ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0005.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Landfill, Waste, Socio-environmental impact, Hematologic diseases
Online: 4 October 2016 (09:03:17 CEST)
We are experiencing an unprecedented urbanization process that alongside with physical, social and economic developments is having a significant impact on population’s health. Due to higher apprehensions of pollution, violence and poverty, our modern cities no longer ensure a good quality of life so they become unhealthy environments. This study aims to measure the socio-environmental and hematologic profile of residents of Santo André’s landfill – “Bairro Espírito Santo” by using the contextualization of the studied area. The research method is Observational type and from Retrospective cohort and by convenience sampling in Santo André in the Greater ABC region. The study determined a socio environmental profile and the hematologic diseases screening related to a close location to the landfill. The disease manifests itself within a broad spectrum of symptoms that causes changes in blood count parameters. The full blood counts analysis was performed, indicating that the blood counts of residents living near the landfill led to positive hematological changes and diseases like Leukopenia, Anemia, Neutropenia and lymphocytosis were the most common changes. However it is considered that the proof of the relation of cause- effect to environmental exposures that may trigger chronic manifestations in humans requires specific studies that are often complicated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0118.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: sustainable procurement; waste policy; C&D waste regulation; overregulation; recycled waste materials
Online: 7 July 2020 (08:41:48 CEST)
Increased construction activities in Australia have led to the generation of a massive volume of construction and demolition (C&D) waste annually. Management of this volume of waste requires an effective waste framework. The literature reported that the current Australian waste framework does not meet expectations and needs immediate improvements. This study was therefore conducted to seek the key C&D stakeholders' opinion about various issues identified in this waste stream. The specific objectives of this study are identification of the main barriers to effective C&D waste management, the impact of current regulations and opportunities to enhance the current C&D waste management system. A survey was conducted in 2019 to capture the stakeholders' perception. 132 participants from various industries and government agencies based in various Australian jurisdictions took part in the survey. The key results showed that the main barriers towards an effective management system are "overregulation, tough acceptance criteria, and increased testing requirements", "lack of local market" and "culture, poor education and low acceptance". Furthermore, a low number of participants indicated that the current legislation encourages waste recovery activities. The main areas of improvements included "providing a guideline that determines the accepted level of contamination for reusing C&D waste”, "preparation of guidelines on requirements of using recycled C&D materials in different industries" and "setting target for reduction, reusing, and recycling C&D waste". The results can inform policy development and be used as evidence for a broader discussion to solve lasting issues in C&D waste management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0074.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Household waste; household waste management; sustainable city; integrated waste management model; Malaysia cities
Online: 6 May 2022 (10:27:56 CEST)
In recent years, Malaysia has faced environmental challenges caused by municipal solid waste, especially household waste, during the Covid-19 pandemic. Among all the household waste, plastic and paper are the most prominent waste that causes environmental hazards. Several recycling associations in Malaysia have carried out their practices for better waste sustainability and management to curb the increasing amount of household waste. However, the effectiveness is still vague in achieving smart and effective household waste management. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate Malaysia’s household waste management, mainly in three significant municipalities in Malaysia for Kuala Lumpur, Penang and Melaka, in becoming a resilient and sustainable city by addressing two main research questions 1) What are the key factors for ensuring the more success move for future household waste management in cities? and 2) How will the 3 municipalities address their waste issues based on the key factors from RQ1, respectively? This paper reviewed 13 waste management articles and explores the potential of the four factors of waste management from the perspective of technology and data, economy, social and governance. The discussed factors and models contributed to an integrated future-proofing framework that focuses on smart waste tracking, an gamified awareness education, and strict policies to control waste management are the way forward for the future of smart cities household waste management.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0670.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: policies; sustainability; waste management; waste sector
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:50:36 CEST)
Solid waste management is a challenge in many countries, especially developing economies. The author identified nine major waste issues reported during the current pandemic period. The impacts of the pandemic continue to be felt and have indicated secondary impacts with respect the waste management. The reflective topics highlighted in the present article are not intended to be exhaustive. Still, they give us a starting point for reﬂecting on how we can construct a more resilient waste management system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0087.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: solid waste management; environmental pollution; agricultural waste; cassava waste; biogas generation; sustainable technology
Online: 5 September 2018 (05:32:59 CEST)
Agricultural product like cassava produces huge amounts of waste when processed to consumable goods. The waste generated is generally considered to contribute largely to environmental pollution. This study therefore investigates the waste management practice that is adopted by cassava processors in Ogun State, Nigeria. Five (5) Local Government Areas (LGAs) dominant in processing cassava were selected for the study on the basis of spatial location distribution; landmass and population. The survey involved the use of structured questionnaires administered to cassava processors of the selected LGAs. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software application and descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Results of the analysis show that majority (70%) of the cassava processors are females. Cassava peel constitutes 10% of the waste produced, of which 91% are heaped at refuse dump in most communities. Results also reveal that 86.3% of cassava residues are used for animal feeds. Other findings show that the peels when dried are used as bio-fuel for cooking and there is a significant potential for biogas production. From the data captured from respondent during the study, most processors are willing to pay for an improved waste management system. The study therefore suggests proper waste management of cassava waste to minimize environmental pollution.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0556.v1
Online: 24 February 2021 (16:41:43 CET)
Solid waste management is a global issue that affects every individual living in the world directly or indirectly. Failing to manage the waste properly will cause harm on public health, our natural environment, and even our happiness and prosperity. When asked about the reason behind the failure of third time plastic ban in Bhutan, one of the Bhutanese said it’s because of the lack of cooperation from public to support the move of government. Clean Bhutan, a non-governmental organization (NGO) that aims Zero Waste Bhutan by 2030, has collected around 5,900 metric tons of waste from December 2014 to February 2018. This project will create some awareness regarding the management of waste at individual level when people come in contact with the family of the researcher. It also talks abot how waste management and biodiversity conservation can go side by side.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0476.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: COVID-19; Waste management; Recycling; Sustainability; Waste shock
Online: 31 October 2022 (09:54:27 CET)
Recycling and waste management have garnered immense popularity in recent years, but few studies have been carried out regarding these systems. Therefore, an in-depth literature review was done in order to highlight the different sectors of the recycling system that need to be reformed. Hence this study examined recycling and waste management systems within three categories–medical, municipal, and plastic–that were carried out pre and post COVID by reviewing previous studies, technical reports, and annual reports. This was done by visiting numerous academic search engines alongside online resources that were utilized to assemble literature related to waste and recycling systems. Continuing a recurring idea was that no matter the type of waste, further research regarding all waste should be carried out. Additionally, since recycling and waste management are a vital part of our society, and seeing how unpredictable events such as the pandemic may be, it is paramount that that research is done not only on how the pandemic has affected systems now, but also how we can learn from current issues to utilize them for future “waste shocks”.
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: waste management; circular economy; sustainability; mechanical biological treatment; waste-to-energy; waste tax; green economy; landfills; composting
Online: 7 March 2020 (15:29:01 CET)
An adequate number of waste management facilities is the key element to meet circular economy goals. Using empirical data taken from official sources the research framework bases on an econometric model to compare the elasticity of cost on quantity of different alternatives such as waste-to-energy facilities, mechanical biological facilities and landfills impact on waste management cost. Results suggest that both waste-to-energy facilities (-0.278%) and landfills (-0.38%) concur to lower the cost while the higher the percentage of waste sent to mechanical biological treatment facilities, the higher the cost (0.788%). This figure deserves to be examined in more details as such facilities represent an intermediary step in the chain which efficiency depends on the industrial organization of the chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0294.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: construction and demolition waste; renovation; demolition; waste disposal; pre-renovation audit; waste audit; construction; comparison; costs
Online: 11 December 2020 (16:20:49 CET)
The issue of sustainability has long been the subject of interest of the architecture engineering and construction sector. All three aspects of sustainability - economic, environmental and social - can be affected through appropriate construction waste management. Construction and demolition waste (CDW) is one of the largest worldwide waste streams, therefore it is given great attention by all stakeholders (investors, contractors, authorities, etc.). Researches have shown that one of the main barriers to insufficiency CDW recovery is inadequate policies and legal frameworks to manage CDW. It is also one of the EU's environmental priorities. Aim of the article is to confirm the economic potential of construction and demolition waste audit processing through case study. A pre-demolition waste audit has been processed for unused building of shopping center in the town Snina in Slovakia. Subsequently, a comparison of economic parameters (waste disposal costs and transport costs) of recommended CDW management was performed. This comparison confirmed the economic benefits of environmentally friendly construction waste management methods according to the waste audit results, which will also increase the sustainability of construction projects. In addition, the cost parameters of selected waste disposal methods could be another dimension of building information modelling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0214.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Lean, Just in Time, Pull System, Waste Management, Sustainable improvement, Waste flow Mapping.
Online: 13 June 2018 (14:33:00 CEST)
Lean is one of the systematic approach to achieve higher value for organizations through eliminate non-value-added activities. It is an integrated set of tools, techniques, and principles designed to optimize cost, quality and delivery while improving safety. In Vietnam, industry waste management and treatment has become serious issue. The aim of this research is to present the effective of Lean application for industrial wastes collecting and delivery improvement. Through a case study, this paper showed the way of Lean tools and principles applied for wastes management and treatment such as Value Stream Mapping, Pull system, Visual Control, and Andon.... to get benefit on both economic and environment. In addition, the results introduced a good experience for Vietnamese enterprises in cost saving and sustainable development in waste management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0304.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: COVID-19; waste generation; waste collection; gap assessment; emergency plans
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:39:27 CEST)
The nationwide lockdown imposed to control the spread of novel coronavirus induced dramatic alterations in different sectors of the Nepalese governance, including Solid Waste Management (SWM) practices. The study identifies SW collection gaps in seven major cities of Nepal and highlights the municipal and public households on SW management practices before and during the lockdown to emphasize the linkage between COVID-19 and SWM. It includes information on solid waste status, collection frequency and coverage, workers safety practices, types of vehicles operated for collection and alternative methods adopted by households to manage SW during the lockdown. For this, 1329 households survey and key informant interviews were conducted in seven cities of Nepal during the lockdown. It was found that although the coverage of the collection service was similar during the pandemic, there was a drastic decrease in the collection frequency leading to a collection gap of around 570 tons/day. More than 50% of the surveyed households adopted no proper alternative measures as they claimed that they stored solid waste with proper management so that municipal authorities can take it. The study reveals poor occupational health and safety practices among the solid waste workers due to the unavailability of safety gears and equipment despite being aware of the modes of transmission of the virus. The pandemic exacerbated the challenges of smooth SWM as it is an essential and needy service. This study highlights the need for a timely strategic management framework to be developed by the government to continue the smooth SWM practices during the lockdown.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0117.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: COVID-19; Medical Waste; Sustainability; Environment.
