REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1813.v1
Subject: Public, Environmental And Occupational Health, Public Health And Healthcare Keywords: bilirubin; cadmium; diabetes type 2; glucose homeostasis; gluconeogenesis; glycolysis; heme; heme oxygenase; hyperglycemia; mitochondria; obesity.
Online: 30 November 2023 (02:04:00 CET)
Cadmium (Cd) is a pervasive toxic metal, present in most food types, cigarette smoke, and contaminated air. It has no nutritional or physiological value, but most cells in the body will assimilate Cd, as its charge and ionic radius are similar to the essential metals, iron, zinc, and calcium (Fe, Zn, Ca), which are required for cellular metabolism and functional integrity. The kidney is regarded as the principal site of Cd toxicity as it preferentially accumulates in the proximal tubular epithelium here. As these cells die due to toxic accumulation, Cd complexed with metallothionein are released into tubular lumen and excreted. Excretion of Cd, signifying current renal cell toxicity, is used as a measure of long-term Cd exposure. Approximately 10% of the global population are now living with diabetes and over 80% of these are overweight or obese. This association has fueled an intense search for any exogenous chemicals and life-style factors that could induce excessive weight gain. Whilst epidemiological studies have clearly linked diabetes to Cd exposure, this appears to be independent of obesity. Indeed, obesity may enhance diabetogenic effects of Cd. This review highlights Cd exposure sources and levels associated with diabetes type 2 along with the pathophysiologic mechanisms by which Cd disrupt glucose metabolism. Special emphasis is on roles of the liver and kidney in glucose homeostasis, heme-glucose cross-talk, and the involvement of heme oxygenase-1 and -2 (HO-1 and HO-2). From heme degradation, both HO-1 and HO-2 release Fe, carbon monoxide and a precursor substrate for producing a cytoprotective biochemical, bilirubin, whilst HO-2 appears to have also anti-diabetic and anti-obese actions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1822.v1
Subject: Bioengineering, Engineering Keywords: prostate cancer; multiparametric (mp-MRI); machine learning
Online: 30 November 2023 (02:01:48 CET)
We developed a novel machine learning algorithm to augment clinical diagnosis of prostate cancer utilizing first and second-order texture analysis metrics and novel application of machine learning radiomics analysis. We successfully discriminated between significant prostate cancers versus non-tumor regions and provided accurate prediction between Gleason score cohorts with statistical sensitivity of greater than 0.91 sensitivity across three separate cohorts. Tumor heterogeneity and prediction between GS cohorts were quantified using two feature selection approaches and two classifiers with tuned hyperparameters (including grid search and randomized search). There was a total of 71 patients analyzed in this study. Multiparametric MRI, incorporating T2WI and the ADC maps, were used to derive radiomics features. Recursive feature elimination (RFE), the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and two classification approaches, including a support vector machine (SVM) (with grid search) and random forest (RF) (with randomized search), were utilized to differentiate between non-tumor regions versus significant cancer and prediction among Gleason score groups. In T2WI images, the RFE feature selection approach combined with RF and SVM classifiers outperformed LASSO with SVM and RF classifiers regarding performance. The detection precision of the radiomics framework depending on multiple imaging modalities was lower than the diagnostic accuracy of single imaging modality model with every machine learning approach assessed. The best performance was achieved by combining LASSO and SVM into a model that used both T2WI and ADC. This model had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.91. Radiomic features computed from ADC and T2WI images were used to predict three groups of Gleason score using two kinds of feature selection methods (RFE and LASSO), RF and SVM classifier models with tuned hyperparameters. Using combined sequences (T2WI and ADC map images) and combined radiomics (1st and GLCM features), LASSO, with a feature selection method with RF, was able to predict G3 with the highest sensitivity at a level AUC of 0.92. To predict G3 for single sequence (T2WI images) using GLCM features, LASSO with SVM achieved the highest sensitivity with an AUC of 0.92.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1815.v1
Subject: Astronomy And Astrophysics, Physical Sciences Keywords: cosmology: theory; dark matter; dark energy; inflation; galaxies: formation; rotation; weyl integrable geometry; dirac co-calculus
Online: 30 November 2023 (02:00:32 CET)
We present a summary of the main results within the Scale Invariant Vacuum (SIV) paradigm based on the Weyl Integrable Geometry (WIG) as an extension to the standard Einstein General Relativity (EGR). After a brief review of the mathematical framework, where we also highlight the connection between the weak-field SIV equations and the notion of un-proper time parametrization within the reparametrization paradigm, we continue with the main results related to early Universe; that is, applications to inflation, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, and the growth of the density fluctuations within the SIV. In the late time Universe the applications of the SIV paradigm are related to scale-invariant dynamics of galaxies, MOND, dark matter, and the dwarf spheroidals where one can find MOND to be a peculiar case of the SIV theory. Finally, within the recent time epoch, we highlight that some of the change in the length-of-the-day (LOD), about 0.92 cm/yr, can be accounted for by SIV effects in the Earth-Moon system.
Wed, 29 November 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1913.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Congestive heart failure; echocardiography; hand-held echocardiogram; heart failure; images, advanced practice providers
Online: 29 November 2023 (23:04:44 CET)
Objectives: Evaluate hand-held echocardiography (HHE) performed and interpreted by trained Advanced Practice Providers (APPs) on hospitalized CHF patients for image quality and interpretation, by comparing against expert echocardiographer and SE findings. Background: Congestive heart failure (CHF) is associated with increased hospital admissions and mortality. While standard echocardiogram (SE) is the gold standard for cardiac assessment, it is not readily available. Hospitalized CHF patients require rapid assessment for expedited treatment. Methods: Over 6 months, five trained APPs performed HHE on hospitalized CHF patients and interpreted: a) Left ventricular (LV) size, b) LV ejection fraction (LVEF), and c) right atrial pressure (RAP). The study echocardiographer reviewed and blindly interpreted HHE images and compared with APPs and SE findings. Kappa-statistics determined the degree of agreement between APPs and study echocardiographer interpretation of HHE images and SE. Results: 80 CHF patients [age 73±14 years, 58% males; LVEF (by SE) 45±19%; 36.3% body mass indexes ≥30 kg/m2] were enrolled. HHE interpretation by APPs had good agreement for LVEF (kappa 0.79) with study echocardiographer and SE (kappa 0.74), and good agreement for RAP (kappa 0.67) with study echocardiographer. Correlation between absolute LVEF interpretation by study echocardiographer on HHE and SE was r=0.88 (p<0.0001). Conclusions: Trained APPs obtained diagnostic-quality HHE images and interpreted LV function and RAP in CHF patients, with good agreement with the study echocardiographer. LVEF by HHE correlated with LVEF by SE. Our study suggests trained APPs can use HHE to evaluate LVEF and RAP in CHF patients leading to expedited and optimized treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1912.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: CMT process; welding automation; sheet metal; austenitic stainless-steel; Numerical simulation
Online: 29 November 2023 (16:50:59 CET)
The CMT (Cold Metal Transfer) arc welding process is a convenient instrument for the assembly of thin sheets , . More particularly, it permits the decrease of the amount of heat transferred to the parts to-be assembled, thus reducing their subsequent deformations. The present work aims at simulating the CMT welding of thin stainless-steel sheets in order to develop an approach that allows the prediction of temperature fields, as well as final deformations induced by the welding process. For that purpose, instrumented tests and numerical simulations were set aiming at comparing the experiments with simulations. Butt-welding of stainless-steel sheets was considered, with a thickness ranging from 1 to 1.2 mm. The weld seam samples were observed in order to set an equivalent heat source for each configuration. Moreover, the electric current and voltage were surveyed, and temperature measurements were performed using K-type thermocouples. In addition, displacement measurements were obtained using the DIC (Digital Image Correlation) technique. Thermomechanical simulations were then carried out using an equivalent heat source approach, considering the phase changes of elements, i.e. the transitions from solid to liquid and from liquid to solid. These simulations also consider the actual geometry of seams induced by addition of a filler material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1909.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Keyframe selection; Dimensionality Reduction; ReliefF; Bi-normal separation; Indexing; KD-tree; retrieval of flower video; Deep Flower
Online: 29 November 2023 (16:41:55 CET)
This paper presents a model for archival and retrieval of the videos of natural flowers. To design an efficient video retrieval system the stages namely, keyframe selection, feature extraction, feature dimensionality reduction and indexing are essential for fast browsing and accessing of videos. Three different keyframe selection approaches are proposed using clustering algorithms after segmenting flower regions from its background. Deep Convolutional Neural Network is used as a feature extractor. After keyframe selection, a video is represented with a set of keyframes. To reduce the feature dimension of a video, two feature selection methods are utilized. For an efficient archival and fast retrieval of flower videos an indexing method called KD-tree is recommended. For a given query video, similar videos are retrieved both in relative and absolute search modalities. An extensive experimentation conducted on a relatively large flower video dataset. The data set consists of 7788 videos of 30 different species of flowers. The videos are captured with three different devices in different resolutions. The comparative study reveals proposed keyframe selection approaches gives better results. It has also been observed that the videos retrieved in absolute approach with features selected from Binormal separation metric and indexing gives good results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1911.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: infrared thermal imaging; toddler’s fracture; bone fracture screening; infrared thermal image processing and analysis; artificial intelligence; emergency medicine; orthopaedics
Online: 29 November 2023 (16:40:58 CET)
The purpose of this study was to explore and develop high-resolution infrared thermal (HRIT) imaging for screening toddler’s fracture. A Toddler’s fracture is a common tibial fracture of children younger than 6 years old. Initial x-ray radiographs may not show the fracture and another x-ray during a follow-on visit is usually required. The study included 39 participants admitted to an emergency department with a suspected toddler’s fracture. X-ray confirmed 8 cases with a toddler’s fracture (20.5%). Infrared images of participants were recorded on their index visit, focusing on region-of-interests on the injured and the contralateral (uninjured) legs. The uninjured leg acted as a thermal reference. Nine statistical measures were extracted from the images: maximum, mini-mum, mean, standard deviation, median, mode, interquartile range, skewness, and kurtosis. Wilcoxon rank sum test indicated that maximum, mean, standard deviation, median, and inter quartile range temperature measures were significantly different (p<0.05) when comparing fractured and non-fractured legs. Principal component analysis of these measures highlighted distinct separation of toddler’s fracture and non-fracture cases. Similarly, plots of the statistical measures further confirmed clustering of toddler’s fracture cases. The study demonstrated that HRIT imaging can be a valuable tool for screening for toddler’s fracture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1667.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: masonry walls; CAM® System; shear behavior; reinforcement arrangement; diagonal compression test; pseudo-ductility; anisotropy; elastic moduli; Poisson’ s ratio.
Online: 29 November 2023 (16:14:38 CET)
Among all the active confinement techniques, the use of pre-tensioned stainless steel straps has recently gained much attention. The flexibility of the stainless steel straps allows us to bend and pass them through the thickness of the masonry, thus creating a three-dimensional strengthening system between the two opposite facings. The use of the same perforation for the passage of several straps closed in a loop generates a continuous strengthening system that prevents parts of the structure from falling and injuring the occupants during seismic events. However, the perforations can nullify the in-plane strengthening, as they act as cylindrical hinges and make the reinforcement system labile for certain strap arrangements. Diagonal compression tests on square masonry panels performed in the present study show that the straps improve neither strength nor ductility when running along the mortar head and bed joints, arranged in square meshes. Conversely, they improve both strength and ductility when the straps make angles of 45° with the mortar joints. Furthermore, the experimental results show that the straps exert an anisotropic effect that decreases the apparent in-plane Poisson ratio. They also provide new insights into the diagonal compression test and allow formulating a new proposal for the pseudo-ductility factor.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1910.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: ferret podoplanin; monoclonal antibody; epitope; PA scanning
Online: 29 November 2023 (16:08:28 CET)
In small animal models of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) infection, ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) have been used to investigate the pathogenesis. Podoplanin (PDPN) is an essential marker in lung type I alveolar epithelial cells, kidney podocytes, and lymphatic endothelial cells. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against ferret PDPN (ferPDPN) are useful for the pathological analyses of those tissues. We previously established an anti-ferPDPN mAb, PMab-292 using the Cell-Based Immunization and Screening (CBIS) method. In this study, we determined the critical epitope of PMab-292 using flow cytometry. The N-terminal ferPDPN deletion mutants analysis revealed that the Val34 is located at the N-terminus of the PMab-292 epitope. Furthermore, the PA tag-substituted analysis (PA scanning) showed that Asp39 is located at the C-terminus of PMab-292 epitope. The epitope sequence (34-VRPEDD-39) also exists between Val26 and Asp31 of ferPDPN, indicating that PMab-292recognizes the tandem repeat of the VRPEDD sequence of ferPDPN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1908.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Dispersive surface energy; specific acid-base surface energy; specific surface enthalpy and entropy of adsorption; Lewis’s acid base enthalpic and entropic constants; thermal effect.
