ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0077.v1
Subject: Agricultural Science And Agronomy, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: drought, phenology, quality, sap flow, viticulture
Online: 2 October 2023 (16:49:24 CEST)
Material and methods. The trial was carried out over two years in Southern Italy. Two grapevine rootstocks, 110R and SO4, were compared to evaluate the water extraction ability from the soil and the effect on the yield and quality of the Cardinal grapevine table cultivar. Therefore, a new approach to plant water consumption based on sap flow was adopted. Results. The earlier and faster water refilling of the xylem in Cardinal onto 110R (C/110R) appears responsible for the earlier evolution of the phenological phases than Cardinal onto SO4 (C/SO4). The maximum length of the principal shoot was reached in Cardinal/110R compared to C/SO4, while a higher number of lateral shoots with lower internode has changed canopy architecture and light distribution in C/SO4. The 110R used more water compared to SO4; it was possible to quantify the real transpired flux of the plant per day: sap flow was 12.3 L.plant-1.d-1 and 11.7 L.plant-1d-1 in C/110R in the first and second year, respectively, while it was 14% lower in alternative graft combination. Conclusions. However, C/SO4 was able to sustain leaf water status and physiological mecha-nisms, although with lesser performance than C/110R, but that did not cause negative effects on production parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0081.v1
Subject: Agricultural Science And Agronomy, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: chemical composition; Megathyrsus maximus; morphogenesis; organic hydrogel; planting gel; polymers; synthetic hydrogel.
Online: 2 October 2023 (16:48:28 CEST)
Hydrogels are water-absorbing polymers that can hydrate forage plants in the soil. The objec-tive was to evaluate the replacement of synthetic hydrogels derived from petroleum by biode-gradable hydrogels in Mombaça grass pastures (Megathyrsus maximum). The experimental treat-ments consisted of: No hydrogel (NH); Synthetic commercial hydrogel (CH), made from a syn-thetic polyacrylamide product; and Biodegradable test hydrogel (TH), obtained from cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale). The experimental design was randomized blocks with five replica-tions and three treatments. Morphogenesis, production, chemical and mineral composition of the Mombaça grass pasture were assessed. The data was subjected to analysis of variance and mean comparison by the Snott-Knott test at 5% probability. Leaf elongation rate was 42.3 mm day-1 in the TH treatment, which was higher (P<0.05) than NH (35.0 mm day-1). Green leaf mass yield was higher in TH in comparison to NH and CH. On the other hand, there was no effect of hydration on chemical composition. The mineral composition of Mombaça grass showed more Zn when TH was used. It can be concluded that biodegradable hydrogels can replace synthetic commercial hydrogels in pastures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0075.v1
Subject: Remote Sensing, Environmental And Earth Sciences Keywords: Vegetation indexes; GOSIF; GPP; Drought events; Inner Mongolia grassland
Online: 2 October 2023 (15:07:22 CEST)
Drought poses a significant environmental risk and can deeply affect the growth of grasslands. However, there is still uncertainty regarding the precise impact of varying levels of drought on grassland growth. To address this gap, we utilized several key indicators, including the Nor-malized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), the Global Or-biting Carbon Observatory-2 based Solar-induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence (GOSIF), and the Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), in conjunction with drought indices (the Standardized Precip-itation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and the soil moisture (SM). Our study aimed to compre-hensively assess the consistency of spatio-temporal patterns in grassland vegetation and its re-sponsiveness to different drought levels in the Inner Mongolia region from 2002 to 2020. Results indicated that NDVI, EVI, GOSIF, and GPP in grassland vegetation across Inner Mongolia exhibited significant increasing trends from 2002 to 2020. Specifically, NDVI, EVI, GOSIF, and GPP all dis-played consistent spatial patterns, with 25.83%, 21.18%, 22.65% and 48.13% of the grassland area showing significant increases, respectively. Drought events, as described by SPEI and SM, in June 2007 to September 2007 and June 2017 to July 2017, were selected to evaluated the response of grassland vegetation to drought. The drought events of 2007 and 2017 resulted in reductions in NDVI, EVI, GOSIF, and GPP relative to multi-year average (2002-2020). GOSIF exhibited a more intense response to drought, suggesting that GOSIF may reflect the inhibition of water stress on grassland photosynthesis better than NDVI and EVI during drought in 2007 and 2017. The reduc-tions in NDVI, EVI, GOSIF and GPP in grassland increased significantly across different drought-levels, with the sharpest reductions observed during extreme drought. Under the severe and extreme drought events, the most substantial reductions in NDVI, EVI, GOSIF, and GPP were observed in the temperate steppe (TS). Moreover, the effects of different drought severity levels within the same grassland type varied, with the most significant reductions in NDVI, EVI, GOSIF and GPP observed during extreme drought. Our results provide new perspectives for developing and implementing effective strategies to address grassland carbon cycling management and climate change in Inner Mongolia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0068.v1
Subject: Biochemistry And Molecular Biology, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: Keap1; electrophile; RES; Nrf2; Wdr1
Online: 2 October 2023 (12:05:15 CEST)
Keap1 is associated with cytoprotective signaling. These roles of Keap1 typically focus on its role as a degrader of the antioxidant response (AR) transcription factor, Nrf2, and the inhibition of this process upon Keap1 labeling by electrophiles. However, work from several laboratories has reemphasized both the important role of Nrf2 binding in negatively regulating AR, and the fact that electrophile Keap1 modification dissociates Nrf2 from Keap1. This model appears to be applicable to other signaling modes regulated by Keap1. Here we use recent data we have derived using experiments in zebrafish and cultured cells to discuss different models of Keap1 regulation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0064.v1
Subject: Food Science And Technology, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: organic foods; food safety; obesity; cancer; biodiversity; climate change; organic farming
Online: 2 October 2023 (12:02:11 CEST)
In recent years, organic agriculture has gained more popularity, yet its approach to food production and its potential impact on consumers’ health and various environmental aspects remain to be fully discovered. The goal of organic farming practices is to maintain soil health, sustain ecological systems, maintain fairness in its relationship with the environment and protect the environment in its entirety. Various health benefits have been associated with higher consumption of organic foods. This review identified some of these health benefits including a reduction in obesity and body mass index (BMI), improvements in blood nutrient composition as well as a reduction in maternal obesity and pregnancy-associated preeclampsia risk. Furthermore, organic food consumption can reduce the development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and colorectal cancers. Upon reviewing existing literature regarding the nutritional value of organic foods, it was found that organic food contained higher levels of iron, magnesium, and vitamin C. However, the evidence available to draw definitive generalizations remains limited. In this review, we provided essential insights to support sustainable organic farming and highlighted the potential of organic food consumption that could play a pivotal role in positively impacting human health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0057.v1
Subject: Sustainable Science And Technology, Environmental And Earth Sciences Keywords: Scientific mapping; greenhouse effect; renewable energy; energy generation; forecasting; review
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:59:51 CEST)
Higher concentrations of greenhouse gases resulting from anthropogenic actions associated with energy generation are one of the causes of climate change. In view of this, several efforts have been undertaken in the search for more sustainable alternatives, and photovoltaic (PV) technology has stood out among the different possibilities. However, PV generation is highly sensitive to future climate variability, which is a source of uncertainty that can complicate energy planning and compromise the viability of systems. This theme has received attention from the academic community, but some challenges to map and identify relevant literature have been encountered. Therefore, this study was conducted to analyze and identify relevant aspects of international scientific production on the impacts of climate change on the potential of photovoltaic production, CC-PVP, through bibliometric techniques. For this, 3900 articles from the Web of Science and Scopus databases, published between 1960 and 2021, were retrieved and analyzed through a bibliometric approach, using the SciMAT tool. Among the results obtained, it is worth pointing out that the CC-PVP research field (i) has moderate maturity, (ii) is concentrated in the areas of energy, fuels and technology, as well as environmental sciences and meteorology, (iii) has the most studied themes currently related to energy and the forecasting of photovoltaic energy production and electric energy consumption in the world, especially when considering climate change, and (iv) is more researched by Chinese, North Americans and Australians.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0045.v1
Subject: Immunology And Allergy, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Allergic rhinitis; asthma; symptoms; perception; visual analog scale
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:57:22 CEST)
Background: Patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) have bothersome symptoms that may assess using the visual analog scale (VAS). Asthma frequently is associated with AR. The present study investigated the role of VAS in children with newly-diagnosed AR. Methods: Parameters were VAS for nasal and asthma symptoms, and doctor’s perception of these diseases, medication use, and asthma comorbidity. Results: 67% of AR children had asthma. Severity of perceived nasal symptoms was associated with more intense asthma symptoms and doctor’s perception of disease severity (p<0.001 and p=0.02, re-spectively. Conclusions: Allergic rhinitis frequently is associated with asthma in child-hood. Symptom perception assessment using VAS is a simple tool for assessing their intensity. Moreover, the severity of nasal symptoms is associated with asthma symptom severity. Therefore, asthma should be carefully considered in AR children and require appropriate symptom perception assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0046.v1
Subject: Virology, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: HIV+ older patients; ART; tat sequences; genetic diversity; CTL epitopes
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:55:01 CEST)
Despite advancements in antiretroviral therapy (ART) that reduces the viral load to undetectable levels, viral eradication has not been achieved due to HIV-1 persistence in resting CD4+ T-cells. We, therefore, characterized the tat gene, which is essential for HIV-1 replication, from 20 viro-logically controlled HIV-infected (HIV+) older patients on long-term ART with improved CD4+ T-cell counts. PBMC genomic DNA from HIV+ patients were used to amplify tat gene by PCR fol-lowed by nucleotide sequencing and analysis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that each patient’s tat sequences were confined to their own subtrees and well discriminated from other patients’ sequences. Moreover, there was a low degree of viral heterogeneity and lower estimates of genetic diversity within these patients’ tat sequences. Most patients’ Tat deduced amino acid sequences showed intact open reading frames and maintained the important functional domains for Tat functions, including transactivation, TAR binding and nuclear localization. Furthermore, Tat deduced amino acid sequences showed variation in previously characterized cytotoxic T lym-phocytes (CTL) epitopes, suggesting escape mutants. In conclusion, a low degree of genetic varia-bility and conservation of functional domains and variations in CTL epitopes were the features of tat sequences from 20 HIV+ older patients with undetectable viral load on long-term ART.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0002.v1
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:26:58 CEST)
During periods of armed conflict, civilians face an elevated likelihood of encountering traumatic events, heightening their susceptibility to mental health disorders such as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The severity of an individual's response to trauma is often modulated by both the degree of exposure to traumatic incidents and specific personal attributes. This study aims to explore the relationship between PTSD symptoms and a range of variables, including the frequency of exposure to missile alerts, individual characteristics, and socio-economic factors. The research focuses on Israeli civilians affected by rocket attacks launched by Hamas during the Israeli military operation "Guardian of the Walls" in May 2021. Our empirical analysis reveals that individuals with limited exposure to missile attacks, those belonging to larger familial units, and those possessing higher educational and income levels are generally less susceptible to post-traumatic symptoms. Data for this study were collected through comprehensive surveys that captured demographic details and employed specialized questionnaires to assess the prevalence and severity of post-traumatic symptoms. These insights have significant implications for the development of targeted preventative measures aimed at reducing the risk of PTSD among at-risk populations. Moreover, they underscore the necessity of incorporating socio-economic considerations into the provision of mental health services for communities affected by violent conflict and trauma.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2173.v1
Subject: Endocrinology And Metabolism, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: Glycemic control, Hyperglycemia, Exercise protocols, Exercise timing, Metabolic disorders
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:25:12 CEST)
Studies investigating the acute effect of postprandial exercise (PPE) on glucose responses exhibit significant heterogeneity in terms of participant demographic, exercise protocol, and exercise timing post-meal. As such, this study aimed to further analyze the existing literature on the impact of PPE on glycemic control in individuals with overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Literature search was conducted through databases including PubMed, CINAHL, and Google Scholar. Thirty-one original research studies that met the inclusion criteria were selected. The random-effect meta-analysis was performed to compare postprandial glucose area under the curve (AUC) and 24-h mean glucose levels between PPE and the time-matched no-exercise control (CON). Subgroup analysis was conducted to explore whether the glucose-lowering effect of PPE could be influenced by exercise duration, exercise timing post-meal, and disease status of participants. This study revealed significantly reduced glucose AUC (Hedges’ g = -0.317; SE = 0.057; p < 0.05) and 24-hour mean glucose levels (Hedges’ g = -0.328; SE = 0.062; p < 0.05) following PPE than CON. The reduction in glucose AUC was greater (p < 0.05) following PPE lasting >30 min than ≤30 min. The reduction in 24-hour mean glucose levels was also greater (p < 0.05) following PPE initiated ≥60 min than <60 min post-meal and in those with T2D than those without T2D. PPE offers a viable approach for glucose management and can be performed in various forms so long as exercise duration is sufficient. The glucose-lowering effect of PPE may be further enhanced by initiating it after the first hour post-meal. PPE represents a promising strategy, particularly for patients with T2D.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2176.v1
Subject: Psychology, Social Sciences Keywords: Child sexual abuse; Social Networking; Social Support.