Online: 3 June 2021 (13:22:55 CEST)
The situation in the world of pandemics is rapidly changing, and the second wave of COVID-19 has put a lot of pressure on the government and private sector, which are primarily responsible for controlling the situation. COVID-19 positive cases have increased in recent months relative to last year, and the number of patients admitted to hospitals has also increased, despite the fact that few of them were denied admission due to shortage of beds. Normal people who experience any symptoms immediately isolate themselves and begin taking the COVID medications prescribed by medical personnel and their team. During these times, all domestic people tossed the wrappers and boxes of medicines into the regular trash can, and the waste was handed over to the waste collector, who treated it like any other domestic waste and disposed of it using open dumping or other methods. The goal of this perspective is to suggest the collections of these types of waste from domestics, and protect the natural resources like water, soil, and even living beings like animals from pollution (from the effect of SARS-CoV-2). The main challenge for environmental waste management agencies is determining who has COVID positive and which houses generate these types of waste; thus, proposed strategy may be beneficial to the long-term sustainability of natural resources and animals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0454.v2
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: food waste recovery; maggot production; environmental protection; animal feed; solid waste management
Online: 24 January 2022 (14:16:03 CET)
Waste recovery is an important aspect towards human and environmental health protection. Unfortunately, proper food waste management is among the serious challenges in the field of solid waste management worldwide. Therefore, it is of great importance to conduct studies towards achieving efficient and cost-effective approaches for food waste management. This study investigated the potential of recovering food waste through maggots’ production as animal feed. The influence of fly attractant application on maggot production was also investigated. The study also investigated the potential of maggot production for waste recovery and reduction. Four different types of food waste (starch food leftovers, rotten bananas and peels, rotten pineapple and peels, and rotten oranges) were used in the investigation process. From the results, it was observed that the application of fly attractants had a significant effect on the production of maggots as determined by the weights after harvesting. Average weight of 94 g/kg of maggot was achieved from banana materials with an application of fly attractant during the 8th day of the cultivation; which is equivalent to a 32.4% increase from the same day when the material was cultured without applying fly attractant. Also, from the starch materials, about 77 g/kg of maggot weight was achieved; which is a 54.6% increase from the same day and the same material but without application of fly attractant. Moreover, the relative dry weight reduction in the trials varied from 52.5% to 82.4%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0479.v1
Online: 22 February 2021 (14:56:22 CET)
Sherubtse College under Royal University of Bhutan has a total of 1582 students, where 787 0f them are female. They suffer from menstrual and menstrual cramps every month and they use napkins to stay clean and healthy. As all the college girls are educated on the norms and use of sanitary napkins, the proper management of the waste generated is lacking. The disposal of used sanitary napkins and management is a challenge to the college management. This small research aims to investigate on how girls in college campus manage the menstural waste and the amount of sanitary napkins used. The lack of proper dumping areas leads to the improper sanitary waste management and sometimes the waste generated from the sanitary napkins are toxic and unhealthy. It is very important to initate some ways to dump the pads and its related problem should be seriously addressed by the college management. It is also important to come up with different soultion and management of these wastes for sustainable environment. Therefore, this research will be mainly mentioning about the suggestions and how the sanitary waste is being managed in Sherubtse College campus and the amount of sanitary pads used in a month or an year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0012.v2
Online: 9 September 2016 (07:42:15 CEST)
Solid waste management in Accra is a major challenge to the Metropolitan Authorities and inhabitants. The rapidly increasing population coupled with poor capacity of the municipal and private waste management companies to management waste effectively has created issues of environmental concern. Due to poor waste managements systems, most household dispose waste indiscriminately leading to floods and health issues. The study showed that about 60% of household waste is organic materials which has the potential to be converted to compost for agriculture purpose. Meanwhile plastics and rubbers which litters the environment as well as blocking major storm drains and gutters hence creating huge environmental hazard is made of 11% of the total component of most household waste generated daily. The study also revealed that among the methods of disposing waste, dumping waste in skip containers located at authorized places was the preferred means of disposing waste by household though others also dispose waste by other means such as burying and burning. Inadequate skip containers per population of household in an area coupled with irregularity of tracks picking these containers makes skip containers dumping site ugly scene, hence creating health issues. Among the constraints that impact negatively on sustainable waste management in Accra Metropolis, economic constraints was perceived as the main challenge which affect efficient waste management. Currently the country is going through serious economic challenges so government does not release money timely to fund projects which waste management is key. Most donor partners that use to support the government with funds have either reduced or redrawn their services as they have no confidence in the state of Ghana economy. Aside the constrains, the study also indicated that factors such as poor public attitude towards waste management, poor enforcement of sanitation by-laws, inadequate and untimely release of government funds were also seen as the main factors affecting waste management.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Pharmaceutical waste; Sources; Cost of disposal; Management; Impact; Pharmacists
Online: 12 October 2020 (13:34:54 CEST)
Introduction: Pharmaceutical products are inevitable for human health. Owing to the growing need for pharmaceuticals, pharmaceutical companies introduce drugs annually into the market in addition to the extensive collection of existing pharmaceutical products. Households, farms, health facilities, and pharmaceutical industries release pharmaceutical waste into the environment at low concentrations through routine pharmaceutical use, damage, and expiry. The effects of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) on non-target species in the environment are not known. Over the years, pharmaceuticals such as diclofenac and ibuprofen in trace amounts have been detected in public water systems, ground and surface water. Unwanted medicines should be safely disposed of at a reduced financial cost to mitigate the public and environmental health risks. Lack of general knowledge of how to dispose of unused pharmaceuticals leads to improper disposal resulting in accidental toxicity, rising healthcare costs, landfills pilfering/scavenging, water supply pollution, anti-microbial resistance, and death. To mitigate such effects, pharmacists should raise public awareness about safe disposal practices. Objective: This review aims to examine the sources of pharmaceutical waste, disposal costs, secure disposal methods, the effects of inappropriate disposal, and the role of pharmacists in the disposal. Method: The information on the stated objectives was gathered from available sources through a comprehensive literature review. Conclusion: Many countries contain tons of pharmaceutical waste that are expensive to destroy. Because of improper disposal, pharmaceutical waste has been found at trace amounts in drinking and surface water. A practical, environmentally sustainable approach to pharmaceutical waste management, with policies and guidelines, and public awareness campaigns, are necessary to address the problem of safe waste disposal. The national drug regulatory bodies should conduct environmental risk assessment resulting from the disposal of unwanted pharmaceuticals. Pharmacists should facilitate extensive training on sustainable drug use and proper pharmaceutical waste disposal at all levels to reduce the risks associated with improper disposal. Reduction of pharmaceutical waste generation at each step of a drug’s lifecycle, implementing takeback options, collection at approved sites, and modern technology to treat wastewater are highly recommended to reduce the effects of unwanted pharmaceuticals on human health and the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0324.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: LoRa; LoRaWAN; Trial; Waste Management; Smart City; Internet of Things
Online: 16 February 2021 (13:32:05 CET)
The city of Lisbon, has any other capital of a European country, has a large number of issues while managing the waste and recycling containers spread throughout the city. This document presents the results of a study promoted by the Lisbon City Council for trialing LPWAN technology on the waste management vertical under the Lisbon Smart City initiative. Current waste management is done using GSM sensors, and the aim is to use LPWAN to reduce the costs, improve range and reduce provisioning times when changing the communications provider. After an initial study, LoRa was selected as the LPWAN of choice for the trials. The study is composed of multiple use cases at different distances, types of recycling waste containers, placements (underground and surface) and different kinds of waste level measurement LoRa sensors, deployed in order to assess the impact of the different use cases on the LoRa sensor usage. The results shown that the underground waste containers present the most difficult challenge, where the container itself imposes attenuation levels of 26dB on the link budget. The results promoted the deployment of a city wide LoRa network available to all departments inside the Lisbon City Council, and considering the network capacity the network, the network is also available to citizens to be used freely.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0156.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Health care risk waste, home-based caregivers
Online: 8 October 2018 (16:02:59 CEST)
The quadruple burden of diseases, early discharge from hospital and hospital at home have resulted in home-based care services becoming a requirement in South Africa. The home-based care services generate a significant amount of health care risk waste that is mismanaged. However, more attention is given to the health care risk waste generated in hospitals and clinics than to health care risk waste generated by home-based caregivers. Therefore, this study investigates the health care risk waste management practices by home-based caregivers. The study adopted a mixed research approach, qualitative and quantitative methods, using a literature review, interviews, and questionnaires as means of data collection. Results show that there are different types of health care risk waste generated as a result of different activities performed by home-based caregivers, but that the waste was found to be managed in an unsafe manner. The majority of households receiving home-based care did not have basic sanitation facilities such as toilets, running water and waste removal services, aggravating the issue of health care risk waste mismanagement. The study recommends a new policy framework that will lead to safe management practices of generated health care risk waste to be adopted by home-based caregivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0152.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Attitudes; Behaviour; Communication; Information; Prompts; Policy; Recycling; Waste
Online: 15 August 2016 (11:34:39 CEST)
Recycling information can be complex and often confusing which may subsequently reduce the participations in any waste recycling schemes. As a result, this research explored the roles as well as the importance of a holistic approach in designing recycling information using 15 expert-based in-depth interviews. The rationale was to offer a better understanding of what constitutes waste, recycling, and how recycling information should be designed and presented to make recycling more attractive/convenient. Based on the research participants’ perceptions with supports from the existing studies, this research sub-categorised recycling information into three different themes, termed the “WWW” of recycling information components. As a result, these components (or attributes) were extensively described (using findings of semi-structured interviews) to elicit pragmatic guidance for practitioners, policy-makers, and other stakeholders in designing structured communication or information strategies that may simplify and subsequently increase waste-recycling practices. The policy implications of holistic information in enhancing recycling are further discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0069.v1
Subject: Keywords: waste management; waste minimization; recycling; rural district municipalities; community residents; households; satisfaction levels; willingness to recycle; waste separation; municipal solid waste; benefits and barriers
Online: 25 July 2017 (05:14:07 CEST)
Whereas waste management research has focused on mostly urban municipalities in South Africa, not much is known about the current performance of waste management services from the perspective of community residents in rural municipalities. This study reports on the status and effectiveness of waste management practices from the perspective of community residents in the Umkhanyakude and Zululand Districts in the rural areas of the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. Making use of structured questionnaires, primary data was obtained by interviewing 333 respondents representing households in the study area. Results have revealed several shortfalls in the provision of municipal waste management services, except for solid waste removal from households (66%), and management of landfill sites (41%). The degree of dissatisfaction for waste management services rendered was very high (97.3%). Furthermore, the majority (61.4%) of respondents were not willing to participate in waste segregation due to lack of appropriate knowledge and infrastructure. The study also pinpointed some benefits associated with waste minimization, as well as barriers constraining effective waste recycling. Based on these findings, there is a dire need for transforming current waste management practices toward increased recycling rates by creating more environmental awareness and a supporting infrastructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0025.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: waste management; economic instruments; pay-as-you-throw; municipal solid waste; recycling; environmental management
Online: 3 November 2016 (10:28:43 CET)
The “Pay-as-you-throw” scheme, PAYT, is an economic instrument of waste management that implements the “polluter pays” principle by charging inhabitants of municipalities according to the amount of residual, organic and bulky waste they send for third-party waste management. When combined with well-developed infrastructure to collect the different waste fractions (residual waste, paper and cardboard, plastics, bio waste, green cuttings, many recyclables) as well as with a good level of citizen’s awareness, its performance has frequently been linked to high collection rates of recyclables. However, the establishment and operation of PAYT systems can require significant resource inputs from municipalities. In this paper, PAYT is analysed through a case study from the German County of Aschaffenburg, covering nearly 20 years of implementation across 173,000 inhabitants. Key performance indicators applied include temporal trends in the county’s recyclables collection rate, waste treatment fees for residents and municipal waste management costs, benchmarked against German municipalities not implementing PAYT.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0021.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: electrical and electronic waste; recycling; legislative frameworks; environmental management; landfilling
Online: 3 August 2016 (12:33:45 CEST)
Households and businesses are generating unprecedented levels of electrical and electronic wastes (e-waste), fueled by modernisation and rapid obsolescence. While the challenges imposed by e-waste are similar everywhere in the world, disparities in progress to deal with it exists; with developing nations such as South Africa lagging. The increase in e-waste generation increases the need to formulate strategies to manage it. This paper presents an overview of e-waste management on a global and South African scenarios with a specific case for Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) waste management practices in South Africa. CRTs present the biggest problem for recyclers and policy makers because they contain hazardous elements such as lead and antimony. Common disposal practices have been either landfilling or incineration. The research into the South African practices with regards to CRT waste management showed that there is still more to be done to effectively manage this waste stream. This is despite clear waste regulatory frameworks in the country. However, recent developments have placed e-waste as a priority waste stream, which should lead to intensified efforts in dealing with it. Overall, these efforts should aim to maximise diversion from landfilling and to create value-addition opportunities, leading to social and environmental benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0303.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: solid waste management; performance assessment; fuzzy rule-based modeling; performance indicators; Simulink MATLAB
Online: 30 January 2019 (06:55:00 CET)
Most of the municipalities in the Gulf region are facing performance related issues in their municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems. They lack to possess a deliberate inter-municipality benchmarking processes. Instead of identifying the performance gaps for their key components (e.g., personnel productivity, operational reliability, etc.) and adopt proactive measures, the municipalities primarily rely on an efficient emergency response. A novel hierarchical modeling framework, based on deductive reasoning, is developed for performance assessment of MSWM systems. Fuzzy rule based modeling using Simulink-MATLAB was used for performance inferencing at different levels, i.e., component, sub-components, etc. The model is capable of handling the inherent uncertainties due to limited data and imprecise knowledge base. The model’s outcomes can exclusively assist the managers working at different levels of organizational hierarchy for effective decision-making. Performance of the key component, assists the senior management to assess the overall compliance level of performance objectives. Subsequently, operation management can hone in the sub-components to acquire useful information for intra-municipality performance management. While, individual indicators are useful for inter-municipality benchmarking. The model has been implemented on two municipalities operating in Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia. The results demonstrate the model’s pragmatism for continuous performance improvement of MSWM systems in the country and elsewhere.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0190.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: sustainability; smart cities; Internet of Things (IoT); multi-agent deep reinforcement learning; smart waste management; smart sensors
Online: 10 November 2022 (04:49:09 CET)