Online: 29 November 2023 (16:05:19 CET)
This paper constitutes an original and new methodology for the determination of the surface properties of carbon fibers in the two oxidized and untreated forms by inverse gas chromatography technique at infinite dilution based on the effect of the temperature on the surface area of the various organic molecules adsorbed on the carbon fibers. The studied thermal effect proved a large deviation of the classical methods or models relative to the new determination of the surface properties of carbon fibers, such as the dispersive component of their surface energy, the free surface energy, the free specific energy, the enthalpy and entropy of adsorption of molecules on the carbon fibers. The obtained specific enthalpy and entropy of adsorption for the polar solvents led to the determination of the Lewis’s acid-base constants of carbon fibers. Different molecular models and chromatographic methods were used to quantify the surface thermodynamic properties of carbon fibers and compared to the thermal model. The obtained results proved that the oxidized carbon fibers gave more specific interaction energy and greater acid-base constants than that of the untreated carbon fibers and thus highlighting the important role of the oxidization on the acid-base of fibers. The determination of the specific acid-base surface energy of the two carbon fibers showed greater values of the oxidized carbon fibers relative to the untreated carbon fibers. An important basic character was highlighted for the two studied carbon fibers, larger than the acidic character. It was observed that the Lewis’s acid-base constants of the oxidized carbon fibers are larger than that of the untreated fibers with more accentuated basic charterer. This result was confirmed by all molecular models and chromatographic methods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1906.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Arousal threshold; NREM sleep; REM sleep; auditory system; visual system; olfactory system; pain; OFF periods
Online: 29 November 2023 (15:27:57 CET)
When we are asleep we lose the ability to promptly respond to external stimuli and yet we spend many hours every day in this inherently risky behavioral state. This simple fact strongly suggests that sleep must serve essential functions that rely on the brain going offline, on a daily basis, and for long periods of time. If these functions did not require partial sensory disconnection, it would be difficult to explain why they are not performed during waking. Paradoxically, despite its central role in defining sleep and what sleep does, sensory disconnection during sleep remains a mystery. We have a limited understanding of how it is implemented along the sensory pathways, we do not know whether the same mechanisms apply to all sensory modalities, nor do we know to which extent these mechanisms are shared between non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and REM sleep. The main goal of this contribution is to review some knowns and unknowns about sensory disconnection during sleep as a first step to fill this gap.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1901.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; SARS COV2; coronavirus; autoimmunity; molecular mimicry
Online: 29 November 2023 (15:25:59 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial impact on global health, notably the virus's association with autoimmune illnesses. Autoimmune illnesses occur when the immune system of the body targets healthy cells, causing damage and inflammation. The potential impact of COVID-19 on autoimmune disorders, the hazards of COVID-19 vaccinations for persons with autoimmune diseases, and the potential risks of COVID-19 vaccines are all discussed in this essay. COVID-19 can cause autoimmune illnesses by causing inflammation, organ and tissue damage, and molecular mimicry, in which the immune system mistakenly assaults healthy cells for the virus. However, not everyone infected with COVID-19 develops autoimmune disorders. While some research has found a link between COVID-19 and autoimmune illnesses, this does not always suggest causation. Other factors, such as genetics and environment, may also play a role in the emergence of autoimmune illnesses. COVID-19 can aggravate existing autoimmune disorders by causing the immune system to attack healthy cells, making management more difficult and increasing the risk of consequences. People with autoimmune disorders, on the other hand, may not be at a higher risk of severe COVID-19 than the general population. Some research has found that persons with autoimmune disorders are more likely to have severe COVID-19, whereas others have found no difference. COVID-19 vaccinations may represent dangers to persons with autoimmune illnesses since they contain antigens that can activate the immune system. Furthermore, due to their already overactive immune systems, some vaccines may not perform as well for people with autoimmune disorders, and some people with autoimmune diseases may have severe reactions to immunizations, producing inflammation and other symptoms. COVID-19 may not be any more hazardous to those with autoimmune illnesses than it is to the general population. The connection between COVID-19 and autoimmune disorders is complicated and under investigation. While some research implies that people with autoimmune disorders have a higher risk of severe COVID-19, others demonstrate no difference in death rates between them and the general population. There are also counterarguments that COVID-19 can induce and exacerbate autoimmune disorders, as well as worries about COVID-19 vaccine hazards for people who have autoimmune diseases. More research is required to completely understand the influence of COVID-19 on autoimmune illnesses, as well as the dangers and benefits of vaccinations for these people.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1898.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Digital Divide; Empowerment; Assistive Technology; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 29 November 2023 (15:24:09 CET)
Digital literacy is the ability to use digital technologies to find, evaluate, create, and communicate information. People with disabilities benefit from having these skills because they allow them to access various opportunities in the digital world. To ensure that they can fully participate in the digital realm, digital literacy efforts should prioritize inclusive design principles. People with disabilities often rely on assistive technologies such as screen readers, alternative input devices, voice recognition software, or specialized hardware to navigate digital platforms. Digital literacy programs should not only focus on consuming content but also on creating and sharing it through documents, multimedia, and online platforms. Peer support and collaboration are important for enhancing their learning experience. Additionally, digital literacy programs address cybersecurity or online safety considerations specific to such people and provide them training and support for using assistive technologies effectively while educating them about potential risks, privacy settings, and safe online practices. This narrative review highights the meaning and levels of digital literacy, digital divide, history, before expanding on the quantative metrics in the available research on the theme of people with disabilities. Retrieved data from freely accessible internet search engines revealed 196 publications, including books, chapters in books, original research articles, proceedings of seminars, and reviews, which were classified into harvest plots to be analyzed by their format, timelines, topics, or themes, respectively. While results indicate an upward curve in the quantity of publications, especially in the post-millennium era, the topics addressed are unevenly distributed, leaving scope for the future to focus empirical and evidence based research on themes related to measurement as well as training on digital literacies for both teachers and students with disabilities. By promoting digital literacy in people with disabilities, we can bridge the digital divide and empower them to participate fully in today's increasingly digital society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1893.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: CD200/CD200R; Elafin; celiac disease; gluten peptides; immune checkpoint.
Online: 29 November 2023 (15:23:09 CET)
(1) Background: We comprehensively evaluated the expression of therapeutically targetable immune checkpoint molecules on celiac disease. We have focused on the alteration of the CD200/CD200R pathway and Elafin expression in celiac disease and discussed their roles in regulating the immune response. There are limited data related to the expression or function of these molecules in celiac disease. This finding could significantly contribute to the understanding of the clinical manifestation of celiac disease; (2) Methods: CD200, CD200R and Elafin distribution was determined by ELISA and immunohistochemistry analyses in serum and biopsies of CD patients. Analyses of Th1 and Th17 cytokines were determined. PCR amplification of a fragment of the PI3 gene was carried out using genomic DNA isolated from whole blood samples of the study subjects. Different aliquots of the PCR reaction product were subjected to RFLP analysis for SNP genotyping and detection; (3) Results: We characterized the expression and function of the CD200–CD200R axis and PI3 in celiac disease. A significantly higher level of soluble CD200, CD200R and lower expression of PI3 in serum of CD patients was observed compared to healthy controls. Consistent with our results, CD200 expression is regulated by IFN-gamma. Interaction of CD200/CD200R leads to production of type Th1 and Th17 cytokines. Regarding the PI3 genotype, the CT genotype proportion SNP rs1733103 and the GG genotype SNP rs41282752, were predominant in CD patients. SNP rs1733103 showed a significant association between the SNP variables and CD; (4) Conclusions: In celiac disease the immune checkpoint is compromised or dysregulated, which can contribute to inflammation and the autoimmunity process. The study of these checkpoint points will led to the development of targeted therapies aimed at restoring immunological balance in CD. Specific coding regions of the PI3 gene splice variants predispose the Elafin protein, both at the transcriptional and post-translational levels, to modify its expression and function, resulting in reduced differential functional protein levels in patients with active celiac disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1904.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: polyvinyl chloride; pollution; aquatic environment; soil; degradation
Online: 29 November 2023 (15:22:02 CET)
Plastics have recently become an indispensable part of everyone's daily life due to their versatility, durability, light weight and low production costs. The increasing production and use of plastics poses a great danger due to the very long period of degradation, but also the negative impact on living organisms. Decomposing plastics lead to the formation of microplastics, which accumulate in the environment and living organisms becoming part of the food chain. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) contamination of soil and water seriously threatens ecosystems around the world. The durability and low weight make microplastic particles easily transported with water or air and end up in the soil. Thus, the problem of microplastic pollution affects the entire ecosystem. Since microplastics are commonly found in both drinking and bottled water, humans are also exposed to the harmful effects of microplastics. Because of the existing risks associated with PVC microplastic contamination of the ecosystem, intensive research is underway to develop methods to clean and eliminate it from the environment. Pollution of the environment with plastic, especially microplastic, results in the reduction of both water and soil resources used for agricultural and utility purposes. This review provides an overview of PVC's environmental impact and disposal options.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1895.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: lineage transition; prostate cancer; ID2; NEPC and DNPC
Online: 29 November 2023 (15:21:48 CET)
The use of ARPIs has led to an increase in the proportion of AR-null prostate cancer, including NEPC and DNPC, but the mechanism underlying this lineage transition has not been elucidated. We found that ID2 expression was increased in AR-null prostate cancer. In vitro and in vivo studies confirmed that ID2 promotes PCa malignancy and can confer resistance to enzalutamide in PCa cells. We generated a ID2 UP50 signature, which is capable to determine resistance to enzalutamide and also valuable for predicting patient prognosis. Functional experiments showed that ID2 could activate the stemness-associated JAK/STAT and FGFR signaling while inhibiting the AR signaling pathway. Our study indicates that ID2 promotes the acquisition of a stem-like phenotype in adenocarcinoma cells, leading to resistance to ADT and next-generation ARPIs in prostate cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1903.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antimicrobial peptide; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Diagnosis; Spot synthesis; Substitution Analysis; TB; anti TB compound
Online: 29 November 2023 (15:19:12 CET)
Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a predominant cause of mortality, especially in low- and middle-income nations. Recently antimicrobial peptides were discovered that at low concentrations could stimulate the growth of M. tuberculosis (hormetic response). In this study, such a peptide was used to investigate the effects on the time to positivity (TTP). A systematic substitution analysis of peptide 14D was synthesized using Spot synthesis technology, resulting in 171 novel peptides. Our findings revealed a spectrum of interactions, with some peptides accelerating M. tuberculosis growth, potentially aiding in faster diagnostics, while others exhibited inhibitory effects. Notably, peptide NH2-wkivfiwrr-CONH2 significantly reduced the TTP by 25 hours compared to the wild-type peptide 14D, highlighting its potential in improving TB diagnostics by culture. Several peptides demonstrated potent antimycobacterial activity, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 20 µg/mL against H37Rv and a multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strain. Additionally, a reduction in the formation of cord-like structures was observed, which is indicative of reduced virulence and transmission potential. This study underscores the multifaceted roles of antimicrobial peptides in TB management, from enhancing diagnostic efficiency to offering therapeutic avenues against M. tuberculosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1900.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: drug induced liver injury, emerging contaminant, oxidative stress, water pollution, agrochemical.
Online: 29 November 2023 (15:18:47 CET)
2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a globally used herbicide and is frequently found in water samples. This fact has prompted studies on its effects in non-target organisms, revealing significant alterations on liver structure and function. In this review, we evaluated the literature on the hepatotoxicity of 2,4-D, focusing on morphological damages, biomarkers of toxicity and affected liver functions. Searches were conducted on PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus and 83 articles were selected after curation. Among the studies, 72% used in vivo models and 30% used in vitro models. Additionally, 48% used the active ingredient, and 35% used commercial formu-lations in exposure experiments. The most affected biomarkers were related to a decrease in an-tioxidant capacity, including alterations in the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase, and in the levels of malondialdehyde. Changes in energy metabolism, lipids, liver function, and xenobiotic metabolism were also identified. Furthermore, we found studies about the effects of 2,4-D in mixtures with other pesticides, as well as hepatoprotection trials. The reviewed data in-dicate that the reduction in antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress play an important role in 2,4-D-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the mechanism of action of the herbicide is still not ful-ly understood and further research in this area is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1902.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Theoretical Physics Keywords: General Relativity; black holes; black hole shadow
Online: 29 November 2023 (14:22:27 CET)
We elucidate the versatility of intriguing symmetry and asymmetry phenomena outside and inside black holes. For description of the test particle (planet and photon) motion it is used the Kerr-Newman metric of the rotating and electrically charged black hole. In particular, it is demonstrated the symmetry and asymmetry of the one-way Einstein-Rosen bridge inside black hole toward and through the plethora of endless and infinite universes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1896.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Biocontrol; Diplodia seriata; Botryosphaeria dieback; Grapevine trunk diseases; GTDs; Botryosphaeriaceae; Pseudomonas; Rhodococcus; Demelanizing activity
Online: 29 November 2023 (13:48:37 CET)
Grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs) attack the vine's wood, devastating vineyards worldwide. Chile is the world's fourth largest wine exporter, and Cabernet Sauvignon leads the red wine varieties. Botryosphaeria dieback is an important GTDs and Diplodia seriata is one of the main pathogenic species. Biocontrol studies of these pathogens are commonly carried out at different incubation times but at a single temperature. This study aimed to evaluate the biocontrol effect of native Chilean bacteria against D. seriata isolates at different temperatures. We analyzed the biocontrol effects of Pseudomonas sp. GcR15a, Pseudomonas sp. AMCR2b and Rhodococcus sp. PU4, with three D. seriata isolates (PUCV 2120, PUCV 2142 and PUCV 2183) at 8, 22 and 35°C. Agar plug diffusion and double plate methods were used to evaluate the effect of diffusible and volatile organic compounds (DOC and VOC), and an in vivo test was performed with Cabernet Sauvignon cuttings. Pseudomonas strains showed the most significant inhibition in the DOC assay, and a demelanizing activity was observed. Rhodococcus sp. PU4 showed VOC biocontrol potential at high temperatures (35°C). In vivo, a biocontrol effect was observed against two D. seriata isolates, while the PUCV 2142 isolate proved to be more resistant to being controlled. The biocontrol ability at low temperatures is promising for effective control in the field, where infections occur primarily in winter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1894.v1
Subject: Engineering, Metallurgy And Metallurgical Engineering Keywords: tungsten pseudoalloys; high temperature alloys; tungsten recycling; energy storage systems
Online: 29 November 2023 (13:47:25 CET)
New ways of generating energy are currently being discussed, with a transition from traditional primary sources to more environmentally friendly options, particularly renewables. Energy storage is also closely related to this transition. Battery storage currently dominates this area. However, flywheel energy storage system (FESS) technology offers an alternative that uses stored kinetic energy to be transformed into mechanical energy and, using a motor-generator, electrical energy. FESS technology is thus flexible and can be applied in different industrial applications. The management of the technology of recycling W-MMC waste material from other products and the subsequent trial production of high-strength W-MMC material with a density of more than 17 500 kg/m3 from recycled powders allowed to test the limits of the so-called "heavy" flywheels used in rotor production. Materials with densities ≥ 7 800 kg/m3, and operating at lower to medium speeds up to 20 000 rpm. The results achieved lead to the conclusion that the developed recycled materials of the W-MMC type with a density ≥ 17 500 kg/m3, with a yield strength of 1 200 - 1 700 MPa depending on the production method, can be used as a substitute for the structural steels used today, without an enforced reduction of the maximum allowed rotor speed due to exceeding the maximum allowed stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1892.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: morphophysiological; fatty acids; life cycle; hormonal regulators