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:24:03 CEST)
This research mapped significant social networks of victims of childhood sexual abuse, identifying relationships between childhood trauma and social bonds in adult life. Ten adult women, aged between 20 and 40 years, in psychiatric care for the consequences of trauma suffered in childhood participated in the research. For data collection, the map of significant social networks was used and analyzed through the structure, functions and attributes of the bonds. The network is composed of people from the Friendship, Family, Community, Work/Study and Health Teams group. The networks of friendships, family, co-workers or studies play a predominant role of emotional support, while the Health Teams also offer emotional support, but primarily provide clinical support in overcoming trauma and its consequences. The network of relationships has specific functions that maintain psychosocial integrity and help women to overcome the abuse suffered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2171.v1
Subject: Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Tixagevimab/Cilgavimab, kidney transplantation, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Kraken variant, XBB.1.5, pre-exposure prophylaxis, immunosuppressed patients
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:22:50 CEST)
Pre-exposure prophylaxis for COVID-19 with Tixagevimab/Cilgavimab in immunocompromised patients has reduced the risk of breakthrough infection, disease, hospitalization, and COVID-19 related mortality. However, the advent of the Kraken variant (XBB.1.5) has limited the use of this monoclonal antibody, based on poor efficacy in in vitro studies The objective of the study was to evaluate the risk of breakthrough infection, symptomatic disease, hospitalization, intensive care admission and COVID-19 related death in kidney transplanted recipients receiving pre-exposure prophylaxis with Tixagevimab/Cilgavimab for COVID-19 in the era of the Kraken variant (XBB.1.5). In a prospective, observational study, we enrolled kidney transplant patients undergoing pre-exposure prophylaxis for COVID-19 with Tixagevimab/Cilgavimab at the Division of Infectious Diseases of Federico II University of Naples between February 2023 and August 2023. Each patient subsequently underwent a six-month follow-up with symptom monitoring and surveillance nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection every 30 days, regardless of symptoms. Thirty-four kidney transplant patients were enrolled and in the follow-up period, only one tested positive for the nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 research with asymptomatic infection and virological recovery on the eighth day from the diagnosis of infection. Therefore, no patient developed disease and no patient needed hospitalization and no death occurred. No adverse drug reaction to Tixagevimab/Cilgavimab occurred. Our data, although derived from a limited and uncontrolled sample, show the potential of Tixagevimab/Cilgavimab as a valid and viable therapeutic strategy in pre-exposure prophylaxis for immunocompromised patients. These findings highlight the importance of conducting clinical studies on this topic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2172.v1
Subject: Optics And Photonics, Physical Sciences Keywords: nonlinear optics; difference frequency generation; mid-infrared laser; DPSS laser; linear cavity
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:20:39 CEST)
We report a diode pumped solid state (DPSS) laser used for intracavity pump-enhanced difference frequency generation (DFG) to create a 3.5 micron laser. Using a 50 mm-long periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal inside the cavity of an Nd:YVO4 solid state laser at 1064 nm with 4.5 W pump power at 808 nm, and a 310 mW C-band signal at 1529 nm, up to 31 mW of mid-infrared output power at 3499 nm is obtained. The cavity requires no active stabilization and/or locking, and the entire cavity is <8 cm in length. The obtained output power corresponds to a black box efficiency of 2.20 %W-1, which is the highest value reported to date for continuous wave DFG based on a bulk nonlinear optical crystal with no active stabilization. Potential future applications in free space optical communication are discussed as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2178.v1
Subject: Biochemistry And Molecular Biology, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: leucyl-aminopeptidase; Bacillus cereus; expression; homology modeling; molecular docking
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:18:37 CEST)
Leucyl-aminopeptidase (LAP), an important metallopeptidase, hydrolyses amino acid residues from the N-terminal of polypeptides and proteins, acting preferentially on the peptide bond formed by N- terminus leucine. A new leucyl-aminopeptidase was found in Bacillus cereus CZ. Its gene (bclap) contained a 1485 bp ORF encoding 494 amino acids with a molecular weight of 54 kDa. The bcLAP protein was successfully expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3). Optimal activity is obtained at pH 9.0 and 58°C. The bcLAP displays a moderate thermostability and an alkaline pH adaptation range. Enzymatic activity is dramatically enhanced by Ni2+. EDTA significantly inhibits the enzymatic activity, and bestatin and SDS also show strong inhibition. The three-dimensional model of bcLAP monomer and homohexamer is simulated by Phyre2 server and SWISS-MODEL server. The docking of bestatin, Leu-Trp, Asp-Trp and Ala-Ala-Gly to bcLAP is performed using AutoDock4.2.5 , respectively. Molecular docking results show that the residues Lys260, Asp265, Lys272, Asp283, Asp342, Glu344, Arg346, Gly372, His437 are involved in the hydrogen bonding with the ligands and zinc ions. There may be two nucleophilic catalytic mechanisms in bcLAP, one involving His 437 or Arg346 and the other involving His437 and Arg346. The bcLAP can hydrolyse the peptide bonds in Leu-Trp, Leu-Trp and Ala-Ala-Gly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2170.v1
Subject: Water Science And Technology, Environmental And Earth Sciences Keywords: antecedent rainfall; lag time; rainfall event; extreme rainfall; garden land expansion; red hilly area in China
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:16:37 CEST)
Abstract: rainfall is the main driver of soil erosion. With the daily rainfall, riverine flow discharge and sediment load in the upper Lianjiang River watershed from 1990 to 2020, extreme rainfall events were defined by the 95th percentile method and minimum event interval time (MIT), change trends and mutations of yearly rainfall, riverine flow discharge and sediment load were identified using the Mann-Kendall test, then the optimum lag response time and antecedent rainfall were investigated with the multiple linear regression. The results showed that (1) the sediment changed significantly and abruptly in 1995 due to the expansion of the garden land. (2) Compared with ordinary rainfall, extreme rainfall events explained more variations of riverine flow and sediment with a higher degree, and had a more significant effect on the lag time of runoff and sediment. (3) Garden land expansion in extreme rainfall scenarios resulted in longer lag times for runoff and sediment and decreased demand for antecedent rainfall with more pre-event time. Therefore, taking the rainfall event as a breakthrough, analyzing the antecedent rainfall and the lag response of riverine flow discharge and sediment load is conducive to revealing the response mechanism of riverine flow discharge and sediment load and improving the simulation accuracy of riverine flow and sediment under extreme rainfall condition, thus help for the soil erosion control under extreme rainfall.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2174.v1
Subject: Dentistry And Oral Surgery, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Cleft palate; Apnea Hypopnea Index; out-of-center sleep testing (OCST); respiratory event index (REI)
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:14:14 CEST)
Sleep-disordered breathing affects the growth and development, mental aspect, and learning ability of affected children. Postoperative scarring causes anteroposterior and vertical develop-mental disorders of the maxilla. Obstructive apnea is likely to occur due to the influence on the maxillofacial and airway morphology. In this study, we investigated the sleep-respiratory dynamics of school-aged children with unilateral cleft lip and palate by performing a simple over-night sleep study, maxillofacial morphology and airway analysis using lateral cranial radiographs, and model analysis. Children with unilateral cleft lip and palate showed a significantly higher respiratory event index (REI) than normal children; the maxilla was located in the posterior position in terms of maxillofacial morphology, and airway morphology showed narrow values for all distance measurement items. Moreover, the width and length of the dental arch and the width of the alveolar base arch were significantly smaller. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between REI and SNA, ANB, REI, and alveolar base arch width. Children with unilateral cleft lip and palate are more likely than normal children to develop sleep-disordered breathing due to in-creased airway resistance caused by undergrowth of the maxilla and narrowing of the upper airway and oral volume.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0050.v1
Subject: Agricultural Science And Agronomy, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: Beneficial microorganisms, Crop improvement, Plant-microbe interactions, Biofertilizers, Symbiotic relationships
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:12:30 CEST)
This review article explores the significance of beneficial microorganisms in crop improvement, highlighting their roles in promoting plant growth, enhancing nutrient uptake, and protecting against pathogens. The symbiotic interactions between plants and microorganisms have been extensively studied, revealing the vast potential of these beneficial partnerships in sustainable agriculture. The article discusses various types of beneficial microorganisms, including mycorrhizal fungi, rhizobia, and plant growth-promoting bacteria, elucidating their mechanisms of action and their impact on plant health and productivity. Furthermore, it examines the application of microbial inoculants and biofertilizers in crop production systems, emphasizing their potential to enhance crop yield, nutrient use efficiency, and stress tolerance. The review also explores emerging technologies, such as metagenomics and synthetic biology, in harnessing the full potential of beneficial microorganisms for crop improvement. Overall, we highlight the importance of beneficial microorganisms in sustainable agriculture and provide insights into their promising applications in crop enhancement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0052.v1
Subject: Neuroscience And Neurology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Molecular mimicry; immune tolerance; autoimmune disorders; central nervous system.
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:10:40 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2 can trigger autoimmune central nervous system (CNS) diseases in genetically susceptible individuals, a mechanism poorly understood. Molecular mimicry (MM) has been identified in other viral diseases as potential triggers of autoimmune CNS events. This study investigated if MM is the process through which SARS-CoV-2 induce the breakdown of immune tolerance. The frequency of autoimmune CNS disorders was evaluated in a prospective cohort with patients admitted in the COVID-19 Intense Care Unity (ICU) in Rio de Janeiro. Then, an in silico analysis was performed to identify the conserved regions which share high identity between SARS-Cov-2 anti-gens and human proteins. The sequences with significant identity and antigenic properties were then assessed for their binding capacity to HLA subtypes. Of the 112 patients included, 3 were classified as having an autoimmune disorder. A total of eleven combinations had significant linear and three-dimensional overlap. NMDAR1, MOG and MPO were the self-antigens with more significant combinations, followed by GAD65. All sequences presented at least one epitope with strong or intermediate binding capacity to the HLA subtypes selected. This study underscores the possibility that CNS autoimmune attacks observed in COVID-19 patients, including those in our population, could be driven by MM in genetically predisposed individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0055.v1
Subject: Neuroscience And Neurology, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: SORL1, mutations, secretases, bAPP, Ab peptides, C-terminal fragments, neprilysin, proteasome, degradation, cellular localization, transient and stable expressions.
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:08:13 CEST)
SORL1 gene encodes LR11/SorLA, a protein that binds -amyloid precursor protein (bAPP) and drives its intracellular trafficking. SORL1 mutations occurring frequently in a subset of familial cases of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have been documented but their pathogenic potential is not yet clear and questions remain concerning their putative influence on the physiopathological processing of bAPP. We have assessed the influence of three SORL1 mutations that were described as likely disease-causing and that were associated with either benign (SorLA924) or severe (SorLA141 and SorLA511) AD phenotypes. We examined the influence of wild-type and mutants SorLA in transiently transfected HEK293 cells expressing either wild-type or Swedish mutated bAPP on bAPP expression, secreted Ab and sAPPa levels, intracellular Ab40 and Ab42 peptides, APP-CTFs (C99 and C83) expressions, a-, b- and g-secretases expressions and activities as well as Ab and CTFs-degrading enzymes. These paradigms were studied in control conditions or after pharmacological proteasomal modulation. We also established stably transfected CHO cells expressing wild-type SorLA and established the colocalization of wild-type SorLA and bAPP. Overall, although we mostly confirmed previous data concerning the influence of wild-type SorLA on bAPP processing, we were unable to evidence significant alterations triggered by our set of SorLA mutants, whatever the cells or pharmacological conditions examined. Our study however does not rule out the possibility that other AD-linked SORL1 mutations could indeed affect bAPP processing and that pathogenic mutations examined in the present study could interfere with other cellular pathways/triggers in AD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0059.v1
Subject: Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: 17β-estradiol; total testosterone; oxidized low-density lipoproteins; high-sensitive C-reactive protein; Acute Myocardial Infarction
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:06:33 CEST)
Estrogens play a protective role during early life stages. However, endogenous 17β-estradiol (E2) can accelerate atherosclerosis progression in low-grade inflammatory conditions like established atherosclerosis. Our single-center cohort study assessed sex-specific associations of gonadal hormones with oxidative stress, inflammation, and myocardial injury markers in 111 patients (37% women) diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction (MI) between July 2011 and December 2013. Blood samples were collected within 48 hours of symptom onset, and we measured sex steroids (E2, total testosterone [T]), oxidized low-density lipoproteins, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell counts (WBC), and cardiac enzymes (creatine kinase [CK], the CK Muscle-Brain fraction [CK-MB], and high-sensitive troponin T [hsTnT]). The SYNTAX score gauged coronary disease severity from coronary angiography results. In men with acute MI, peak cardiac enzyme levels were predicted by post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) E2 plasma levels (OR 1.011, p=0.047 - CK; OR 1.018, p=0.013 - CK- MB; OR 1.019, p=0.005 - TnT), peak WBC count (OR 1.487, p=0.015 - CK ; OR 1,709, p=0,005 - CK- MB; OR 1.391, p=0.012 - TnT), and peak CRP plasma levels (OR 1.040, p=0.033 - CK; OR 1.024, p=0.029 - CK-MB; OR 1.063, p=0.006 - TnT). T levels and E2/T ratio were associated with post-PCI CRP in these men (OR 0.980, p = 0.024 - T, OR 1.010, p = 0.076 - CRP). For women, peak WBC was a marker of highest testosterone (OR 1.348, p = 0.062), and only WBC was a significant indicator of myocardial injury extent (OR 1.426, p=0.039 - CK; OR 1.384, p=0.036 - CK-MB; OR 1.299, p=0.048 - TnT). During acute MI, elevated endogenous estradiol levels correlate with myocardial necrosis severity in men, while in women, increased leukocyte levels indicate acute myocardial damage. Elevated plasma T is associated with increased WBC in women. In men, post-PCI plasma CRP specifically indicates endogenous T levels and E2/T ratio during the acute phase.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0070.v1
Subject: Virology, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: JCPyV; MuPyV; polyomavirus; progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML); CNS; antiviral immunity; neurotropic virus
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:04:11 CEST)
JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is a human-specific polyomavirus that establishes a silent lifelong infection in multiple peripheral organs, predominantly those of the urinary tract, of immunocompetent individuals. In immunocompromised settings, however, JCPyV can infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS), where it causes several encephalopathies of high morbidity and mortality. JCPyV-induced progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a devastating demyelinating brain disease, was an AIDS-defining disease pre-antiretroviral therapy that has “reemerged” as a complication of immunomodulating and chemotherapeutic agents. No effective anti-polyomavirus therapeutics are currently available. How depressed immune status sets the stage for JCPyV resurgence in the urinary tract, how the virus evades pre-existing antiviral antibodies to become viremic, and where/how it enters the CNS are incompletely understood. Addressing these questions requires a tractable animal model of JCPyV CNS infection. Although no animal model can replicate all aspects of any human disease, mouse polyomavirus (MuPyV) in mice and JCPyV in humans share key features of peripheral and CNS infection and antiviral immunity. In this review, we will discuss evidence suggesting how JCPyV migrates from the periphery to the CNS, innate and adaptive immune responses to polyomavirus infection, and how the MuPyV-mouse model is providing insights into the pathogenesis of JCPyV CNS disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0051.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: angiogenesis; nutraceuticals; chorioallantoic membrane; anthocyanins; tocotrienols.