Ever-increasing need for improving the livability of a city and improve outcomes for its residents, over the last decade, the adoption of technology to develop urbanised societies around the world has given rise to the need for developing smart cities. The speed at which the world population is growing, the use of Internet of Things in smart cities have really advanced the quality of life. One significant area of concern within the smart city framework is waste management. If the waste within a city is not adequately managed, then it leads to issues in the health of the citizens. Additionally, the waste management has such a high impact on the environmental footprint, hence the need to have a smart way of managing waste is of critical importance. Through our research, we analyse the challenges of waste management within a city to understand the impact of the problem on to the citizens and overall city operations. We then investigate ways in which we can solve these problems using the emerging technologies, such as the Internet of Things, to collect valuable data of large volumes arriving at an astronomical rate, then apply multi-agent deep reinforcement learning algorithms to harness the power of big data to extract meaningful information and actionable insights. We ingest data generated by our Internet of Things into our algorithm for three main purposes including providing the notifications to an external system, for example, a map navigation engine out of the scope for this project but a future extension for route optimisation and waste vehicle tracking; extracting and reporting the actionable insights from the underlying data; and consuming the extracted data for predictive forecasting to draw out the unknown patterns of waste fill levels within various geographical locations and again send out triggers and notification to external systems for example a waste collection authority who can efficiently schedule the waste collection vehicles and optimise the route. To achieve the above mentioned outcomes, we propose a framework that is agnostic of the hardware that it connects to and can effectively interface with a wide variety of hardware keeping a level of abstraction in the architecture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0045.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: ports, waste management, Baltic Sea, cruise ships, sea environment, recycling
Online: 7 April 2017 (12:44:20 CEST)
The cruise ship industry has become a well-implemented industry in the Baltic Sea area, and each year, the number of cruise ship passengers rises steadily. Efficient waste management in cruising ports around the Baltic Sea is a crucial element in minimizing environmental impacts. This research involves the four selected ports of Copenhagen, Helsinki, Stockholm and Tallinn. The study applies statistics and interview data to the analysis of waste management systems for cruise ship-generated waste. The interview data involves 14 executives and professionals responsible for environmental issues and decision making in their respective ports. The interviews highlighted the need for standardized environmental legislation and related procedures, which would result in coherent measurement systems. These systems would enable transparent environmental monitoring, thus maintaining the ports’ competitiveness. A common environmental legislation would support the emerging waste management system for the whole Baltic Sea area. We suggest that ports should focus on handling specific types of wastes and collaborate as a spatial network. Specialization to allow discharge of certain fractions of waste is essential. The paper concludes by addressing demands for future research, particularly vessel- and customer behavior focused studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0091.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: sustainable waste management behaviors; protection motivation theory; pro-environmental behaviors; threat appraisal, coping appraisal
Online: 9 August 2016 (10:29:00 CEST)
This study aims to explain individual engagement in sustainable waste management behaviors (SWMBs) based on the application of protection motivation theory (PMT). SWMBs include waste avoidance, green purchasing behavior, reuse and recycle, and waste disposal behaviors. This study applies PMT to explore how individuals’ SWMBs are influenced by their perceived threats caused by environmental contamination from waste disposal and their perceived coping capability. The Bangkok metropolitan area was selected as a case study because it has faced serious waste management problems caused by massively increasing amounts of solid waste during the last ten years. Questionnaire surveys were conducted with 193 public and private officers residing in the city of Bangkok. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to justify the effect of individual threat appraisal and coping appraisal on the engagement in SWMBs. The results demonstrated that respondents’ self-efficacy highly influenced all types of SWMBs. The perceived probability of being impacted from pollutants influenced all of the SWMBs except green purchasing behaviors. Response efficacy did not influence all SWMBs; however, the perceived severity of adverse consequences caused by pollutants highly influenced reuse and recycle behaviors. It could be suggested that PMT is well suited for investigating low-cost and simple SWMBs. It could also be suggested that different communication campaigns should be established to enhance citizens’ engagement in each type of SWMB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0104.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: advanced nuclear fuel cycles; waste management; resource utilization; economics; performance comparison; multi-criteria decision analysis; sensitivity/uncertainty analysis; environmental footprint
Online: 30 August 2017 (12:35:24 CEST)
Is it true that the nuclear technology applied to electric energy generation offers a clean, safe, reliable and affordable i.e. sustainable alternative? Yes it is, but its impact on the environment strongly depends on the implementation bearing residual risks due to a human factor, technical failures or natural catastrophes. A full response is therefore difficult and can first be given when the wicked multi-disciplinary problems get well formulated and “solved”. These problems have multi-dimensional nature lying at the interface between: necessary R&D effort, the industrial deployment and the technology impact in view of the environmental sustainability including the management of produced hazardous waste. This enormous complexity indicates that just a description of the problem might represent a problem. The paper proposes a holistic approach to assess the nuclear energy systems potential with respect to sustainable performance applying Multi-criteria decision analysis with a suitable objective tree and a multi-level criteria structure and examines the trading-off techniques for ranking of the alternatives. The framework proposes a multi-criteria and multi-stakeholders treatment which can be used as a pre-decisional support towards an implementation of nuclear fuel cycles adapted to national preferences and priorities. Proposed approach addresses some aspects of the environmental footprint of nuclear energy systems. Advanced nuclear fuel cycles, previously investigated by the NEA/OECD expert group WASTEMAN, are analyzed as a case study. Sustainability facets of waste management, resource utilization and economics are in focus.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: waste management; civil construction waste; sustainability
Online: 27 October 2019 (10:26:32 CET)
Given the importance of the development of urban infrastructure and environmental impacts produced by the civil construction waste (CCW), it is important to correct the handling of CCW with objective solutions that are more environmentally friendly. In that sense the present study aimed to determine indicators that make it possible to estimate the amount of CCW generated from construction sites in the city of Londrina, Parana State, Brazil. The generation of CCW was estimated in a general way, regarding the composition of its mixture, correlated to the gross areas of the buildings studied and their generated volumes of RCC. This generating rate was evaluated in a general way and specifies two types of sites: the new residential and new non-residential constructions. The data required for the development of these indicators was obtained through extensive survey and interviews carried out at the environment secretariat of the City Hall. The generating rate of CCW obtained for non-residential buildings was 0.2052m3/m2 or 170.44kg/m2, for new residential sites was 0.2054m3/m2 or 170.60kg/m2 and for new commercial or non-residential construction sites, it was 0.20453 m3/m2 or 169.85kg/m2. It was also possible to estimate the amount generated annually per inhabitant in the municipality, which is 0.60m3/inhabit.year or 498.55kg/inhabit.year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste; Waste Management, Sustainable Technology, Recycling, Reuse, Waste to wealth
Online: 6 August 2018 (09:44:57 CEST)
The practice of collecting, treating and management of solid waste prior to disposal has become a necessity in developing and modern societies. Over the years, it is known that most wastes that are disposed have a second hand value. However, the construction cost for conventional Material Recovery Facility(s) (MRFs) has been a major barrier for implementation. These technologies require considerable technical expertise, which is often not available in developing nations to successfully operate the MRFs. Covenant University; a private mission institution through her waste to wealth scheme is focused on managing and processing used materials to reusable products. These include Pet bottles, Paper wastes, Food wastes from cafeteria, plastic food packs, nylon, tin cans and others. Specific areas chosen for the Survey include the residential areas for staff and students and the two cafeterias. The waste generated was characterized based on the waste stream so as to quantify the amount of recyclable waste generated and most occurring. The survey involved the use of structured questionnaires, on-site observations and measurements. The study reveals an average amount of recyclable waste generated per day in the institution as 13.46% pet bottles, 4.03% paper, 55.56% food waste, 12.64% plastic, 9.63% nylon and 4.68% tin cans. The study established that adequate waste characterization is a requirement for effective integrated solid waste management which would boost resource recovery, reuse and recycling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0006.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: plastic waste; concrete waste; recycling; heat pressing
Online: 1 March 2020 (03:24:14 CET)
Demolished concrete and plastic waste are two increasingly aggravating problems. In this study, a novel method was proposed to simultaneously recycle concrete and plastic wastes by compacting concrete and plastic powders together under pressure and temperature. The influence of compression pressure and temperature as well as the mixture proportion on the bending strength of specimens was investigated. The results showed that pressure and temperature had a positive effect on the specimen strength; however, the molding temperature should not exceed the melting temperature of plastic. The proportion of plastic had a minimal effect on the bending strength of the specimen when plastic accounted for 25%–75% of the overall mass of the test piece.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0012.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: GIS in solid waste collection; waste vehicle routing; ArcGIS Network Analyst; waste bin allocation; municipal solid waste management
Online: 1 April 2021 (11:04:58 CEST)
Vehicle routing is a critical factor in municipal solid waste (MSW) collection planning and operations. Poor routing can introduce inefficiencies and cause targeted levels of services or performance to be missed irrespective of the level of resource application. Trial and error approaches have been proven to be not the best in the planning and prediction of expected performance. This study explores various Geographic Information System (GIS) tools and analysis techniques, and how they can be applied to optimizing vehicle routes in light of challenging site conditions. Using Adentan West residential area, suburb of Accra Ghana as a case study, current performance of the trial and error method was measured and a GIS computer model was used to evaluate various optimization scenarios to determine the level of savings that can be made. Field measurements were taking with Global Positioning System (GPS) devices for waste collection activities in areas with varying characteristics and conditions, and data analysed for one selected vehicle operating four days per week. It was found that, for a scenario where only the bin collection order was optimized while route selection was restricted by the ArcGIS Network Analyst, 2.6% of travel distance and 2.21% of travel time were saved. For the second scenario where only the route selection was optimized while order of bin collection was restricted, 4.1% and 1.5% of travel distance and time respectively were saved. For a third scenario where both the order of collection and route selection were together optimized, 10.9% and 3.7% of travel distance and time respectively were saved. Lastly, by regrouping all the bins for daily collection, 4.5% and 1.2% of travel distance and time respectively were saved. The results demonstrated that there is always room for optimization of solid waste collection routing irrespective of site constraints and other challenges that the nature of bin distribution pose to drivers. In developing countries like Ghana, where there is high demand for services in the face of limited road network access, application of GIS in optimization of routes will guide providers in planning and subsequently make more savings in fuel consumption, vehicle maintenance and cost of man-hours.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Food waste index; Household food waste; Waste characterisation; Waste sorting analysis; Avoidable food waste; Preparation residues; SDG Target 12.3; Methodology development; Assessment of current situation
Online: 15 July 2021 (15:38:01 CEST)
Target 12.3 of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) calls for halving per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels, by 2030. The Food Waste Index is suggested as a methodology for grasping the situation. This paper focuses on the consumer level (household food waste). We argue that in order for generating useful information for devising and implementing effective measures for reducing food waste, it should be measured at Level 3 of the Food Waste Index, based on sorting analysis of generated waste, making a distinction between avoidable and non-avoidable food waste. Furthermore, a breakdown by sub-categories that reflect the flow of food in the household could help identify target behaviours. We have developed a categorisation scheme that is internationally agreeable and adoptable, and 1) generates useful information for policy-making and for tackling with reduction of food waste, 2) makes clear the concept of avoidable food waste, and 3) is practical and does not overcomplicate the work of grasping the situation of food wastage. Results of workshops regarding this scheme suggest that the scheme satisfies the criteria. This scheme has been applied to a few sorting analyses of household food waste in Japan, and their results are compared.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: zero waste; plastic waste; circular economy; recycling performance
Online: 4 November 2020 (10:45:14 CET)
Despite the increase in popularity of Zero Waste (ZW) concept, the successful implementation of this concept in waste management is still facing many challenges. The plastic recycling rate in Australia is currently only about 9.4%, which could leave up to 90.6% of plastic consumption being sent to landfills. The state of Victoria (in Australia) has proposed an ambitious plan to upgrade its waste and recycling system and to divert about 80% of waste from landfills by 2030. The aim of this research is to study Victoria’s current waste management plan and to develop a simulation model to assess the feasibility of it achieving zero plastic waste by 2035. In this direction, a fundamental knowledge of global ZW implementation needs to be acquired in order to understand the challenges, obstacles, and uncertainties in achieving ZW target. A simulation model is established using a method called double baselines. This method was developed as an improvisation to address the limitation of data availability for the model development. The model will run on 4 scenarios including one from Victoria’s current plan. Outcomes from the model are produced in comparative charts covering 6 key considerations including the rates of plastic consumption, waste to landfill, diversion, recycling, relative accumulative cost and effort. The findings of this study pointed out that Victoria’s current plan are feasible for its goal and presented with opportunities for improvement especially towards zero plastic waste. Besides, study results also reveal that the Victoria’s current plan to achieve 80% diversion rate by 2030 is possible but the zero plastic waste target by 2035 is less likely to happen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0277.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: organic waste; waste to energy; waste to carbon; solid fuel; hydrochar; temperature; hydrothermal treatment
Online: 19 July 2022 (05:21:12 CEST)
Economic development and population growth lead to increased production of chicken manure (CM), which is a problematic organic waste for its amount, environmental threats, and moisture content. There are different ways of CM, namely anaerobic digestion, composting, combustion, and direct land spreading. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is another emerging way, however. In this study, the HTC of CM was performed to produce energy-rich material called hydrochar (HC). The effects of HTC temperature (180, 240, 300 C) and process time (30, 90, 180 min) were summarized. Proximate and ultimate analysis, as well as heating values (HHV, LHV), have been performed both on raw CM and derived HC. Additionally, the process performance has been examined. The obtained results show that HTC is a feasible method for CM disposal and valorization. Although process time did not influence considerably fuel properties of CM, higher temperature led to significantly higher HHV, reaching 23,880.6734.56 Jg-1 at 300 C and 180 min with an improvement of 8,329 Jg-1 compared with raw CM (15,551.67 Jg-1). The process conducted at 240 C in 30 min has been specified as the most favorable, due to the highest energy gain of HC and relatively low energy consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0401.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: e-waste; e-waste mechanical pretreatment; disintegration; e-waste milling; printed circuit boards; precious metals
Online: 23 August 2022 (17:24:51 CEST)
Various metals and semiconductors containing Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) are abundant in any electronic device equipped with controlling and computing features. These devices inevitably constitute E-waste after the end of service life. The typical construction of PCBs includes mechanically and chemically resistive materials, which significantly reduce the reaction rate or even avoid accessing chemical reagents (dissolvents) to target metals. Additionally, the presence of relatively reactive polymers and compounds from PCBs requires high energy consumption and reactive supply due to the formation of undesirable and sometimes environmentally hazardous reaction products. Preliminarily milling PCBs into powder is a promising method for increasing the reaction rate and avoiding liquid and gaseous emissions. Unfortunately, current state-of-the-art milling methods also lead to the presence of significantly more reactive polymers still adhered to milled target metal particles. This paper aims to find a novel single and two-stage disintegration-milling approach that can provide the formation of metal-rich particle size fractions. The morphology, particle fraction sizes, bulk density, and metal content in produced particles were measured and compared. Research results show the highest bulk density (up to 6.8 g·cm-3) and total metal content (up to 95.2 wt. %) in finest sieved fractions after the single-step milling of PCBs. Therefore, the concentrations of about half tested metallic elements are higher in the single milled specimen and with lower adhered plastics concentrations, as compared to double milled specimens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0312.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: recycling; concrete waste; wooden waste; heating compaction; bending strength
Online: 23 February 2020 (09:28:21 CET)
A large amount of concrete waste is generated around the world and its recycling is an urgent issue. In this research, a new approach to recycle concrete waste with wooden waste was studied. Concrete and wooden wastes were crushed, mixed, and heat compacted to produce plates with different water contents and mix proportions at various temperatures, pressures, and durations of compaction. The bending strength of the plates was measured after compaction. The result indicated that with an increase in the percentage of wooden waste in the mixture, pressure, or temperature improved the bending strength. The increase in water content reduced the bending strength. Most of the products exhibited higher bending strength than that of ordinary concrete.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0092.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: Circular Economy; Built Environment; Reuse; Upcycling; Industrial Waste; Urban Waste