Online: 29 November 2023 (13:09:00 CET)
By virtue of the knowledge of the beneficial effect of the warm and dry storage, for the growth of the chincuya seed embryo, defined as morphological dormancy. The effect of the same type of storage was studied for the seed viability and germination by soaking gibberellic acid. Also, fatty acids and their kinetics were identified during the warm and dry storage. The following treatments were evaluated: storage time (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months), seed soaking in gibberellic acid at 350 mg L-1, and for the control, imbibition in distilled water, both for 72 h. The seed viability was evaluated through the stain test with tetrazolium chloride. The embedded seeds were germinated on absorbent paper towels and incubated at different temperatures of 30 ° C during the day and 25 ° C at night and 12 hours of photoperiod. The lipid profile was developed by gas chromatography. Seeds were held at constant temperature of 25 ± 3 ° C, in darkness, during the storage time. Results demon-strated that the high initial viability was maintained until the ninth month, when it decreases and is statisti-cally different from the other treatments. The smaller germination percentage (26.1 %) was observed in the freshly harvested seeds and, the higher one corresponded to the six months (65.6 %), with these differences being statistically significant. Regarding the identified fatty acids and their average content, it was found that 33.41 % corresponded to palmitic acid, 7.72 % to stearic acid; the arachidic acid with 1.30 %, making a total of saturated fatty acids of 42.44 %. The detected unsaturated fatty acids were: palmitoleic acid 1.52 %, oleic acid 43.37 % and linoleic acid 7.24 %, in total, 52.15 %. No significative changes were observed in the fatty acids content that are the largest part of the total seed reserves; although the higher concentrations matched with the longest germination (three months), with an average of 92.84 % total fatty acids. Specified regressions indi-cated with statistical robustness that palmitoleic and palmitic acids increased while the oleic acid decreased during the dry storage. The arachidic acid showed a slightly downward trend. Also, the concentrations of fat-ty acids were significatively different between unstored and unincubated seeds (intact) and unstored and in-cubated, but without germinating seeds (dormant), in the latter, the total fatty acids content was significantly lower. Given that the application of gibberellic acid and warm dry storage favored germination, as well as the change in fatty acid content during warm dry storage, added to the results already reported on morphological changes and embryonic growth as an effect of the same type of storage, it is established that Annona purpurea seeds present morphophysiological dormancy, also this is the first identification report of arachidic and pal-mitoleic acids in chincuya seeds and the higher germination percentage reported (65.6 %).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1883.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: COVID-19 vaccines; mRNA vaccine; SARS-CoV-2 spike; myocarditis; ACE2; renin-angiotensin system
Online: 29 November 2023 (12:20:42 CET)
Myocarditis has been recognized as a possible rare complication of COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. It concerns between one and five vaccinated people per 100,000 in the general population, with increased incidence in adolescent and young adult men. Most often, cases of myocarditis have been reported in the days following the second dose of vaccine mainly in younger male patients. This rare complication of vaccination usually resolves within days or weeks. However, the pathophysiological events responsible for the increase in frequency of myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination remain unclear. Several recent reports have highlighted that free spike proteins circulating in the blood of patients at high levels appear to play a major role in myocarditis. Here, we review the most relevant data that partly lift the veil on the molecular mechanisms of the induction of myocarditis following mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination. We hypothesize that a mechanism of molecular mimicry of the viral spike triggers transient dysregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, leading to increased soluble angiotensin II binding to the transmembrane receptor angiotensin II type I receptor, similar to what is observed during SARS-CoV-2 infection. We suggest to standardize management of suspected cases of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine-induced myocarditis, including angiotensin II and spike antigenemia monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1882.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: poxvirus; recombinant vaccine; preclinical model; vaccination elderly
Online: 29 November 2023 (12:19:37 CET)
Aging is associated with a decline in immune system functionality. So-called immunosenescence may impair successful vaccination of elderly people. Thus, improved vaccination strategies specifically adapted to an aged immune system are required. We characterized a recombinant MVA expressing a stabilized version of SARS-CoV-2 S protein (MVA-ST) in an aged-hamster model for COVID-19. Intramuscular MVA-ST immunization resulted in protection from disease and severe lung pathology. Importantly, protection correlated with potent activation of SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cells and neutralizing antibodies. Our results suggest that MVA vector vaccines merit further evaluation as clinical candidate vaccines in elderly people to overcome limitations of age-dependent immunosenescence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1889.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: polyphenols; antioxidant; functional food; anticancer; antidiabetic
Online: 29 November 2023 (12:17:34 CET)
In recent years, the evaluation of many plant-derived compounds as potential new drugs or functional foods has become an active research topic. The characteristics of quinces of the genera Cydonia, Chaenomeles and Pseuocydonia are largely similar, which is why these fruits are often confused. Although they have been appreciated in Asia for centuries as a valuable component of local ethnomedicine, they are less known in Western countries and scientific knowledge about their health benefits remains fragmentary. This literature review presents the bioactive compounds of these fruits with special emphasis on antioxidants. Most space has been devoted to the presentation of the biological activities and potential medical applications of the fruits due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, cardioprotective and antidiabetic effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1891.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: Eruca sativa; Skin barrier function; Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α ; Anti-inflammation; Docking simulation
Online: 29 November 2023 (12:16:32 CET)
Eruca sativa is a commonly used edible plant in Italian cuisine. E. sativa 70% ethanol extract (ES) was fractionated with five organic solvents. Ethyl acetate fraction(EEA) had the highest antioxidant activity, which was correlated with the total polyphenol and flavonoid content. ES and EEA acted as PPAR-α ligands by PPAR-α competitive binding assay. EEA significantly increased cornified envelope formation as a keratinocyte terminal differentiation marker in HaCaT cells. Further, it significantly reduced nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The main flavonol forms detected in high amounts from EEA are mono-, and di-glycoside of each aglycone. Flavonol mono-glycosides were shown to be a potent PPAR-α ligand using molecular docking simulation and showed the inhibition of nitric oxide. These results suggest that E. sativa is suitable for use in improving skin barrier function and inflammation in skin disorders, such as atopic dermatitis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1888.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: deep learning; convolutional neural networks; image analysis; machine learning; ResNetV50; skin lesions; VGG16; cancer; computer vision
Online: 29 November 2023 (11:33:49 CET)
Skin cancer is one of the widespread diseases that typically develop on the skin due to continuous exposure to sunlight. Although cancer can appear on any part of the human body, skin cancer reports account for over half of all cancer occurrences worldwide. There are substantial obstacles to the precise diagnosis and classification of skin lesions because of the morphological variety and indistinguishable characteristics across skin malignancies. Recently, Deep Learning models have been used in the field of image-based lesion diagnosis, and it has demonstrated diagnostic efficiency on par with that of dermatologists. To increase classification efficiency and accuracy for skin lesions, a cutting-edge multi-layer deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) termed SkinLesNet has been built in this study. The ResNetV50 and VGG16 models have been carefully compared to review the performance of the proposed model. The dataset used in this study, PAD-UFES-20, contains 1314 samples in total and includes three common forms of skin lesions. The proposed approach, SkinLesNet, significantly outperforms the well-known compared models in the given conditions
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1814.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: Wall-bounded nonionised turbulent flows; Magnetically-bounded fusion plasmas; Transport barriers; Coherent structures; Logarithmic and wake regions; Core turbulence; High Reynolds number transition
Online: 29 November 2023 (11:14:53 CET)
This paper is a first attempt at bringing together various concepts from research on wall- and magnetically-bounded turbulent flows. Brief reviews of both fields are provided: The main similarities identified are transport barriers, coherent (turbulent) structures and flow generation. Examples are provided and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1806.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Thermodynamics Keywords: physical measurement; information gain; event generation; physical action; energy dissipation; spacetime extention; relativistic invariance
Online: 29 November 2023 (11:12:38 CET)
It is argued that all physical knowledge ultimately stems from observation and that the simplest possible observation is that an event has happened at a certain space-time location . Considering historic experiments, which had been groundbreaking in the evolution of our modern ideas of matter on the atomic, nuclear and elementary particle scales, it is shown that such experiments produce as outputs macroscopically observable events which represent binary decisions with regard to simple alternatives and which accumulate in the course of time into spatio-temporal patterns whose forms allow decisions to be taken concerning conceivable alternatives of explanation. Working towards elucidating the physical and information-theoretic characteristics of those elementary pieces of information we arrive at the conclusion that - unlike the events of relativity which are mere 4-tuples of spacetime coordinates - the events of observation are pieces of information endowed with the properties of physical action, spacetime extension, and Lorentz invariance. Another important aspect is that such events are produced at the expense of irreversibly dissipating energy which can be stated in Landauer diction in the form that more energy needs to be spent in the erasure of events than had previously been invested in their initiation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1852.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: robotics; automation; robot machining; workpiece surface polishing; collaborative robot; manipulability; complex surface geometry; motion planning
Online: 29 November 2023 (11:09:38 CET)
Robot workpiece machining is interesting in industry since it offers some advantages, such as higher flexibility in comparison with the conventional approach based on the CNC technology. However, in recent years we have been facing a strong progressive shift to custom based manufacturing and low volume/high mix production, which require a novel approach to automation by the employment of collaborative robotics. However, collaborative robots feature only limited motion capability, to provide safety in cooperation with human workers. Thus, it is highly necessary to perform more detailed robot task planning to ensure its feasibility and optimal performance. In this paper, we deal with the problem of studying kinematic robot performance in the case of such manufacturing tasks, where the robot tool is constrained to follow the machining path embedded on the workpiece surface at a prescribed orientation. The presented approach is based on the well-known concept of manipulability, although the latter suffers from physical inconsistency due to mixing different units of linear and angular velocity in a general 6 DOF task case. Therefore, we introduce the characteristics of the workpiece surface constraint in the robot kinematic analysis, that enables evaluation of its available velocity capability in a reduced dimension space. Such constrained robot kinematics transform the robot`s task space to a two-dimensional surface tangent plane, and the manipulability analysis may be limited to the space of linear velocity only. Thus, the problem of physical inconsistency is avoided effectively. We show the theoretical derivation of the proposed method, which was verified by numerical experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2041.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: hospital accreditation; institutional logics; organizational practices; strategic responses; institutional theory
Online: 29 November 2023 (11:09:33 CET)
Background: Hospital accreditation has become ubiquitous in developing countries. Although studies recognize that accreditation can improve healthcare quality, efficiency, and safety, there are doubts about how hospitals deal with conflicts caused by the different institutional logics that inhabit this process. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate how professional and market logics, as well as the conflict between institutional demands, affect compliance with hospital accreditation. Methods: To this end, we developed a multiple case study in four Brazilian hospitals through in-depth interviews with sixteen participants (managers, physicians, nurses, physiotherapist) and on-site observation by the triangulation between the analysis of the narratives and the results of the multiple correspondence analysis. The interpretation and subsequent categorization of the interviews were guided by the study's analytical categories: institutional logics (professional and market); adoption objectives (legitimacy and efficiency); strategic responses to adoption (conformity, non-conformity, and customization); nature of demands (origin in the means and in goal). Results. The data showed that when professional logic is prominent, there is a greater tendency to customize activities, as there are conflicts in the means by which activities can be developed. When market logic stands out, there is a risk of non-conformity, mainly because the focus falls exclusively on goals. Finally, the data point to the absence of conflicts between justifications related to efficiency and legitimacy. Conclusion. We conclude the study by highlighting the theoretical and practical implications of recognizing the conflict between logics, contributing to a deeper understanding of how logic influences the attention given to specific demands and, more significantly, how they affect compliance with hospital accreditation standards, expanding the body of knowledge in the area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1853.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: Aviation; Marine propulsion; Combustion chamber; high power to fuel ratio; Gas turbine engines
Online: 29 November 2023 (11:08:52 CET)
Gas turbine engines are widely used in various industries such as aviation, power generation, and marine propulsion due to their high efficiency and reliability. The combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine design contains a number of elements, including as the chamber's size and form, the fuel injection system, the ignition system, and the cooling system and it plays a critical role in the performance and efficiency of the engine. This research discusses the fabrication of a combustion chamber model for a gas turbine engine. The aim of this research is to develop a combustion chamber that is cost-effective, easily available, and can be fabricated in less time. The research covers the different types of combustion chambers used in gas turbine engines and compares their advantages and disadvantages. It then selects the best type of combustion chamber for the gas turbine engine based on its cost, availability, and fabrication time, Efficiency and high power to fuel ratio. The report also describes the fabrication process involved, including the techniques and materials used, along with safety precautions and environmental protection measures. Lastly, the research suggests future improvements and potential applications for the fabricated combustion chamber model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1858.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Bioplastic; Biodegradation; PLA; PBS; PBSA; Microbes; Composting; Anaerobic digestion
Online: 29 November 2023 (11:08:38 CET)
The emergence of bioplastics presents a promising solution to the environmental impact of the plastics industry. Biodegradable plastics are engineered to degrade in aquatic or soil environments. Biodegradable bioplastics can degrade in these conditions, according to sustainability standards, and have a low environmental impact. However, not all bioplastics are completely biodegradable, and some, like petrochemical-based plastics, may contribute to plastic pollution. In this comprehensive review, we identify the biodegradability of significant bioplastics, including polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), and PBS-co-adipate (PBSA) in different environmental conditions given in the literature. Microbe-based bioplastics made from renewable materials like microalgae provide a sustainable alternative due to their high biodegradability compared to other bioplastics. However, we recognize concerns regarding the ecotoxicological impact of these alternatives on soil and aquatic organisms and recommend future research to observe the ecotoxicological behavior of biodegradation by-products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0399.v44
Subject: Physical Sciences, Theoretical Physics Keywords: spacetime; cosmology; Hubble constant; Hubble diagram; quantum mechanics
Online: 29 November 2023 (11:08:20 CET)
Special and general relativity (SR/GR) describe nature subjectively. Mathematically, they are correct. Here I show: (1) Physically, SR/GR have an issue. Both theories describe nature from the perspective of just one observer each (one group of observers, to be exact). After a transformation, there is again just one active perspective. Because of this constraint, there is no holistic view of nature. The issue manifests itself in the fact that SR/GR have not solved several mysteries, such as the Hubble tension, dark energy, and non-locality. Still, SR/GR work well for each observer because the Lorentz factor and gravitational time dilation are correct. (2) Euclidean relativity (ER) describes nature objectively. Any (!) object’s proper space d1, d2, d3 and its proper time τ span “natural spacetime”, which is 4D Euclidean space (ES) if we interpret cτ as d4. All energy moves through ES at the speed of light c. Each observer’s reality is created by projecting ES orthogonally to his proper space and to his proper time. These two concepts are reassembled in SR/GR to a non-Euclidean spacetime. Since information is lost in each projection, the performance of SR/GR is limited. However, the SO(4) symmetry of ES is not compatible with waves. This is fine because ER tells us that wave and particle are subjective concepts: What I deem wave, deems itself particle at rest. We must distinguish between the master reality ES (without waves) and an observer’s reality (with waves). I conclude: A holistic view of nature is a necessary requirement for solving the Hubble tension, dark energy, and non-locality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1842.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: gait; perturbations; treadmill; provoked trips; provoked slips; entropy