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:01:58 CEST)
Angiogenesis is a process whereby new blood vessels are born from preexistent ones, which has a role in transporting oxygen and nutrients. On the other hand, inhibiting this process is a strategy used to treat some diseases, including cancers, diabetic retinopathy, and rheumatoid arthritis. This study investigates the effect of a new nutraceutical (Terasen®) on angiogenesis. Terasen® is made from a standardized extract of Euterpe oleraceae (Açaí), Myrciaria dubia (Camu-Camu), and purified oil of Bixa orellana (Annatto) and Astrocaryum aculeatum (Tucumã). The in vivo angiogenesis model used was the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) from chicken embryos. The embryos were divided into seven groups: a vehicle control treated with ethanol solution (ETH), a naïve control treated only with saline solution (SOR), a positive control treated with dexamethasone (DEX), and four groups treated with Terasen® at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mg/ml). The parameters assessed were the vessels’ area, length, and amount. The results show a statistically significant and concentration-dependent inhibition of angiogenesis caused by Terasen®. Our results suggest the nutraceutical has a high antiangiogenesis potential, possibly due to its bioactive compounds, including anthocyanins, quercetin, and tocotrienols.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0054.v1
Subject: Oncology And Oncogenics, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: STING; cGAS; cGAMP; interferon signaling; cancer; metastasis; BRCA; proton channel
Online: 2 October 2023 (10:57:16 CEST)
The evolutionary conserved STING-cGAS pathway represents one of the most important cytosolic DNA sensing systems that is activated in response to viral invasion and/or damaged integrity of the nuclear envelope. The key outcome of this pathway is the production of IFN, which subsequently stimulates hundreds of genes. In oncology, the situation is a complex one since this pathway may serve either anti- or pro-oncogenic roles in a context-dependent fashion. The prevailing understanding is that when the innate immune response is activated by sensing cytosolic DNA, such as from ruptured micronuclei, it results in the production of interferon which attracts cytotoxic cells to destroy tumors. However, in tumor cells that have adjusted to significant chromosomal instability, particularly in relapsed, treatment-resistant cancers, the cGAS–STING pathway often supports cancer progression. In these cells, the pathway initiates a non-canonical nuclear factor κB transcriptional response, fostering the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we review this intricate pathway in conjunction with cancer progression and development of new treatment modalities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0071.v1
Subject: Endocrinology And Metabolism, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: Biomaterials; 3D bioprinting; pancreas; islets; type 1 diabetes; biofabrication
Online: 2 October 2023 (10:43:08 CEST)
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition that results from the destruction of insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreas. Current treatments for type 1 diabetes, such as insulin therapy and pancreatic islet transplantation, have several limitations and, hence not quite effective in the long run. As current therapy methods fail to slow disease development, novel strategies such as the development of a bioartificial pancreas are being seriously considered. Over the last decade, research has focused on tissue engineering, which aids in the design of biological alternatives for the repair and replacement of non-functional or damaged organs. Three dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology which employs 3D printing technology to generate 3D tissue-like structures from biomaterials and cells, offers a promising solution for the treatment of type 1 diabetes by providing the ability to generate functional endocrine pancreatic tissue. Bioprinted structures are therefore an important aspect of tissue engineering because they have been found to replicate the native extracellular matrix, promoting cell survival and proliferation. In this review, we extensively discussed about bioprinting endocrine pancreas for the treatment of type 1 diabetes particularly focussing on the choice of cells, biomaterials, growth factors, and essential considerations. Additionally, the key challenges and perspectives towards recapitulation of the pancreatic function of the pancreatic organ engineering technologies have also been discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0069.v1
Subject: Neuroscience And Neurology, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: Cognitive deficit; Alzheimer’s disease; Cholinergic septo-hippocampal innervation system; Dendritic spine; Hippocampus; Morris water maze
Online: 2 October 2023 (10:32:03 CEST)
Women are at higher risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) after menopause when the estrous cycle becomes irregular and begins to taper off. Numerous studies have shown that estrogen deficiency, especially estradiol (E2), has been shown to play a key role in this phenomenon. Recently, a novel polymeric drug, hyaluronic acid-17β-Estradiol conjugate (HA-E2), has been developed which has the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), facilitate a longer E2 release profile and lower risk of estrogen supplement related side effects. In this study, we used an ovariohysterectomy (OHE) rat model of postmenopausal cognitive deficits and explore whether HA-E2 treatment can improve the cholinergic septo-hippocampal innervation system, synaptic transmission in the hippocampal pyramidal neuron and cognitive impairment. Our results show that OHE rats after HA-E2 administration have increased expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the medial septal nucleus (MS nucleus) and the hippocampus, increased spine density in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and improved spatial learning and memory. Therefore, HA-E2 has great potential as a new novel class of drugs for estrogen-deficiency-induced cognitive impairment and AD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0067.v1
Subject: Soil Science, Environmental And Earth Sciences Keywords: long-term sustainability; soil health indicators; fertilization strategies; EPIC model; Central Italy
Online: 2 October 2023 (10:09:23 CEST)
Considering future tasks in soil health, resources management and environmental protection, farmers are challenged to develop sustainable strategies for managing soil and land resources. In this study, the long-term sustainability of two fertilization strategies, - current, with synthetic fertilizers (SYN) vs conservative, with organic sources of nitrogen (organic amendments plus green manure with a legume - CONS) - was assessed in a processing tomato/durum wheat rotation. The EPIC model was used, validated with field data then run to simulate the management for 30 years under 3 current and future climates. Yield, soil organic carbon (SOC) stock change, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), water use efficiency (WUE) and nitrate leaching were considered as sustainability indicators. Under all the future climate scenarios, tomato yield increased in CONS, remaining almost stable in SYN. Wheat yield increased both in CONS and SYN, but the average yield in CONS was considerably lower than in SYN. NUE and nitrate leaching followed the same trend, both decreasing in CONS, while WUE was higher in CONS compared to SYN. The effect of CONS on SOC was always positive. Thus, the alternative N fertilization strategy proposed can be a favorable option for maintaining soil health and a sustainable crop production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0063.v1
Subject: Other, Engineering Keywords: ingle-line weir; small-scale irrigation; river diversion; rural areas; up-stream wa-ter level; emerging farmers
Online: 2 October 2023 (09:52:52 CEST)
Keywords: 1; single-line weir 2; small-scale irrigation; river diversion 3; rural areas; up-stream water level 4; emerging farmers
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0062.v1
Subject: Business And Management, Business, Economics And Management Keywords: Forestry Enterprise; Sustainable Forest Management; Triple Bottom Line; MCDM Methodology
Online: 2 October 2023 (09:47:15 CEST)
Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) can fully use forest resources and improve the economic, environmental and social sustainability of forest areas. Forestry enterprises play a crucial role in the implementation of SFM. To better play the role of forestry enterprises in implementing SFM, it is necessary to establish a comprehensive and reasonable performance evaluation model for SFM in forestry enterprises. However, the previous literature pays little attention to this research question. Taking the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) as a theoretical framework and the Montreal Process Criteria and Indicators (MP C&I) as a basis, this paper constructs an indicator system to evaluate the performance of SFM of forest enterprises from economic, social and environmental aspects. This paper applies the integrated MCDM method, i.e. the BWM method and the VIKOR method, to construct the methodological system for SFM performance evaluation of forestry enterprises. The effectiveness of this SFM performance evaluation model is then demonstrated through its application to a case study of forestry enterprises in China. Through the application of the model, this paper evaluates the enterprise's SFM performance over the five-year period 2017-2021 and proposes appropriate policy recommendations and improvements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0061.v1
Subject: Biology And Biotechnology, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: Cutaneous leishmaniases; Molecular diagnosis; Point of care; Leishmania; Molecular target; Palm PCR; Duplex PCR; Lateral Flow immunoassay
Online: 2 October 2023 (09:43:13 CEST)
: Early and accurate detection of infectious diseases is a key step for surveillance, epidemiology, and control, notably timely disease diagnosis, patient management and follow-up. In this study, we aimed to develop hand-held ultra-fast duplex PCR assays coupled to amplicon detection by lateral flow (LF) immunoassay to deliver a rapid, and simple molecular diagnostic test for con-comitant detection and identification of the main Leishmania parasites encountered in Tunisia and the Old World. We selected two DNA targets to amplify L. major/L. tropica and L. infantum/L. tropica group of species DNAs, respectively. We optimized the experimental conditions of a du-plex ultra-fast PCR. The amplification is performed by a portable Palm convection PCR machine within 18 min and the products are detected by a LF cassette within 10 minutes. The test allows the identification of the infecting species according to the position and number of test lines re-vealed. Tested on a selection of DNAs of representative Leishmania strains of the three studied species (N=37), the ultra-fast duplex PCR-LF showed consistent, stable, and reproducible results. The analytical limit of detection of the test was 0.4pg for L. major, 4pg for L. infantum and 40pg for L. tropica.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0060.v1
Subject: Other, Public Health And Healthcare Keywords: Ecological Momentary Assessment; Stress; Well-being; Health; Mood; Social safety; Energy; Present-focus; Burnout; EMA
Online: 2 October 2023 (09:26:26 CEST)
Despite great interest in how dynamic fluctuations in psychological states such as mood, social safety, energy, present-focused attention, and burnout impact stress, well-being, and health, most studies examining these constructs use retrospective assessments. Here, we discuss how ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) address methodological issues associated with retrospective reports, able to reveal dynamic associations between psychological states at small timescales that are often missed in stress and health research. In addition to helping researchers characterize daily and within-day fluctuations and temporal dynamics between different health-relevant processes, EMAs can elucidate mechanisms through which interventions reduce stress and enhance well-being. EMAs can also be used to identify changes that precede critical health events, which can in turn be used to inform the delivery of ecological momentary interventions (EMIs of just-in-time interventions) that prevent such events from occurring. To enable this work, this narrative review provides examples of scales and single-item questions used in EMA studies, makes concrete recommendations for researchers seeking to employ EMAs in their research, and discusses limitations of EMA methods. In doing so, we aim to encourage the use of these methods in research given that, when used carefully, EMA methods are well-poised to greatly advance our understanding of how intrapersonal dynamics affect stress levels, well-being, and human health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0056.v1
Subject: Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering, Engineering Keywords: semiconductor manufacturing; statistical process control (SPC); data mining techniques; data-driven decision models; process improvement; product yield rate; process stability
Online: 2 October 2023 (09:13:34 CEST)
The paper investigates into the intricacies of semiconductor manufacturing, a highly complex process entailing a wide array of subprocesses and diverse equipment. Semiconductors are miniaturized integrated circuits comprising numerous components. The semiconductor manufacturing process begins with the thin disc-shaped silicon wafers. On each wafer, up to thousands of identical chips can be prepared depending upon the diameter of the wafer to build up the circuits layer by layer in a wafer fab. The size of the semiconductors requires a high number of units to be produced, thus necessitating a large amount of data to control for improving the semiconductor manufacturing process. Therefore, the collection and analysis of the equipment data, process data, and machine history data throughout the manufacturing process are required to diagnose faults, monitor the process, and manage the manufacturing process effectively. This research is focused on improving the semiconductor manufacturing process through a rigorous analysis of collected manufacturing process data, employing statistical process control (SPC), data mining techniques, and data-driven decision models. The project's primary objective is to increase the manufacturing process stability and productivity by utilizing the latest data-driven technologies in the scientific community. A structured review was undertaken, exploring contemporary data-driven methodologies in semiconductor manufacturing process improvement, specifically pertaining to process capability, product yield rate, and process stability. This review accentuates a comprehensive evaluation of data-driven methodologies applicable to conventional semiconductor manufacturing facilities, aiming to drive substantial process improvements. It features a detailed demonstration facilitating the selection of optimal semiconductor manufacturing processes to enhance overall operational performance. This study of process improvement in the semiconductor manufacturing steps through the application of data-driven methodologies will be effective in delivering advanced, real-time, and proactive control decisions throughout the manufacturing facilities. This endeavor is expected to promptly provide critical insights for enterprise manufacturing decision-makers to reduce manufacturing cycle time, improve the product yield rate, and increase the overall efficiency of the manufacturing process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0041.v1
Subject: Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning, Computer Science And Mathematics Keywords: functional network connectivity; fMRI; graph metrics; node size; brain networks
Online: 2 October 2023 (08:39:56 CEST)
Network neuroscience delves into comprehending the intricate arrangement and interactions within the neural networks of the brain. By merging insights from both neuroscience and network theory, it investigates the brain's structure and function through the lens of interconnected nodes (symbolizing brain regions) and edges (symbolizing the connections among these regions) forming a dynamic network. Graph metrics play a pivotal role in neuroscience by providing quantifiable insights into the intricate connectivity patterns within the brain's neural networks. Frequently, nodes are extracted from functional or structural atlases, which can lead to diverse shapes and sizes. Nevertheless, our understanding of how these differing node characteristics and definitions impact the computed graph metrics in neuroimaging data remains limited. This study adopts a data-driven methodology to delineate functional nodes, subsequently examining the influence of their sizes on resultant graph metrics. By employing the Neuromark framework, an entirely automated independent component analysis (ICA) is applied to resting state fMRI data. Through this, functional network connectivity (FNC) matrices are computed—capturing Pearson correlations between component-time courses—while employing a proportional threshold to streamline node connections based on these correlations. Subsequently, various global and local graph metrics are computed, offering insights into network characteristics. Global metrics provide an overarching summary of the network structure, while local measures delve into structural intricacies at the individual component level. Node sizes are computed based on voxel counts surpassing a designated threshold. Next, we calculated the Pearson correlation between the obtained node sizes and the graph metrics, which we term 'node-metric coupling' (NMC). Our findings revealed consistent and noteworthy correlations between the values of graph metrics and the dimensions of brain nodes. To delve deeper into the implications of this correlation, we examined the node-metric coupling within a dataset comprising Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, and control subjects. The disparities observed in node-metric coupling among these groups underscore the necessity of accounting for this factor during analysis. The two principal outcomes of this study are as follows: Firstly, the substantial interplay between varying node sizes within a given atlas and the resultant graph metrics; and secondly, the potential utility of node-metric coupling as a viable biomarker for brain disorders. These discoveries hold significant ramifications. While comparing studies employing diverse atlases is already a challenge, our work highlights an additional, critical source of variability: accounting for node sizes. Consequently, the association between intra-atlas node size and graph metric should be thoughtfully acknowledged in future neuroimaging investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0036.v1
Subject: Cognitive Science, Social Sciences Keywords: Non-verbal communication; neuroscience; body language; gestures
Online: 2 October 2023 (08:37:59 CEST)
This publication delves into the intricate world of human communication, extending beyond the realm of spoken and written language to explore the profound influence of non-verbal communication. Focusing on body language—comprising gestures, facial expressions, postures, and movements—it reveals the pivotal role it plays in conveying emotions, intentions, and psychological states. The rapidly evolving fields of neuroscience and cognitive science are investigating the neural mechanisms and cognitive processes that underpin the interpretation and utilization of these non-verbal cues. Notably, the amygdala's involvement in processing emotional facial expressions has provided a neurological foundation for our emotional understanding in non-verbal communication. Concurrently, cognitive psychology sheds light on how perception, attention, and memory influence our interpretation of non-verbal cues and communication strategies.In our modern, technologically advancing society characterized by global interconnectivity and cultural diversity, the significance of non-verbal communication, especially in digital and virtual contexts, is paramount. The transformation of non-verbal expression into digital symbols like emoticons and emojis raises questions regarding its ability to maintain authenticity and emotional understanding. This publication endeavors to comprehensively explore the fundamental role of body language and non-verbal communication in contemporary society. By integrating insights from psychology, neuroscience, social sciences, and digital technologies, it aims to elucidate the underlying mechanisms guiding non-verbal communication. Additionally, it delves into the implications of non-verbal communication across diverse domains, including interpersonal communication, the workplace, politics, advertising, and the virtual world.The research presented herein strives to offer a thorough understanding of interpersonal dynamics, relationships, and social behavior, with the goal of promoting the development of more effective, conscious, and ethically guided communication strategies. Ultimately, this analysis aspires to inspire further interdisciplinary research and reflection, addressing emerging challenges and fully leveraging the potential of non-verbal communication in modern society. This, in turn, guides our path towards a communication landscape that is more inclusive, authentic, and empathetic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0053.v1
Subject: Aging, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: aging vs survival; DNA damage; double-stranded breaks; Gompertz-Makeham Law; developmental regulatory redundancy; tradeoffs vs emergent properties; fecundity; reproductive fitness; redundancy reliabiiity; programmed aging