Online: 7 March 2022 (09:14:42 CET)
The growing concern about climate change and the recognition of the planet’s limits led society to look for alternatives that promote the balance between the natural and the built environment. The circular economy emerges as an alternative to the linear economic model, inspired by natural metabolisms, by circulating resources in continuous loops, where their intrinsic value is maintained and improved. This research proposes a closed-loop strategy in the built environment by studying innovative constructive solutions that aim to find use, value, and inspiration in what is considered waste. A literature review is conducted on the circular design strategies, re-use and recycle typologies, and waste transformation processes. Then, the development of a methodology for qualitative evaluation and selection of re-used and upcycled construction materials from post-consumer waste and by-products is presented and then applied to thirty-five cases of constructive solutions from plastic, wood, paper, steel, aluminium, and agricultural waste. The research reports that the developed framework is adequate. The analysed alternative materials have good environmental performance and can be used as building materials despite their functional limitations, reflecting the enormous potential of waste as a resource for the construction industry.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0024.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: recycling; circularity; concrete waste; wood waste; botanical concrete; heat pressing
Online: 3 May 2020 (06:20:37 CEST)
Botanical recycled concrete, or concrete bonded with wood, is formed by heat pressing the mixture of concrete and wooden waste. Botanical recycled concrete is a relatively new material and the relationship between production condition and its real-world performance is not clear yet. This experimental study investigated the influence of several production condition factors on the density and bending strength of botanical recycled concrete. As a result, temperature and mass ratio of concrete powder to wood flour presented significant effects on the density of this botanical recycled concrete. The increase in production temperature resulted in a remarkable increment in density and bending strength. This is probably due to increased wood flowability and accelerated compaction and bonding formation. The fineness of wood flour had a significant effect on improving bending strength. This is attributed to a larger contact surface between the wood substance and concrete particles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0183.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Anaerobic digestion; biogas; green energy; municipal solid waste; organic waste
Online: 15 May 2019 (10:33:58 CEST)
Global waste generation keeps increasing over the year and requires innovative solutions to minimize their impacts on environmental quality and public health. Predicted 2.2 billion tonnes per year of global municipal waste generation in the year 2025 which 1.6 fold is higher than in 2012. Hence, a strategic plan must be ascertained to overcome the future challenges of MSW locally and globally. Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) coined an initiative to demonstrate a showcase pilot plant for green energy production from MSW. Therefore, the data was obtained from the survey and actual sampling within the UPM compound to estimate the MSW generated and it's potentially used for green energy production. It is estimated that 5.0 – 7.0 tonne per day of MSW generated which about 30 - 35% is an organic fraction. Upon separation, the organic fractions were digested into biogas through anaerobic. At the maximum conversion of organic fraction, about 775 kWh of electricity may able to generate from the waste. In this study, the complete biorefinery setup and utilize organic components from the MSW generated in UPM was proposed that the biogas subsequently will be used to produce green energy in the form of electricity or cooking fuel.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0009.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: mineral waste; bio-base waste; natural fiber; biomass; sulfur waste; copper flotation; fly ash; biochar; sustainable construction
Online: 4 May 2022 (13:12:11 CEST)
The new climate law introduces a policy of sustainable construction, the assumption of which is the reduction of CO2 by the construction industry and the use of environmentally friendly materials, such as agricultural, mineral, and recycled waste, while limiting the consumption of natural resources. The article is a literature review that analyzes selected waste materials from various sectors of the economy that can be used as additives or partial substitutes for natural resources in the production of cement and in and cement building materials, the production of which reduces CO2 emissions, producing materials with high mechanical strength and environmentally friendly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0198.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: radioactive waste; radioactive waste recycling; industrial slag; industrial ash; aerospace industry
Online: 16 May 2022 (07:50:42 CEST)
The article discusses an alternative way of recycling radioactive waste (RW), presented in the form of radioactive building materials - concrete and reinforced concrete structures and metal fittings, with the further use of materials, obtained during recycling, in the space industry. That is, it is supposed to send radioactive waste into space not as a passive ballast, but as a payload that will operate in space under conditions of increased radiation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0159.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: insecticidal wastes; waste disposal; incineration; waste pit; environment; testing facility; climate
Online: 11 March 2022 (03:53:00 CET)
Insecticide testing facilities that evaluate a variety of vector control products may generate large amount of hazardous wastes from routine operations. These wastes originate from degraded technical grade materials, sprayed substrates, redundant stock or working insecticidal solutions. The washing of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) during preparation for laboratory and experimental hut trials also contribute to waste water with insecticide content. Human and environmental exposure to insecticidal waste can occur during transport, categorization, storage and disposal in resulting in environmental pollution and potential health effects. Various national and international guidelines have been devised for safe disposal and should be strictly followed to avoid adverse effects on humans or environment. The current paper describes a case study from insecticide test facility in north-eastern Tanzania in management of insecticidal waste.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0427.v1
Subject: Keywords: Solid waste management; LED lamp; characterization protocol; recycling; LED waste management
Online: 20 July 2021 (09:25:18 CEST)
Solid-state lighting has been replacing conventional lighting in the market, raising concerns for implementing an efficient end-of-life management system. Since LED waste streams have not been quite dominant, characterization studies (product-level characteristics, component-wise information, bill of materials, diversity, and differences) are inconsistent and having substantial gaps. This study investigates the end-of-life LED lamp literature, focusing on the bill-of-materials, and reveals that the characterization procedure suffers from a severe lack of sample representativeness. Consequently, characterization results are widely varied and not generalizable. Moreover, most of the studies did not inform and document the detailed sample characteristics, precluding the possibility of identifying reasons for variation. Combining available information from the recent studies, we present a mass distribution at the component level, exemplifying the prospect for meeting EU regulatory limit and the need for more insight at the lamp and component level. To fill the disconnection between lamp level characteristics and component and material content, we propose a characterization protocol that carefully documents lamp, component, and material level information by establishing a lamp-component–material composition nexus. The protocol may help researchers, policymakers, and industrial stakeholders conduct a systematic characterization, analyze complexities and prepare for a sustainable solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0203.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: actual recycling rate; material flow analysis; municipal solid waste; waste treatment charge
Online: 17 October 2019 (15:02:13 CEST)
The recycling, incineration, and final disposal rate of municipal solid waste (MSW) are calculated based on the total amount of waste input to each facility in many countries. These statistic data have serious limitation in setting the national goal and policy for effective waste management because it is not considering the amount of foreign objectives in the process of each life-cycle stage. This case study is to estimate the actual rates of recycling, incineration, and final disposal by material flow analysis (MFA) after the collection of MSW in Korea. The actual rates of recycling, incineration and final disposal for MSW in 2016 were 49.9%, 32.9% and 23.1% respectively, indicating that the recycling rate was lower by 10.1%, while the incineration and final disposal rates were raised by 7.6% and 8.4% respectively, compared with the statistics for current MSW. In addition, the changed actual rates of recycling, incineration treatment, and final landfill, and variation of waste treatment charge according to treated amounts per treatment method was analyzed. This results of this study will contribute to establish national level of plan on effective waste management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0153.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: nuclear waste isolation; horizontal disposal drillholes; directional drilling; engineered barrier system, spent nuclear fuel, waste repository, geologic disposal; high level waste
Online: 13 April 2019 (05:11:28 CEST)
Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste can be disposed in deep horizontal drillholes in sedimentary, metamorphic, or igneous rocks. Horizontal drillhole disposal has safety, operational, and economic benefits: The repository is deep in the brine-saturated zone far below aquifers in a reducing environment of formations that can be shown to have been isolated from the surface for millions of years; its depth provides safety against inadvertent intrusion, earth¬quakes, and near-surface perturbations; it can be placed close to the reactors and interim storage facilities, minimizing transportation; disposal costs per ton of waste can be kept substantially lower than for mined repositories by its smaller size, reduced infrastructure needs, and staged imple¬mentation; and, if desired, the waste could be retrieved using “fishing” technology. In the proposed disposal concept, corrosion-resistant canisters containing unmodified fuel assemblies from commercial reactors would be placed end-to-end in up to 50 cm diameter horizontal drill¬holes, a configuration that reduces mechanical stresses and keeps the temperatures below the boiling point of the brine. Other high-level wastes, such as capsules containing 137Cs and 90Sr, can be disposed in small-diameter drillholes. We provide an overview of this novel disposal concept and its technology, discuss some of its safety aspects, and compare it to mined repositories and the deep vertical borehole disposal concept.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0264.v1
Subject: Keywords: recycling; composting; waste-to-energy; incineration; municipal solid waste; circular economy; green jobs
Online: 17 March 2020 (03:46:53 CET)
Sharing the same raw material, recycling and composting are in direct conflict with incineration of municipal solid waste in combined heath and power plants. Indeed, waste-to-energy plants in regions with high recycling rates import urban waste from other countries to use otherwise unused capacity, and raise revenues. Using the case of Italy’s second largest and economically most developed region, I discuss the economic viability of municipal solid waste incineration to produce electricity and heath in the context of the increasing role of electricity production from renewable energy sources as well as of the emerging mass-scale uptake of bioplastics. Four lessons and three guidelines aimed to local authorities and policy makers emerge from the present study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0430.v3
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: cat; Tehran; weight loss; food access; waste reduction
Online: 13 October 2022 (11:34:42 CEST)
This study aimed to investigate the effect of reducing the amount of organic waste on the weight of cats in Tehran. The weight of 4192 cats was measured from spring 2016 to the end of winter 2020. They were classified into 6 age groups, 2 gender groups, and 13 geographical areas. Their weight was measured for 48 months (16 seasons). The statistical parameters analysis showed no weight loss in 2017, but since 2018, cats have been losing weight every year. They had lost about 178g of their weight in 2018. The sharpest annual decrease was observed in 2019 when about 301g of weight loss was recorded. In the winter of 2020, 115g of weight loss took place. In the spring of 2017, no weight change was observed, but in the spring of 2018, the cats lost 155g of their weight. Their weight loss intensified in the spring of 2019 and about 299g of weight loss was observed. In the summer of 2017, as in the spring of the same year, no weight loss was recorded, but for the summer of 2018, the weight loss was evident and about 205g of the weight of the cats had been reduced. The weight loss in the summer of 2019 not only continued but intensified and about 304g of weight loss was recorded for cats. Weight change was not observed in the fall of 2017 as in the spring and summer of the same year. In the fall of 2018, weight loss was recorded for cats. They had lost about 324g of their weight in the fall of 2018. Also, they experienced a weight loss of about 218g in the fall of 2019. During the spring, summer, and autumn of 2017, no weight loss was observed in the cats for the winter of 2018, but in the winter of 2019, the cats faced the most severe weight loss (seasonally). They lost about 401g of weight in the winter of 2019. Of course, in the winter of 2020, about 186g of weight loss was observed in cats. The results showed that female cats did not lose weight in 2017 but experienced weight loss in 2018 with a weight loss of 181g. The weight loss of females intensified in 2019 and 294g of weight loss was recorded. Female cats lost 186g of their weight in the winter of 2020. Male cats did not lose weight like female cats in 2017. But in 2018, a weight loss of 166g was observed in male cats. The weight loss of male cats continued in 2019 and 311g of weight loss was recorded for them. However, in 2020, unlike females, weight loss was not observed in male cats. It can be said that both sexes lost more weight in the winter of 2019 than in other seasons. In 2017, weight loss was observed only for the region of 10, and in the same year, weight gain was recorded for the region of 15. But in 2018, except for regions 3, 4, 15, and 19, weight loss was observed in other regions. In 2019, the weight loss of cats spread and weight loss was observed in all regions except the region of 12. In winter 2020, weight loss was recorded only in the region of 4. In the end, it can be concluded that the weight of cats has decreased since the spring of 2018 because the beginning of the decrease in the amount of organic waste has been recorded since the winter of 2018. So, there is a direct relationship between the weight of cats and the amount of organic waste (access to food). The amount of garbage has been decreasing since the winter of 2018, and the average weight of cats has also been decreasing since the spring of 2018 due to the decrease in access to food.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0010.v1
Online: 1 July 2022 (09:00:31 CEST)
Mining is an important industry that provides products and services through infrastructure systems worldwide. However, the global development promotes the steady growth and accelerated demand for minerals, resulting in the accumulation of hazardous waste in land, sea and air environments and, consequently a series of environmental and health problems. Restoration techniques from mining tailing have become increasingly discussed among scholars due to their potential to offer benefits over reducing tailings levels, thereby reducing environmental pressure for the correct management and adding value to previously discarded waste. This review paper critically explores available literature on the main techniques of mining tailing recycling, and discusses leading recycling technologies, including the advantages and drawbacks, as well as future perspectives. The findings of this review contribute as a reference for scholars as well as support for decisionmakers concerning the related environmental issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0099.v1
Online: 7 December 2021 (11:30:56 CET)
Forest recreation can be successfully used for the psychological relaxation of respondents and can be used as a remedy for common problems with stress. The special form of forest recreation intended for restoration is forest bathing. These activities might be distracted by some factors, such as viewing buildings in the forest or using a computer in nature, which interrupt psychological relaxation. One factor that might interrupt psychological relaxation is the occurrence of an open dump in the forest during an outdoor experience. To test the hypothesis that an open dump might decrease psychological relaxation, a case study was planned that used a randomized, controlled crossover design. For this purpose, two groups of healthy young adults viewed a control forest or a forest with an open dump in reverse order and filled in psychological questionnaires after each stimulus. A pretest was used. Participants wore oblique eye patches to stop their visual stimulation before the experimental stimulation, and the physical environment was monitored. The results were analyzed using the two-way repeated measures ANOVA. The measured negative psychological indicators significantly increased after viewing the forest with waste, and the five indicators of the Profile of Mood States increased: Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, Anger-Hostility, Fatigue, and Confusion. In addition, the negative aspect of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule increased in comparison to the control and pretest. The measured positive indicators significantly decreased after viewing the forest with waste, the positive aspect of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule decreased, and the Restorative Outcome Scale and Subjective Vitality scores decreased (in comparison to the control and pretest). The occurrence of an open dump in the forest might interrupt a normal restorative experience in the forest by reducing psychological relaxation. Nevertheless, the mechanism of these relevancies is not known, and thus, it will be further investigated. In addition, in a future study, the size of the impact of these open dumps on normal everyday experiences should be investigated. It is proposed that different mechanisms might be responsible for these reactions; however, the aim of this manuscript is to only measure this reaction. The identified psychological reasons for these mechanisms can be assessed in further studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0044.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Hydrogel; Keratin; Chicken feather waste
Online: 4 October 2021 (10:49:24 CEST)
The aim of this research study was to develop hydrogels samples for using in potential biomedical applications. Hydrogels consisting of different volumes of keratin, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and starch. The keratin is derived from the chicken was the primary material on the hydrogels due to attractively for the potential wound healing application. The hydrogel samples were made by using the freeze‑thawing method, and they were examined using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosity amusement, swelling ratio and keratin release kinetic models that analyzed using (zero-order, first-order Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas models). These results were indicated that feather keratin could use with formulated hydrogels suitably for controlled keratin release studies .