Online: 29 November 2023 (11:07:14 CET)
Background: This study aimed to investigate how external perturbations caused by the treadmill belt's acceleration (Acc) and deceleration (Dec) during the Initial Contact (Initial), Mid Stance (Mid) and Pre-Swing (ToeOff) phase affect gait regularity in young adults. Methods: Twenty-one healthy young females walked on a treadmill in a virtual environment (Grail, Motek), where four unexpected perturbations were applied to the left belt at Initial, Mid, and ToeOff. Sample Entropy (SampEn) was calculated for the center of mass (CoM) displacements, for six perturbation scenarios in three directions: anterior-posterior (AP), medial-lateral (ML), and vertical (vert), with SampEn vector lengths (m) ranging from 2 to 10. Results: The CoM displacement exhibited its highest regularity (low SampEn values) in the AP and vert-directions during Dec_ToeOff, across all m values. Similarly, this pattern was observed in the ML-direction, but exclusively for m = 2 and 4. The least regular CoM trajectories (high SampEn values) were for Dec_Mid in the AP-direction, across all m values. This trend persisted in the ML-direction, only for m = 2 and 4. However, the most irregular CoM displacements in the ML-direction occurred during Dec_ToeOff for the remaining m values. Vertical CoM displacements exhibited the highest irregularities during Dec_Initial for m ≥ 4. Conclusions: Evaluating the regularity of CoM displacements using SampEn can be a useful tool for assessing how gait perturbations are handled.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1846.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: natural products; new compounds; plants
Online: 29 November 2023 (11:07:01 CET)
In view of the diminishing contribution of natural products from plants to the discovery of new chemical structures, the aim of this study was to compile the articles from 2021 to 2022, assessing: (1) which classes of compounds these new structures belong to; (2) which plants and families these compounds belong to and (3) assessing the degree of novelty of the compound with an already known structure. The review was elaborate following the Preferred Reporting Items for System-atics Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement checklist for guide reporting of systematic reviews. A total of 464 articles were selected for the new compounds of natural origin survey. We included 117 complete articles in this review and reported approximately 109 new structures elucidated during the years 2021 and 2022. Many of the compounds showed small structural var-iations in relation to already known molecules. For some, however, this small modification was decisive for the biological activity reported, demonstrating the importance of descriptive phytochemical studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1844.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: CREB; PMMA; micro-plastics; confocal microscopy; nano-plastics
Online: 29 November 2023 (11:06:17 CET)
Both the use of plastic and its decomposition products lead to the distribution of plastic all over the earth and finally to the uptake by all kind of living beings including humans. Still, it is widely unknown what risks harbor the widespread uptake of plastics for human health, espe-cially regarding contributing factors like size, shape and surface composition. We assessed the uptake of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-nano- and microbeads for HEK293-, A549- and MRC5 cells. Via confocal microscopy, we localized multiple PMMA-beads inside the cytosol of cells. Uptake of PMMA-beads did not alter cell growth and cell division, implying no short-term toxicity towards human cells. Further, we used a cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-mediated reporter assay to assess whether internalized PMMA-nanobeads alter cell-signaling pathways. In contrast to the in vitro transcription, where the addition of PMMA-nanobeads abolished the transcription, no changes regarding CREB-mediated cell sig-naling are given in HEK293-cells. Our data led to the assumption that PMMA-nano-and mi-crobeads are internalized via endocytosis and end up as lysosomes within the cells cytosol. Therefore, we concluded differences regarding the surface composition of the PMMA-nanobeads mainly affect its potential to alter cell signaling. These findings emphasize the key role the sur-face composition plays regarding microplastic and its risks for human health.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0807.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; beta-amyloid toxicity; amyloid depositions; cellular uptake; lysosome
Online: 29 November 2023 (11:06:02 CET)
The manuscript presents the comprehensive integrative theory of the etiology and pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease - the amyloid degradation toxicity hypothesis - and describes the logic that underlies it.The analysis of amyloid biomarkers and stable-isotope label kinetics (SILK) studies suggest that AD diagnosis is associated with higher cellular uptake of beta-amyloid. Uptake of beta-amyloid by cells is needed for its cytotoxicity, so the uptake rate should correlate with the rate of neurodegeneration. Also, the initial step in forming extracellular aggregates cannot occur in the interstitial fluid due to the extremely low concentration of beta-amyloid but can occur intralysosomally. Therefore, the density of extracellular aggregates should positively correlate with the rate of cellular amyloid uptake. The model, which considers that both cytotoxicity and aggregation of beta-amyloid are defined by cellular uptake, successfully reproduces the probability distribution of AD diagnosis in the population. Cellular uptake of beta-amyloid is mediated by endocytosis. Endocytosed beta-amyloid induces lysosomal permeabilization that occurs without plasma membrane damage. Lysosomal permeabilization explains ion disturbances, such as an accumulation of intracellular calcium, caused by cell exposure to extracellular beta-amyloid. Some amyloid fragments, produced from beta-amyloid by lysosomal proteases, can form membrane channels in lysosomal membranes, which are large enough to leak cathepsins to the cytoplasm. Appearance of proteases in the cytoplasm results in necrosis and/or initiation of apoptosis. If the cell survives, the damage of lysosomes leads to autophagy failure and slow recycling of mitochondria, promoting the production of reactive oxygen species and potentiating cell damage.Considering the above, the integrative theory of AD etiology and pathogenesis can be formulated. The etiology of AD is the membrane channel formation by amyloid fragments produced in lysosomes. The pathogenesis includes lysosomal permeabilization by giant membrane channels, which leak lysosomal proteases into the cytoplasm. The correlation between the density of amyloid aggregates and the probability of AD appears because the intensity of cellular uptake defines both aggregation rates in vivo and cytotoxicity of beta-amyloid.The amyloid degradation toxicity hypothesis is the integrative theory of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It successfully interprets multiple phenomena and paradoxes associated with AD pathobiology at various levels, from molecular and cellular to biomarkers. The hypothesis explains the limitations of currently used biomarkers of AD and proposes etiology-related parameters. These parameters could be measured in humans and become novel diagnostic and prognostic clinical tools. Based on the proposed framework, we foresee the development of effective medications to treat, stall the progression of, or prevent disease development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1845.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: aphids; shrubs; gas exchange; photosynthetic pigments; CHN partition
Online: 29 November 2023 (11:05:44 CET)
Shrubs are a significant component of urban vegetation residing in parks, but they experience various influences of biotic and abiotic agents, among which aphids play an important role. In this work, the effect of aphid colonization on three shrub species in urban environment was examined. Fourteen parameters have been analyzed, describing photosynthetic pigment content and gas exchange to carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen partition. While no significant effect of colonization was found on photosynthetic pigment parameters, the effect was significant on gas exchange parameters. The strongest effect aphid colonization achieved on nitrogen partition and C/N ratio, parameters that could be suggested in further similar studies. All parameters were classified in two groups according to principal component analysis, suggesting correlation between nitrogen and carbon content, C/N ratio, measured gas exchange parameters and chlorophyll a content. The ratio between net photosynthesis and dark respiration (A/K) was in the second group, suggesting that this parameter provide additional information on the effect of aphid colonization, and deserve special attention in further studies. There were differences in reaction of examined shrub species, where the strongest reaction by gross primary productivity (GPP) achieved Hybiscus syriacus, and by nitrogen partition and C/N ratio Spirea trilobata and Cydonia japonica.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1862.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Ex-situ conservation; exotic species; Gullele; invasive species; native species
Online: 29 November 2023 (11:05:04 CET)
Gullele Botanic Garden was established to preserve and safeguard indigenous, rare, endemic and endangered plant species that have economic significance. A study was conducted to identify and map non-native plant species that exist in various land use types, including natural vegetation, plantation, roadside, and garden edges. The research involved placing plots at different distances in each land use type and collecting vegetation data with geo-location information for exotic and invasive species. The data was analyzed using Sorensen's similarity index to measure the similarity between plant communities. Invasive species were identified using ArcGIS, and descriptive statistical methods were employed to analyze the remaining data. The recorded a total of 80 plant species belonging to 70 genera in 44 families in the garden, with Fabaceae and Asteraceae having the most species. Acacia decurrens, Acacia melanoxylon, Cuscuta campestris, Galinsoga parviflora, Nerium oleander, and Cyathula uncinulata are the most prevalent invasive or potentially invasive species among the species that have been documented. These species are spreading quickly and may displace native plant species if not properly managed. The study found that roadside and garden edge land use types had the most diverse exotic plants, with Acacia decurrens, Nerium oleander, Acacia melanoxylon, Agave species, Cyathula uncinulata, and Eucalyptus species being the most dominant exotic species in the garden. The total density of exotic species was 2.36 plants/m2. The study provides valuable information for managing and conserving both native and exotic plant species in the garden.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1816.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: essential antimicrobials; essential medicine list; drug procurement; gap analysis; paediatric antibiotic formulations
Online: 29 November 2023 (11:04:15 CET)
(1) Background: There is a need to assess the availability of essential antimicrobials as the availability of an antimicrobial is a critical element of its rational use. We aimed to assess the availability of antimicrobials listed in National List of Essential Medicines 2015, India (primary list) and a selected (secondary) list comprising of agents indicated for commonly encountered infectious illnesses in various healthcare settings and to identify the reasons for their non-availability. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 25 public, private, and other sector pharmacies was carried out in Rohtak, a district of North Indian state of Haryana, from April to June 2022. (3) Results: Most of the antimicrobials surveyed were optimally available in various sector pharmacies with the exception of benzathine benzyl penicillin, benzyl penicillin, cloxacillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, cefadroxil, amphotericin B and antimalarials. Most frequent reasons for limited availability were low demand, no prescriptions and non-listing of drugs in state essential medicine list. (4) Conclusions: Enough evidence needs to be generated with respect to status of availability of essential antimicrobials from different regions of India as well as other lower-middle income countries to devise measures for ascertaining better availability of these agents especially antibiotics at regional, national and global scales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1886.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C), Chenopodium quinoa, genome-wide, abiotic stress
Online: 29 November 2023 (11:03:10 CET)
Plant protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs) serve as negative regulators of protein kinase cascades activated in different processes and play important roles in plant development and abiotic-stress-mediated signaling pathways. In this study, a genome-wide study was conducted on the CqPP2C gene family. A total of putative 117 CqPP2C genes were identified. Comprehensive analyses of physical and chemical feature, chromosome localization and subcellular localization were conducted. According to phylogenetic analysis, CqPP2Cs were divided into 13 subfamilies. CqPP2Cs in the same subfamily had similar gene structure, conserved motif and all the CqPP2C proteins had the type 2C phosphatase domains. Gene duplication revealed that segmental duplication was the major driving force for CqPP2Cs expansion and all duplicated CqPP2Cs evolved from purifying selection. The expression of CqPP2Cs in various tissues under different abiotic stresses was analyzed using RNA-seq data. The results revealed that CqPP2C genes were involved in regulating development and stress responses of quinoa. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of six CqPP2C genes in subfamily A revealed that they were up-regulated or down-regulated under salt and drought treatments. Furthermore, the results of yeast two-hybrid assays revealed that subfamily A CqPP2Cs interacted not only with subclass III CqSnRK2s, but also with subclass II CqSnRK2s. Subfamily A CqPP2Cs could interact with CqSnRK2s in different combinations and intensities to respond to various biological processes and stresses. Overall, our results will be useful for understanding the functions of CqPP2C in regulating ABA signals and responding to abiotic stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1847.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Extruded apple pomace; biocomposites; starch potato; mechanical properties; thermal analysis.
Online: 29 November 2023 (11:02:00 CET)
The paper presents research results on biocomposites made from a combination of extruded apple pomace (EAP) and potato starch (SP). The products were manufactured by hot pressing using a hydraulic press with a mold for producing samples. The prepared biocomposites were subjected to strength tests, surface wettability was determined and color analysis was carried out. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and cross section observed in Scanning electron microscope (SEM) were also performed. The obtained test results showed that the combination of apple pomace (EAP) and starch (SP) enabled the production of compact bicomposite materials. At the same time, it was found that each increase in the share of starch in the mixture for producing biocomposites increased the strength parameters of the obtained materials. With the highest share of starch in the mixture, 40%, and a raw material moisture content of 14%, the material had the best strength parameters and was even characterized by hydrophobic properties. It was also found that materials with a high content of starch are characterized by increased temperature resistance. Analysis of SEM microscopic photos showed well-glued particles of apple pomace, pectin, gelatinized starch and a smooth external structure of the samples. Research and analyzes have shown that apple pomace reinforced only with the addition of starch can be a promising raw material for the production of simple, biodegradable biocomposite materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1849.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: antioxidant activity; biotechnology; functional groups; hydrolysate; microbial population; molecular weight; gelatin
Online: 29 November 2023 (11:01:37 CET)
Chicken collagen is a promising raw material source to produce gelatins and hydrolysates. Gelatins and hydrolysates can be prepared biotechnologically using proteolytic enzymes produced by submerged fermentation of genetically modified microorganisms. By choosing the appropriate process conditions, such changes can be achieved at the molecular level of collagen, making it possible to prepare products with targeted properties for advanced cosmetic, pharmaceutical, medical or food applications. The research aims to investigate: i) antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS) in model samples of chicken collagen products (gelatin and hydrolysates); ii) distribution of molecular weights by the GPC-RID analysis method; iii) functional groups and configuration of polypeptide chains related to molecular level properties using FTIR; iv) the microbiological properties on SDA, PCA, TSA and VRBL microbial populations using MALDI method. Antioxidant activity towards ABTS radicals of more than 80% was found for all samples. The molecular weights of all gelatin samples showed typical α- and β-chains. FTIR analysis confirmed that the samples showed all typical vibrational regions for collagen cleavage products, Amide A and B, Amide I, II, and III at characteristic values. Microbiological analysis of the prepared samples showed no undesirable bacteria that would limit advanced applications of the prepared products. Gelatins and hydrolysates from chicken stomachs represent a promising alternative to products made from standard collagen tissues of terrestrial animals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1876.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: permeability; OTR; natural cork stopper; chemiluminescence
Online: 29 November 2023 (11:01:29 CET)
The importance of oxygen role during aging process of wine has been long known. Many articles evaluating oxygen inlet for different wine stoppers have been published. However, none of these have studied the impact of the natural cork stoppers production process over oxygen inlet. At the moment, a standardized methodology widely accepted for measuring the oxygen transfer rate (OTR) and/or oxygen permeability of the stopper does not exist. Thus, this article is focused on the aging process (the final phase of the winemaking) and aims to test how some production process of natural cork stoppers impact on the stoppers permeability using chemiluminescence methodology and how also this affects wine ageing. In this study it has been seen that some of its processes such as the application of a surface treatment modify the permeability of the stopper. Surface plays an important role in the corks stoppers production and allows an easier insertion and extraction of the stopper into the bottle, avoiding leaks and homogenizing the stoppers. It was shown that the cork stoppers sample with surface treatment 1 had three times higher oxygen transfer rate than the cork stoppers sample with surface treatment 2 after one year of evolution. The two groups of stoppers had the same in terms of dimensions, density, visual class, batch and manufacture, the only difference between them was the surface treatment used. A red wine was corked with these two types of cork stoppers and its evolution was monitored up to 30 months of ageing. Differences were observed in the evolution of the wines both in certain oenological parameters such as the free SO2, the colour and the evolution of the polyphenols as well as at the sensory level. The wine corked with the stoppers of treatment 1 presented a faster evolution and a higher valuation in the sensory tastes of months 12th, while from the 18th month it presented an over evolution, and the score was below that of the wine with the corks of treatment 2.The data collected in this study shows that the differences observed with the chemiluminescence methodology of cork permeability test at a laboratory level are transferred to wine at the cellar. Therefore, it paves the way to standardize chemiluminescence as a methodology for permeability testing of cork stoppers. This opens a new field for the regulation of the permeability of natural cork stoppers by type of surface treatment applied.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1869.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; healthcare-associated infections; genomic epidemiology; whole genome sequencing; cgMLST; international clones of high risk; antibiotic resistance