Online: 2 October 2023 (08:08:57 CEST)
Formulating a novel concept about the origin of human aging has been constrained by the dominance of a “classic theory” that was proposed nearly 70 years ago. Despite concern over the validity of some of its assumptions, the theory remained basic to our understanding of aging’s relationship with natural selection (NS). However, the logic upon which it rests was tested and subsequently challenged. The present theory describes the single cause of human aging consistent with Darwin’s evolutionary requirement for selection of adaptive traits. It describes an emergent property of the developmental program (DP), that is expressed upon completion of ontogenesis. It involves redundant expression of regulatory processes from the last stage of the DP. That mechanism subsequently preserves a non-aging, stable interval of unchanging NS during which reproductive fitness is achieved. Thereafter, loss of DP regulatory redundancy due to reliability limits, stochastic mutation accumulation, reproductive and a specific type of DNA damage, initiates aging which causes an inexorable decline in strength of NS to begin. It starts approximately a decade later than proposed in the classic theory. Since reproduction and aging are inextricably linked by the same emergent property, selection of that regulatory mechanism makes both traits products of NS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0049.v1
Subject: Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering, Engineering Keywords: Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC); manufacturing assembly; task allocation, reinforcement learning; Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS); Industry 4.0; robotic assembly sequence planning; collaborative robotics
Online: 2 October 2023 (07:38:39 CEST)
The paper provides a comprehensive review of the recent advancements and methodologies in Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC) applied to the manufacturing assembly process. In modern manufacturing, the assembly process involves intricate and time-consuming operations, often necessitating flexible manual interventions. However, the cost and stability issues associated with manual labor highlight the need for collaborative solutions integrating humans and robots. HRC, as a viable solution, involves the joint effort of humans and robots in manufacturing tasks, presenting advantages in terms of precision, reproducibility, and cycle time. This review categorizes and discusses methodologies such as task allocation, reinforcement learning, and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS)-based planning approaches that facilitate HRC in the assembly process. It also explores experiments and future trends to address challenges and enhance efficiency in manufacturing assembly through intelligent collaboration between humans and robots. The objective of this research is to provide insights and directions for further research in HRC to optimize manufacturing processes. By analyzing the existing state-of-the-art and presenting future prospects, this paper aims to guide researchers and practitioners toward more effective implementations of HRC in manufacturing assembly, ultimately leading to improved operational efficiency and productivity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0014.v1
Subject: Endocrinology And Metabolism, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs); Perivascular Adipose Tissue (PVAT); Endothelial Dysfunction (ED); Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs); Insulin Resistance (IR); Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM)
Online: 2 October 2023 (07:33:04 CEST)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are two of the four major chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), representing the leading cause of death worldwide. Several studies demonstrate that endothelial dysfunction (ED) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of these chronic diseases. Although it is well known that systemic chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are primarily involved in the development of ED, recent studies have shown that perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is implicated in its pathogenesis, also contributing to the progression of atherosclerosis and to insulin resistance (IR). In this review we describe the relationship between PVAT and ED, and we also analyse the role of PVAT in the pathogenesis of CVDs and T2DM, further assessing its potential therapeutic target with the aim of restoring normal ED and reducing global cardiovascular risk.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0048.v1
Subject: Architecture, Building And Construction, Engineering Keywords: steel structure; shape memory alloy (SMA); reinforcement; review
Online: 2 October 2023 (07:29:05 CEST)
Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) have emerged as a revolutionary material that holds the potential to change the design and construction methods of buildings and other structures. One of the most promising applications of SMAs in civil engineering is their use as reinforcements for steel structures. This paper presents the latest research progress, opportunities and challenges of SMA in the field of steel structural reinforcement, both in terms of basic components and applications. In terms of components, the construction forms and working mechanisms of Fe-SMA strips, SMA/CFRP composite patches and SMA dampers are introduced. On this basis, the application of SMA in steel structures reinforcement is introduced, and its effect is analyzed from three aspects: crack restoration, seismic retrofitting and structural strengthening. Finally, the results of the current research are summarized and the shortcomings are analyzed, hoping to provide a reference for the research of SMA in the field of steel structures reinforcement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0047.v1
Subject: Civil Engineering, Engineering Keywords: hydroelastic response; offshore floating solar photovoltaic farm; very large floating structure; modular floating structure
Online: 2 October 2023 (06:35:30 CEST)
This paper investigates the hydroelastic responses of offshore floating solar photovoltaic farms (OFPVs) to minimize structural motion. The OFPV usually occupies a large sea space in the order of hectares and due to its huge structural length-to-thickness ratio, the structural deformation under wave action has to be taken into consideration. The flexible deformation of the structure under hydrodynamic loading is termed the hydroelastic response. Due to the relatively long structural length with respect to the encountering wavelength, the diffraction and radiation of waves have to be taken into account to accurately represent the hydrodynamic loadings on the floating platform. The numerical model is first validated by comparing the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the OFPV obtained from the proposed numerical scheme with their counterparts obtained from an established finite element software. This is followed by the investigation of the hydroelastic response of various OFPVs designed in varying layout configurations. The various layout configurations are obtained by altering the floating modular units’ dimensions as well as the spacing of the OFPVs when deployed adjacent to each other. The optimal configuration that gives the best performance in terms of the overall smallest response, known as compliance, is then suggested. The results suggest that a longish OFPV layout has a lower hydroelastic response and the motion could be further reduced by increasing the global flexural stiffness via layout arrangement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0044.v1
Subject: Energy And Fuel Technology, Engineering Keywords: swirling coal combustion; flame structure; large-eddy simulation
Online: 2 October 2023 (05:11:35 CEST)
Swirling coal flames are encountered in swirl burners of boiler furnaces and cyclone coal combustors, and were studied using large-eddy simulation (LES) in reported references. However, the structures of swirling coal flames remain to be further studied. In the present paper LES of swirling coal flames is conducted for two combustors using two gas combustion models. The statistical simulation results are accessed by experiments and the instantaneous simulation results are used to analyze the specific features of flame structures of four cases. It is seen that different inlet flow conditions and different secondary-air flow rate lead to different flame structures
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0042.v1
Subject: Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Keywords: bilayer graphene; in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities; non-equilibrium molecular dynamics; anisotropic thermal transport
Online: 2 October 2023 (05:09:39 CEST)
Efficient thermal management of modern electronics requires the use of thin films with highly anisotropic thermal conductivity. Such films enable the effective dissipation of excess heat along one direction while simultaneously providing thermal insulation along the perpendicular direction. In this study, we investigate the thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene (BLG) sheets using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics, examining both in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities. The in-plane thermal conductivity of 10 nm × 10 nm BLG with zigzag and armchair edges at room temperature is found to be around 204 W/m.K and 124 W/m.K, respectively. The in-plane thermal conductivity of BLG increases with sheet length. For all sizes, BLG with a zigzag edge exhibits higher thermal conductivity than that of the armchair edge, with this difference becoming more pronounced as the lengths of the sheets increase. In addition, increasing temperature from 300 K to 600 K decreases the in-plane thermal conductivity of a 10 nm× 10 nm zigzag BLG by about 34%. Similarly, the application of a 12.5% tensile strain induces a 51% reduction in its thermal conductivity compared to the strain-free values. Armchair configurations exhibit similar responses to variations in temperature and strain, but with less sensitivity. Furthermore, the cross-plane thermal conductivity of BLG at 300 K is estimated to be 0.05 W/m·K, significantly lower than the in-plane results by approximately four orders of magnitude. The cross-plane thermal conductance of BLG decreases with increasing temperatures, specifically, at 600 K, its value is almost 16% of that observed at 300 K.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0039.v1
Subject: Environmental Science, Environmental And Earth Sciences Keywords: Olea europaea; drought stress; photosynthesis-light response, olive cultivars, cultivar characterisation
Online: 2 October 2023 (04:36:14 CEST)
Photosynthesis response curves were carried out using different light intensities in 14 olive cultivars subjected to moderate and severe water deficits. For each cultivar, the electronic transfer ratio in response to light was also obtained. The mathematical adjustment of these response curves allowed calculating, with a correlation coefficient above 0.95, parameters such as photosynthetic efficiency, the slope of the curves, the number of electrons required to fix a CO2 molecule, and the number of photons to assimilate a molecule of CO2, among others, as well as their variation with the lack of water. This work represents the first contribution of the response of photosynthesis in olive cultivars to different light intensities in moderate and severe drought conditions for a considerable number of cultivars. The parameters described, and the results provided, pave the road for subsequent work related to plant physiology and other areas of science and technology, and allow the tolerance to water stress to be objectively compared in these fourteen olive cultivars.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0037.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: metabolic syndrome; periodontitis; periodontal medicine; cardiovascular disease
Online: 2 October 2023 (04:33:36 CEST)
This study assessed the associations between host genetic variants and subgingival microbiota in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS); 103 patients with MetS underwent medical and periodontal examinations and had blood and subgingival plaque samples taken. DNA was extracted and processed (assessing a panel of selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) first (hypothesis-testing), and then expanding to a discovery phase. The subgingival plaque microbiome from these patients was profiled. Analysis of associations between host genetic and microbial factors was performed, stratified for periodontal diagnosis. Specific SNPs within RUNX2, CAMTA1 and VDR genes were associated with diversity metrics, with no genome-wide associations detected for periodontitis severity or Mets components at p<10-7. Severe periodontitis was associated with pathogenetic genera and species. Some SNPs correlated with specific bacterial genera, as well as with microbial taxa, notably VDR (rs12717991) with Streptococcus mutans and RUNX2 (rs3749863) with Porphyromonas gingivalis. This is the first study exploring the role of host genotype variation in subgingival microbial dysbiosis in patients with MetS and periodontitis. In conclusion, variation in host genotypes may play a role in the dysregulated immune responses characterizing periodontitis and thus the oral microbiome, suggesting that systemic health-associated host traits further interact with oral health and microbiome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0040.v1
Subject: Computational Mathematics, Computer Science And Mathematics Keywords: Yijing; overall quantization; five-element quantization; mixed quantization
Online: 2 October 2023 (04:33:15 CEST)
Yijing possesses inherent principles and logic, and it has achieved consensus as an auxiliary decision-making function. Research on Yijing has been validated in the field of superpsychology, primarily focusing on individuals. However, the universal value of Yijing extends beyond individual divination or telepsychological induction, and there are untapped scientific potential values associated with it. Consequently, many scholars studying Yijing, including those in Chinese medicine, attempt to decipher its internal scientific mechanism through quantitative methods. In summary, scientific quantitative analysis of Yijing can be categorized into several approaches. These include quantification based on Yijing itself (binary and hexagram order), as well as quantification based on mathematical statistics, probability, and calculus. Another approach involves quantification based on expert knowledge, as well as the quantification of timewave curves and Yi-globle. Significant progress has been made in all of these quantitative research areas within the scientific paradigm. Nevertheless, future quantification of Yijing may explore rule-based evolutionary analysis, incorporating artificial intelligence technology, and conduct quantitative analysis based on the evolutionary process and results. There is even potential to deepen this research with tools such as ChatGPT. Additionally, the focus of Yijing divination may shift from individual events to group events, accompanied by space-time modeling and analysis through the construction of a new coordinate system.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0038.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: candidate processes; disease; genomic variations; knowledge; medical genomics; ontology; pathways; prioritization; systems analysis; variome
Online: 2 October 2023 (04:26:02 CEST)
Understanding the genetic architecture of a disease is crucial for development of valid diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. The analysis of genomic variations associated with pathological conditions is the starting point for uncovering disease-causing pathways (candidate processes). However, the complexity of intergenic and genetic-environmental interactions hinders the identification of pathogenic values of genomic changes. Furthermore, heredity, epigenetics and somatic mosaicism make the interpretation of genomic data even more sophisticated. To succeed, a variety of bioinformatic techniques are applied. Here, reviewing own and literature data, knowledge-based prioritization of genomic variations is described. Theoretical basis of the knowledge-based prioritization is given with a special regard to gene ontology, heuristics, hermeneutics (genomic hermeneutics) and analytics. Practical and methodological issues of prioritization using ontology- or pathway-based systems analysis are considered in the light of optimistic and realistic scenarios of cumulative phenotypic effects of the variome (the whole set of genomic variations in an individual or specific set of genomic variations for a phenotypic outcome). In the present communication, copy number variants (CNVs) in children with neurodevelopmental diseases are used as a practical foundation for the prioritization, inasmuch as these genome variations are systematically overlooked in the so-called NGS era. Nonetheless, it is highly likely that the prioritization is applicable to almost all types of genomic variations (e.g. chromosome abnormalities, gene mutations, functional synonymous variants etc.). The present methodology seems to be a valuable addition to current biomedical science widening the opportunities for medical genomics and genetics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0034.v1
Subject: Agricultural Science And Agronomy, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: phosphorus; Oryza sativa L.; nutrient uptake; photosynthetic rate; root morphology
Online: 2 October 2023 (04:18:31 CEST)
Phosphorus (P) deficiency is a major constraint limiting sustainable rice cultivation in sub-Saharan Africa—partly due to the deeply weathered soils that have low pH and contain high P-fixing Fe and Al oxides. Soil texture also affects P availability and use efficiency. In this study, we evaluated the combined effect of soil texture (sand, clay loam, and clay) and P treatments (P-dipping and two other P fertilizer levels) on growth of NERICA 4 rice in the initial growth stages. In a factorial experiment, we measured the interaction effects of soil texture and P treatments on shoot parameters and root morphology. Both treatments had significant interaction effects on all measured parameters, except shoot biomass, and affected the photosynthetic rate, with the highest mean values obtained under clay loam soil texture and P-dipping treatment, respectively. The treatments also affected rice root morphology. In a striking contrast, whereas mean root length under clay was significantly higher than that under clay loam texture, mean shoot P uptake under clay loam soil was significantly higher than that under clay soil texture. The interactive effect of soil texture and P-dipping influenced NERICA 4 shoot and root physiological and morphological characteristics under clay loam soil texture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0035.v1
Subject: Business And Management, Business, Economics And Management Keywords: healthcare; sustainability; financial performance
Online: 2 October 2023 (04:17:09 CEST)
The medical sector is of the utmost importance in every country for well-known reasons such as their economic development, national security, quality of life, and so on. Many researchers were dedicated to this topic, however, in Romania there are limited studies on this subject. One reason is that most of the businesses in this sector are individual enterprises or small family businesses. In our research paper we deploy several analysis methods to see the financial sustainability of companies operating in the medical industry. By analyzing a sample of 23931 companies and we have concluded that their performance has increase in the peak of the pandemic and that the financial stability is high. Our results are in line with other similar studies that were conducted in other regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0033.v1
Subject: Ethnic And Cultural Studies, Social Sciences Keywords: Christmas; future of festivity; Post-pandemic realm; qualitative study
Online: 2 October 2023 (04:15:32 CEST)
This study intricately explores the evolving tapestry of Christmas celebrations in a post-pandemic era, where tradition delicately intertwines with technology. The literature review presents a global panorama of Christmas observances, delving into varied religious perspectives. Within this exploration, a Southeast Asian country discreetly initiates its festivities as early as September—a nuanced response to the profound significance of Christmas. Navigating the digital age, the paper dissects the impact of virtual gatherings, the surge in e-commerce, and digital church services on festive traditions. Employing diverse research methods, including thematic analysis, nuanced insights are synthesized from extensive literature reviews, interviews, and observations. Scrutinizing challenges posed by the digital divide, the erosion of personal connections in virtual gatherings, and sustainability concerns in online celebrations, the qualitative research methodology reveals the interplay between tradition and technology. The paper contemplates the future of Christmas in this transformative era, offering implications for future celebrations, technology developers, policymakers, and beyond. This endeavor invites contemplation on the dynamic interplay shaping the festive landscape and prompting reflection on future celebrations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0032.v1
Subject: Nanotechnology, Chemistry And Materials Science Keywords: Gold nanoclusters; manganese ferrite nanoparticles; mesoporous silica; multimodal imaging; NIR-photoluminescence; superparamagnetism.