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0740.v1
Online: 31 May 2021 (11:01:15 CEST)
Highlights: A new material with a bending strength higher than that of concrete was developed using vegetable or fruit waste. The new material maintains the color, taste, and flavor of the original vegetable or fruit. Without water resistant treatment, the material is edible and can be conditioned with seasonings
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: biofuel; biodiesel; hydrotreating; hydrocarbon; waste
Online: 21 March 2019 (10:00:50 CET)
Biofuels have become an integral part of everyday life in modern society. Bioethanol and fatty acid methyl esters are a common part of both the production of gasoline and diesel fuels. Also, pressure on replacing fossil fuels with bio-components is constantly growing. Waste vegetable fats can be replacing biodiesel. HVO seems to be a better alternative. This fuel has a higher oxidation stability for storage purposes, a lower temperature of loss of filterability for the winter time, a lower boiling point for cold starts and other. Viscosity, density, cold filter plugging point of fuel blend, and flash point were measured to confirm that a fuel from HVO is so close to a fuel standard that it is possible to use it in engines without modification. The objective of this article is to show the properties of different fuels with and without HVO admixtures and to prove the suitability of using HVO compared to FAME. HVO can also be prepared from waste materials and no major modifications of existing refinery facilities are required. No technology in either investment or engine adaptation of fuel oils is needed in fuel processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0259.v1
Online: 16 July 2018 (07:54:19 CEST)
Resilience embodies the personal qualities that enable one to thrive in the face of adversity. A previous Italian study showed that injured workers had a lower level of resilience than non-injured workers. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between occupational injuries and psychological resilience. The subjects were 197 drivers from two Finnish waste transport companies. As a part of larger questionnaire, they fulfilled the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, which consisted of 25 items. Drivers reported their occupational injuries during the last three years. The drivers involved in occupational injuries had higher score (average 69.3) on Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale than drivers avoided injuries (67.7). According to Student’s t-test the difference between groups was highly significant (t = 40.44, df = 196, p<0.001). The result of this study was contradictory to earlier Italian study. One explanation may be that the Italian study was done with traumatic context with seriously injured patients. Waste transport drivers were rather young and fit males, who had suffered only minor injuries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0325.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: biomethane; d-limonene; flavanones; food waste; green extraction; hydrodynamic cavitation; orange waste; pectin; polyphenols
Online: 29 July 2019 (04:04:30 CEST)
Waste orange peel represents a heavy burden for the orange juice industry, estimated in several million tons per year worldwide; nevertheless, this by-product is endowed with valuable bioactive compounds, such as pectin, polyphenols and terpenes. The potential value of the waste orange peel has stimulated the search for extraction processes, alternative or complementary to landfilling or to the integral energy conversion. This study introduces controlled hydrodynamic cavitation processes, as a new route to the integral valorization of this by-product, based on simple equipment, speed, effectiveness and efficiency, scalability, and compliance with green extraction principles. Waste orange peel, in batches of several kg, was processed in more than 100 L of water, absent any other raw materials, in a device comprising a Venturi-shaped cavitation reactor. The extractions of pectin, endowed with a very low degree of esterification, polyphenols (flavanones and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives), and terpenes (mainly d-limonene) were effective and fast (high yield, few min of process time), as well as the biomethane generation potential of the process residues was effectively exploited. The achieved results proved the viability of the proposed route to the integral valorization of waste orange peel, though wide margins exist for further improvements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0172.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Urban wastes; hospitality sector; waste generation rates; artificial neural network prediction; sustainable waste management.
Online: 10 July 2018 (11:45:39 CEST)
This study was undertaken to forecast waste generation rates of accommodation sector of North Cyprus as a case. Three predictor models including multiple linear regression (MLR), artificial neural networks (ANNs) and central composite design (CCD) were applied to predict the waste generation rate during the lean and peak seasons. ANN showed highest prediction performance, specifically, lowest values of the standard error of prediction (SEP = 2.153), mean absolute error (MAE=1.378) and highest R2 value (0.998) confirmed the accuracy of the model. The analysed wastes were categorised into recyclable, general waste and food residues. The authors estimated the total waste generated during the lean season as 2010.5 kg/day, in which large-sized hotel accounted for largest fraction (66.7%), followed by the medium hotels (19.4%) and guesthouse accounted for smallest part (2.6%). During the peak season, about 49.6% increases in the waste generation rates were obtained. Interestingly, 45% of the wastes were generated by the British tourists while the least waste was generated by African tourists (7.5%). The ANN predicted that the small and large hotels would produce 5.45 and 22.24 tons of waste by the year 2020, respectively. The findings herein are promising and useful in establishing a sustainable waste management system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0418.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: geological risk; pre-Neogene basement; radioactive waste; waste disposal; Northern Croatia; Probability of Success (PoS)
Online: 26 May 2020 (04:11:18 CEST)
The basic principles of geological risk calculation through Probability of Success (PoS) are mostly applied for numerical estimation of additional hydrocarbon existence in proven reservoirs or potential hydrocarbon discoveries in selected geological regional subsurface volume. It can be tailored and validated for a comprehensive input dataset collected in the selected petroleum province, adapted by dividing up geological events into several probability categories and classes. The most applied categories are (existence of) reservoir rocks, traps and isolators, source rocks, migration pathways and preservation conditions for hydrocarbons The methodology results in unique probability values as multiplication of independent statistical events, which can also be applied in the assessment of a potential hydrocarbon discovery of desired minimal volume and its value in any virtual currency like risk-neutral dollars. Such methodology has been extensively developed in the last decades in the Croatian subsurface, mostly in the Croatian part of the Pannonian Basin System (CPBS). Through the adaptation of geological categories, it was also applied in hybrid, i.e., stochastical, models developed in the CPBS (Drava Depression). Stochastically estimation of porosity was already applied. As the robustness of this methodology is very high, it was also modified to estimate the influence of water-flooding in increasing oil recovery in some proven Neogene sandstone reservoirs in the CPBS (Sava Depression). This new modification is being presented to be applied to geological risk calculation, intending to assess the safety of geological environment in deep wells, where depleted radioactive fuel would be disposed, a subject of great importance. The case study encompassed the magmatic and metamorphic rocks in the pre-Neogene basement of the CPBS. For disposal purpose, these are regionally lithologies considered as to be the safest ones considering petrophysical values, water saturation, recent weathering and tectonic activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0173.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Cement; Co-process; Waste; Incineration; Landfill
Online: 12 July 2022 (04:32:38 CEST)
Recently, the amount of waste generated has been rapidly increasing, there have been difficulties disposing of waste in Korea. As a solution to this, treating waste using a cement kiln has suggested, but the environmental and economic effects have not been specifically studied. In this study, the effects of alternative resources, and reducing the social costs(Installation and Operation) associated with waste treatment facilities were analyzed. Through a co-processing method, a reduction of approximately 53kg of CO2 can be realized during the production of one ton of cement, and cost savings of about 3,815 milion USD. Another effect is an extension of the expiration date for landfills by 7.55 years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0362.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: catalytic converters; waste gases; phosphating; oxidation
Online: 27 June 2022 (10:49:57 CEST)
Iron and chromium based alloys have found wide application in various fields of science and technology. Primary carrier based on Fe-Cr-Al alloy is used in block catalysts for high-temperature hydrocarbon conversion, in production of block metal catalysts for neutralization of toxic gases released during operation of internal combustion engines, as well as those present in smoke emissions from enterprises. Influence of thermal action on Fe-Cr-Al alloy foil and stability of secondary carrier on its surface was studied. Elemental composition of the surface layer of X15U5 alloy foil does not remain constant during heating and depends on the thermal treatment mode. Some of the elements come to surface and elemental composition of surface layer can differ significantly from that observed in the bulk of foil sample. This implies the possibility of changing the adhesive and adsorption properties of the foil surface, as well as the need to take this fact into account when supporting a secondary carrier and active phase to the foil. Applied technique of phosphating and supporting a secondary carrier to the foil surface makes it possible to obtain a sufficiently stable coating. There is no shedding of the secondary carrier from foil surface during high-temperature treatment in air.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0282.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: bacteria; compost; organic waste; decomposition; inoculum
Online: 28 April 2022 (10:26:35 CEST)
Composting is one of the most economical and environmentally safe methods of recycling organic waste. Soil microorganisms play a significant role in decomposition and the availability of plant nutrients. This study was designed to prepare a suitable microbial inoculum and its evaluation on composting heap to decrease the time of waste degradation. The bacteria were isolated and molecular characterized from the soil near composting area by using 16S ribotyping technique. The identified strains of bacillus cereus used as an inoculum gives better results to expedite the degradation of organic waste. The prepared bacterial inoculum with molasses was also compared with commercial inoculum by optimizing physical and chemical parameters (temperature, oxygen, C: N, pH, and moisture content) of composting heap. Monthly reading of these parameters was taken from experimental and control treatments. The highest decomposition rate of organic waste was recorded in treatment A (experimental heap) where molasses and bacterial inoculum were added and less decomposition was observed in treatment D (experimental heap) where no inoculum and molasses were added. It was concluded from the studies that the prepared bacterial inoculum with two strains of Bacillus was effective and prepared mature compost in 2.5 months by increasing decomposition efficiency of organic waste. Furthermore, the prepared compost was also sustainable in its physical and chemical characteristic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0009.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Collagen; Environment; Fish Waste; Cytotoxic; Fermentation
Online: 1 October 2021 (11:37:42 CEST)
More than 800 million tons of fish are utilizing in a year and 25-30% become waste. The waste amount is beneficial source for extraction of collagen. But procedure of extraction is still to be optimized. The current study was designed to extract collagen from fish through fish waste fermentation under various conditions. For collagen extraction we did lactic acid fermentation in which yogurt and Dough bacteria was added with fish sample and placed it in incubator at 30ºC for one month. In yogurt and dough culture have at least 10 type of lactic acid bacterial species. After every week we check PH of each sample and take soup of that sample. After centrifugation of that sample’s TCA (Trichloroacetic acid) precipitation was done of yogurt and dough sample and kept at -20ºC. then did SDS-PAGE) using 6% resolving and 5% stacking gel of already stored sample. Then HaCaT cells (1 × 104 cells/well) were cultured in 96-well flat-bottom culture plates and treated with appropriate doses of FFCP (fermented fish collagen peptide) for 24 and 48 hours.The SDS-PAGE revealed that the collagen protein of fish had doublet pattern for α1 and α2 chains at corresponding to 145 kDa and 132 kDa respectively. The density for α1 twice as compared to α2. Our result agrees that The fish collagen consists mostly of α-chain as well as little amount of inter and intra molecular cross-linked components of α-chains; b (dimmer) and c (trimer). Different biochemical tests were done for identification of lactic acid bacteria catalase positive, citrate positive, urease negative. Our fermented fish collagen and peptides mixture were test for cellular cytotoxicity and proliferative effect on HaCaT cells. Current result shows that fermented extracted collagen are nontoxic and induce the proliferation of HaCaT cells. Current study is supported by various studies that revealed the medical application of fish extracted collagen as underline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0197.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Bioadsorbents; biodiesel; waste cooking oil; purification
Online: 8 December 2020 (10:03:26 CET)
The dry washing method is an alternative to replace water washing, thereby reducing the negative impacts of contamination. However, commercial adsorbents come from industrial processes that, due to their composition, may not be such a sustainable resource in the global biodiesel production process. In this study, the use of organic residues, such as sawdust, coconut fiber, nutshell, rice husk and water hyacinth fiber, were proposed as bioadsorbents for the purification of biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCO). Quality parameters such as the acid value, water content, and free and total glycerin content were evaluated and compared with those of commercial resins such as Magnesol® and Amberlite™. Promising results were obtained using sawdust during the purification process, achieving a 31.6% reduction in the acid value compared to that of unpurified biodiesel, the reduction was 31.3% more efficient than Amberlite™. Sawdust adsorbed free glycerin at 55.8%, being more efficient than Amberlite™. The total glycerin values were similar between commercial resins and sawdust. A water content values were similar than Amberlite™ and better than that with Magnesol®, at 4.3% and 39.81%, respectively. These results show that sawdust can be used as an alternative bioadsorbent in a dry purification method for biodiesel being a residue with less environmental impact.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0320.v1
Online: 10 November 2020 (15:05:24 CET)
This study evaluates the production of biohydrogen from agro industrial waste. The worldwide energy demand is increasing exponentially and the reserves of fossil fuels are depleting, the combustion of fossil fuels has the effect on environment because of CO2 emission. Hydrogen generation market size is forecast to cross 180 billion by 2024, according to a new research report by global market. For the production of biohydrogen. we had chosen groundnut shell as our source, using Tween80 as a surfactant we had undergone pre-treatment studies for (10min,20min,30min,40min,50min) we had estimated the content of cellulose, protein, carbohydrates at (1%,2%,3%,4%,5%) and obtained the optimum value in the form of graph. The production of hydrogen is done by using the rumen fluid of the cow and the quantity of the hydrogen produced by this process is identified by using the analytical instrument Gas Chromatography.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0355.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: microplastics; analysis; waste treatment; food; diet
Online: 23 May 2020 (04:58:22 CEST)
This preprint is focused in the presence of plastics and microplastics in food. We will discuss how many we eat, and how they arrive to the food, and why. We will treat many other things, such as the waste treatment in Europe and in Spain, with updated data; how much plastic waste is generated; what are microplastics and how they are analyzed, I will tell about the experience we have at the University of Alicante (UA); how they can be removed and we will estimate how many we eat over the course of a year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0057.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: biosorption; copper; algae; tailings; mine waste
Online: 8 January 2020 (03:06:34 CET)
Mining is one of the main economic activities of several developing countries as Chile. Due to the progressive fall of the ore grades and the increasingly refractory composition of minerals, concentrating plants have increased that has led to an increase in the generation of tailings. Tailings, especially those obtained in the past, have remaining copper and other valuable species in quantities that can potentially be recovered, such as gold, silver, vanadium and rare earth elements. This transforms this abundant waste into a potential source of precious or strategic metals for secondary mining. One of the techniques of solid-liquid separation that allows the processing of solutions with low concentrations of metals corresponds to the adsorption, and more recently the biosorption, which is based on the use of biological matrices that do not constitute an environmental liability after application. Biosorption occurs as a consequence of the wide variety of active functional groups present in the different types of biomass. Bacterial, fungal, plant and algal biomasses have been described as biosorbents, mainly for the treatment of diluted and simple solutions. This work aims to recover copper from leached tailings using biomass of the red algae Gracilaria chilensis as a biosorbent. The tailing samples were taken from an abandoned deposit in the north of Chile and after an acid leaching copper was biosorbed, for which the kinetics of adsorption and the equilibrium isotherms were studied, applying the Freundlich and Langmuir models. Operational parameters such as adsorbent dose, pH and initial metal concentration were studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0570.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Household solid waste; Dominican Republic; separation at source; Organic solid waste, Household survey; Cibao; North region.)