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:59:38 CET)
The infections caused by various bacterial pathogens both in clinical and community settings represent a significant threat to public healthcare worldwide. The growing resistance to antimicrobial drugs acquired by bacterial species causing healthcare-associated infections has already become a life-threatening danger noticed by the World Health Organization. Several groups or lineages of bacterial isolates usually called ‘the clones of high risk’ often drive the spread of resistance within particular species. Thus, it is vitally important to reveal and track the spread of such clones and the mechanisms by which they acquire antibiotic resistance and enhance their survival skills. Currently, the analysis of whole genome sequences for bacterial isolates of interest is increasingly used for these purposes, including epidemiological surveillance and developing of spread prevention measures. However, the availability and uniformity of the data derived from the genomic sequences often represents a bottleneck for such investigations. In this dataset, we present the results of a comprehensive genomic epidemiology analysis of 17,546 genomes of a dangerous bacterial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii. Important typing information including multilocus sequence typing (MLST)-based sequence types (STs), intrinsic blaOXA-51-like gene variants, capsular (KL) and oligosaccharide (OCL) types, CRISPR-Cas systems, and cgMLST profiles are presented, as well as the assignment of particular isolates to nine known international clones of high risk. The presence of antimicrobial resistance genes within the genomes is also reported. These data will be useful for researchers in the field of A. baumannii genomic epidemiology, resistance analysis and prevention measure development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0371.v4
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: Entropy; Boltzmann principle; Planck's law; Dynamical system; Logistic function; fine structure constant; Von Koch's inequality; Riemann Hypothesis; abc conjecture
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:59:25 CET)
In this paper, we propose an expansion of the Planck distribution function derived from the Boltzmann principle. Namely, we consider expanding Planck's law with a new distribution function, and discuss fine structure constant. Furthermore, using ideas applied to the expansion of the Planck distribution function, we show that Von Koch's inequality can be derived without using the Riemann Hypothesis, that is, the Riemann Hypothesis is true, and that the abc conjecture is negated. Furthermore, we define a generalization of Entropy and discuss that Entropy is relevant to dynamical systems described by logistic function models, such as the growth of bacteria or populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1874.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Wound; Scar; Child; Graft; Fish skin
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:58:49 CET)
Wound healing in the pediatric population is known to be a challenge and poorly studied. Split-thickness skin grafts, full-thickness skin grafts and flaps overlap their applications with the growing field of cellular and tissue-based therapies. However, their role in pediatric reconstruction has yet to be defined. The Kerecis® Omega3 wound patch, derived from decellularized codfish skin, has garnered attention due to its preserved microscopic architecture resembling the human extracellular matrix. This acellular dermal matrix acts as a scaffold, fostering dermal cell and capillary adhesion while harnessing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for granulation acceleration and antimicrobial effects. This study presents a comprehensive review and surgical protocol for utilizing Kerecis® fish skin in pediatric wound care. The research embraces a case series involving five patients with diverse wound locations. The Kerecis® Omega3 wound patch underwent meticulous application and careful monitoring. The results highlight an average time of 48.6 days for complete epithelialization, yielding favorable outcomes with no hypertrophic scarring and mild retraction. Notably, this innovative approach may eliminate donor site morbidity and improve pain control, promising a novel avenue for pediatric wound management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1870.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Electron microscopy; Composites; Powder methods; Spark plasma sintering; High voltage electrical discharge; Fullerenes; Intermetallic phase; Graphene
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:57:06 CET)
This work deals with the analysis of phase composition of sintered Ti-Al-C composite materials under high voltage electrical discharge. The samples of Ti-Al-C powder composites were tested by SEM, Raman spectroscopy and XRD. It was determined that the treatment of the powder by high voltage electrical discharge (HVED) and further sintering at high temperatures using the method of spark plasma sintering (SPS) encourages the formation of the intermetallic reinforcing phases, carbides and different nanocarbon structures like graphene and fullerenes, as well as pure graphite. Intermetallic phases and nanocarbon structures improve mechanical and physical properties of the composites. By using experimental methods mentioned above, the phase composition of Ti-Al-C powder composites obtained at different sintering temperatures was determined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1854.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: EUV Spectroscopy; solar IFS; EUV slicers; image slicers; solar space mission; particle acceleration
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:56:44 CET)
Particle acceleration, and the thermalisation of energetic particles, are fundamental processes across the universe. Whilst the Sun is an excellent object to study this phenomenon, since it is the most energetic particle accelerator in the Solar System, this phenomenon arises in many other astrophysical objects, such as active galactic nuclei, black holes, neutron stars, gamma ray bursts, solar and stellar coronae, accretion disks and planetary magnetospheres. Observations in the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) are essential for these studies but can only be made from space. Current spectrographs operating in the EUV use an entrance slit and cover the required field of view using a scanning mechanism. This results in a relatively slow image cadence on the order of minutes to capture inherently rapid and transient processes, and/or in the spectrograph slit `missing the action'. The application of image slicers for EUV integral field spectrographs is therefore revolutionary. The development of this technology will enable observations of EUV spectra from an entire 2D field of view in seconds, over two orders of magnitude faster than what is currently possible. The Spectral Imaging of the Solar Atmosphere (SISA) instrument is the first integral field spectrograph proposed for observations at 180A combining the image slicer technology and curved diffraction gratings in a highly efficient and compact layout, while providing important spectroscopic diagnostics for characterization of solar coronal and flare plasmas. SISA's characteristics, main challenges and the on-going activities to enable the image slicer technology for EUV applications are presented in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0051.v40
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: duality theory; non-convex analysis; numerical method for a non-smooth model
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:56:25 CET)
This article develops duality principles and numerical results for a large class of non-convex variational models. The main results are based on fundamental tools of convex analysis, duality theory and calculus of variations. More specifically the approach is established for a class of non-convex functionals similar as those found in some models in phase transition. Finally, in some sections we present concerning numerical examples and the respective softwares.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1865.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: immunity; inflammation; SARS-CoV-2; gene expression; sequencing
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:54:33 CET)
Long COVID, also known as post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), has emerged as a significant health concern following the COVID-19 pandemic. Molecular mechanisms underlying the occurrence and progression of long COVID include viral persistence, immune dysregulation, endothelial dysfunction, and neurological involvement, and highlight the need for further research to develop targeted therapies for this condition. While a clearer picture of the clinical symptomatology is shaping, many molecular mechanisms are yet to be unraveled, given their complexity and high level of interaction with other metabolic pathways. This review summarizes some of the most important symptoms and associated molecular mechanisms that occur in long COVID, as well as the most relevant molecular techniques that can be used in understanding the viral pathogen, its affinity towards the host and the possible outcomes of host-pathogen interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1861.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation And Radiography Keywords: THz radiation; femtosecond laser-induced breakdown; air breakdown; spatiotemporal control; coupling of temperature; density gradients in plasma; tunnelling ionisation
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:53:19 CET)
Two pre-pulses focused at different positions and at different time moments were used to enhance THz emission generated by the main pulse. The emission of THz radiation from air breakdown regions of focused ultrashort fs-laser pulses (800 nm/35 fs) at shockwave front prepared by pre-pulses was investigated, and a 3D spatio-temporal control was established for the most intense emission. The laser pulse-induced air breakdown forms a ~120 micrometers-long focal volume and generates a shockwave that delivers denser air into the focal region of the main pulse for enhanced generation of THz radiation at 0.1-2.5 THz spectral window. The intensity of pre- and main-pulses was at the tunneling ionisation intensities (1-3)x1016 W/cm2 and corresponded to sub-critical (transparent) plasma in air. Polarisation analysis revealed that the orientation of the air density gradients generated by pre-pulses and their time-space placement defined the ellipticity of the generated THz electrical field. The rotational electric current is the origin of THz radiation. The current is created by non-parallel gradients of electron density and temperature. Scaling dependencies of THz emission control are established.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1885.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: unmanned vehicles; autonomous vehicles; navigation; agriculture; q-learning; Reeds-Shepp curves
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:52:54 CET)
The development and use of highly automated vehicles (HAV) in agriculture is a highly important task because of the lack of machine drivers and unsatisfactory level of their qualifications, reducing the impact of harmful factors on employees of agricultural enterprises. HAVs allow to avoid these problems: increase productivity and the efficiency of seasonal use of equipment, and reduce the impact of harmful factors on people. Modern HAVs in agriculture are based on the following methods: parallel driving according to geo coordinates without automatic turning and without obstacles tracking, and on technical vision without the use of a geographic information system (for example Cognitive AgroPilot) and a digital field map, which makes it impossible to generate the optimal path around the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1860.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Solid-state batteries; lithium halides; temperature; pressure; In-situ XRD and XPS
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:51:31 CET)
Abstract: In the past years, lithium-ion solid-state batteries demonstrated significant advancements regarding such properties as safety, long-term endurance, and energy density. The properties of these depend on solid-state electrolytes and especially ionic transport interfacial transport with cathode or anode materials. Solid-state electrolytes based on lithium halides offer new opportunities due to their unique features such as broad electrochemical stability window, high lithium-ion conductivity, and elasticity at close to melting point temperatures that help to improve lithium-ion transport at interfaces. A comparative study of lithium indium halide (Li3InCl6) electrolytes syn-thesized by a mechano-thermal method using different optimization parameters revealed a signif-icant effect of ball-milling time, temperature, and pressure on lithium-ion transport. Based on the Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) data in the temperature range of 25-100 °C, the optimized Li3InCl6 electrolyte phase demonstrates high ionic conductivity reaching 0.98 mS cm−1 at room temperature. However, at 70 °C, phase transformation was observed leading to significant changes in the activation energy for lithium-ion transport. In-situ X-ray diffraction and in-situ/operando X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques confirmed the tempera-ture-dependent behavior of Li3InCl6 synthesized. These observations provide critical information for practical applications of solid-state electrolytes and nanocomposites based on Li3InCl6 within the broad temperature range for lithium-ion solid-state batteries with improved morphology, chemical interactions, and structural integrity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1884.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Bioceramics; 3Dprinting; Bone tissue engineering; Scaffold fabrication
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:51:22 CET)
3D Printing (3DP) technology has revolutionized the field of the use of bioceramics for maxillofacial and periodontal applications, offering unprecedented control over the shape, size, and structure of bioceramic implants. In addition, bioceramics have become attractive materials for these applications due to their biocompatibility, biostability, and favorable mechanical properties. However, despite their advantages, bioceramic implants are still associated with inferior biological performance issues after implantation, such as slow osseointegration, inadequate tissue response, and increased risk of implant failure. To address these challenges, researchers have been developing strategies to improve the biological performance of 3D printed bioceramic implants. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of 3DP techniques and strategies for bioceramic materials designed for bone regeneration. The review also addresses the use and incorporation of active biomolecules in 3D printed bioceramic constructs to stimulate bone regeneration. By controlling the surface roughness, and chemical composition of the implant, the construct can be tailored to promote osseointegration and reduce the risk of adverse tissue reactions. Additionally, growth factors, such as bone morphogenic proteins (rhBMP-2) and pharmacologic agent (dipyridamole), can be incorporated to promote the growth of new bone tissue. Incorporating porosity into bioceramic constructs can improve bone tissue formation and the overall biological response of the implant. As such, by employing surface modification, combining with other materials, and incorporation of 3DP workflow can lead to better patient healing outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1863.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: axions; laser; maser; parametric resonance; superradiance; Kerr black holes
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:50:38 CET)
Axions can be stimulated to decay to photons by ambient photons of the right frequency or by photons from decay of neighboring axions. If the axion density is high enough the photon intensity can be amplified, which is a type of lasing or an axion maser. Here we review the astrophysical situations where axion lasing can appear and possibly be detected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1866.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: networks; portfolio optimization; equal risk portfolio; asset allocation; centrality; market graph
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:49:16 CET)
This article combines the traditional definition of portfolio risk with minimum spanning tree based “interconnectedness risk" to improve the equal risk contribution portfolio performance. We use betweenness centrality to measure an asset’s importance in a market graph (network). After filtering the complete correlation network to a minimum spanning tree, we calculate the centrality score and convert it to a centrality heuristic. We develop an adjusted variance-covariance matrix using the centrality heuristic, to bias the model to assign peripheral assets in the minimum spanning tree higher weights. We test this methodology using the constituents of the S&P 100 index. The results show that the centrality equal risk portfolio can improve upon the base equal risk portfolio returns, with a similar level of risk. We observe that during bear markets, the centrality-based portfolio can surpass the base equal risk portfolio risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1881.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: bearing ratio; settlement ratio; heating; spacing; depth; CPT; EDS
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:48:59 CET)
: Clay covers a substantial portion of the Earth. Such soil covers Iraq’s central and southern regions, where the depth of the clay may reach 150 m. All enhancement techniques and methods for transporting large loads cease to function or become prohibitively expensive in such soils. In this case, thermal treatment is the most effective method. In this study, a novel heating system was created and produced utilizing gas as the heat source via boreholes that simulate reality. The borehole heating cases were planted inside soft clay soil to enhance the soil. Different parameters were investigated, including the spacing between boreholes (3, 4, and 5 times the outer diameter of the borehole), the heating depth (1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 times the width of the model footing), the duration of heating (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 hrs), and the pattern (square, circular, triangular). The results showed the strength and behavior of the soil treated with heated boreholes at varying spacings, depths, patterns, and heating periods. The best results were found for a spacing, depth, and heating time of three times the outer diameter of the borehole, two times the width of the footing model, and eight hours, respectively. The effect of the heated borehole casing pattern was small when the heated borehole casing was used. The experiments conducted on heated soil showed that the undrained shear strength (Cu) increased from 14 to 360 kPa and then dropped to 140 kPa (as an average with depth). In contrast, the average angle of internal friction (Ø) rose from 0 to 52 degrees and decreased to 16 degrees (as an average with depth) from the center of the heating model to the furthest point affected by heating. In addition, the EDS pattern showed that components like silicon, aluminum, and iron dropped at 300 °C and rose at 400 °C in the treated soils. At 200 °C, the calcium content rose, and then dropped dramatically at 400 °C. The carbon percentage increased at 300 °C and decreased at 400 °C. The elements’ proportions showed little change or remained stable at temperatures between 400 °C and 600 °C.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1879.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: vaccine; SARS-CoV-2SARS-CoV-2; distribution/dispensation of behalf of third parties , D.P.C.; antivirals; prescriptions; cardiovascular reactions; observational study; Community Pharmacy, C.PH.
