146.3 times their actual magnitudes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0287.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: ABCB1; bortezomib; CXCR4; gene expression; MAF; MARCKS; multiple myeloma; mRNA; POMP; PSMB5; refractory; RPL5; TXN; XBP1; sensitive
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:17:31 CET)
Proteasome inhibitors, like bortezomib, play a key role in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM); however, most patients eventually relapse and eventually show multiple drug resistance, and the molecular mechanisms of this resistance remain unclear. The present study examines the expression of previously-described genes that may influence resistance to bortezomib treatment at the mRNA level (ABCB1, CXCR4, MAF, MARCKS, POMP, PSMB5, RPL5, TXN and XBP1). mRNA expression was determined in 73 MM patients treated with bortezomib-based regimens (30 bortzomib-sensitive and 43 bortezomib-refractory patients) and 11 healthy controls. RPL5 was significantly down-regulated in multiple myeloma patients as compared with healthy controls. Moreover, POMP was significantly up-regulated in MM patients refractory to bortezomib-based treatment. In multivariate analysis, high expression of PSMB5 and CXCR and autologous stem cell transplantation were independent predictors of progression-free survival, and high expression of POMP and RPL5 was associated with shorter overall survival.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0498.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: children; resilience; disaster; behavior; school; factor
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:10:04 CET)
Annually, millions of people (including children) across the world face minor to severe impact from natural or human-induced disasters. Diverse models have been conceptualized and adopted at global scale to increase resiliency of children from disasters focusing on preparedness, response and recover. As children spend most of their lives at school or at home, this paper discusses on factors contributing towards improving or degrading resiliency of children from disasters. Giving low priority to institutional resilience, this paper highlights the behavioral aspects of children which becomes their strength on demonstrating appropriate practices to mitigate disaster risks on self at school, home and community. While doing so, attributes from Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior has been linked with the components of resilience to explain the causative factors. Adopting desk review, this paper describes behavioral attributes of children and emphasizes on need of having multi-dimensional framework to enhance resiliency of children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0497.v1
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:08:05 CET)
Producing complex shaped tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) tools by classical technologies is difficult and often impossible due to their high hardness and brittle fracture behavior. Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a suitable technology for creating complex structures and simultaneously shortening expensive machining processes. Binder Jetting (BJ) is an innovative AM technology that offers several advantages over laser-based processes, for example low manufacturing costs and high build-up rates. Binders with nanoparticle additives have already proven to be effective in in- creasing the packing density of the powder bed and improving the sintering properties. Addition- ally, they offer the possibility of selectively changing the material composition in the part. This paper presents a concept for the use of nanoparticles to generate gradients in the green compact, which leads to a cobalt gradient in the part after sintering. The possibility of introducing particles locally into complex structures allows local modification of the material properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0496.v1
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:05:26 CET)
Understanding the equilibrium saturation level is crucial to Binder Jetting (BJ). Saturation level influences dimensional accuracy, print time, green strength, and final material properties. Improved understanding of the saturation level can reduce development time for new materials and improve existing processes in BJ. Attempts have been made to predict saturation levels of parts with simple calculations from droplet primitives and capillary pressure. There is, however, limited experimental validation for these methods and they do not include the impact of drop velocity and droplet spacing. This study incorporates the influences of drop velocity and droplet spacing on the saturation level of the part. Drop primitives of varying droplet velocity and droplet spacing were compared. Results show that velocity impacts the feasible parameter space.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0495.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Sulforaphane; Alcohol; Burkholderia; Binge drinking; MHS cells; Melioidosis
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:03:02 CET)
Binge drinking is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of pneumonic melioidosis can occur in healthy humans; however, binge alcohol intoxication is a major risk factor. Previous findings indicate that a single binge alcohol episode increases Burkholderia spp. infection by reducing alveolar macrophage function. The aim of this study was to test the ability of the phytonutrient sulforaphane (SFN) to rescue the phagocytic function of alveolar macrophages when infected with Burkholderia spp. in vitro. B. thailandensis E264 was used as a useful BSL-1 model to determine the effects of SFN pre-treatment. The primary outcome was macrophage phagocytic killing, while the secondary outcome was the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like (Nrf2) signaling response measured by western blot analysis. Results indicate that alveolar macrophages pre-treated with SFN (5 M) and challenged with 0.2% (v/v) alcohol for 3 or 8 h prior to live B. thailandensis infection improved intracellular killing of B. thailandensis ~2-fold compared to MH-S cells treated with alcohol alone. These data demonstrate that SFN may be an effective pre-treatment option to prevent alcohol mediated immune dysfunction and restore macrophage phagocytic killing of Burkholderia spp. and other similar opportunistic pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0494.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: preparation; molybdenum target; sputtered film; microstructure; grain orientation
Online: 25 January 2021 (12:48:45 CET)
Abstract: Molybdenum (Mo) thin films were sputtered from two kinds of Mo targets with different microstructures under the same sputtering process, and the effect of microstructure of Mo target on morphology, deposition rate and resistance of sputtered film were studied and discussed. The results show that morphological differences between Mo thin films sputtered by Mo targets with different microstructures are very small. The more uniform and finer the grain structures of Mo target, the better the uniformity on thickness and resistance of Mo sputtered film. Moreover, during sputtering process, when Mo target’s grain size is finer and the surface area of grain boundary is higher, the thickness reduction of the target is more homogeneous and the sputtering film has faster deposition velocity. The difference in microstructure of the Mo target has not obvious influence on the grain orientation of sputtering film.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0493.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: cartography; seismic waves; subsurface; ambient noise survey