Online: 2 October 2023 (04:07:20 CEST)
Gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with fluorescence in the Near Infrared (NIR) by both one- and two-photon electronic excitation were incorporated in mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) using a novel one-pot synthesis procedure where the condensation polymerization of alkoxysilane monomers in the presence of the AuNCs and a surfactant produce hybrid MSNs of 49 nm diameter. This method was further developed to prepare 30 nm diameter nanocomposite particles with simultaneous NIR fluorescence and superparamagnetic properties, with a core composed of superparamagnetic manganese ferrite nanoparticles (MnFe2O4) coated with a thin silica layer, and a shell of mesoporous silica decorated with AuNCs. The nanocomposite particles feature NIR-photoluminescence with 0.6% quantum yield and large Stokes shift (290 nm), and superparamagnetic response at 300 K, with a saturation magnetization of 13.4 emu g-1. The conjugation of NIR photoluminescence and superparamagnetic properties in the biocompatible nanocomposite has high potential for application in multimodal bioimaging.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0027.v1
Subject: Architecture, Building And Construction, Engineering Keywords: circular economy; building information modeling; built environment; building sector; digitalization
Online: 2 October 2023 (04:05:45 CEST)
With the advent of digitization, the integration of advanced technologies in operations and projects across all sectors is in progress. Accordingly, efforts are being made to utilize cutting-edge technologies to improve the circularity of the built environment. This study aimed to review the existing applications and limitations of building information modeling (BIM) tools for circular economy (CE) implementation from this perspective. A literature review was conducted to provide an overview of the use of BIM tools for conducting life cycle assessments, energy analysis, waste management, and formulation of material passports for buildings. It was found that BIM tools, which are available across all life cycle phases of building, have a great potential to improve the circularity of the sector. The overview provided on the use of various BIM tools may help stakeholders of the built environment understand the role of BIM for CE adoption in the sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0399.v36
Subject: Theoretical Physics, Physical Sciences Keywords: spacetime; cosmology; Hubble constant; Hubble diagram; quantum mechanics
Online: 2 October 2023 (04:04:45 CEST)
In special (SR) and general relativity (GR), coordinate space x1, x2, x3 and coordinate time t span “coordinate spacetime”. Here I disclose two issues in SR/GR: (1) No device measures xi or t. Rulers and clocks measure proper distance di and proper time τ. Rather than being physical quantities, xi and t are mathematical constructs. One observer sets his di and τ equal to xi and t. (2) As in the geocentric model, there is no holistic view. Reality is always described from just one perspective. The analogy holds despite the covariance of SR/GR. In any transformed coordinates, there is again just one perspective. In Euclidean relativity (ER), d1, d2, d3, d4 span “proper spacetime” (d4=cτ). All energy is moving through a 4D Euclidean space (ES) at the speed c. Each observer’s reality is created by projecting ES orthogonally to his proper space d1, d2, d3 and to his proper time τ=d4/c. These four axes are set equal to x1, x2, x3, t in SR/GR and reassembled to a non-Euclidean spacetime. Thus, the symmetry of spacetime in SR/GR does not match the group SO(4) of ES. This mismatch is not an issue if we apply SR/GR to an observer’s reality (coordinate spacetime) and ER to what I call “master reality” (proper spacetime). Different realities do require different theories! What matters is that each observer’s reality can be retrieved from the master reality. ER boosts physics by solving the mysteries of time, the c2 in mc2, the Hubble tension, dark energy, the wave–particle duality, and entanglement. I conclude: Only in proper coordinates does nature disclose her secrets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0030.v1
Subject: Sustainable Science And Technology, Environmental And Earth Sciences Keywords: By-laws; Construction; Ordinance; Regulations; Tradeoffs; Tree preservation
Online: 2 October 2023 (04:00:11 CEST)
Development and redevelopment are important drivers of tree removal and canopy loss in urban landscapes. Local ordinances are often used to curtail tree removal, but punitive regulations alone may not be enough to reduce urban tree canopy loss in land development. In Florida (US), efforts to balance trees and development have so far focused on fees and fines, but with a recent backlash against tree regulations and the fast pace of urban growth, we explored the possible role of incentives in urban tree policies. We interviewed 20 land developers across Florida to understand their perspectives on current barriers and potential incentives for tree preservation and planting. We collected data from developers, whose perspectives on tree preservation are often unknown or overlooked, despite their significant role in tree planting, removal, and retention in and around cities. Our results show that major barriers to tree preservation and planting include requirements to grade sites for stormwater management, site constraints, and monetary costs. Most developers did not know of any existing incentives beyond intrinsic motivations but said that financial incentives would be most appealing to them. Top incentive suggestions include increasing building density, reducing impact fees and tax liability, and changing tree mitigation policies. Another promising finding is that developers are willing to work with regulators to find solutions that benefit both parties. Future research should consider evaluating the level of support and viability of different incentives by gathering feedback from policymakers, land developers, and the public.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0029.v1
Subject: Psychiatry And Mental Health, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: bipolar disorder; vitamin D metabolism; functional vitamin D deficiency; 25(OH)D; 24,25(OH)2D; VMR
Online: 2 October 2023 (03:58:38 CEST)
Vitamin D status may impact acute affective symptomatology and the severity of symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Therefore, this cross-sectional study analyzed 25(OH)D, 24,25(OH)2D, and the vitamin D metabolite ratio (VMR) in BD and correlated the results with clinical affective symptomatology and functionality. The inactive precursor 25(OH)D and its principal catabolite 24,25(OH)2D were measured simultaneously with a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry method in 170 BD outpatients and 138 healthy controls. VMR was calculated as follows: VMR=100*(24,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D). The psychometric assessment enclosed: Beck Depression Inventory-II, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning, and number of suicide attempts. We did not find a significant difference between patients and controls in the concentrations of 25(OH)D and 24,25(OH)2D. Additionally, the VMR was comparable in both groups. The calculations for the clinical parameters showed a negative correlation between the Young Mania Rating Scale and 24,25(OH)2D (r = -.154, p = .040). Based on the small effect size and the predominantly euthymic sample, further exploitation in individuals with manic symptoms would be needed to confirm this association. In addition, long-term clinical markers, and an assessment in different phases of the disease may provide available additional insights.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0031.v1
Subject: Surgery, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: global cardiac surgery; global surgery; surgical accessibility
Online: 2 October 2023 (03:56:38 CEST)
Cardiac surgery is a modern science in the history of medicine. The impact in cardiac disease, in term of treatment and prognosis, has made this discipline indispensable in the global health. In recent decades, the greatest investment has been dispensed in technological and material improvement, for increase the life expectancy. This surgery must address different epidemiological aspects dictated by the geography and economic-social conditions of the global populations. For this reason, it is progressively important to address the cardiac surgery accessibility disparity. Many scientific paper and international meetings have studied how cardiac surgery can increase accessibility in various countries around the world. In this review we analyze all the challenges, solutions and suggestions to make this surgery accessible to the entire global population, with the purpose to reducing the disparity across the all seven continents. For a long time, high-income countries have invested in technological capabilities and experimental advancement, not caring about unequal access in the rest of the world. We believe that it is time to reverse the growth trajectory, placing – as a priority – the accessibility and distribution of a surgical science, too significant for the right to health of all the people of the world. This is the real new challenge in cardiosurgery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0028.v1
Subject: Other, Social Sciences Keywords: Scheduled Castes; Caste system; reservation; social injustice; untouchability
Online: 2 October 2023 (03:55:40 CEST)
This paper examines the condition of the Scheduled Castes in India and recognizes the factors that are causing dismal performance of the Scheduled Castes despite reservation policies. The paper first discusses the condition of Scheduled Castes based on the parameters of social, economic, education, and political representation. It then provides a brief overview of the current reservation percentages allocated to Scheduled Castes in various sectors. Moreover, the paper explores the causes for the dismal performance of Scheduled Castes despite the existence of reservation policies. In order to improve the condition of Scheduled Castes, the paper proposes a multifaceted approach, including the consideration of socio-economic criteria for recognizing castes in the list of Scheduled Castes, dis reservation of affluent Scheduled Caste families, preferential appointment of Scheduled Castes in administrative positions within Scheduled Areas, and reforms within the National Commission for Scheduled Castes. The paper also emphasizes the importance of periodic evaluations of socioeconomic conditions, talent identification, and grassroots awareness campaigns as strategies to uplift the Scheduled Castes.Keywords
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0026.v1
Subject: Gastroenterology And Hepatology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Acute pancreatitis; Heparanase; Lipase; Amylase; Mitochondria; NSAIDs
Online: 2 October 2023 (03:22:52 CEST)
Abstract: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common gastrointestinal disease with high morbidity and mortality rate. Unfortunately, neither the etiology nor the pathophysiology of AP are fully un-derstood and causal treatment options are not available. Recently we demonstrated that Hepa-ranase (Hpa) is adversely involved in the pathogenesis of AP and inhibition of this enzyme ameliorates the manifestation of the disease. Moreover, a pioneer study demonstrated that As-pirin has inhibitory effect on Hpa. Another compound, which possesses a mild pan-creato-protective effect against AP, is Trehalose, a common disaccharide. We hypothesize that combination of Aspirin, Trehalose, PG545 (Pixatimod) and SST0001 (Roneparstat), specific inhib-itors of Hpa, may exert pancreato-protective effect better than each drug alone. Thus, the current study examines the pancreato-protective effects of Aspirin, Trehalose, PG545 and SST0001 in ex-perimental model of AP induced by Cerulein in wild-type (WT) and Hpa over-expressing (Hpa-Tg) mice. Cerulein-induced AP in WT mice was associated with significant rises in the se-rum levels of Lipase (X4) and amylase (X3) with enhancement of pancreatic edema index, inflammatory response, and autophagy. Responses to cerulein were all more profound in heparanase transgenic (Hpa-Tg) mice vs wild-type (WT) mice, evident by X7 and X5 folds increase in lipase and amylase levels, respectively. Treatment with Aspirin or Trehalose alone and even more so in combination with PG545 or SST0001 were highly effective, restoring the serum level of lipase back to the basal level. Importantly, a novel newly synthesized compound termed Aspirlose effectively ameliorated the pathogenesis of AP as a single agent. Collectively, the results strongly indicate that targeting Hpa by using anti-Hpa drug combinations constitute a novel therapy for this common orphan disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0025.v1
Subject: Pharmacology And Toxicology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Ellagic acid; cisplatin; hepatotoxicity; Nrf2/HO-1 pathway; NF-κB pathway
Online: 2 October 2023 (03:19:16 CEST)
Cisplatin (CDDP), an important chemotherapeutic agent, could result in potential hepatotoxicity, but the precious molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the protective effect of ellagic acid (EA) on CDDP exposure-induced hepatotoxicity and underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated using a mouse model. Mice were randomly divided into control, CDDP model, EA100 (i.e., EA 100 mg/kg/day), and CDDP plus EA 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day. Mice in all CDDP-treated groups were intraperitoneally injected with CDDP 20 mg/kg/day for 2 days. In all EA co-treatments, mice were orally administrated with EA for 7 days. Our results found that, compared to the control group, CDDP treatment resulted in liver dysfunction, oxidative stress, and hepatocyte necrosis, which are effectively revised by EA supplementation in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, EA supplementation inhibited CDDP-induced the elevation of caspases-9 and -3 activities in the liver tissues of mice. Furthermore, EA supplementation significantly downregulated CDDP exposure-induced the increases of NF-κB, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 proteins and mRNAs, while further upregulated the expression of Nrf2, and HO-1 proteins and mRNAs. Taken together, our results reveal that EA supplementation could ameliorate CCDP-induced liver injury in mice via the opposite regulation of Nrf2/HO-1 and NF-kB pathways.
Sun, 1 October 2023
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0024.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: contact lens; drug delivery; bioavailability; composite; gas-permeable; hydrogel
Online: 1 October 2023 (11:18:39 CEST)
The number of people affected by eye conditions is growing every year, due to the popularity of electronic devices and an aging population. In the world of medicine, accomplishing eye medication administration has always been a difficult task. Despite the fact that there are many eye drops on the market, most of them have important limitations due to quick clearance mechanisms and ocular barriers. One solution with tremendous potential is the contact lens used as medication delivery vehicle to bypass this constraint. Therapeutic contact lenses for ocular medication delivery have attracted a lot of attention because they have the potential to improve ocular bioavailability, patient compliance, and reduce side effects. However, it is essential not to compromise essential features such as water content, optical transparency, and modulus in order to target successful in vitro and in vivo sustained drug delivery profile from impregnated contact lenses. Aside from difficulties like drug stability and burst release, the changing of lens physical and chemical properties caused by therapeutic or non-therapeutic components can limit the commercialization potential of pharmaceutical-loaded lenses. Research has progressed towards bioinspired techniques and smart materials to improve the efficacy of drug-eluting contact lenses. The bioinspired method uses bioinspired polymeric materials to improve biocompatibility, a specialized molecule recognition technique called molecular imprinting, or a stimuli-responsive system to improve biocompatibility and support drug delivery efficacy of drug-eluting contact lenses. This review encompasses strategies of material design, lens manufacturing and drug impregnation under the current auspices in ophthalmic therapies and projects an outlook onto future opportunities in the field of eye conditions management by means of active principles-eluting contact lens.