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:45:39 CET)
We conducted a monocentric observational study aimed at evaluating the pharmaceutical service provided at a Community Pharmacy (C.PH.) during pandemia in our Puglia Region in the period from 29.12.2021 to 12.03.2022 on 550 patients of various ages, sexes, and with concomitant diseases. We collected anamnestic data and any post-vaccination adverse reactions. Interviews with the integrated EQ5 method on evaluating the quality of the service offered and any therapy preference were also performed. As expected, the vaccines were reactogenic after the first dose in the patients with mild-moderate reactions with younger age and female gender as risk factors. Immune-allergic reactions of moderate-severe degree were observed in adult females. In the elderly, the vaccination procedure was well tolerated. Comirnaty showed a favorable O.R.<;1 vs other vaccines. No myocarditis and thromboembolic events in our population were observed. All treatments in May 2023 were correlated with a viremia trend, Paxlovid was prescribed in 3% of the patients in our center and in 1.46% in the Puglia Region with no effects in the hospitalization. It was distributed/dispensed by a novel on behalf of third parties distribution/dispensation (D.P.C.) protocol by the C.PH. The C.PH. resulted in a safe vaccination center providing appropriate patient inclusion during vaccination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1880.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Stochastic Finite Element Method; Ramberg-Osgood material model; stochastic perturbation technique; Monte–Carlo simulation; semi-analytical method; Least Squares Method
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:42:43 CET)
The main issue in this work is to study limit functions necessary for the reliability assessment of the structural steel with the use of the relative entropy apparatus. This would be done using a few different mathematical theories relevant to this relative entropy, namely those proposed by Bhattacharyya, Kullback-Leibler, Jeffreys, and Hellinger. Probabilistic analysis in the presence of uncertainty in material characteristics would be delivered using three different numerical strategies – Monte-Carlo simulation, stochastic perturbation method as well as the semi-analytical approach. All these methods are based on the Weighted Least Squares Method approximations of the structural response functions versus the given uncertainty source and they would allow efficient determination of the first two probabilistic moments of the structural responses including stresses, displacements, and strains. The entire computational implementation would be delivered using the Finite Element Method system ABAQUS and computer algebra program MAPLE, where relative entropies, as well as polynomial response functions, would be determined. This study would demonstrate that the relative entropies may be efficiently used in reliability assessment close to the widely engaged First Order Reliability Method (FORM).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1871.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: nanocellulose; coatings; fire retardancy; nanomaterials; aerogels
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:41:30 CET)
The enormous potential of renewable bioresources is expected to play a key role in the development of the EU’s sustainable circular economy. In this context, inexhaustible, biodegradable, non-toxic and carbon-neutral forest-origin resources are very attractive for the development of novel sustainable products. The main structural component of wood is cellulose, which, in turn, is the feedstock of nanocellulose, one of the most explored nanomaterials. Different applications of nanocellulose have been proposed, including packaging, functional coatings, insulating materials, nanocomposite fields among others. However, the intrinsic flammability of nanocellulose restricts its use in some industries where fire risk is a concern. This paper overviews the most recent studies of the fire resistance of nanocellulose-based materials, focusing on thin films, coatings and aerogels. Along with effectiveness, increased attention to sustainable approaches is considered in developing novel fire-resistant coatings. The great potential of bio-based fire-resistant materials, combined with conventional non-halogenated fire retardants FRs, has been established. The formulation methods, types of fire retardants and their action modes, and methods used for analysing fire retardancy are discussed in the frame of this overview.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1878.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: maize; recurrent selection; grain yield, allele frequency, population structure, SSR markers
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:40:55 CET)
The effects of four cycles of recurrent selection on simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker allele frequencies and population structure were examined in the Maksimir 3 Synthetic (M3S) maize population (Zea mays L.). Genotyping of 32 plants from each cycle of selection at 38 SSR loci revealed that the mean number of alleles per locus and the mean expected heterozygosity were preserved over cycles of selection, indicating maintenance of sufficient genetic variability in the population needed for future genetic gain. Waples test of selective neutrality revealed that genetic drift was the main force in changing allele frequencies in the population. The proportion of selectively nonneutral loci in single cycles of selection varied between 16% and 37%. Some nonneutral loci shared the same genomic locations with previously published QTLs controlling important agronomic traits. Between 5% and 29% of loci were found to be in significant Hardy-Weinberg (HW) disequilibrium with the majority showing an excess of homozygosity. Excess of homozygosity at several loci was highly consistent across cycle populations suggesting positive assortative mating as the possible cause of the observed HW disequilibrium. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) tests revealed that the M3S population was essentially in linkage equilibrium. The proportion of pairs of loci in significant LD varied across cycles of selection between 0.1% and 1.8% probably due to the effects of genetic drift and epistatic selection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1875.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: headache; migraine; chronic cluster headache; neuromodulation; pain management
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:39:12 CET)
This narrative review aims to summarize evidence regarding the current utilization and future applications of neuromodulation in patients with headaches, with special attention paid to migraine and chronic cluster headache. We performed a narrative review of the literature to identify studies that detail the effectiveness of neuromodulation therapies in the treatment of headache syndromes. The literature was refined to predominantly focus on systematic reviews published in the last year that have the most robust reporting of research done on this topic. Patients with headache face several challenges, including medication overuse, cost burden, non-compliance to medications due to inability to tolerate side effects, or treatments that are ineffective. Neuromodulation is an emerging field that encompasses implantable and non-implantable technologies that intervene on the signaling and perception of pain. In recent years, this technology has been used as an analgesic, and has been shown to be effective for treatment-resistant headache, particularly when used in patients with migraine and chronic cluster headache.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1877.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Sentiment Analysis; Dependency Syntax; Graph Convolutional Model
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:37:09 CET)
This paper presents the Advanced Syntactic-Graph Convolutional Model (ASGCM), a pioneering approach in Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis (ABSA) that integrates syntactic dependency features within a graph convolution framework. ASGCM stands out for its novel use of dependency edge encoding and tag-based graph convolutions, providing a fine-grained analysis of sentiments associated with specific aspects in text. This model meticulously captures the intricacies of syntactic structures, thereby offering enhanced precision in sentiment analysis. Notably, ASGCM incorporates a dual-layer graph convolution system: one layer processes syntactic dependencies (edges), while the other interprets semantic roles (tags), ensuring a comprehensive understanding of both structural and contextual elements in text. We rigorously tested ASGCM on multiple datasets, including both English and Chinese languages, and our findings reveal a significant improvement in sentiment classification accuracy compared to existing models. The versatility of ASGCM makes it a robust tool for diverse linguistic environments, setting a new standard for ABSA methodologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1872.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: COVID-19; children; mortality
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:35:39 CET)
Background: COVID-19 is currently one of the most important medical challenges as it affects the entire population with children being infected as easily as adults. Objective: The study evaluated the mortality of under 17-year-olds and compare the frequency with that of adults in a cohort of 8986 COVID-19 positive patients hospitalized in a single care center. Design: retrospective clinical trial, all hospitalizations of COVID-19 positive patients as diagnosed by RT-qPCR were analyzed by revisiting their medical records. Setting: 8986 COVID-19 positive patients hospitalized in a Hospital de Base and the Infant and Maternal Hospital of São Jose do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil (HB/HCM) being these totals of 383 COVID-19 positive under 17-patients. Patients: patients COVID-19 positive under 17-year-olds were grouped by age and evaluated by analyzing their medical records. They were categorized as Group I, children, and adolescents under 19 years old and Group II, adults over 19 years. Results: Overall mortality in under 19-year-olds was 12 deaths, that is, 3.13% of the patients in this age group and 0.55% of the overall mortality from COVID-19. Mortality in the group of adults was 2197 equivalent to 24.45% of the hospitalized adults and 99.45% of overall deaths. Mortality was significantly higher for adults than for under 19-year olds (p-value < 0.0001). Regarding the different ages of children and adolescents, the number of deaths of under 1-year olds was 2/123 (1.62%), of 1-4 years it was 4/95 (2.11%), of 5-9 years it was 1/47 (2.13%), of 10-14 years it was 1/40 (2.5%) and of 15-19 years it was 4/78 (5.13%). There were no statistical differences between the different age groups ( p-value = 0.3). Conclusion: Mortality from COVID-19 in children and adolescents was lower than in adults and generally associated with other comorbidities with the main association being with heart disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1873.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Global optimization; Derivative-free global optimization; Diagonal partitioning scheme; DIRECT-type algorithms; Potentially optimal hyper-rectangles
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:22:23 CET)
This paper introduces new improvements to the modified version of the BIRECT (BI secting RECTangles) algorithm referred to as BIRECTv. We explore various approaches, by first including a grouping strategy for hyper-rectangles having almost the same sizes by categorizing them into different classes. Therefore constraining them not to exceed a certain pre-defined threshold (a small positive value to define the tolerance level). This approach allows for more efficient computation and can be particularly useful when dealing with a large number of hyper-rectangles with varying sizes. To avoid over-sampling, and preventing redundant or excessive sampling, at some shared vertices in descendant subregions, a particular vertex database is used to limit the number of samples taken within each subregion to two. The experimental investigation shows that these improvements have a positive impact on the performance of the BIRECTv(imp.) algorithm and the proposal is a promising global optimization algorithm compared to the original BIRECTv algorithm and its variants. Additionally, the BIRECTv(imp.) algorithm showed particular efficacy in solving high-dimensional problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1868.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: spectral decompositions; linear continuous systems, Gramians; Sylvester and Lyapunov equations; Xiao matrices; Hadamard product.
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:20:27 CET)
New possibilities of Gramian computation by using canonical transformations into diagonal, controllable and observable canonical forms are shown. With the help of such a technique the Gramian matrices can be represented in the form of products of Hadamard matrices of multipliers and matrices of the transformed right-hand side of Lyapunov equations. It is shown that the multiplier matrices are invariant under various canonical transformations of linear continuous systems. The modal Lyapunov equations for continuous SISO LTI systems in diagonal form are obtained and their new solutions based on Hadamard decomposition are proposed. New algorithms for element-by-element computation of Gramian matrices for stable continuous MIMO LTI systems are developed. For continuous SISO LTI systems given by equations of state in controllable and observable canonical forms, new algorithms for the computation of controllability Gramians and their traces in the form of Hadamard products in the form of Xiao matrices are developed. The application of transformations to the canonical forms of controllability and observability allowed to simplify the formulas of spectral decompositions in the form of Xiao matrices. In the paper new spectral decompositions in the form of Hadamard’s products for solutions of Sylvester algebraic and differential equations of MIMO LTI systems, including spectral decompositions of finite and infinite cross-Gramians of continuous MIMO LTI systems. Recommendations on the use of the obtained results are given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1864.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; transmission; respiratory; viruses; healthcare; sterilization; air; hamster model; UV-C light; inactivation
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:18:14 CET)
Background: SARS-CoV-2 continues to impact human health globally, with airborne transmission being a significant mode for transmission. In addition to tools like vaccination and testing, counter-measures that reduce viral spread in indoor settings are critical. This study aims to assess the efficacy of UV-C light, utilizing the Violett sterilization device, as a countermeasure against airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the highly susceptible Golden Syrian hamster model. Methods: Two cohorts of naïve hamsters were subjected to airborne transmission from experimentally infected hamsters; one cohort was exposed to air treated with UV-C sterilization, while the other cohort was exposed to un-treated air. Results: Treatment of air with UV-C light prevented the airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from experimentally exposed hamster to naïve hamsters. Notably, this protection was sustained over a muti-day exposure period during peak viral shedding from hamsters. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate the efficacy of the UV-C light to mitigate airborne SARS-CoV-2 trans-mission. As variants to continue to emerge, UV-C light holds promise as a tool to reduce infections in diverse indoor settings, ranging from healthcare facilities to households. This study reinforces the urgency of implementing innovative methods to reduce airborne disease transmission and safeguard public health against emerging biological threats.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1840.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: HSP90 protein; HSC70 protein; docking study; hypericin
Online: 29 November 2023 (09:58:27 CET)
Heat Shock Proteins play a crucial role in maintaining cellular integrity during thermal stress conditions, acting as chaperones and participating in the regulation of cellular responses. The focus was to contribute valuable insights into the potential role of hypericin in modulating these heat shock proteins and its implications for anti-tumoral properties. This study employs computational methods, specifically molecular docking, to investigate the potential biological interactions between the chaperone proteins HSP90 and HSC70 and Hypericin, a natural compound recognized for its anti-tumor properties. Despite the limited existing studies in this domain, this research aims to uncover structural insights into the binding mechanisms between Hypericin and these heat shock proteins. In the docking assessments, hypericin demonstrated notable binding energy results, exhibiting a binding energy of -10.5 kcal/mol with Heat Shock Cognate 71 kDa protein and -11.2 kcal/mol with Heat Shock Protein HSP90-alpha.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1835.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Laser-scribed graphene; biosensor; nanobody; electrochemistry; COVID-19
Online: 29 November 2023 (09:57:13 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2 has been the greatest global threat to human health in the last three years. The most widely used methodologies for the diagnosis of COVID-19 are quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), used to detect the viral genome, and rapid antigen tests (RATs), also known as lateral flow tests, that employ specific antibodies to detect the viral spike protein. While PCR is considered the gold standard test in terms of specificity and sensitivity, it is time-consuming and requires specialized instrumentation operated by skilled personnel. In contrast, RATs can be used in-home or at point-of care but are less sensitive leading to a higher rate of false negative results. An alternative methodology for the detection of virus is the use of electrochemical biosensors that employ disposable strip electrodes to which binding of viral components elicits a change in electrical signal. Laser-scribed graphene (LSG) electrodes are attractive candidates for use as biosensors electrodes suitable for SARS-COV-2 detection due to their low-cost, patternability and ease of fabrication. In this work, we describe the development of a biosensor for COVID-19 detection that exploits a split-ester bond ligase system (termed ‘EsterLigase’) for immobilization of a virus-specific nanobody to maintain the out-of-plane orientation of the probe to ensure the efficacy of the probe-target recognition process. An anti-spike VHH E nanobody, genetically fused with the EsterLigase domain, was used as the specific probe for the spike receptor-binding domain (SP-RBD) protein as the target. The recognition between the two was measured by the change in the charge transfer resistance, determined by fitting the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) spectra. The developed LSG-based biosensor achieved a linear detection range for the SP-RBD from 15 pM to 150 nM with a sensitivity of 0.0866 [log(M)]-1 and a limit of detection (LOD) of 7.68 pM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1839.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: soft tissue sarcoma; bone tumours; gastrointestinal stromal tumours; quality of life; patient-reported outcome
Online: 29 November 2023 (09:51:25 CET)
The Sarcoma Assessment Measure (SAM) was developed as a sarcoma-specific patient-reported outcome measure to be used in clinical practice. We have reported in detail how SAM has been developed in collaboration with patients and healthcare professionals. The aim of this paper is to report the preliminary validation of SAM. The 22-item SAM was administered alongside a validated quality of life questionnaire and measure of activities of daily living. Linear modelling was used to build a measure, which had predictive validity in comparison to more established outcome measures. Of the 762 patients who participated in the study, 44.1% identified as male, and participant age ranged from 13-82 years. Clinically, participants presented with a range of soft tissue (82.2%) and bone (21.8%) sarcomas. Our preliminary analysis indicates that SAM accounts for 35% of the Global quality of life scale and 18% of the TESS so psychometrically it overlaps with quality of life and activities of daily living, but also measures distinct concerns. This demonstrates that this measure picks up issues that are important to patients with sarcoma that are not reflected in other measures. We have established the preliminary validity of SAM and believe it has utility as a patient-reported outcome measure both as a research tool and for assessing the impact of symptoms and dysfunction related to sarcoma as part of clinical care. Further validation using a larger and more clinically diverse sample is now needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1829.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Mineralogy; Mineral Mixture; Surface Complexation Modelling (SCM); Flotation test; Electrostatic pair Linkage; Bond Product (BP); Total Bond Product (TBP); Cation Bridging; Oil Complex; Carboxylate; PHREEQ-C
Online: 29 November 2023 (09:49:41 CET)
Minerals are the chief constituents of rocks and they have varied properties such as surface area, surface charge, site densities etc. Hence, numerous interactions are bound to occur in the reservoir during rock-fluids (i.e., rock, crude oil and brine) interactions. This study seeks to assess the role of mineralogical composition on the wettability of Sandstone Rocks (SR) and Mineral Mixture (MM) using both Surface Complexation Modelling (SCM) and flotation test. From the considered sandstone rocks, both the experimental results and its simulated counterpart revealed that, the SR were preferentially hydrophilic. For the MM, when the mass fraction of the hydrophobic mineral was increased, the affinity of the MM became slightly hydrophobic and vice-versa. For the dominant sandstone reservoir rock minerals with predominantly negatively charged surfaces, negligible oil adsorption took place due the interfacial repulsive forces at the oil-brine and mineral-brine interfaces. For the MM with low calcite content, the wetting preference was influenced by the mineral with prominent surface area. Our developed model portrayed that the main mechanism for oil adhesion onto sandstone minerals was divalent cations bridging. Nonetheless, adhesion of carboxylate (>COO-) onto the illite, montmorillonite and calcite sites also took place with the latter being more pronounced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1838.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: food allergy; children; adequate nutrition; catch-up growth.