Online: 25 January 2021 (12:41:22 CET)
The cartographic cum site-effectuated view of Shillong region of northeast India is presented here. Starting from the existing tectonics, the prevalent geological settings of the study area is comprehensively delineated. The seismic prone area is further overviewed in the context of site effects with accompaniment of available borehole information. The resonance frequency estimates form ambient noise survey along with receiver functions are outlined which implicates a heterogeneous subsurface. This further helps in segregating the region into two compelling profiles, thereby enabling us to get a deeper insight in the probable subsurface as well as heterogeneity. Eventually, the influence of topography over strata was also highlighted and interpreted as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0492.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: innovative systems; ground motion; steel frame; nonlinear analysis; viscous damper
Online: 25 January 2021 (12:40:53 CET)
This study addresses an alternative use of viscous dampers (VDs) associated with buckling restrained braces (BRBs) as the innovative seismic protection devices. For this, 4, 8 and 12 storey steel frames were designed with 6.5 m equal span length and 4 m storey height. Thereafter, the VDs and BRBs were placed over the height of each frame considering three different configurations. The structures were modeled using SAP2000 finite element program and evaluated by the nonlinear time history analyses subjected to the six natural accelerograms (1976 Gazlı, 1978 Tabas, 1987 Superstition Hills, 1992 Cape Mendocino, 1994 Northridge and 1999 Chi-Chi). The structural response of the structures with and without VDs and BRBs were studied in terms of variation in the displacement, interstorey drift, absolute acceleration, maximum base shear, time history of roof displacement. The results clearly indicated that the application of VDs and BRBs had remarkable improvement in the earthquake performance of the case study frames by reducing the local/global deformations in the main structural systems and satisfied the serviceability.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: single particle tracking; single molecule biophysics; fluorescence
Online: 25 January 2021 (12:26:31 CET)
Single particle tracking (SPT) is a powerful class of methods for studying the dynamics of biomolecules inside living cells. The techniques reveal the trajectories of individual particles, with a resolution well below the diffraction limit of light, and from them the parameters defining the motion model, such as diffusion coefficients and confinement lengths. Most existing algorithms assume these parameters are constant throughout an experiment. However, it has been demonstrated that they often vary with time as the tracked particles move through different regions in the cell or as conditions inside the cell change in response to stimuli. In this work, we propose an estimation algorithm to determine time-varying parameters of systems that discretely switch between different linear models of motion with Gaussian noise statistics, covering dynamics such as diffusion, directed motion, and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck dynamics. Our algorithm consists of three stages. In the first stage, we use a sliding window approach, combined with Expectation Maximization (EM) to determine maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters as a function of time. These results are only used to roughly estimate the number of model switches that occur in the data to guide the selection of algorithm parameters in the second stage. In the second stage, we use change detection (CD) techniques to identify where the models switch, taking advantage of the off-line nature of the analysis of SPT data to create non-causal algorithms with better precision than a purely causal approach. Finally, we apply EM to each set of data between the change points to determine final parameter estimates. We demonstrate our approach using experimental data generated in the lab under controlled conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0490.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: CD44; Cancer Stem Cells; Tumorigenesis; Drug Resistance; Immune Markers; Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition; Therapeutic Targeting
Online: 25 January 2021 (12:23:49 CET)
One of the most used markers of cancer stem cells in several cancers, including colorectal cancer and breast cancer, is CD44. CD44 is a glycoprotein that traverses the cell membrane and binds to many ligands including hyaluronan resulting in activation of signaling cascades. Several reports have shown conflicting data on the expression of CD44 and that the expression depends on modes of investigations and subtypes of cancers. In addition, the correlation between CD44 expression and drug resistance, immune infiltration, EMT, metastasis and patients prognosis in several cancer types remains unclear. This study investigated CD44 expression in several cancers and explored its relationship with tumorigenesis using various publicly available databases, including The Cancer Genome Atlas, GEPIA, Oncomine, Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer and Tumor Immune Estimation Resource. Our analysis reveals that CD44 is differentially expressed in different cancers. CD44 expression is significantly associated with cancer patients’ survival in gastric, pancreatic and colorectal cancers. In addition, CD44 expression is closely linked with immune infiltration and immune suppressive features in pancreatic, colon adenocarcinoma and stomach cancer. High CD44 expression was significantly correlated with the expression of drug resistance-, EMT- and metastasis- linked genes. Tumors expressing high CD44 have higher mutation burden and afflict older patients than tumors expressing low CD44. Cell lines expressing high CD44 are more resistant to anti-cancer drugs compared to those expressing low CD44. Protein-protein interaction investigations and functional enrichment analysis showed that CD44 interacts with gene products related to cell-substrate adhesion, migration, platelet activation, and cellular response to stress. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that these genes play key roles in biological adhesion, cell component organization, locomotion, G-α-signaling and the response to stimulus. Overall, this investigation reveals that CD44 play significant roles in tumorigenesis, can be used as a prognostic biomarker in several cancers and can be therapeutically targeted in cancer therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0489.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Kaluza-Klein theory; Relativistic wave equation; Aharonov-Bohm eﬀect.
Online: 25 January 2021 (12:23:12 CET)
In this paper, we solve KG-oscillator in the ﬁve-dimensional cosmic string space-time background with a uniform magnetic ﬁeld and quantum ﬂux subject to a scalar potential of Cornell-type using KaluzaKlein theory, and observe the gravitational analogue of the AharonovBohm eﬀect. We show that the energy eigenvalue and eigenfunction depends on the global parameters of the space-time, and also a quantum eﬀect is seen due to the dependence of magnetic ﬁeld on the quantum numbers of the system
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