Online: 30 November 2021 (12:56:26 CET)
One of the biggest problems that the Dominican Republic has had in recent decades is the efficient management of solid waste produced by the population. This problem has worsened in recent years due to the decrease in available areas for the construction of sanitary landfills, the lack of recycling culture in the population, the deficiency in waste collection, and the scarce legal controls aimed at preserving water and air and soil, among other factors. The objective of this study was to explore the management of solid waste by the population and the municipality of Puñal, province of Santiago, to evaluate and analyze the situation and generation of solid waste, municipal solid waste management services, and the attitudes of the population regarding recycling projects and waste management, to evaluate the viability and sustainability of the use organic waste for energy generation. A total of 275 households from 29 localities in the municipality of Puñal were surveyed, which allowed for a significant population sample. According to the results obtained, the most significant type of waste produced by families is organic waste, followed by plastic waste and paper. Of the total organic waste produced in the municipality, 53% of solid waste is disregarded through the municipal waste collection system, while 47% is used as plant fertilizers or animal feed. On the other hand, most households receive the municipal waste collection service and pay for this service. The results of our research show that the implementation of an energy production system based on organic waste would be viable in the municipality of Puñal. However, a more efficient waste collection system would be necessary and the development of programs and projects that allow all households to participate in the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0315.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Plastic pollution; waste management; environmental behavior; recycling
Online: 21 September 2022 (07:05:39 CEST)
Excessive production, consumption and indiscriminate disposal of plastic waste cause an increasing plastic pollution with detrimental impacts on environment and human health. This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) towards plastic pollution among Malaysians and evaluate the variation of plastic pollution related KAP among various socio-demographics. An online survey was conducted, and 294 valid responses was obtained. Descriptive statistics, KAP scoring and cross tabulation of responses were estimated. One-way analysis of variance, paired t-test and binary logistic regressions were carried out. Results showed that respondents had poor knowledge (mean 7.41 ± 1.80) and practice score (3.81 ± 1.39) across all socio-demographics. Compared to younger (18-30 years) respondents, older ones (>46 years) had higher knowledge (odds ratio, OR 4.304; p<0.01). However, middle aged (31-45 years) respondents reported significantly (p<0.01) higher attitude (OR 4.019) and practice (OR 4.056; p <0.05). Respondents with environmental related university education had showed higher odds about plastic pollution related knowledge (OR 10.343; p<0.01). Suggestions are made to undertake interventions such as environmental awareness creation, incorporating plastic pollution topics in formal and informal education, and providing recycling facilities nearby the localities for encouraging good practices towards minimizing plastic uses and pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0139.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: circularity; waste streams; circular approaches; regression equation
Online: 6 July 2021 (11:40:19 CEST)
In this paper, the authors identified key elements important for circularity: (1) Background: The primary goal of circularity is to eliminate waste and to prove the constant use of resources. In the paper, we classify studies according to circular approaches. The authors identified main elements and classified them into categories important for circularity, starting with the managing and reducing waste and the recovery of resources; and ending with the circularity of material, and general circularity-related topics and presented scientific works dedicated to each of the above-mentioned categories. The authors analyzed several core elements from the first category aiming to investigate and connect different waste streams and provided a regression model; (2) Methods: The authors used a dynamic regression model to identify relationships among variables and selected the ones, which has an impact on the increase of biowaste. The research was delivered for the 27 European Union countries during the period between 2020 and 2019; (3) Conclusions: The authors indicated that the recycling rate of wasted electrical equipment in the previous year has an impact on the increase of recycling biowaste next year. This is explained as non-metallic spare parts of electronic equipment are used as biowaste for fuel production. And the separation process of the composites of electric equipment takes some time, on average the effect is evident in one year period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0327.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: COVID-19; Medical waste; Environmental impac; China
Online: 13 April 2021 (09:09:57 CEST)
COVID-19 greatly challenges human beings in the health sector and leaves behind a large amount of medical waste that poses many potential threats to the environment. In this paper, we compiled relevant data released by official agencies and the media, and conducted data supplementation based on previous studies to calculate the net value of medical waste production in Hubei Province during COVID-19 with the help of a neural network model. Then, we reviewed the data related to the environmental impact of medical waste per unit and designed four scenarios to estimate the environmental impact of new medical waste generated during the epidemic. The results showed that at a medical waste generation rate of\ 0.\ 5\ kg/(\ bed\ \cdot\ d) COVID-19 resulted in a net increase in medical waste volume of about 3366.99 tons in Hubei Province. In the four scenario assumptions, if the medical waste brought by COVID-19 is completely incinerated, it will have a large impact on the air quality. If it is disposed by distillation sterilization, it will produce a large amount of wastewater and waste residue. Based on the results of the study, three policy recommendations are proposed in this paper: strict control of medical wastewater discharge, reduction and transformation of the emitted acidic gases, and attention to the emission of metallic nickel in exhaust gas and chloride in soil. These policy recommendations provide a scientific basis for controlling medical waste pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0429.v1
Online: 19 July 2020 (19:49:00 CEST)
In no-tillage systems, there is an accumulation of crop residues (CR) which plays an important role in available of soil-N. A study was set up to provide information regarding the CR N credit, and the influence of N mineral fertilizer. An incubation was run in a loam soil with addition of a similar rate of residue (10 Mg ha-1; sugarcane, soybean, and brachiaria) and N mineral fertilizer (urea; 120 kg N ha-1). After the stabilization of biological activity, soil and remaining residues were collected, and N monitored. Results showed that the N credit was positive with application of soybean, sugarcane, and brachiaria. There was an expressive performance of soybean N credit represented by a positive balance, and a reduction from 2.49 to 0.9 g kg-1 of N in residue, with direct increase of 90% of soil-N. There is no need of N fertilizer to potentialize the soybean N credit, but it is requested to potentialize N credit of brachiaria and sugarcane. The urea demonstrated be a good enhancer of brachiaria N credit, but it was not adequate to sugarcane residues. Based in our result, the accumulation and incorporation of CR can be considered as a N credit with positive contribution in soil-N.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0143.v1
Online: 8 March 2020 (16:54:24 CET)
A shrimp oil rich in omega-3 lipids and carotenoids is obtained in remarkably high 5 wt% yield extending to pink shrimp processing waste (head and carapace) the circular economy approach to extract fish oil from fish processing by-products using d-limonene. Biobased limonene, a powerful antimicrobial and antioxidant agent, is an excellent solvent for both lipids and astaxanthin-based carotenoids preventing oxidative degradation during the extraction cycle including solvent and oil separation at 85°C. A new low cost route is established to extract valued marine oil from biowaste annually made available in over 2.2 million tonnes.
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Lean Healthcare; DMAIC; waste reduction; efficiency; sustainability
Online: 30 December 2019 (06:53:46 CET)
With an increasing demand for quality of care and lower costs, hospitals are looking for industry-based methods to improve efficiency in their processes. This study aims to reduce waste in a public hospital in Mexico by improving the medical supply process for the operating room. To this end, a lean healthcare (LH) implementation following the DMAIC approach (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control) is carried out. We analyze the value stream of the supply process, including main surgical procedures and their related medical supplies, and identify different causes of inefficiency, which are evaluated and controlled through different tools, including a value stream map, Kanban, and the 5S program. As a result, five types of waste were reduced. Over-processing requests were reduced by 15.3%, defective identification numbers were reduced by 46.5%, redundant processing was improved by 94.8%, near 2.8% of the unnecessary inventory was reduced, and transportation waste was reduced by up to 16.7%. Finally, the lead-time for the main supplies was reduced by 33 days. This work demonstrates that LH and DMAIC are effective in reducing waste and are highly conducive to improving sustainability in healthcare processes. Moreover, it provides practical insights for practitioners regarding the implementation of LH in public hospitals in developing countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0191.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: polymer waste; polyurethane foam; leaching test; microstructure
Online: 17 December 2018 (10:47:59 CET)
In the European Union, the demand for polyurethane is continually growing. In 2017, the estimated production value of polyurethane was 700,400T, of which 27.3% is taken to landfill, which causes an environmental problem. In this paper the behaviour of various polyurethane foams from the waste of different types of industries will be analysed with the aim of assessing their potential use in construction materials. In order to this, the wastes were chemically tested by means of CHNS, TGA, and leaching tests. They were tested microstructurally by means of SEM. The processing parameters of the waste was calculated after finding out its granulometry and its physical properties i.e. density and water absorption capacity. In addition, the possibility of incorporating these wastes in plaster matrices was studied by determining its rendering in an operational context, finding out its mechanical resistance to flexion and compression at 7 days, its reaction to fire as well as its weight per unit of area and its thermal behaviour. The results show that in all cases, the waste is inert and does not undergo leaching. The generation process of the waste determines the foam’s microstructure in addition to its physical-chemical properties that directly affect building materials in which they are included, thus offering different ways in which they can be applied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: electronic waste; haematotoxicity; lead; occupationally exposed workers
Online: 2 May 2018 (06:22:44 CEST)
The volume of electronic waste (e-waste) received in Nigeria is reportedly on the increase and the effects on environmental health are yet to be fully ascertained. This study aimed to investigate haematological indices, lead and serum iron levels in workers occupationally exposed to electronic wastes in South-South, Nigeria. In this pilot study, 104 participants were enrolled from Benin City, South-South Nigeria; consisting of 63 E-waste Workers (EW) sex- and aged-matched with 41 Unexposed Participants (Control). Blood levels (5 mL) of the metals (lead and iron) were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry while the haematological parameters [white blood cells (WBC), Lymphocytes ( LY); monocytes (MO), granulocytes(GR), red blood cells (RBC), haemoglobin (Hgb), haematocrit (HCT), mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and platelets (PLT)] were determined using standard methods. Results obtained from this study show a significantly low serum iron (11.5 ± 2.14 µg/dL) in the EW compared with Control (168.9 ± 2.39 µg/dL); while blood lead level in EW (1.07±0.02 µg/dL) was significantly elevated compared with Control (0.72 ± 0.12). Total WBC and RBC, HCT, MO and MCV were all significantly elevated in EW compared with Control while LY and PLT in the EW were significantly decreased compared with Control. This study concludes that chronic occupational e-waste exposure may increase blood lead level, lower serum iron status and may have adversely altered some important haematological parameters in the studied population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0137.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: waste cooking oil; phthalic anhydride; copolymerization; microwaves
Online: 17 March 2017 (07:36:52 CET)
Solvent free copolymerization of epoxides derived from fatty acid esters of waste cooking oil with phthalic anhydride using (salen)CrIII Cl as catalyst and n-Bu4NCl/DMAP as co-catalyst was carried out for the first time under microwave irradiation, where reaction time was reduced from number of hours to minutes. The polyesters were obtained with molecular weight (Mw = 3084-6740 g/mol) and dispersity values (D = 1.18-1.92), when (salen)CrIII Cl/n-Bu4NCl was used as catalysts. While in case of DMAP as a co-catalyst, polyesters with improved molecular weight (Mw = 5537-6925 g/mol) and narrow dispersity values (D = 1.07-1.28) were obtained even at reduced concentrations of (salen)CrIII Cl and DMAP. The obtained products were characterized and evaluated by attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) Techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0445.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: household food waste; diets; food choices; dietary patterns
Online: 28 October 2022 (08:53:01 CEST)