Online: 29 November 2023 (09:48:42 CET)
Background: Data suggest that food allergies greatly impact a child’s health and growth due to inadequate nutrient intake. Our study aimed to establish the long-term outcome of children with food allergies compared to a control group. Methods: This study was a retrospective cohort study with longitudinal follow-up with a mean period of 4.85 years from the diagnosis to the last study visit. The patients’ nutritional intake was assessed using a three-day food diary and analysed by a dietitian. Patients (61 boys and 33 girls, mean age 6.9 years) had a single food allergy including 21 patients with cow’s milk, 34 with egg, and 39 with peanut allergies. The control group included 36 children (19 boys and 17 girls, mean age 8.03 years). Blood analysis was performed on all participants. Results: Data from our study showed that patients with cow’s milk, egg or peanut allergies had normal growth and achieved catch-up growth from the diagnosis until the last study visit. In the cow's milk allergy group, the allergy was shown to affect calcium intake (p<0.05), while egg and peanut allergies did not impact the dietary intake of nutrients. None of the investigated food allergies affected blood results (p<0.05). Conclusions: In the present study, we showed that single food allergies do not compromise growth in children if they are provided with appropriate support and that the affected children reach catch-up growth from the diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1824.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: Kinks; fermions; Dirac sea; vacuum polarization energies; variational methods
Online: 29 November 2023 (09:47:58 CET)
We study the back-reaction of fermion fields on the kink solution in one space and one time dimension. We employ a variational procedure to determine an upper limit for the minimum of the total energy. This energy has three contributions: the classical kink energy, the energy of valence fermions and the fermion vacuum polarization energy. The latter arises from the interaction of the kink with the Dirac sea and is required for consistency of the semi-classical expansion for the fermions. Earlier studies only considered the valence part and observed a substantial back-reaction. This was reflected by a sizable distortion of the kink profile. We find that this distortion is strongly mitigated when the Dirac sea is properly accounted for. As a result the back-reaction merely produces a slight squeeze or stretch of the kink profile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1836.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Hemp; agro-waste; deep eutectic solvents; electrospinning; gel-based blends; waste valorization; nanocomposite gels
Online: 29 November 2023 (09:47:16 CET)
Natural fibers have attracted increasing interest as an alternative to produce environmentally friendly and sustainable materials. Particularly, hemp fibers have revealed to be widely used in various industrial applications due to their extremely unique properties. However, hemp can generate a large amount of agro-waste, and results in an attractive source of biopolymers for the development of low-cost materials in alternative to the raw materials and conventional petroleum-based plastics. In addition, deep eutectic solvents (DESs), a new type of truly green solvents, have been tested to remove gums, lignin, and other non-cellulosic components from hemp fibers. Reusing these components dissolved into the DESs to fabricate new materials directly by electrospinning is a very attractive but still unexplored endeavor. Thus, this innovative research to venture new upcycling pathways is focused on the fabrication of composite nanofibers by electrospinning of a gel-based blend of Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and hemp agro-waste (HW) dissolved into choline chloride (ChCl) : Glycerol (1:2) and ChCl : Urea (1:2) DES mixtures. The results obtained revealed that the produced nanofibers displayed uniform appearance with diameters ranging from 257.72 ± 65.63 nm to 380.78 ± 133.98 nm. In addition, the mechanical properties of the electro-spun composite nanofibers produced from the gel-based blends of HW dissolved in DESs and PVA (HW-DESs_PVA) were found to be superior, resulting in an enhanced tensile strength and Young’s modulus. Furthermore, the incorporation of HW into the nanofibers was able to provide bioactive antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Overall, this study demonstrated a promising, more sustainable, and eco-friendly way to produce electrospun composite nanofibers using HW in a circular economy perspective.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1825.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Elastography; Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound; Neoplasia; Metastasis; Feline; Canine
Online: 29 November 2023 (09:44:47 CET)
The aim of this literature review was to present the novel imaging modalities elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. We provided an overview of the concepts and applications of each technique for the investigation of neoplastic and metastatic tumors in dogs and cats. Studies with elastography are based on the elasticity and deformation of the evaluated tissue. The information obtained from the different types of elastography can aid in the detection and differentiation of malignant and benign structures. Descriptions of elastographic studies in several organs and tissue in veterinary medicine reported that, in general, malignant tumors tend to be more rigid, and, therefore, less deformable than benign lesions or in comparison to the healthy parenchyma. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography is based on the intravenous injection of contrast media constituted by microbubbles. This imaging modality can be performed in non-sedated animals and provides information on the tissue perfusion, allowing the investigation of macro- and micro-circulation. Studies with different organs and tissues were performed in dogs and cats and revealed a tendency of malignant tumors to present faster transit of the contrast media (time to wash-in, peak and wash-out). These advanced techniques can be associated with other imaging modalities, aiding important information to the well-established exams of B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography. They can be used as screening tests, potentially representing an alternative to the invasive sampling methods required for cytological and histopathological analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1752.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: organotypic brain slice culture; astrocyte; synaptic phagocytosis; critical period; sex differences
Online: 29 November 2023 (09:43:31 CET)
Clinical and pre-clinical studies of neuropsychiatric (NP) disorders show altered astrocyte properties and synaptic networks. These are refined during early postnatal developmental (PND) stages. Thus, investigating early brain maturational trajectories is essential to understand NP disorders. However, animal experiments are highly time-/resource-consuming, thereby calling for alternative methodological approaches. The function of MEGF10 in astrocyte-mediated synapse elimination (pruning) is crucial to refine neuronal networks during development and adulthood. To investigate the impact of MEGF10 during PND in the rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) and its putative role in brain disorders, we established and validated an Organotypic Brain Slice Culture (OBSC) system.Using Western blot, we characterized the expression of MEGF10 and the synaptic markers synaptophysin and PSD95 in the cortex of developing pups. We then combined immunofluorescent-immunohistochemistry with Imaris-supported 3D-analysis to compare age- and sex-dependent astrocyte-mediated pruning within the PFC in pups and OBSCs. We thereby validated this system to investigate age-dependent astrocyte-mediated changes in pruning during PND. However, further optimizations are required to use OBSCs for revealing sex-dependent differences. In conclusion, OBSCs offer a valid alternative to study physiological astrocyte-mediated synaptic remodelling during PND and might be exploited to investigate pathomechanisms of brain disorders with aberrant synaptic development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1749.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: homosexual long-term care; elderly male homosexuals; long-term care services
Online: 29 November 2023 (09:38:21 CET)
The present study examines the long-term care service awareness, needs, and usage intention of elderly male homosexuals in Taiwan and their ideal long-term care service model. This study of five elderly male homosexual subjects aged 66 to 73 years was intended as a preliminary exploration. Interviews were used to collect data. The study determined that the five subjects had high awareness of long-term care services, as they had actual experience of long-term care services or even participated in care service staff training to obtain certificates. Some even had experience in applying for home care services and experienced problems during use. The subjects perceived that they were very likely to require long-term care services in the future and tended to use home care services if they required long-term care services. Due to their personal experiences, the subjects had negative awareness of long-term care services and worried that long-term care service staff had poor attitudes toward homosexuals. The subjects considered the most important aspects of long-term care to be basic medical care and lifestyle care. However, they worried that long-term care staff would delay or refuse to provide such services due to the subjects’ sexual orientation or stereotypes, and they were concerned above all about the “friendly attitude” of long-term care staff. They hoped that long-term care staff were friendly toward homosexuals and did not discriminate against them, and they felt that it would be more appropriate for homosexual long-term care staff to provide assistance. In terms of vision, while preferring organizations with homosexual employees, the subjects worried that they would be stigmatized and discriminated against . With regard to ideal long-term care services, while considering institutions with homosexual staff to be ideal, the subjects also worried that these would be labeled as institutions that were dedicated to homosexuals, potentially resulting in discrimination. Therefore, they hoped that the sexuality sensitivity of long-term care staff could be improved and that they would undergo professional continuing education to learn about homosexuals, the situation and care needs of homosexuals, and care techniques for homosexuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0338.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Nylon fibers; mechanical properties; stress-strain response; nylon-fiber reinforced concrete
Online: 29 November 2023 (09:24:23 CET)
The initiation of micro-cracks in concrete is primarily due to its brittleness, which causes severe impacts on the overall behavior of the concrete. However, incorporating fibers in concrete could significantly improve its mechanical properties. The current study demonstrates the influence of two types of fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete. Nylon Fiber Threads (NFT) and Nylon Fiber Strands (NFS) at a fiber content of 2.5 kg/m3 were incorporated in the concrete mix. Concrete with a compressive strength of 30 MPa and a water-cement ratio of 0.4 was produced to investigate the fresh and mechanical properties of conventional and nylon-fiber reinforced concrete (NFRC). The concrete prims and cylinders were tested for compressive, splitting, and flexural strength using ASTM standards (ASTM C-39, C-496, and D-790, respectively). It was found that NFT-reinforced samples achieved higher mechanical properties of concrete (13.05%) compared to NFS-reinforced samples. Test results showed that incorporation of nylon fibers (NF) in concrete decreased the compressive strength of cylindrical and cubical specimens by 0–10% and 5–15%, respectively. However, it increased the splitting tensile and flexural strengths by 0-15%, and 5-15% respectively. Furthermore, the incorporation of NF in concrete significantly improved the ductility and delayed the crack initiation in concrete.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1623.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: Slip resistance; Dynamic friction coefficients (DCOF); Slip safety risk; Floor surfaces; Public service buildings (PSB)
Online: 29 November 2023 (09:20:44 CET)
The occurrence rate of occupational accidents caused by slipping and falling is 50% worldwide. Determining the slip safety risk is necessary to minimize the accidents caused by slipping in pedestrian walking areas. By on-site testing, this study aims to determine the slip risks of floor coverings used in walking areas with many pedestrians in public service buildings (PSB). For this purpose, on-site measurements were performed in two environments and six locations in PSB using portable GMG 200 and pendulum testers operating according to DIN 51131 and TS EN 14231 standards. These tests were performed on four-floor coverings with polished surface treatment in PSB. Since the floor coverings measured have a polished surface, it can be seen that the dynamic friction coefficients (DCOF) values are very low, and the slip risks are high. By statistically analyzing the slip test data using the K-means method, a new safety classification was made according to the usage areas of floor coverings. To minimize the risk of slip safety, especially for students, patients, and employees in PSB, it is recommended to use floor coverings with high DCOF values and low slip risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1867.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: economic sociology; power theory of exchange and money; power; generalized power
Online: 29 November 2023 (09:14:21 CET)
The Power Theory of Exchange and Money (PTEM) refines the economic neoclassical two-equation model of exchange. PTEM replaces the statistical average condition of exchange, which represents the equality of supply and demand for all transactions in the market, with a more specific equation of the equality of the generalized power of the parties in relation to their objects of exchange. The purpose of the article is to show the application of PTEM for the study of various social phenomena. Along with a brief summary of the main statements of this theory, its integration into the existing corpus of theories and ideas in economics and sociology is considered. The conclusions of power theory are then applied to consider the following topics: the objective motivation of exchange by the desire to increase power, the power nature of market equilibrium, the power nature of money, the accumulation of power through profit, the creation of money as a power act, the role of the state in the creation of money, the measure of power as a possible tool for social and political research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1859.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Oryza sativa L.; microcystin-LR; bioaccumulation; physio-biochemical index; superoxide anion; NOS
Online: 29 November 2023 (08:17:03 CET)
Irrigation with water containing a variety of microcystins (MCs) may pose potential threat to normal growth of agricultural plants. The mechanism of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) induced phytotoxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) at environmental concentrations is still unknown. Rice seedlings were exposed to MC-LR at concentrations of 0.10, 1.0, 10.0 and 50.0 μg·L−1 in hydroponic nutrient solutions for 7, 15, 20, and 34 days in the current study. The absorption and accumulation in leaf and root tissues, as well as a series of key physio-biochemical process changes in leaves of rice at different exposure time points were measured. Results showed that MC-LR could be detected in rice leaves and roots in all exposure groups, however, a significant accumulation trend of MC-LR in plants (BCF > 1) was only found in the lowest group (0.10 μg·L−1). The time-course study revealed a biphasic response of O2•- levels in rice leaves to the exposure of MC-LR, which was more pronounced in higher concentration groups, which could be attributed to the combined effects of antioxidant and detoxification mechanisms in rice. Exposure to 1.0 - 50.0 μg·L−1 MC-LR resulted in significant depletion of GSH and MDA contents in rice leaves at later exposure times. The changes of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in rice leaves under MC-LR exposure were firstly investigated in the current study. Low MC-LR concentrations promoted NOS activity, whereas high concentrations inhibited NOS activity during the later exposure times, implying that NO may play a role in MC-LR toxicity in rice. Reduced sucrose synthase (SS) activities in rice exposed to MC-LR can reduce the plant's ability to accumulate carbon and thus may be directly related to the reduction in vegetative growth. These findings suggest that even at low concentrations of MC-LR, terrestrial plants' normal physiological status is disrupted, which, when combined with previous findings, helps reveal the mechanism of MC-LR-induced phytotoxicity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1826.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Breast cancer; Estrogen receptor-positive; endocrine therapies; resistance; selective estrogen degrades; Oral
Online: 29 November 2023 (08:15:18 CET)
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide, and estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer accounts for a significant proportion of cases. While various treatments are available, endocrine therapies are often the first-line treatment for this type of breast cancer. However, the development of drug resistance poses a significant challenge in managing this disease. ESR1 mutations have been identified as a common mechanism of endocrine therapy resistance in ER+ breast cancer. The first-generation selective estrogen receptor degrader (SERD) fulvestrant has shown some activity against ESR1 mutant tumors. However, due to its poor bioavailability and need for intramuscular injection, it may not be the optimal therapy for patients. Second-generation SERDs have been developed to overcome these limitations. These newer drugs have improved oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetics, making them more convenient and effective for patients. Several oral SERDs are now in phase III trials for early and advanced ER+ breast cancer. This review summarizes the background of oral SERD development, the current status, and future perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1837.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: 1,3,5-triazine; nucleophilic substitution; nitrosation reaction; azido-acetylene cycloaddition; 1,2,3-triazole; hyperbranched polymers; antibacterial activity; cytotoxicity; M-HeLa; Vero
Online: 29 November 2023 (08:10:21 CET)
A new method for the synthesis of azido-propargyloxy derivatives of 1,3,5-triazine has been developed. The antibacterial activity against E. coli bacteria of propargyloxy substituted 1,3,5-triazines - 2,4,6-trispropargyloxy-1,3,5-triazine, 2-azido-4,6-bispropargyloxy-1,3,5-triazine and 2,4-diazido-6-propargyloxy-1,3,5-triazine and their hyperbranched polymers. It has been shown that the presence of an azide group in the compound directly affects the antibacterial activity. The cytotoxicity of these compounds against the M-HeLa, FetMSC and Vero cell lines was studied. The IC50 value was determined for low molecular weight compounds. It has been shown that hyperbranched polymers without azide groups don’t exhibit pronounced cytotoxicity and can be used in biomedical applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1831.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: large-scale testing; smoke toxicity; equivalence ratio; bench-to-large scale
Online: 29 November 2023 (08:07:05 CET)
A significant amount of data is available for bench-scale fire assessments. However, there is little surrounding large-scale tests and even less so for bench-to-large scale comparisons. Large-scale tests require more material, time and preparation, making them more expensive than bench-scale assessments. However, large-scale testing is an essential component to bench-scale fire testing. The bench-scale tests must be representative of both large-scale and real fire behaviour to provide an insight into how a material or product will behave in the event of a fire during its end use application. The few existing studies reviewed in this study show more guidance and data is needed, especially on a large-scale. Unfortunately, the data that is presented is done so in an inconsistent manner using various means of presentation, statistical analysis, and modelling that doesn’t show clear comparisons between bench and large scale. Currently, no bench-scale method shows good agreement with large-scale fire behaviour. Overall, there is a need for more large-scale testing and data for direct comparisons to be made.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1823.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: rice nutrient level; fertilizer optimization; nutrient analysis; polynomial regression; nutrient prediction; environmental impact reduction
Online: 29 November 2023 (07:54:53 CET)