INTERESTING IMAGES | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0004.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: simple cyst of the testis; mesothelium; ectopic rete testis; prostatic cancer; castration; case report
Online: 1 October 2023 (10:16:18 CEST)
Simple cysts (SCs) within the testes are rare in adults. The testicular SC lining comprises mesothelial cells. This report presents a case involving the accidental discovery of a castration-worthy SC in the right testis of a Japanese man in his 90s who was diagnosed with prostatic adenocarcinoma. Microscopic analysis revealed that the cystic wall was covered with flat to cuboidal mesothelial cells. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated mesothelial cell positivity for calretinin, Wilms tumor 1 (WT-1), Hector Battifora mesothelial epitope-1 (HBME-1), and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16 (p16INK4a). Notably, no human papillomavirus (HPV) in situ hybridization was detected. This report outlines an exceptionally rare instance of a simple cyst within the testis, suggesting the possibility of its origin from ectopic rete testis epithelium. This marks the inaugural documentation in the English literature of an SC within the testis found incidentally during castration for prostatic cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2181.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Blockchain Technology-enabled Pharmaceutical Supply Chain; Uncertain Demand; Supervised Learning algorithms; Evolutionary Computation algorithms; Blockchain Technology
Online: 1 October 2023 (10:14:31 CEST)
This paper provides a new multi-function Blockchain Technology-enabled Pharmaceutical Supply Chain (BT-enabled PSC) mathematical cost model, including PSC costs, BT costs, and uncertain demand fluctuations. The purpose of this study is to find the most appropriate algorithm(s) with minimum prediction errors to predict the costs of the BT-enabled PSC model. This paper also aims to determine the importance and cost of each component of the multi-function model. To reach these goals, we combined four Supervised Learning algorithms (KNN, DT, SVM, and NB) with two Evolutionary Computation algorithms (HS and PSO) after data generation. Each component of the multi-function model has its own importance, and we applied the Feature Weighting approach to analyse their importance. Next, four performance metrics evaluated the multi-function model, and the Total Ranking Score determined predictive algorithms with high reliability. The results indicate the HS-NB and PSO-NB algorithms perform better than the other six algorithms in predicting the costs of the multi-function model with small errors. The findings also show that the Raw Materials cost has a stronger influence on the model than the other components. This study also introduces the components of the multi-function BT-enabled PSC model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2131.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Canis lupus signatus; domestic ungulates; wild ungulates; Iberian wolf; recolonization
Online: 1 October 2023 (10:12:05 CEST)
The Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) is recolonizing historical distribution areas after decades of absence. As in other human-dominated landscapes, finding a balance to protect this species by favoring recolonization and mitigating human-wildlife conflicts is a challenge. Since wolves are often generalist opportunistic predators, we studied their diet composition in the Central Spain to evaluate the consumption of domestic ungulates and provide reliable data that help local authorities to deal with the current wolf-cattle ranchers conflict and coexistence. Diet composition (% prey occurrence, % prey ingested biomass) was analyzed through the identification of prey hairs present in 671 scats collected between 2017 and 2021. Wolves fed more on wild ungulates (82% occurrence) than domestic ones (18%). Wild boar (Sus scrofa, 44% occurrence) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, 35%) were the most consumed prey. Wolves positively selected these two species. The wolf's diet varied between seasons, years, and forest regions, but a diet based on wild ungulates predominated over domestic ones. Food niche breadth and showed variations depending on seasons and years. Preserving the availability and diversity of wild ungulates may favor reducing livestock attacks and would be an achievable goal that help to conserve this species and reduce conservation conflicts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0021.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: perceived well-being in friendship relationships; basic psychological needs; self-regulation; self-determination theory (SDT)
Online: 1 October 2023 (09:50:25 CEST)
Background and Objective: Intimate relationships hold significant importance during emerging adulthood. This study aimed to investigate the critical determinants of perceived well-being in friendship relationships during emerging adulthood.Method: Using a quantitative approach, a sample of 726 undergraduate students from the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad were selected through convenience sampling. They completed the Interpersonal Behaviors Questionnaire (IBQ), the Compassionate and self-image goals scale (CSIGS), the Basic Need Satisfaction in Relationships Scale (BNS-RS), the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ-10), Friendship Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-F), Interpersonal Behaviors Questionnaire-Self (IBQ-self), State Level Subjective Vitality Scale (SVS-SL), the Perceived Relationship Quality Component (PRQC), and the Basic Empathy Scale (BES). Data analysis was conducted using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM).Results: The results indicated that the critical determinants in predicting perceived well-being in friendship relationships were, in order, goals in friendship relationships, friendship self-regulation, perceived support of basic psychological needs by friends, satisfied basic psychological needs, frustrated psychological needs, and supporting the basic psychological needs of friends.Conclusion: The findings demonstrate that self-determination theory (SDT) provides a coherent framework for explaining perceived well-being in friendships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0016.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Machine learning; COVID-19; Working from home; Employees’ collaboration; Employees’ happiness; Employees’ promotion chances
Online: 1 October 2023 (09:48:40 CEST)
This research explores the impact of working from home on employees' happiness, collaboration, and promotion prospects using machine learning techniques. The study is guided by three research questions aiming to investigate the correlation between working from home and employees' collaboration and promotion prospects. Moreover, the research aims to find a relationship between the number of households and employees' happiness levels while working from home. The data is collected from ICT engineers working at a technology company in Sweden through a questionnaire-based survey. Probability sampling was selected for data collection to reduce bias and enhance the generalizability of the findings. The data is pre-processed and then analysed in Jupyter Notebook using the Python programming language. Various libraries and models, including Pandas, NumPy, Matplotlib, Seaborn, and Scikit-learn, were employed for data analysis. Both Pearson correlation and p-values in Pearson correlation were used in this study to analyse the relationships between different variables.However, based on the results, this study did not find any significant relationship between working from home and employees' promotion prospects or collaboration issues. Additionally, the results did not provide evidence of a significant relationship between the number of households of employees and their happiness levels while working from home.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0011.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Text mining; Cultured meat; Artificial meat; media framing; attitude; social acceptability; Consumer acceptance; consumer behavior
Online: 1 October 2023 (09:45:46 CEST)
Wide-scale commercialization of cultured meat, produced from in vitro-grown animal stem cells, is still a long way off because of technical, regulatory and, above all, social acceptability constraints. As a result, despite the advancement of knowledge, it is difficult to predict whether this innovation will be commonly accepted. The concept of media framing is key to better understanding individuals’ decision-making and mental interpretative patterns in relation to cultured meat adoption. This research therefore analyzes the role of media framing (namely the social media platform Twitter) on the components of consumer attitudes (cognitive, affective, and conative) in relation to cultured meat. A total of 23 020 publications and 38 531 comments were analyzed qualitatively (content analysis) and quantitatively (MANOVA). This study showed that media-framed posts influenced consumer attitudes more than did non-media-framed posts. Although the results indicate that the different types of media framing (ethical, intrinsic, informational, and belief) do not exert the same influence on each attitude component, they suggest that posts combining the ethical, intrinsic, and informational media frames have a greater impact on the acceptability of cultured meat and that the belief frame is equally important, particularly for the behavioral component. Relevant implications can be drawn for authorities and businesses on the use of differentiated education and marketing strategies
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0022.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Starch graft copolymerization with acrylic acid; Selectivity of the grafting reaction; Analysis of different grafting systems in a graphical representation; Water solubility of the monomer as a key factor; The impact of selective starch activation; Assessment of methods to improve selectivity; dedicated dosage of monomer
Online: 1 October 2023 (09:43:43 CEST)
Perhaps the greatest challenge in the graft copolymerization of acrylic acid onto starch initiated by Fenton’s is the selectivity of the grafting reaction. Low selectivity means that too much of unwanted homopolymer polyacrylic acid is produced. In this paper, it has been analyzed why with this reaction system, involving a water soluble monomer and indirect initiation, the graft selectivity is such a challenge. Several other grafting reactions, especially with monomers of low water solubility or when direct initiation is applied, show a better grafting performance. A scheme is presented based on reaction engineering principles, that supports an explanation of the observed differences. A more selective activation of starch is a factor, but perhaps even more important is a low monomer to starch ratio at the starting sites of graft reactions. Based on these insights, several methods to improve the graft selectivity are evaluated, with the help of literature data but mostly by experimental explorations in our laboratory. Most promising appears to be a dedicated dosage method, to add monomer in portions over time, tested in a batch reactor with gelatinized cassava starch. This way, both grafting percentage and graft selectivity could be improved. Such could not be realized with the more conventional dosage, which is to add all monomer before the start of the reaction. This can be considered a principal breaktrough. Still, more research and development would be needed to refine the method and to implement the idea also in a continuous reactor at larger scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0917.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Machine learning; Geriartic fall detection; Dataset; Dew Computing; End Device; Feature Extraction; Supervised Machine Learning; Sensor Data Analysis
Online: 1 October 2023 (09:38:25 CEST)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0015.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: coastal wetland; carbon; nitrogen; coupling; stoichiometry; meta-ecosystem
Online: 1 October 2023 (08:52:35 CEST)
The dynamics of hydrological lateral nutrient fluxes contribute to our understanding of ecological functions related to energy, materials, and organism flows across various spatiotemporal scales. To explore the connectivity between multiple spatial flow processes, we conducted a one-year field measurement to assess lateral hydrologic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes over the continental shelf in the Yangtze estuary. We observed a significant correlation between the differences in remote sensing-based estimates of gross primary production (GPP) (∆GPPMODIS) and the differences in eddy covariance (EC) tower-based GPP (∆GPPEC) at both high-elevation and low-elevation sites. Over the course of a year, our predicted daily maximum tidal elevation (TE) closely matched the observed values in the creek, which facilitated the development of theoretical models to simulate biogeochemical cycling processes and aquatic ecosystem functions. Our findings indicate that the studied saltmarsh acts as a net exporter of dissolved total C (DTC) while serving as a net sink for dissolved total N (DTN). Furthermore, there is a significant correlation in the total dissolved stoichiometry of the C/N ratio between imports and exports. These findings highlight the importance of integrating ecological stoichiometric principles to gain a deeper understanding of the complex relationships between physical, chemical, and biological processes, particularly within the context of the meta-ecosystem framework. Additionally, when considering reciprocal hydrological lateral C and N flows, single ecosystem can function both as sources and sinks within the meta-ecosystem framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0017.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Aerosol; ENSO; Black Carbon; Remote Sensing; Amazon
Online: 1 October 2023 (08:49:12 CEST)
The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) stands as the paramount tropical phenomenon of climatic magnitude resulting from ocean-atmosphere interaction. Due to its atmospheric teleconnection mechanism, ENSO wields influence over diverse environmental variables spanning distinct atmospheric scales, thereby potentially impacting the spatiotemporal distribution of atmospheric aerosols. Within this framework, this study aims to appraise the relationship between ENSO and atmospheric aerosols across the Legal Amazon during the period between 2006 and 2011. Over this quinquennium, four ENSO events were identified. Concurrently, an analysis was conducted on the spatiotemporal variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and AOD extinction for Black Carbon (EAOD-BC), concomitant with said ENSO events, utilizing data derived from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), MERRA-2 model, and ERSSTV5. Through the Windowed Cross Correlation (WCC) approach, statistically significant phase lags of up to 4 to 6 months were observed between ENSO indicators and atmospheric aerosols. Moreover, conspicuous increases of over 100% in atmospheric aerosol concentration were evidenced subsequent to El Niño periods, especially during the intervals encompassing the La Niña phase, particularly within the La Niña CP (Central Pacific)/Modoki category. By analyzing specific humidity anomalies (QA), exceptional scenarios in the region were detectable. This observation suggests a notable singularity when juxtaposed with antecedent investigations and typical average patterns characterizing the impacts on the Amazonian region.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0023.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Neonatal diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis; KIT gene; case report; systemic mastocytosis; review
Online: 1 October 2023 (08:44:46 CEST)
Neonatal diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis (NDCM) is defined as the infiltration of the epidermis by a clonal proliferation of mast cells, observed at birth, without initial signs of systemic involvement. The typical driver mutation is located in the KIT gene. We report a rare case of a boy, born at term, presenting already at birth with generalized subcutaneous nodules, on the face, scalp, trunk, back, hands, and feet. The spleen, liver and inflammatory markers were normal at birth. Tryptase was significantly elevated. Bone marrow biopsy showed no mast cell involvement at age 2 months. A punch biopsy at age 2 months revealed CD117-positive cells diffusely infiltrating the skin, with subsequent DNA NGS sequencing for the formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue (FFPE) identifying the pathogenic NM_000222.3:c.1504_1509dup; p.(Ala502_Tyr503dup) variant in the KIT gene previously associated with cutaneous mastocytosis. At 2 years follow-up, he had splenomegaly and multiple cervical, and inguinal adenopathy while the skin nodules persisted especially on the scalp with accompanying pruritus. He received oral and local sodium cromoglycate, oral antihistamines, antibiotic cream for skin infection, and iron supplementation, however compliance to treatment was relatively low. The prognosis is difficult to predict, as he developed systemic involvement, failure to thrive and mild psychomotor delay. A case aggregation of NDCM reported in the literature was performed to provide a comprehensive overview of this rare pathology, to better understand the prognosis. NDCM is a life-threatening disease with severe complications. Almost half had severe complications, such as mast hepatosplenomegaly, adenopathy, bacterial infections, mast cell leukaemia, and systemic involvement.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0019.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Punica granatum L.; pharmacokinetic; metabolic disorders; dyslipidaemia
Online: 1 October 2023 (08:42:27 CEST)
Modern research achievements support health-promoting effects of natural products and diets rich in polyphenols. Pomegranate (PG) (Punica granatum L.) contain a considerable number of bioactive compounds that exert a broad spectrum of beneficial biological activities, including antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antiobesity, and atheroprotective properties. In this view, the reviewed literature shows that PG intake might reduce insulin resistance, cytokine levels, redox gene expression, blood pressure elevation, vascular injuries and lipoprotein oxidative modifications. Lipid parameters corrective capabilities of PG-ellagitannins are also sufficiently reported to be significantly effective in reducing hyperlipidemia (TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and TAGs), plasma HDL-C concentrations, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. The health benevolent effects of pomegranate consumption appear to be produced through the amelioration of adipose tissue endocrine function, fatty acid utilization, GLUT receptor expression, paraoxonase activity enhancement, PPAR and NFκB modulation. Although the results from animal experiments are encouraging, human findings published in this field are inconsistent and still limited in many points of view. The present review discusses and provides a critical analysis of PG's bioeffects on metabolic syndrome components, type-2 diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia, as well as on some cardiovascular-related diseases. A brief overview of the pharmacokinetic properties, safety, and bioavailability of PG-ellagitannins is also included.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0018.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: hospital; quality; patient safety; perceptions of care; financial performance
Online: 1 October 2023 (08:35:28 CEST)