Starting from an original survey conducted in eight countries in 2021 (Canada, China, Germany, Italy, Russia, Spain, UK, and USA), this research explores the relationship between household food waste and dietary habits in a cross-country comparative perspective. 8,000 questionnaires were recorded from samples representative of adult population of each country through an online survey conducted between the 13th and the 24th of August. The questionnaires were built on the work of Waste Watcher International Observatory on Food and Sustainability, an international observatory of social, behavioral and lifestyles dynamics behind household food waste. Relationship between per capita self-reported amount of food waste (expressed in kilocalories) and self-declared dietary habits (Traditional, Healthy and Sustainable, Vegetarian, Smart, Confused) was estimated using multiple linear regression models. Results show that Smart diets are associated with higher values of food waste in Canada, Spain, UK and USA. Vegetarian diets are associated to lower food waste values in China, Germany, UK and USA but not in Italy, Russia and Spain. Since the share of population adopting a Smart diet is on average 2.7% of the sample, interventions for food waste reduction should focus on this specific type of consumers, often associated to larger amounts of food waste.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0395.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Waste Recycling System; Disaster Response; Network; Cognitive Accuracy
Online: 26 July 2022 (08:06:26 CEST)
Since the process of waste recycling generates dust and flammable gas during fragmentation, there is always a risk of fire resulting therefrom, and fire does, in fact, frequently occur. However, research on disaster management at recycling facilities deals only with the problem of processing systems from a technical point of view, but it does not suggest concrete alternatives from a management point of view. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the influence of the disaster response network of a waste recycling center at the organizational level based on the concept of the cognitive accuracy of a network when considering administrative aspects. Through this analysis, we confirmed that factors affecting the influence of the network exist, such that the entire network and the networks of different levels of position are different. We suggest that this can be improved by deploying members who perform formal tasks at the center of the network so that everyone can agree political approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0451.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: AnchoisFert; Fish waste; Green extraction; Limonene; Organic fertilizer
Online: 24 November 2021 (10:32:23 CET)
Is the production of the “AnchoisFert” organic fertilizer via the circular economy process based on omega-3 lipid extraction of milled anchovy fillet leftovers with citrus limonene followed by mild drying economically and technically viable? This study answers this question and identifies the main obstacles, chiefly of economic and organizational nature, to be overcome prior to commercialization of this new organic fertilizer. Along with non-variable and proven efficacy, successful competition with conventional organic and inorganic fertilizers requires affordable cost and regular supply. This, inter alia, requires to establish new and mutually beneficial relationship between bioeconomy firms and fish processing companies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0466.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Ferrous chloride; FeCl2·4H2O crystals; pickling waste liquors
Online: 20 July 2021 (16:36:12 CEST)
As a hazardous waste, pickling waste liquor must be properly treated. An alternative consists in promoting the formation of ferrous salts from this residue, due to its higher ferrous content. Since FeCl2·4H2O is widely used in several applications, obtaining pure crystals of this material appears to be an interesting prospect. However, this compound has scarcely been investigated. In the present work, FeCl2·4H2O crystals have been obtained from pickling waste liquors. Their structural and morphological characteristics have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy as well as Mössbauer spectroscopy. In addition, the photoluminescence study of the obtained samples was also assessed. It was observed that after some aging time, the obtained crystals change in colour from green to more yellowish. So, the aged sample has also been evaluated, and their structural characteristics are compared with the original crystals. Despite this, the obtained crystals exhibit a FeCl2·4H2O structure, which is not modified with the aging of the sample.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0341.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: cyanide attenuation, waste water, light irradiation, green chemistry
Online: 13 April 2021 (10:27:45 CEST)
Cyanides, though naturally occurring, are environmental pollutants when not treated properly. Some methods used to attenuate cyanides in waste waters from industrial processes are based simply on changing the physico-chemical properties of the waste water such as the pH and temperature. The effectiveness of these methods are based on hydrolysis of the cyanide and volatilization of the hydrogen cyanide formed. Another reaction which takes place simultaneously is ultraviolet-catalysed oxidation which converts the cyanide to bicarbonates and carbonates.The changes in the cyanide degradation rate approaches a minimum faster if the cyanide solution is maintained at a higher than ambient constant temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0274.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: Waste glass; Inorganic binder; Curing temperature; Curing duration
Online: 12 April 2021 (09:38:07 CEST)
Inorganic polymeric materials react slowly at room temperature and as a result usually require high-temperature curing. This study used the Arrhenius equation to analyze the correlation between curing temperature and curing duration during high-temperature curing. The test results show that optimal values exist for each alkali equivalent of the activator (weight ratio of Na2O/glass powder), curing temperature, and curing duration. Extending the curing duration and increasing the curing temperature have positive effects when the alkali equivalent is lower than the optimal value. However, over-curing results in invisible cracking in the specimens. Furthermore, despite exhibiting high strength initially, the strength of specimens gradually diminishes after standing in air. To ensure the durability of glass-based geopolymer, the curing temperature should not exceed 70℃, and the curing duration should be less than one day.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0376.v1
Online: 19 January 2021 (11:53:18 CET)
Growing population leads to industrialisation and urbanization which in turn generate huge amount of waste that represents a big problem for many developed and developing countries. Emerging solution for this problem can be use of wastes as a sustainable source of energy in the form of heat, electricity, fertilizer and biofuel like bioethanol. Type of technology employed is mainly based on the composition of waste whether it is rich in organic matter like MSW or not. WTE technologies reduce the volume of waste as well as decrease the dependence on fossil fuels for energy generation.This study focuses on overview of various available waste to energy conversion technologies like pyrolysis, gasification, incineration, biochemical treatments like landfill gas, aerobic and anaerobic digestion of wastes.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Environmental taxes; computable general equilibrium; environmental impacts; waste
Online: 25 November 2020 (14:43:55 CET)
Economic theory states that incineration and landfill taxation can effectively diminish the environmental impacts of pollution and resource use by reducing their associated pollutants while stimulating the reuse and recycling of materials, and therefore, fostering a circular economy. The aim of this research is to assess the economic and environmental effects of these taxes in Spain under different scenarios with a detailed dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, as there are no studies analyzing this in detail. We focus on the economic impact on GDP and sectorial production and the environmental impact on different categories: global warming potential, marine eutrophication potential, photochemical ozone formation potential, particulate matter, human toxicity (cancer and noncancer), ecotoxicity, and depletion of fossil resources. We find in all scenarios that these taxes have a limited economic impact while reducing all of the environmental impact categories analyzed. The study reinforces the theory that policy makers need to impose taxes on landfill and incineration to reinforce the circularity of the economy and reduce environmental burdens, but also demonstrates that they can improve their design without additional costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0326.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: forestry; forests; restorativeness; semantic differential method; waste management
Online: 12 November 2020 (08:20:55 CET)
Rubbish in a forest environment is a great threat to this ecosystem, but this threat may also apply to the lost benefits for visitors to the forest. Previous studies proved that forest areas have a positive effect on obtaining psychological relaxation in the people visiting them. However, it was not known whether this restorative experience could be disturbed in any way by the presence of an open dump in the forest. To check how the presence of a landfill affects the visitors, an experiment was planned in which the respondents observed a forest area with a landfill and a forest landscape without a landfill for 15 minutes (control). The respondents then assessed the landscape using the semantic differential method and the Perceived Restorativeness Scale (PRS). An analysis of these observations showed that the presence of a landfill in the forest significantly changed the appreciation of the landscape by the respondents, the values of positive experiences decreased, and the negative experiences increased. Restorativeness was also reduced. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the presence of garbage in the forest may interrupt the restorative experience of its visitors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0421.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: strength; stiffness; clay; stabilization; microstructure; wood ash; waste
Online: 19 July 2020 (18:49:54 CEST)
The world’s population is growing at a rapid pace, thus increasing the need for shelter, which, because of increased carbon emissions, is making our planet less inhabitable. Thus, supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) are used to reduce the embodied carbon emissions in the building sector. Wood ash, as a replacement for cement in soil treatment, seems to be a promising material. In this study, we considered the strength, stiffness, and microstructural behavior of marine clay treated with cement and wood ash as a cement replacement. Since clay is abundant in nature, it could help stabilize waste to improve the mechanical behavior of produced composites. Portland cement (7%, 10%, and 13%) was replaced with various amount of wood ash (5% and 10%) with two different dry densities (1400 and 1600 kg/m3) and three distinct curing periods (7, 28, and 60 days). Unconfined compressive strength, direct shear, porosity, pulse velocity, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy tests were performed on selected specimens to evaluate the structural and microstructural effect of clay–wood ash–cement interaction. The results revealed that the replacement of cement with 5% of wood ash yielded superior performance. The microstructure investigation of wood ash–cement–clay blends further showed the formation of a densified matrix with stable bonds. Furthermore, the porosity and strength properties of blends developed unique relationships, which were further confirmed by other supplementary materials and soils.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: waste classification; transfer learning; deep learning; recognition classification
Online: 23 February 2020 (14:01:01 CET)
Using machine learning or deep learning to solve the problem of garbage recognition and classification is an important application in computer vision, but due to the incomplete establishment of garbage datasets and the poor performance of complex network models on smart terminal devices, the existing garbage classification models The effect is not good.This paper presents a waste classification and identification method base on transfer learning and lightweight neural network. By migrating the lightweight neural network MobileNetV2 and rebuild it, The reconstructed network is used for feature extraction, and the extracted features are introduced into the SVM to realize the identification of 6 types of garbage. The model was trained and verified by using 2527 pieces of garbage labeled data in the TrashNet dataset, which ultimately resulted in a classification accuracy of 98.4% of the method, which proves that the method can effectively improve the classification accuracy and time and overcome the problem of weak data and less labeling. The over-fitting phenomenon encountered by small data sets in deep learning makes the model robust.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0273.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Capsicum annuum; flavonoids; fluorescence monitoring; bio-waste utilization
Online: 20 December 2019 (11:05:22 CET)
The green biomass of horticultural plants contains valuable secondary metabolites (SM) which can potentially be extracted and sold. When exposed to stress, plants accumulate higher amounts of these SMs, making the extraction and commercialization even more attractive. We evaluated the potential for accumulating of the flavones cynaroside and graveobioside A in leaves of two bell pepper cultivars (Mavras and Stayer) when exposed to salt stress (100 mM NaCl), UVA/B excitation (UVA 4-5 W/m²; UVB 10-14 W/m² for 3 hours per day) or a combination of both stressors. HPLC analyses proved the enhanced accumulation of both metabolites under stress conditions. Cynaroside accumulation is effectively triggered by high-UV stress, whereas graveobioside A contents increase under salt stress. Highest contents were observed in plants exposed to combined stress. Effects of stress on overall plant performance differed significantly between treatments, with least negative impact on aboveground biomass found for high-UV stressed plants. The usage of two non-destructive instruments (Dualex and Multiplex) allowed us to gain insights in ontogenetical effects at the leaf level and temporal development of SM contents over time. Indices provided by those devices correlate fairly with amounts detected via HPLC (Cynaroside: R2 = 0.46 – 0.66; Graveobioside A: R2 = 0.51 – 0.71). The concentrations of both metabolites tend to decrease at leaf level during the ontogenetical development even under stress conditions. High-UV stress is a promising tool for enriching plant leaves with valuable SM without major effects on plant biomass. All data is available online .