Crop digital twin is redefining traditional farming practices, offering unprecedented opportunities for real-time monitoring, predictive and simulation analysis, and optimization. This research embarks on an exploration of the synergy between precision agriculture, crop modeling, and regression algorithms to create a digital twin for augmenting farmers the concentration and composition prediction-based crop nutrient recovery. This captures the holistic representation of crop characteristics, considering the intricate relationships between environmental factors, nutrient concentrations, and crop compositions. However, the complexity arising from diverse soil and environmental conditions makes nutrient content analysis expensive and time-consuming. This paper presents the result of a predictive digital twin case study that employs six regression algorithms namely Elastic Net, Polynomial, Stepwise, Ridge, Lasso, and Linear Regression to predict rice nutrient content efficiently, particularly considering the coexistence and composition of multiple nutrients. Our research findings highlight the superiority of the Polynomial Regression model in predicting nutrient content, with a specific focus on accurate nitrogen percentage prediction. This insight can be used for nutrient recovery intervention by knowing the precise amount of nutrient to be added into the crop medium. The adoption of the Polynomial Regression model offers a valuable tool for nutrient management practices in the crop digital twin, potentially resulting in higher-quality rice production and a reduced environmental impact. The proposed method can be replicable in other low-resourced crop digital twin system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1832.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Agroecology; LSD; LSD outbreak; Sero Epidemiology Risk factor; Qualitative study
Online: 29 November 2023 (07:51:53 CET)
Lumpy skin disease (LSD) vaccination and epidemiological distribution remain unknown in some parts of Ethiopia including the Sidama regional state. With this, an assessment of LSD vaccine-related problems and serological study was performed in selected districts of Sidama regional state representing three agroecological zones from September 2021 to June 2022. A cross-sectional study of qualitative and quantitative studies was used. The result showed a few portion of respondents know about LSD (29.2%), and vaccinate their cattle (23.3%). 20.8% of the respondents stated LSD occurrence in their vaccinated cattle while focus group discussion with the professionals stated the possible reasons related to electric power disruption that impacted LSD vaccine cold-chain. The other study was on sero-epedimiology of LSD which showed an overall animal and herd level sero-prevalence of 40.8% and 81%, respectively. Higher and lower sero-prevalence was observed in lowland (48%) and highland (28%) areas, respectively. Furthermore, risk factor analysis showed the existence of a significant association between management systems, breed, and body condition score (BCS) of cattle. In conclusion, both qualitative and quantitative study results showed the need for intervention in terms of community-based awareness creation about LSD clinical signs, vaccination advantages, and options for electric power supply together with the frequently updated information on LSD prevalence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1821.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Peronema canescens Jack; Microencapsulation; Maltodextrin; Arabic gum; Inulin
Online: 29 November 2023 (07:48:53 CET)
Background: Sungkai plant (Peronema canescens Jack.) is one of the medicinal plants widely grown in Indonesia. In recent years, Sungkai (Peronema canescens Jack) leaves have sparked particular interest for their health benefits. In this study, microencapsulation was conducted on an ethanol extract of Sungkai leaves (Peronema canescens Jack.) using three types of coating materials (maltodextrin, inulin, and Arabic gum) at various concentrations. Objectives: to determine the best microencapsulation formulation using maltodextrin, inulin, and Arabic gum at various concentrations. Methods: Microencapsulation was performed using the extrusion method. Characterization of the best microencapsulant was done by measuring physico-chemical, morphological, and IR properties, and antioxidant activity testing was done using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Results: Microencapsulant A1 has better physico-chemical properties compared to other microencapsulant samples. The results of the morphological analysis of sample A1 using SEM showed a smooth surface with a slightly round shape, as well as minimal wall folds and cracks, indicating that the product has good stability. The results of the functional group analysis of sample A1 using FTIR also showed that the ethanol extract of Sungkai leaves was well encapsulated. Conclusions: The best formulation to make microencapsulant of ethanol extract of Sungkai leaves is formulation A1 using Arabic gum dressing material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1780.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: cavitation; cavitation generator; pistol shrimp; pulsed laser; pulsed water jet; piezo actuator
Online: 29 November 2023 (07:33:56 CET)
Pistol shrimps generate cavitation bubbles. Cavitation impacts due to bubble collapses are harmful phenomena, as they cause severe damage to hydraulic machineries, such as pumps and valves. However, cavitation impacts can be utilized for mechanical surface treatment to improve the fatigue strength of metallic materials, which is called “cavitation peening”. Through conventional cavitation peening, a cavitation is generated by a submerged water jet, i.e., a cavitating jet or a pulsed laser. The fatigue strength of magnesium alloy when treated by the pulsed laser is larger than that of the jet. In order to drastically increase the processing efficiency of cavitation peening, the mechanism of pistol shrimp (specifically when used to create a cavitation bubble), i.e., alpheus randalli, was quantitatively investigated. It was found that a pulsed water jet generates a cavitation bubble when a shrimp snaps its claws. Furthermore, two types of cavitation generators were developed, namely, one that uses a pulsed laser and one that uses a piezo actuator, and this was achieved by mimicing a pistol shrimp.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1778.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: High Speed solenoid valve; Dynamic response; Energy loss; BPNN; NSGA-II; multi-objective optimization
Online: 29 November 2023 (07:31:11 CET)
Under high-frequency operating conditions, the high-speed solenoid valve (HSV) experiences energy loss and heat generation, which significantly impact its operational lifetime. Reducing the energy loss of HSV without compromising its opening response characteristics poses a significant challenge. To address this issue, a finite element simulation model of HSV coupled with a current feedback model is constructed to investigate the synergistic effects of dynamic response and energy loss. Predictive models for the opening response time, HSV driving energy, and Joule energy using Back Propagation neural network (BPNN) are established. Furthermore, a multi-objective optimization study on the current driving strategy using Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) is conducted. After optimization, although there was a 6.24% increase in the opening response time, both HSV drive energy and Joule energy were significantly reduced by 15.67% and 22.49%, respectively. The proposed multi-objective optimization method for HSV driving strategy holds great significance in improving its working durability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1810.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: Botulinum Toxin Type A (BoNT-A); Cosmetic Dermatology; Frontalis Muscle; Forehead Lines; Supraorbital Nerve; Supratrochlear Nerve
Online: 29 November 2023 (07:27:32 CET)
(1) Background: This manuscript introduces the "Lines and Dots" (LAD) technique, a novel method for administering Botulinum Toxin Type A (BoNT-A) in treating horizontal forehead lines. This technique emphasizes precision in targeting nerve endplates, considering individual anatomical variations, and optimizing treatment efficacy. (2) Methods: The LAD technique focus on using the frontalis muscle contraction dynamics to identify the specific distribution of the supraorbital and supratrochlear nerves It involves creating a grid of predetermined lines and points on the forehead that align with nerve paths and motor endplate zones. (3) Results: By targeting injections along these precise lines and points, the LAD technique ensures more effective utilization of BoNT-A. This approach not only enhances the toxin's effect but also allows for a reduction in the overall dosage. The strategic placement of injections results in a more natural, symmetrical, and sustained therapeutic effect, ensuring an improved aesthetic outcome. (4) Conclusions: The LAD technique represents a significant advancement in the realm of cosmetic injectables. It offers a tailored, patient-specific approach, maximizing the effectiveness of BoNT-A injections for treating forehead lines while minimizing risks and enhancing patient satisfaction. This method underscores the importance of a deep anatomical understanding and precision in cosmetic procedures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1773.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Adenosine monophosphate; Adenosine triphosphate; Unsaturated fatty acid; Hanwoo steers; Lupin flake
Online: 29 November 2023 (07:25:00 CET)
This study aimed to investigate the effects of lupin flake supplementation on the growth, plasma parameters, carcass characteristics, and meat composition of late-fattening Hanwoo steers. The steers (n = 40) were randomly divided into the four groups with 10 steers each: LP0 (Lupin flake 0%), LP3 (lupin flake 3%), LP6 (Lupin flake 6%), and LP9 (lupin flake 9%). The total digestible nutriant intake increased as the concentration of lupin increased (linear and quadratic effects; P < 0.05). The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance content in the strip loins decreased as lupin flake supplementation levels increased (linear and quadratic effects; P < 0.05), while carnosine levels increased linearly (P < 0.05). As the lupin flake supplementation level increased, anserine and creatinine contents increased linearly and quadratically (P < 0.05). Similarly, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) contents increased with increasing lupin flake supplementation levels in linear and quadratic effects (P < 0.001). Palmitoleic acid content increased significantly with increasing lupin flake supplementation level (linear and quadratic effects; P < 0.05). The content of oleic acid in the strip loin was not significant, but the unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) (P < 0.05) and n-6/n-3 ratio (P < 0.05) increased. The results of this study indicated that although lupin flake supplementation did not markedly affect the growth, carcass characteristics, or meat composition of late-fattening Hanwoo steers, it exerted a positive effect on the flavor, taste profiles (anserine, creatinine, ATP, and AMP), hypotonicity(TBARS), and healthy meat production (UFA and n-6/n-3 ratio) related to beef.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1774.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: Lignocellulose; biomass; hemicellulose; FT-Raman spectroscopy
Online: 29 November 2023 (07:18:50 CET)
Wood and plants are made of fibers which contain, in addition to cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses. Xylan and galactoglucomannan are the dominant secondary cell wall hemicelluloses. Besides fibers’ traditional use in textile and paper industries, the fibers are important materials for the biorefinery industry and for developing biocomposites. In the former context, renewable lignocellulosic biomass is used as feedstock to sustainably produce fuels, chemicals, and polymers. On the other hand, in relation to composites, cellulose fibers which are anisotropic play an important reinforcing role in fiber-matrix interactions. However, for these and other applications, structural analysis of the fibers is important and among many analytical techniques used, Raman spectroscopy is one of the methods. However, given the structural similarity between hemicelluloses and cellulose, many of their Raman contributions overlap. While the wavenumber positions corresponding to the Raman contributions of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin are known, extent to which overlapping features of hemicellulose modify the spectrum of cellulose is not yet fully understood. The present investigation focuses on this aspect by using xylan as one of the hemicelluloses. As a model system, samples with various mass ratios of microcrystalline cellulose (cotton) and xylan (birch wood) were prepared and analyzed by FT-Raman spectroscopy. The findings were then applied to interpret Raman spectra of selected xylan containing delignified plant fibers. It is hoped that insights gained would lead to better interpretation of the spectra of natural and treated plant materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1781.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Iododiflunisal; transthyretin tetramer stabilizer; small-molecule chaperone; amyloid beta; in vivo imaging; 18F; positron emission tomography (PET).
Online: 29 November 2023 (07:16:04 CET)
The small-molecule iododiflunisal (IDIF) is a transthyretin (TTR) tetramer stabilizer and acts as a chaperone of the TTR-Amyloid beta interaction. Oral administration of IDIF improves Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)-like pathology in mice, although mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics remain unknown. Radiolabeling IDIF with positron or gamma emitters may aid in the in vivo evaluation of IDIF using non-invasive nuclear imaging techniques. In this work, we report isotopic exchange reaction to obtain IDIF radiolabeled with 18F. [19F/ 18F]exchange reaction over IDIF in dimethylsulfoxide at 160 °C resulted in the formation of [18F]IDIF in 7±3% radiochemical yield in a 20 minutes reaction time, with a final radiochemical purity of >99%. Biodistribution studies after intravenous administration of [18F]IDIF in wild-type mice using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging showed capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier (ca. 1% of injected dose per gram of tissue in the brain at t>10 min post administration), rapid accumulation in the liver, long circulation time and progressive elimination via urine. Our results open opportunities for future studies in larger animal species or human subjects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1777.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: community; sustainability; transition; policy; governance; place-based; Scotland.
Online: 29 November 2023 (07:14:04 CET)
Rural areas of advanced industrial countries have frequently experienced a dualistic set of policies: one designed for the land-use sector, especially agriculture; and another dealing with rural development . As problems of industrialised agriculture and forestry emerged, a more joined up approach to policy was advocated. Since the 1980s, at national and international level, new elements of rural policy have emerged to connect these two policy fields, including environmental payments, farm diversification grants, woodland creation within the farm sector and support for community-led local development. Rural land is also closely connected to the biodiversity and climate crises which have become important policy drivers. Policy towards community-led local development has moved further in Scotland than almost anywhere else as a result of policies for community-based land reform, community empowerment and community asset transfer. These communitarian approaches connect closely to collaborative landscape management as it addresses environmental challenges. As collaborative place-based and area-based approaches emerge as the guiding stars of the new rural development, this paper explores the challenges in the governance of sustainability transitions in moving from a sectoral rural policy hinging around support for land use to one based much more on communitarian values and place-based development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1754.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: CDC@Fe3O4; Fenton-photocatalytic dye degradation; Substituted Imidazole derivatives.
Online: 29 November 2023 (07:07:53 CET)
A magnetite (CDC@Fe3O4) heterogeneous photocatalyst was synthesized via treated and modified cotton in two steps. The designed nanocomposites were characterized by FTIR, TGA, XRD, SEM, and VSM analyses. The Fenton-photocatalytic decomposition efficiency of the synthesized magnetic catalyst was evaluated under visible sunlight using Methyl Orange (MO) as a model organic pollutant. The impacts of several degradation parameters, including the light source, catalyst load, irradiation temperature, oxidant dose, and pH of the dye aqueous solution and its corresponding concentration on the Fenton photodegradation performance, were methodically investigated. (CDC@Fe3O4) heterogeneous catalyst showed a remarkable MO removal rate of 97.9% at 10 min under visible-light irradiation. (CDC@Fe3O4) nanomaterials were also used in a heterogeneous catalytic optimized protocol for a multicomponent reaction procedure to obtain nine tetra-substituted imidazole derivatives. The green protocol afforded imidazole derivatives in 30 min with good yields (91-97%) at room temperature and under ultrasound irradiation. Generally, a synthesized recyclable heterogeneous nano-catalyst is a good example and is suitable for wastewater treatment and organic synthesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1856.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Small-scale fisheries; anthropogenic threats; Sardinella maderensis; land use change; Nigeria; remote sensing; pollution
Online: 29 November 2023 (06:32:38 CET)
Small-scale fisheries are significant sources of nutrition and livelihood globally. However, increasing anthropogenic activities in coastal areas of developing countries have threatened the sustainability of artisanal fisheries and species. Fisheries of Sardinella maderensis (Lowe, 1838), to which Nigeria contributes 9% of the global stock and is a significant livelihood source in the coastal communities of Ibeju-Lekki, Lagos, face sustainability threats. This research investigated the effects of anthropogenic activities on S. maderensis fishery in the coastal areas of Ibeju-Lekki, Lagos, Nigeria. The study adopted a mixed-method approach involving qualitative and quantitative research methods. These include species identification, water quality analysis, land use change analysis, field surveys, focus group discussions and interviews. Results show genetic analysis of the fish samples from six stations revealed that the species had a mean of 98% similarity to Sardinella maderensis in NCBI. Multiple linear regression indicates that anthropogenic variables explained approximately 4.62% of the variance in the fish catch (p < .001, R2 = .05). Water samples showed heavy metal levels were above international limits, high total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) pollution in all stations (27.56 mg/L- 3985.40 mg/L). Physiochemical analysis of water samples indicated TDS higher than acceptable limits (Mean = 24971.1 mg/L) and inadequate chlorophyll-a level (Mean = 0.01 µg/L). Hence, urgent strategies are required to mitigate anthropogenic threats through inclusive coastal management policies supporting resilient artisanal fisheries and marine spatial planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1848.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: orthodontic treatment; upper central; anterior nasal spine; nasal floor; CBCT; vertical growth pattern
Online: 29 November 2023 (06:31:31 CET)
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of the distance between the apex tip of the upper central tooth (U1A) and the anterior nasal spine (ANS) and the nasal floor (NF) with the vertical cephalometric values using cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT). A total of 122 patients who applied to Department of Orthodontics between January 2011-June 2019 were included. On the CBCT’s, distances between the U1A and the NF and ANS were measured. Statistical significance was considered as p<0.05. Of 122 individuals 73.8% (n=90) were female and 26.2% (n=32) were male with an mean age of 22,8±3,3 years. A statistically significant moderate positive correlation was found between the NF-U1A mean values and the measurements of N-Me, ANS-Me and ANS-Gn, S-Go, and N-ANS measurements (p <0.01). A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the ANS-U1A mean values and Ar-Go-Me, total posterior angles, N-Me, SN/GoGn and Y-axis angle, ANS-Me and ANS-Gn (p <0.01). In this study, we found that the distance of U1A from ANS and NF points was related to orthodontic vertical direction parameters. It was demonstrated that the ANS-U1A and NF-U1A points can serve as reference points for identifying the orthodontic vertical growth pattern on CBCT scans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0124.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Theoretical Physics Keywords: relativity; special principle; space-time; translation; parallelism; parallel; reference frame; successful control; law.
Online: 29 November 2023 (06:30:10 CET)
Similarly to his special theory of relativity, Einstein's special principle of relativity extends beyond the limits currently known to it. Up to now, the principle has not been suspected to have the potential to translate laws. However, the principle holds an inherent capacity to translate physical laws and, in so doing, speeds up our understanding and control of physical reality. Such a translation of laws leads to the faster discovery of other laws, such as the Laws of Electronic Motion, characterizing the motion of electrons around the atomic nucleus, and the Third Law of Biological Resistance, facilitating the successful control of drug resistance in medicine. The ability of the special principle of relativity to translate laws shines forth once the said principle is duly interpreted. This interpretation exposes a parallelism between experimental frames of reference and justifies the applicability of the laws of one frame of reference in other parallel frames of reference. This process opens the door to our faster discovery of the laws governing a multiplicity of frames parallel to a frame we already know the laws of. In practice, the interpretation of Einstein's special principle of relativity speeds up our understanding of the workings of physical reality and strengthens our capacity to subdue matter.