Hospitals are perpetually challenged by the dual requirements of concurrently improving the quality of healthcare and maintaining financial solvency. Both issues are among the top concerns for hospital executives across the United States, yet some have questioned if the efforts to enhance quality are financially sustainable. led us to examine if improving quality in the hospital setting impacts revenue. Using multivariate regression, we assessed if numerous quality measures were associated with our targeted measure of hospital profitability: the net patient revenue per adjusted discharge. The independent variables included the HCAHPS Summary Star Rating, Hospital Compare Overall Rating, All-Cause hospital-wide Readmission Rate, Total Performance Score, Clinical Outcomes Domain Score, Safety Domain Score, Person and Community Engagement Domain Score, and the Efficiency and Cost Reduction Score. Our results indicated that improving quality was significantly associated with improved net patient revenue per adjusted discharge for seven of the eight of these quality measures at the hospital level. It is clear that failing to address quality and patient safety issues is costly for US hospitals, thus we believe our findings support the premise that increased attention to the quality of care delivered as well as patients’ perceptions of care may allow hospitals to accentuate profitability and advance a hospital’s financial position.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: tumor multidrug resistance; P-glycoprotein; pyxinol amino acid ester derivatives; molecular docking; metabolomics
Online: 1 October 2023 (08:32:50 CEST)
(1) Background: The typical transporter protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), has been proven to be associated with multidrug resistance (MDR). Pyxinol and 24S-Pyxinol amino acid ester derivatives had been demonstrated to be promising P-gp inhibitors for reversal of tumor MDR in KBV cells, however, their roles in MDR reversal in other tumor-resistant cells are still unclear. (2) Methods: In the present study, we synthesized 40 amino acid ester derivatives of Pyxinol and 24S-Pyxinol. The MDR reversal effects of these derivatives were evaluated in A549/Tax, MCF-7/ADR, and HCT-8/VCR cells using the CCK-8 assay. Subsequently, western blot assay, intracellular Rhodamine123 (Rh123) accumulation assay and P-gp ATPase activity assay were utilized to investigate the effects of active compound on P-gp. Molecular docking was used to predict the possible binding patterns of active compound to P-gp. Moreover, based on UPLC-Q/TOF-MS cellular metabolomics technology to identify endogenous differential metabolites and metabolic pathways associated with tumor MDR effects of the active compound. (3) Results: The results of the CCK-8 assay showed that compounds 8, 14, 16, 17, 18, 23, 25, 34, 36, 37 exhibited strong MDR reversal effect in A549/Tax, MCF-7/ADR and HCT-8/VCR cells, which were screened by reversal fold (RF) greater than 5. Among them, 10 μM of derivative 37 (new compound) showed the outstanding activity (RF: 15.31) in reversing MDR in A549/Tax cells. Compound 37 could act as a substrate for P-gp and inhibit the efflux function of P-gp by competitively binding to the binding site of antitumor drugs. Meanwhile, the molecular docking results confirmed that compound 37 was identified to under-go high-affinity binding to the drug binding site of P-gp. In addition, 14 endogenous differential metabolites and 6 metabolic pathways involved closely associated with the reversal of tumor MDR effects of compound 37 were identified. (4) Conclusions: Overall, a new candidate compound 37 (24S-3-L-threonyl-Pyxinol) could be provided for reversing tumor MDR by this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0009.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: network analysis; Hidden Markov Models
Online: 1 October 2023 (08:28:15 CEST)
By framing the problem of determining the state of Schrodinger’s cat as a problem of searching for Hidden Markov Model (HMM), this work shows that there is a high chance that Schrodinger’s cat is dead with a stationary probabilities P(Cat = Dead) = 1, and P(Cat = Alive) = 0.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0008.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: Coupled Cluster; geometry optimization; N-N bond splitting; QTAIM analysis; electron structure
Online: 1 October 2023 (08:18:21 CEST)
A mixture of nonlabeled (14N2H4) and 15N labeled hydrazine (15N2H4) in an aqueous solution is oxidized to 15N2, 14N2, and 14N15N molecules, indicating the intermediate existence of the 14NH2-14NH-15NH-15NH2 with subsequent hydrogen transfers and splitting of side N-N bonds. Structures, thermodynamics, and electron characteristics of various N4H6 molecules in aqueous solutions are investigated using theoretical treatment at the CCSD/cc-pVTZ level of theory to explain the crucial part of the hydrazine oxidation reaction. Most N4H6 structures in aqueous solutions are decomposed during geometry optimization. Splitting the bond between central nitrogen atoms is the most frequent, but the breakaway of the side nitrogen is energetically the most preferred. The N-N fissions are enabled by suitable hydrogen rearrangements. Gibbs free energy data indicate the dominant abundance of NH3... N2... NH3 species. The side N atoms have very high negative charges, which should support hydrogen transfers in aqueous solutions. The only stable cyclo-(NH)4…H2 structure has a too high Gibbs energy and breaks the H2 molecule. The remaining initial cyclic structures are split into hydrazine and HN≡NH or H2N≡N species, and their relative abundance in aqueous solutions is vanishing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0020.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: dynamic neural networks; industrial process; recurrent neural networks; long short-term memory
Online: 1 October 2023 (08:13:52 CEST)
Dynamic neural networks (DNN) are types of artificial neural networks (ANN) that are designed to work with sequential data where context in time is important. In contrast to traditional static neural networks that process data in a fixed order, dynamic neural networks use information about past inputs, which is important if dynamic of a certain process is emphasized. They are widely used in natural language processing, speech recognition and time series prediction. In industrial processes, their use is interesting for the prediction of difficult-to-measure process variables. In an industrial process of isomerization, it is crucial to measure the quality attributes affecting the octane number of gasoline. Process analyzers that are commonly used for this purpose are expensive and subject to failures, therefore, in order to achieve continuous production in case of malfunction, mathematical models for estimating the product quality attributes are imposed as a solution. In this paper, mathematical models were developed using dynamic recurrent neural networks (RNN), i.e., their subtype of a long short-term memory (LSTM) architecture. The results of the developed models were compared with the results of several types of other data-driven models developed for an isomerization process, such as multilayer perceptron (MLP) artificial neural networks, support vector machines (SVM) and dynamic polynomial models. The obtained results are satisfactory, which suggests a good possibility of application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0006.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Abies balsamea; cold; conifer; fluorescence; galactosyldiacylglycerol; galactolipids; phospholipids; membrane injury; needle retention
Online: 1 October 2023 (08:11:54 CEST)
Needle abscission in balsam fir has been linked to both cold acclimation and changes in lipid composition. The overall objective of this research is to uncover lipid changes in balsam fir during cold acclimation and link those changes with postharvest abscission. Branches were collected monthly from September to December and assessed for cold tolerance via membrane leakage and chlorophyll fluorescence changes at -5, -15, -25, -35, and -45°C. Lipids were extracted and analyzed using mass spectrometry while postharvest needle abscission was determined gravimetrically. Cold tolerance and needle retention each significantly (P < 0.001) improved throughout autumn in balsam fir. There were concurrent increases in DGDG, PC, PG, PE, and PA throughout autumn and a decrease in MGDG. Those same lipids were strongly related to cold tolerance, though MGDG had the strongest relationship (R2 = 55.0% and 42.7% from membrane injury and chlorophyll fluorescence, respectively). There was a similar, albeit weaker, relationship between MGDG:DGDG and needle retention (R2 = 24.3%). Generally, a decrease in MGDG:DGDG ratio resulted in better cold tolerance and higher needle retention in balsam fir possibly due to increased membrane stability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0012.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: pulmonary arterial hypertension; pulmonary arterial banding; right ventricle; preclinical studies
Online: 1 October 2023 (08:01:20 CEST)
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a progressive condition that affects pulmonary vessels, but its main prognostic factor is right ventricle (RV) function. Many mice/rat models are used for research in PAH, but results fail to translate in clinical trials. This study reviews studies that test interventions on pulmonary artery banding (PAB), a model of isolated RV disfunction, and PH models. Multiple tested drugs both improved pulmonary vascular hemodynamics in PH models and RV structure and function in PAB animals. PH models and PAB frequently exhibited similar results (73.1% concordance) with drugs other than endothelin receptor antagonists and phosphodiesterase inhibitors. RV systolic pressure accounted for most differences between PH models and PAB. On the other side, all results on RV fibrosis agreed (12 drugs). Macitentan, sildenafil and tadalafil improved most tested pathophysiological parameters in PH models, but almost none in PAB animals. Dapagliflozin was the only drug that improved no parameters. This review shows that many drugs currently under research for PAH have a cardioprotective effect on animals that may translate to humans. To improve the translational potential of drugs in this field, researchers should test them in multiple models, including PAB, while optimizing induction methods for human disease translation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0005.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Mitochondria; immune response; activation; secretion; phagocytic
Online: 1 October 2023 (07:55:51 CEST)
Salmonella is the intracellular pathogen and etiological known for the cause of asymptomatic carriage, gastroenteritis, systemic disease (typhoid fever), in severe cases death may also occur. Altered function of mitochondria due to Salmonella infection impacts the immune response. Mitochondria which are recognized as the “powerhouse” of the cells are also know to play central role in the immune metabolism. Mitochondrial dynamics such as fusion, fission, signaling, transport and mitophagy influences the immune system and also maintains the cellular integrity. Mitochondrial DNA and Reactive oxygen species formation also elicits the inflammatory responses. This review discusses the immune metabolism and effect of altered mitochondrial dynamics in case of Salmonella infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0001.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: sialic acid; sialylation; xeno-sialic acid; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 1 October 2023 (07:28:10 CEST)
The host glycosylation mechanism synthesizes the carbohydrates of glycoproteins of viral envelopes. Due to the loss of the Cytidine Monophospho-N-Acetylneuraminic Acid Hydroxylase gene by some mammalian species, including humans (negative-CMAH), Neu5Gc is no longer synthesized. Uptake of Neu5Gc by negative-CMAH species, through the intake of food products derived from positive-CMAH mammals, leads to incorporating Neu5Gc-glycans in the glycocalyx (xenosialylation). Neu5Gc, being a Mammalian-associated Carbohydrate Antigen (MCA), acts as a non-self-antigen, inducing an inflammatory reaction (Xenosialitis), and triggering the production of circulating antiNeu5Gc antibodies to attack/remove all incorporated Neu5Gc. In the state of Xenosialitis, the virus-neutralizing antibodies produced by a heavily xenosialylated patient following exposure to viral infection (including SarsCoV2) or anti SarsCoV2 vaccination cross-react against all incorporated non-self Neu5Gc-MCA glycans due to their resemblance with viral envelope antigens synthesized by the host glycosylation mechanism. In addition, the circulating anti-XeSias antibodies determine the massive removal of the circulating neutralizing FC-xeno-contaminated antibodies by the serum, living only the hyper-inflammatory agalattosylated antiviral IgG antibodies. Therefore, we hypothesize that the combination of antibody cross-reaction against non-self Neu5Gc-MCA glycans and the massive removal of the xeno-contaminated newly formed neutralizing antibodies in favor of hyper reactive antibodies, could be the cause of the massive inflammatory reaction (cytokine storm, coagulopathies, neuropathies) observed in Covid 19 patients or after anti-SarsCoV2 vaccination. Therefore, evaluating the serum anti-MCA antibodies titer, particularly anti-Neu5GC antibodies, could be a groundbreaking tool to timely identify patients at risk of developing severe complications in case of all viral infections, including SARS-CoV2 and repeated vaccinations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0007.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Carbohydrate quality index; CQI; Micronutrient Inadequacy; SENDO cohort
Online: 1 October 2023 (07:25:58 CEST)
Suboptimal micronutrient intake in children remains a public health concern around the world. This study examined the relationship between a previously defined dietary carbohydrate quality index (CQI) and the risk of micronutrient intake inadequacy in a pediatric cohort of Spanish preschoolers. Children aged 4-5 years old were recruited at their medical center or at school, and information on sociodemographic, dietary, and life-style variables were collected through a self-administered online questionnaire. Dietary information was obtained from a validated 147-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. We calculated the CQI and categorized participants in quartiles according to their score. We assessed the intakes of 20 micronutrients and evaluated the probability of intake inadequacy using the Estimated Average Requirement cut-off point. Generalized estimating equations were used to adjust for potential confounders and account for the intra-cluster correlations between siblings. The adjusted proportions of children with inadequate intake of ≥3 micronutrients were 23%, 12%, 11% and 9% in the first, second, third and fourth quartiles of the CQI, respectively. Children in the highest quartile of CQI had 0.22-fold lower odds (95%CI 0.10-0.48) of having ≥3 inadequate micronutrient intakes than their peers in the lowest quartile. These findings reinforce the relevance of carbohydrate quality in children’s diets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0003.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: microalgae; photoautotrophy; heterotrophy; growth; pigment content; photoacclimation; weak light effect
Online: 1 October 2023 (07:23:01 CEST)
Four strains of green microalgae (Scenedesmus acutus, Scenedesmus vacuolatus, Chlorella sorokiniana and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) were compared for growth and pigment composition under photoautotrophic or heterotrophic conditions. Batch growth experiments were performed in multicultivators with online monitoring of optical density. For photoautotrophic growth, light-limited (CO2-sufficient) growth was analysed under different light intensities during exponential and deceleration growth phases. The specific growth rate, mesured during exponential phase, and the maximal biomass productivity, measured during deceleration phase, were not related to each other when different light intensities and different species were considered. This indicates species-dependent photoacclimation effects during cultivation time, which was confirmed by light-dependent changes in pigment contents and compositions when exponential and deceleration phases were compared. Except for C. reinhardtii, that does not grow on glucose, heterotrophic growth was promoted to similar extents by acetate or by glucose, however these two substrates led to different pigment compositions. Weak light increased pigment contents during heterotrophy in the four species, but was efficient in promoting growth only in S. acutus. C. sorokiniana and S. vacuolatus exhibited the best potential for heterotrophic biomass productivities both on glucose and acetate, with carotenoid (lutein) content being the highest in the former.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0010.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Discrete Mathematics And Combinatorics Keywords: Signed graph; Valid drawing; Tree; Unicyclic graph; Ladder graph
Online: 1 October 2023 (07:17:09 CEST)
A signed graph is an undirected graph such that all of its edges are labeled positive or negative. Let D be an embedding of a signed graph G in the Euclidean line. If in D for all of the vertices their positive neighbors are closer than the negative neighbors, then D is called a valid drawing of G. In this paper we show that signed trees, unicyclic graphs, and ladder graphs have a valid drawing in the Euclidean line.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2180.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: sleep apnea; professional drivers; snoring; screening; sleep disordered breathing
Online: 1 October 2023 (07:15:13 CEST)
Sleep apnea is common in professional truck drivers. As undiagnosed and/or untreated sleep apnea is a risk factor for sleepiness-related traffic accidents, it should be recognized. We develop a new, simple tool to screen sleep apnea in this population. Altogether, 2066 professional truck drivers received a structured questionnaire. 175 drivers had a clinical examination and were invited to sleep laboratory studies, including cardiorespiratory polygraphy. We studied associations of different risk factors with the presence of sleep apnea. We established a new simple screening tool for sleep apnea that was compared to other existing screening tools. 1095 drivers filled in the questionnaire. 172 drivers had successful cardiorespiratory polygraphy. Full data was available for 160 male drivers, who were included in the analyses. The following five risk factors for sleep apnea formed the BAMSA-score (0 to 5): BMI>30 kgm-2, Age>50 years, Male gender, Snoring at least on one night per week and presence of Apneas at least sometimes. BAMSA showed a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 78.8% in detecting AHI≥15, when using a cut point of 4 and the ROC area was 0.823. BAMSA is a sensitive and easy-to-use tool in predicting sleep apnea in male professional drivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2179.v1
Subject: Engineering, Metallurgy And Metallurgical Engineering Keywords: Convolutional Neural Networks; Computer Vision; Artificial Intelligence; Iron Ore Pellets; ISO 4698
Online: 1 October 2023 (07:12:52 CEST)
Iron ore processing involves critical steps that affect the quality of the final product. Determining the diameter of the pellets is the necessary initial step for volume measurement and, ultimately, for porosity and bulk density measurement, crucial characteristics for optimizing the burning process in the blast furnace. Traditional measurement methods using mercury present issues related to operator safety and environmental preservation, while the practices described in ISO 4698 standard require lengthy preparation and execution time. In light of environmental needs, operator safety, and the time consumed in tests, implementing a new method based on digital image processing and convolutional neural networks for measuring the diameter of burnt iron ore pellets is proposed. The methodology involves capturing images of the pellets using a high-resolution camera and utilizing digital image processing and neural networks capable of performing pixel-by-pixel object segmentation in the images, providing precise information about the pellets to calculate their volume automatically. The results were compared with those obtained using traditional methods, evaluating their conformity with the ISO 4698 standard. In conclusion, this study offers a new approach to measuring the volume of burnt iron ore pellets, providing accurate and reliable results in compliance with safety and environmental preservation standards.