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0140.v1
Subject: Chemistry, General & Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: waste cooking oils; plasticizers; syngas; volatile organic compounds
Online: 11 April 2019 (10:32:33 CEST)
The consideration toward Waste Cooking Oils (WCOs) is changing from hazardous waste to valuable raw material for industrial application. During the last five years some innovative processes based on the employment of recycled WCO have appeared in the literature. In the present review article, the most recent applications of recycled Waste Cooking Oil are reported and discussed. These include the production of bio-plasticizers, the application of chemicals derived from WCOs as energy vectors, and the use of WCOs as solvent for pollutant agents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0106.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: sterile aggregates; remediation of waste water; peat; biochar
Online: 8 March 2019 (08:57:21 CET)
This paper investigates an alternative use of sterile aggregate materials which may arise from various construction applications in conjunction with other low-cost mineral raw materials to remediate the acid mine drainage phenomenon. This study is based on the combination of unprocessed mineral raw materials as well as on the basic concept of the cyclic economy where the conversion of a waste into a raw material for another application can be achieved. In this way, the value of mineral raw materials can be prolonged for as long as possible, waste generation and exploitation of natural resources are minimized and resources are kept as far as possible within the existing economy. In this study, an electrically continuous flow driven forced device proposed and demonstrated for the remediation of waste water in lab-scale by using certain mixes of mineral raw materials (serpentinite, andesite, magnesite, peat and biochar). Our results focus on the impact of the studied mineral raw materials and especially on their synergy on the water purification potential under continuous water flow operation. Using the proposed 7-day experimental electrically continuous flow driven forced device with the certain mixes of mineral raw materials, the increase of pH values from 3.00 to 6.82 as well as significant removal of Fe, Cu and Zn was achieved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0064.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: gallium nitride; gallium; LED waste; LED recycling; leaching
Online: 3 October 2018 (17:16:07 CEST)
In recent years, with the increasing research and development of the LED industry which contains GaN, it is expected that there will be a large amount of related wastes in the future. Especially the gallium has extremely high value of economic, therefore, it is necessary to establish the recycling system of the GaN waste. However, GaN is a direct-gap semiconductor and with high energy gap, high hardness, and high melting point make it difficult to recycle. Therefore, this study will analyze the physical characteristics of LED wastes containing GaN and carry out various leaching method to leach the valuable metals from the waste optimally. Different acids are used to find out the best reagent for leaching the gallium. Different experimental parameters are discussed such as the effect of the different acid agents , concentration, pressure, solid-liquid mass ratio, temperature, and time which influence the leaching efficiency of the gallium. In this study, various leaching methods which effect the leaching efficiency of the gallium are compared and the advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Finally, pressurized acid leaching method is preferred to leach the GaN waste, and hydrochloric acid is used as the leaching solution because of its better leaching efficiency of gallium. Eventually, the leaching efficiency of the gallium can reach to 98%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0481.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: waste mineral oil; Mn additive; engine performance; emission
Online: 31 May 2018 (13:27:48 CEST)
The heat values of waste mineral oils are equal to the heat value of the fuel oil. However, heat value alone is not sufficient for the use of waste mineral oils. as fuel. However, the critical physical properties of fuels such as density and viscosity need to be adapted to the system in order to be used. In this study, the engine oils used in the first 10,000 km of the vehicles were used as waste mineral oil. An organic-based Mn additive was synthesized to improve the properties of the waste mineral oil. It was observed that mixing the Mn additive with the waste mineral oil at different doses (4, 8, 12 and 16 ppm) improves the viscosity of the waste oil and the flash point. The resulting fuel was evaluated for emission using different loads in a 5 kW capacity generator to compare the fuel with standard diesel fuel and to determine the effect of Mn addition. In the experimental study, it was observed that the emission characteristics of the fuel obtained from waste mineral oil were worse than diesel fuel, but some improvement with Mn addition. As a result, we found that the use of waste mineral oils in engines in fuel standards was not appropriate, but may be improved with additives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0168.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: municipal waterworks sludge; waste; recycling; valorization; floor tiles
Online: 25 December 2017 (07:40:01 CET)
In municipal waterworks large amounts of waste in the form of sludge have to be discarded. This investigation focuses on the processing of ceramic floor tiles incorporated with a municipal waterworks sludge. Four floor tile formulations containing up to 10 wt. % of the municipal waterworks sludge in replacement of kaolin were prepared. The floor tile processing route consisted of dry powder granulation, uniaxial pressing, and firing between 1190 and 1250 °C using a fast-firing cycle (<60 min). The densification behavior and technological properties of the floor tile pieces as function of the sludge addition and firing temperature were determined. The development of the microstructure was followed by XRD and SEM/EDS. The results show that the replacement of kaolin with municipal waterworks sludge, in the range up to 10 wt. %, allows the production of ceramic floor tiles (group BIb and group BIIa, ISO 13006 Standard) at lower firing temperatures. These results suggest a new possibility for valorization of municipal waterworks sludge with many economical and environmental benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0149.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: waste cotton fibers; recycling; carbon microsphere; physicochemical characteristics
Online: 23 November 2017 (08:19:15 CET)
In order to study the hydrothermal behavior of cotton fiber, the carbonization process and structural evolution of discarded cotton fiber (WCF) under hydrothermal conditions were discussed use microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and glucose as model compounds. The results showed that high temperature was beneficial to the hydrolysis of discarded cotton fiber, and the yield of the sugar was 4.5% which was lower than that of MCC 6.51%. WFC and MCC are carbonized in 240~260 ℃ and 220~240 ℃ respectively, while the carbonation temperature of glucose is lower than 220 ℃. The quality ratio of C/O in WCF and glucose hydrothermal products is 5.79 and 5.85 respectively; three kinds of hydrothermal carbonization products have similar crystal structure and oxygen-containing functional groups, and the WCF carbonization products contain a lot of irregular particles while the main products of glucose carbonization are 0.5 μm carbon microspheres (CMCC). The results show that glucose is an important intermediate product of WCF hydrolysis carbonation, and there are two main paths of cotton fiber hydrothermal carbonization: some cotton fibers are completely hydrolyzed into glucose and the nucleation is formed, and then the carbon microspheres are grown; for the other part, the glucose ring of the polysaccharide oligosaccharide formed by the incomplete hydrolysis of cotton fiber in the hydrothermal environment of high temperature and pressure breaks, then forms the particulate matters.
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: peloids; waste to energy; waste to carbon; circular economy; torrefied biomass; kinetics lifetime prediction; mass balance; energy balance; fuel properties
Online: 30 August 2021 (10:28:20 CEST)
Peat is the main type of peloid used in Polish cosmetic/healing spa facilities. Depending on treatment and origin, peat waste can be contaminated microbiologically, and as result, it has to be incinerated in medical waste incineration plants without energy recovery (local law). Such a situation leads to peat waste management costs increase. Therefore in this work, we checked the possibility of peat waste upcycling to carbonized solid fuel (CSF) using torrefaction. Torrefaction is a thermal treatment process that removes microbiological contamination and improves the fuel properties of peat waste. In work torrefaction conditions (temperature and time) on CSF quality were tested. Parallelly, peat decomposition kinetics using TGA, and torrefaction kinetics with lifetime prediction using macro-TGA were determined. Furthermore, torrefaction theoretical mass and energy balance were determined. The results of the tested peat were compared with reference material (wood), and as result, obtained data can be used to adjust currently used wood torrefaction technologies for peat torrefaction. The results show that torrefaction can improve the high heating value of peat waste from 19.0 MJ x kg-1 to 21.3 MJ x kg-1, peat main decomposition takes place at 200-550 °C following second reaction order (n=2), with an activation energy of 33.34 kJ x mol-1 and pre-exponential factor of 4.40 x 10-1 s-1. Moreover, DSC analysis revealed that peat torrefaction required slightly more energy than wood torrefaction, and macro TGA showed that peat torrefaction has lower torrefaction constant reaction rates (k) than wood 1.05 x 10-5 - 3.15 x 10-5 vs 1.43 x 10-5 - 7.25 x 10-5 s-1.
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: TGA, DTG, DSC, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, municipal solid waste, organic waste, proximate analysis, process kinetics, Coats–Redfern method
Online: 7 June 2021 (11:13:08 CEST)
In this study, 12 organic waste materials were subjected to TG/DTG thermogravimetric analysis and DSC calorimetric analysis. These analyses provided basic information about thermochemical transformations and degradation rates during organic waste pyrolysis. Waste materials were chosen to cover the most abundant waste that can be found in the municipal solid waste stream. Based on TG results, kinetic parameters according to Coats–Redfern method were determined. The pyrolysis activation energy was the highest for cotton 134.5 kJ∙(mol∙K)-1 and the lowest for leather 25.2 kJ∙(mol∙K)-1. The DSC analysis showed number of transformations occurred during pyrolysis for each material. For each transformation, normalized energy required for transformation, or released during transformation were determined and then summarized to present energy balance. The study found that only for three waste materials: PET (-220.1 J⸱g-1), leather (-66.9 J⸱g-1), and chicken meat (-130.3 J⸱g-1) energy balance was negative, while the highest positive balance value was found for potato peelings (367.8 J⸱g-1). The obtained results may be applied for the modelling of energy and mass balance of municipal solid waste pyrolysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0086.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: early adolescents; mobile food record; food waste; plate waste; eating behavior; portion size; dietary assessment; uncontrolled eating; cognitive restraint; emotional eating
Online: 4 August 2018 (11:37:39 CEST)
Understanding behavioral factors associated with obesity is of importance in addressing this issue. This study examined the association between cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and body mass index (BMI) and amount of food plated, consumed, leftovers, and leftover food thrown into the trash (food wasted) in early adolescent girls nine to 13 years in O’ahu, Hawai’i (n = 93). Food plated, consumed, leftovers, and food wasted were estimated using a three-day mobile food record (mFR). Weight and height were measured to compute BMI (kg/m2). The three-factor eating questionnaire provided a score from 0 to 100 for cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating. Higher scores are indicative of greater cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating. Pearson’s correlation and general linear models were computed to examine the relationship between three factor eating scores, BMI, and food plated, consumed, leftovers, and food wasted. There was no clinically significant association between cognitive restraint and amount of food wasted. Cognitive restraint was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.36, p<0.001) and with BMI z score (r=0.40, p<0.001). Uncontrolled eating and emotional eating were positively correlated with amount of leftover food at dinner (r=0.30, p=0.006; r=0.33, p=0.003, respectively). Emotional eating was positively associated with percentage of leftover food at dinner (r=0.24, p=0.30). Additional research should examine the specific roles of cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and food waste in the development of obesity in adolescents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0255.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: waste management; plastic pollution; biomimetics; mycelium materials; developing nations
Online: 19 September 2022 (03:39:09 CEST)
Plastic waste management has become a major problem in the present times, and many countries are struggling to deal with it. The situation has become a crisis in developing nations due to a lack of proper waste management, resources, technology, and political will. The extensive usage of foam-based packaging materials such as Styrofoam as a secondary packaging material has led to environmental pollution both in land and water, in developing countries. It is important to address this problem using a sustainable approach such as biomimetic manufacturing. One such solution that is present in developed nations is mycelium-based packaging, wherein the agricultural and industrial-based cellulose waste is converted into a biocomposite with the help of a fungi root network. Such a process has the potential to convert biomass into useful products but also has an indirect effect on pollution reduction by eliminating stubble burning in nations like India. In this review, we examine the details of the manufacturing process, properties, advantages, and limitations of such composite materials. A comparison of the present status of such materials produced in the market by some of the companies across the world is presented. Finally, the challenges involved with such materials and the future directions are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0530.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Resource recovery; circular economy; food waste; anaerobic co-digestion
Online: 31 August 2022 (03:10:30 CEST)
The emergence of the circular economy, and the evolving paradigms in the treatment and management of wastewater, have opened up an opportunity for co-digestion of organic waste (i.e., food waste) with sewage sludges to enhance resource recovery at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This paper reviewed the potential for anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and sewage sludges, as well as alternative sustainable food waste handling systems in South Africa. The promotion of the circular economy by the latest national solid waste management strategy and the ongoing efforts for resource recovery by the wastewater sector suggests that anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and sewage sludge is possible in South Africa. Furthermore, an integrated food waste disposer (FWD) system was identified as a sustainable alternative for food waste handling. To formulate a roadmap for future food waste and sewage sludge co-digestion implementation, a multi-disciplinary investigation is required to bridge the literature gap.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0120.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Mine Tailings; Industrial Waste; Geopolymer; Durability; Microstructure; Thermal; Leaching
Online: 5 August 2022 (09:45:36 CEST)
The mining sector generates a substantial quantity of stone waste and tailings, which constitutes an environmental risk. The most prevalent method for disposing of this industrial waste is dumping, which contributes to soil deterioration and water contamination while acquiring precious land. It can be recycled using a number of processes, such as the promising geopolymerization technique, which transforms waste into value. This study reviews current developments in the manufacturing of mine tailings-based geopolymer composites from industrial waste as a possible sustainable building material. This paper also gives in-depth studies on the characteristics and behaviors of mine tailings composites used in geopolymer manufacturing, including durability, microstructure, thermal and leaching properties. This review also identifies knowledge gaps that must be filled in order to advance mine tailings composites for geopolymers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0205.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: pollutants; microplastics; heavy metals; PAH; pesticide residues; medical waste
Online: 21 April 2022 (10:53:10 CEST)
A quality marine ecosystem if it is free from GTP contaminants. Accuracy and caution are needed in the exploitation of marine resources as marine tourism destinations so that in the future, there will be no ecological hazards that cause chain effects, not only on aquatic ecosystems but also on humans. This article identifies exposure to GTP (MP, PAH, PR, HM, MW) in marine ecosystems in the MTA area and BCI waters. The combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis methods uses a combination of analytical instruments and mathematical formulas. The search results show the average total abundance of MP in seawater and fish samples (5.47 units/m3) and (7.03 units/m3), respectively, while in sediment and sponge samples (8.18 units/m3) and (8.32 units/m3). Based on the analysis of the polymer structure, it was identified that the dominant light group MP (PE, PP and PS), followed by PA and PC. Several PAH pollutants were identified in the samples, especially NL types found in all samples, followed by PN and AZ. BCI sea waters are suspected to be exposed to MW and PR. Pollutants of Pb+2 and Cu+2 around BCI were successfully calculated with average concentrations in seawater 0.164 mg/L and 0.294 mg/L, respectively, while in fish, 1.8110 µg/g and 2,452 µg/g, respectively. Based on these findings, the BCI area is not recommended as a marine tourism destination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0319.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Waste water; Phosphate co-product; Adsorption; Red Acid 52
Online: 21 December 2021 (09:15:16 CET)
Water is essential for all living things however its pain has become serious. Many industrial activities cause its pollution by the release of polluting byproduct. Waste water treatment is hence necessary. In this context, the waste water of the textile industry containing Red Acid 52 was treated by the solid waste of the washed natural phosphate byproduct. Natural phosphate was also studied. The solid materials were first characterized by chemical analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The phosphate materials were after that, tested in the adsorption of the Red Acid 52. The experimental data indicated that the phosphate waste rock allowed the removal of Red Acid 52. Its maximum retention capacity attained 18.4 mg.g-1. Calcinations of materials inhibits the removal capacity found reduced by 60 to 70%. The adsorption kinetics of the Red Acid 52 on the material is well described by the pseudo second order model while the adsorption isotherms are identified by the Langmuir model. Hereafter, the thermodynamic study revealed that the adsorption process is spontaneous and exothermic. Keywords: Waste water, Phosphate co-product, Adsorption, Red Acid 52.