Sat, 30 September 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1848.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: Carotenoid pigments; Fatty acids; Odontella aurita; Optimal growth condition; Ultrastructure; 18S rDNA
Online: 30 September 2023 (19:17:43 CEST)
Third-generation biomass production utilizing microalgae exhibits sustainable and environmentally friendly attributes, along with significant potential as a source of physiologically active compounds. However, the process of screening and localizing strains that are capable of producing high-value-added substances necessitates a significant amount of effort. In the present study, we have successfully isolated the indigenous marine diatom Odontella aurita OAOSH22 from the East coast of Korea. Subsequently, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of its morphological, molecular, and biochemical characteristics. Afterwards, comprehensive analysis was conducted on the morphological, molecular, and biochemical characteristics, along with testing for optimal growth conditions. The morphological characteristics of the isolate were observed using optical and electron microscopes, and it exhibited typical features of O. aurita. Additionally, the molecular phylogenetic inference derived from the sequence of the small-subunit 18S rDNA confirmed the classification of the microalgal strain as O. aurita. This isolate has been confirmed to contain 7.1 mg g-1 dry cell weight (DCW) of fucoxanthin, a powerful antioxidant substance, in terms of dry cell weight (DCW). In addition, this isolate contains 11.1 mg g-1 DCW of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which is one of the nutritionally essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. Therefore, this indigenous isolate exhibits a significant potential as a valuable source of bioactive substances for various bio-industrial applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2127.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: water remediation; soil remediation; air remediation; pollution; environmental pollutants
Online: 30 September 2023 (18:15:11 CEST)
The protection of all environmental compartments (water, soil, air) is of great interest for the normal functioning of life on Earth. Namely, the environment is systematically polluted with different concentrations of physical, biological and chemical pollutants. For the purpose of environmental protection, numerous in situ and ex situ biological, chemical and physical remediation techniques have been developed. Most techniques have limitations such as high costs, processing time and environmental feasibility. In general, biological techniques have proven to be the most environmentally friendly compared to chemical and physical techniques. Furthermore, remediation is an extremely complex procedure due to the complexity of the pollutant composition. Therefore, the implementation of individual physical, biological or chemical remediation techniques is often not sufficient for adequate remediation of the polluted environment. Accordingly, for more economical and efficient environmental remediation, it is recommended to use a combination of techniques that should meet the requirements of efficiency and treatment duration. Ultimately, this short review presents a concise overview of the recent application of physical, biological and chemical remediation techniques to all compartments of the polluted environment (water, air, soil). A critical review of existing knowledge on environmental remediation through a search of relevant literature helped to assess the basic challenges and limitations that arise in the issue of environmental remediation, as well as providing recommendations and guidelines for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2125.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Solution deposited OLEDs; TADF; device structural defects; OLEDs charge balance; efficient OLED simple structure
Online: 30 September 2023 (18:13:06 CEST)
The effects of the solvent used for the active layer materials of an OLED based on TADF emitters plays a fundamental role in solution-deposited devices. This work focuses the effects on the performance of different solvents employed to fabricate a very simple two organic layer OLED based on a green TADF emitter, under the concept of host:guest matrix. From the different results of the main figures of merit, it was possible to conclude that the OLED that used toluene as solvent for the active layer reached a maximum EQE of 14%, almost the maximum already obtained for this emitter in more complex device structures. With the analysis of the charge transport processes, it was possible to establish an explanatory model for the obtained results. Through impedance spectroscopy, additional characterization about the nature of charge transport processes was carried out. With these results, it was possible to corelate the relaxation times, with the electrical properties of the active layer, and infer about the interaction between the electrical charges and the defect levels opening new possibilities to further development in the printed OLEDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2124.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: anaerobic digestion; photo-fermentation; dark-fermentation; photo-irradiation; methane production; hydrogen sulfide consumption; waste sewage sludge
Online: 30 September 2023 (18:04:54 CEST)
Since a large amount of sewage sludge (WSS) has been generated daily, it is necessary to explore effective methods for utilizing WSS. Although a photo-fermentation system sometimes alters the characteristics of microbial functions, there are no attempts to perform the photo-fermentation using WSS which is regularly treated under a dark-fermentation style. In this study, the effect of photo-fermentation (photo-irradiation) on anaerobic digestion using WSS was revealed. Photo-irradiation during the anaerobic digestion of WSS significantly reduced the amount of organic acids and hydrogen sulfide and methane production was also suppressed. However, it was shown that the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in WSS under the light treatment increased. Photo-irradiation also stimulated the growth of green-sulfur bacteria and induced anoxygenic photosynthesis, by which the fermented samples turned green linking with the consumption of hydrogen sulfide. Finally, a dark/light switching fermentation was able to reduce only hydrogen sulfide while methane production remained the same.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2137.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Medical image analysis, Medical image data, Deep learning, Computer vision techniques, Optimisation methods
Online: 30 September 2023 (17:58:32 CEST)
Medical image analysis is an important branch in the field of medicine, which mainly uses image processing and analysis techniques to interpret and diagnose medical image data. Medical image data helps doctors to effectively observe and diagnose patients' body structures, tissues and lesions. Medical image analysis has been an important research area in the medical field, and it is important for disease diagnosis, treatment planning, and condition monitoring. In recent years, the rapid development of deep learning and computer vision technologies has contributed greatly to the automation, multimodal data fusion, real-time application, and accuracy improvement of medical image analysis. In addition, the development of deep learning has given rise to some new research areas in medical image analysis, such as Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) for synthetic medical images, self-supervised learning for unsupervised feature learning, and neural network interpretability. In this paper, we will introduce some optimisation methods for medical images which are effective in improving the accuracy, efficiency and reliability of medical image analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2114.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: Human; lifespan; aging; consciousness; brain; integration
Online: 30 September 2023 (17:55:59 CEST)
Human longevity is an important but difficult goal due to the extreme complication of human body. If people could repeatedly transfer their consciousness from old bodies to new ones, their lifespan might be prolonged extremely. However, there are several difficulties which prevent the achievement of such a technique. In this paper, we propose an approach that can transfer human consciousness indirectly, and avoid or significantly relieve those difficulties. The strategy of our approach is to integrate the consciousnesses of two bodies (old and new) into a unique consciousness. By doing so, the consciousness is extended to the new body. After that, the consciousness shrinks and remains in the new body when the old body dies. This may also apply to integrating more than two bodies of human, or animal, or even across different species. After investigating thousands of literatures, we find quite strong evidence (related discoveries and technologies) that can support the proposed approach and its advantages. Beside prolonging human lifespan, the approach could also have other meaningful applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2126.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: heterogeneous fluid; stratification; viscosity; compressibility; linear models; complete description; dispersion relations
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:54:13 CEST)
In natural, laboratory and industrial conditions, the density of a fluid or gas, depending on temperature, pressure, concentration of dissolved substances or suspended particles, changes under the influence of a large number of physical factors. We assume that undisturbed liquid is stratified. The analysis is based on a system of fundamental equations for the transfer of energy, momentum and matter in periodic flows of a viscous compressible fluid. The propagation of periodic flows in viscous uniformly stratified fluids is considered. Taking into account the compatibility condition, dispersion relations are constructed for two-dimensional internal, acoustic and surface linear disturbances with a positive definite frequency and complex wave number in a compressible viscous fluid exponentially stratified by density. The temperature conductivity and diffusion effects are neglected. The obtained regularly perturbed solutions to the equations describe weakly damped waves. Singular solutions characterize the thin ligaments that accompany each type of wave. In limiting cases, the constructed solutions transform into known expressions for a viscous homogeneous and ideal fluid or degenerate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0094.v4
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); depression; anxiety; memory; tryptophan; serotonin (5-HT); kynurenine; transaminases; conversion disorder; experimental animal models
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:34:01 CEST)
Memory and emotion, fundamental components of our mental existence, are highly vulnerable to psychiatric disorders like post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This condition has been linked to serotonin (5-HT) metabolism disruptions. Over 95% of the 5-HT precursor tryptophan (Trp) is metabolized through the Trp-kynurenine (KYN) metabolic pathway, but little is known about its role in behavior. Kynurenine aminotransferases are responsible for the production of the Trp-KYN metabolite kynurenic acid. The gene aadat codes for mitochondrial kynurenine aminotransferase isotype 2. We generated CRISPR/Cas9-induced aadat knockout (kat2−/−) mice to examine the consequence of the gene deletion on negative valence in emotion, memory, and motor function in males 8 weeks of age and compared them to their wild-type counterparts. The forced swim test showed increased depression-like behaviors in transgenic mice. Anxiety and memory tests showed no significant differences. The transgenic mice had fewer center field and corner entries, shorter ambulation distances, and fewer jumping counts in the open field test. Overall, the transgenic mice exhibit depression-like behavior in a learned helplessness model, emotional indifference, and motor deficits. Here we present the first evidence that the deletion of the aadat gene triggers depression-like behaviors, uniquely associated with despair experience rather than adverse-conditioned memory. These findings have profound implications, opening avenues for further exploration into the main causes of experience-based depression linked to despair. This investigation has the potential to advance our understanding of these complex conditions and pave the way for improved therapeutic strategies by elucidating the relationship between Trp metabolism and the pathogenesis of PTSD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2123.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: OLCI; harmful algal blooms; Pseudo-nitzschia spp.; support vector machine; multi-spectral sensors; reflectance; Galician rias
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:31:16 CEST)
Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms are a recurrent problem in many coastal areas globally imposing some significant threats to the health of human, ecosystems and economy. Monitoring programmes have been established, where feasible, to mitigate the impacts caused by Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and other harmful algae blooms. The detection of such blooms from satellite data could really provide timely information on emerging risks but the development of taxa-specific algorithms from available multispectral data is still challenged by coupled optical properties with other taxa and water constituents, availability of ground data and generalisation capabilities of algorithms. Here, we developed a new set of algorithms (PNOI) for the detection and monitoring of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms over the Galician coast (NW Iberian Peninsula) from Sentinel-3 OLCI reflectances using support vector machine (SVM). Our algorithm was trained and tested with reflectance data from 260 OLCI images and 4607 Pseudo-nitzschia spp. match up data points, of which 2171 were of high quality. The performance of no bloom/bloom model in the independent test set was robust, showing values of 0.80, 0.72 and 0.79 for area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Similar results were obtained by our below detection limit/presence model. We also present different model thresholds based on optimisation of true skill statistic (TSS) and F1-score. PNOI outperforms linear models, while its relationship with in-situ chlorophyll-a concentrations is weak demonstrating poor correlation with the phytoplankton abundance. We showcase the importance of PNOI algorithm and OLCI sensor for monitoring the bloom evolution between the weekly ground sampling and during periods of ground data absence, such as due to Covid-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: supersonic/hypersonic flow control; energy source; bow shock wave; drag force; lift force; boundary layer; separation area; filamentary plasma; plasma actuator; Richtmyer–Meshkov instability; pulsing flow mode; damping flow pulsations
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:30:53 CEST)
The Review examines studies aimed at the organization of energy (non-mechanical) control of high-speed flow/flight using spatially multi-component plasma structures and combined energy deposition. The Review covers selected works on experimental obtaining and numerical modeling multi-component plasma structures and use of sets of actuators based on the plasma of such a spatially type for the purposes of control of shock wave/bow shock wave – energy source interaction, as well as control of shock wave – boundary layer interaction. A series of works on repetitive multiple laser pulse plasma structures is also analyzed from the point of view of examining shock wave/bow shock wave boundary layer interaction. Self-sustained theoretical models for laser dual-pulse, multi-mode laser pulses and self-sustained glow discharge are also considered. Separate sections are devoted to high-speed flow control using combined physical phenomena and numerical prediction of flow control possibilities using thermal longitudinally layered plasma structures. The wide possibilities for organization and applying spatially multi-component structured plasma for the purposes of high-speed flow control are demonstrated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2115.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Maize; Omics; Stresses; Resistance; Crop Improvement
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:26:37 CEST)
Maize (Zea mays L.) stands as one of the most extensively cultivated crops globally, offering significant contributions to food, animal feed, and biofuel production. Maize yield is significantly impacted by diverse climate and soil variables, yet its productivity faces hindrances due to abiotic stresses, including drought, salinity, extreme temperatures, and cold conditions. In confronting these hurdles, the field of crop breeding has undergone a transformation thanks to high-throughput sequencing technologies (HSTs). These advancements have streamlined the identification of beneficial quantitative trait loci (QTL), associations between markers and traits (MTAs), as well as genes and alleles that contribute to crop improvement. Presently, well-established omics techniques such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics are being amalgamated into maize breeding studies. These approaches have unveiled new biological markers that are being employed to bolster maize's capacity to withstand an array of challenges. In this chapter, we explore the current knowledge regarding the morpho-physiological and molecular mechanisms that underlie the resistance and tolerance of maize to biotic and abiotic stresses. The focus is on utilizing omics techniques to augment maize's ability to withstand these challenges. Moreover, it emphasizes the significant potential of integrating various omics techniques to tackle the challenges presented by biotic and abiotic stress in maize productivity, contrasting with singular approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2162.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: heat transfer; gas turbine; turbulence intensity; Reynolds number; boundary layer
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:25:27 CEST)
The amount of heat transfer in gas turbine blades depends on cooling techniques and various flow phenomena. The effect of eddies, passing shock waves and free flow turbulence has been noticed by many researchers since the beginning. The focus of the upcoming work is on the numerical investigation of the effects of turbulence intensity and Reynolds number on the amount of heat transfer from the blade surface with internal cooling. The SST model has been used to solve this problem, which has been compared with the experimental work to ensure the correctness of the numerical simulation. In this regard, by changing the free flow turbulence intensity with values of 1, 5, 7, and 10% and at three Reynolds numbers of 150,000, 350,000, and 750,000, the changes in heat transfer coefficients have been investigated. The results show that with the increase of the turbulence intensity at different Reynolds numbers, due to the positive effect of the flow turbulence on the suppression of separation and promotion of the boundary layer transition, the blade surface heat transferincreases and this increase is more evident at higher Reynolds numbers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2070.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Vaping; E cigarette; lung injury; lung disorder; association; relationship; adults; long term impact; vaping risk -benefit analysis; attitudes; mental health; side effect; EVALI
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:23:06 CEST)
The electronic cigarette or e-cigarette is the new alternative method to deliver nicotine. In 2007, the United States introduced vaping devices on the market. Due to their attractive taste and lack of adverse effects, these vaping devices have gained popularity among youth and adults. However, there has been increasing evidence that vaping can cause severe lung injury, and these devices release toxic chemicals into the body. E-cigarettes are recognized as a global threat to public health. Nicotine, the most prevalent chemical in vaping devices, is associated with neurological problems and cognitive decline. Long-term use of e-cigarettes can cause adverse health problems, including respiratory illnesses, asthma, bronchitis, and lung inflammation. In 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) officially declared vaping-associated illness EVALI (e-cigarette or Vaping Product Associated Lung Injury). The US Surgeon General published an alarm in December 2016 that e-cigarette consumption among adolescents and teens in the US is a "major public health concern" and that more young people are now vaping than smoking traditional cigarettes and cigars. Since its commercial introduction in 2003, modern electronic cigarettes (or E-cigarette s) have become increasingly popular with smokers, non-smokers, and those who used to smoke who have switched to them. With such a rise in consumption, people are becoming more aware of the irritating, harmful, and perhaps cancer-causing effects on the lungs. (Chadi et al., 2019; Dinardo & Rome, 2019; Lyzwinski et al., 2022; Marrocco et al., 2022; O’Callaghan et al., 2022)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: magnetohydrodynamic; thermoacoustic; fuel cells; waste-fired power plant; zero emission power plant
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:21:28 CEST)
A layout of urban waste fired zero emission power plant is described in this paper. The principle of layout, which comes from similar coal-fired plants retrieved from the literature, integrates gasification with a power generation section, and implements two parallel conversion processes, one supplied by the heat of the gasifier consisting of a thermoacousticmagnetohydrodynamic (TAMHD) generator, while in the second one the syngas is treated in order to obtain almost pure hydrogen, which is fed to fuel cells. The CO2 deriving from the oxidation of Carbon base is stocked in liquid form. The novelty of the proposed layout lies in the fact that the entire conversion is performed without solid moving parts. The resulting plant avoids any type of emissions in the atmosphere, increases mechanical efficiency as compared to traditional plants, thanks to the absence of moving parts, nonetheless, resolving at its root the ever-increasing waste-related pollution problems.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2067.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Climate communication; storytelling; public engagement; climate action; sustainability
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:19:00 CEST)
For achieving climate targets, public engagement is key. Climate communication can play an important role here. Telling regional stories of successful climate action seems a promising form of climate communication: It may convey a feeling of ‘So this is what climate action looks like – and it is people like you and me who are starting to take action.’ This transformative research project (1) formulates hypotheses on what could make such local climate stories effective, (2) then identifies, produces and disseminates stories in the region of Konstanz, Germany, following a rapid prototyping approach, and (3) analyzes the effect of the stories by using focus groups. So far, two prototyping series of filmic story production have been completed in 2022/2023 and some initial insights were derived: Potential protagonists seem willing to tell their stories, and the stories have a potential to inspire people. Technical film quality is relevant. The stories must be selected and told carefully (who is portrayed, which actions are interpreted as success, through which channels are the stories shared), in order to create resonance with different target groups. Next steps are continuation of film production prototyping, a broader sharing of stories, and thorough impact research by focus groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2061.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: indoor positioning system; Bluetooth; Wi-Fi; wearables; energy efficiency
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:17:49 CEST)
In recent years, the application of Indoor Positioning Systems (IPS) has experienced a significant increase in demand, with the aging of the world’s population and their changing lifestyles. While outdoor positioning systems, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), have significantly advanced over the years, indoor positioning has been restrained by the limitations of the employed technologies. This paper presents a hybrid wireless positioning system able to locate wearables indoor accurately. It is based on the Wi-Fi and Bluetooth technologies, by using trilateration to determine the position of Bluetooth low energy (BLE) wearable devices with an accuracy of up to 1.8 meters. A graphical user interface (GUI) was used to illustrate the performance of the proposed systems, by allowing users to visualize the captured data in two dimensions and three- dimensions in real-time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2068.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: school buildings; building dynamic energy loss; microenvironment; occupants’ behavior
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:16:05 CEST)
The utilization of primary school buildings is multifaceted, primarily due to the high occupancy density, varying thermal preferences among occupants, diverse indoor activities (such as walking, sports, and conversation), and a constant flow of individuals entering and exiting the building. This results in frequent opening and closing of external windows and doors and fluctuations in internal heat gain. Consequently, frequent interactions between the indoor and outdoor microenvironments lead to energy losses. This study conducts a comprehensive literature review on building energy loss stemming from occupant behavior and the interactions between indoor and outdoor microenvironments. Furthermore, it proposes a dynamic real-time monitoring system based on a computer data capture and visualization platform foundation for building energy loss. The research methods include data crawling, data association rule mining, and data association analysis. The research findings yield a universally applicable and informative building energy-saving design theory based on extensive data analysis. Additionally, the system presents information on occupants' behavior and the microclimate data of indoor and outdoor environments on a computer screen, facilitating human-machine communication and enabling timely adjustments to design strategies for new buildings and operation and maintenance strategies for existing buildings.