REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0053.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Mast cells; innate immunity; adaptive immunity; wound healing; Immunoglobin E; vaccine adjuvants
Online: 2 November 2020 (14:59:10 CET)
Mast cells are long-lived, granular, myeloid-derived leukocytes that have significant protective and repair functions in tissues. Mast cells sense disruptions in the local microenvironment and are first responders to physical, chemical and biological insults. When activated, mast cells release growth factors, proteases, chemotactic proteins and cytokines thereby mobilizing and amplifying the innate and adaptive immune system. Mast cells are therefore significant regulators of homeostatic functions and may be essential in microenvironmental changes during pathogen invasion and disease. During infection by helminths, bacteria and viruses, mast cells release antimicrobial factors to facilitate pathogen expulsion and eradication. Mast cell-derived proteases and growth factors protect tissues from insect/snake bites and exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Finally, mast cells release mediators that promote wound healing in the inflammatory, proliferative and remodeling stages. Since mast cells have such a powerful repertoire of functions, targeting mast cells may be an effective new strategy for immunotherapy of disease and design of novel vaccine adjuvants. In this review, we will examine how certain strategies that specifically target and activate mast cells can be used to treat and resolve infections, augment vaccines and heal wounds. Although these strategies may be protective in certain circumstances, mast cells activation may be deleterious if not carefully controlled and any therapeutic strategy using mast cell activators must be carefully explored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0033.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: vaccine side effects; inactivated COVID-19 vaccine; sinopharm vaccine; sinovac vaccine; whole attenuated vaccine; COVID-19 vaccination; vaccine hesitancy
Online: 2 September 2022 (05:12:45 CEST)
Vaccination is one of the most effective methods for preventing morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. Vaccine hesitancy has led to a decrease in vaccine uptake; driven by misinformation, fear, and perceptions of vaccine safety. Whole inactivated vaccines have been used in one-fifth of the vaccine recipients in Africa, however there is limited real-world data on their safety. We evaluated the reported side effects and factors associated with reported side effects following vaccination with whole inactivated COVID-19 vaccines - BBiBP-CorV (Sinopharm) and CoronaVac (Sinovac). A quantitative survey evaluating attitudes and side effects from vaccination was administered to 1016 adults presenting at vaccination centers. Two follow-up telephone interviews were conducted to determine side effects after the first and second vaccination dose. Overall, the vaccine was well tolerated; 26.0% and 14.4% reported side effects after the first and second dose respectively. The most frequent local and systemic side effects were pain at the injection site and headaches respectively. Most symptoms were mild, and no participants re-quired hospitalization. Participants who perceived COVID-19 vaccines as safe or had a personal COVID-19 experience were significantly less likely to report side effects. Our findings provide data on the safety and tolerability of whole inactivated COVID-19 vaccines in an African population, providing the necessary data to create effective strategies to increase vaccination and support vaccination campaigns.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0210.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: influenza vaccine; influenza; vaccine; epidemiology; vaccine effectiveness; perceived barriers
Online: 14 October 2021 (10:07:05 CEST)
The reason for this dissertation is to establish the effects of vaccination on the elderly (>65 years old) in Hong Kong in reducing flu infection. Influenza vaccine uptake in the elderly (˃65 years old) in Hong Kong significantly increased in 2003 after the SARS epidemic. The exact impacts of influenza vaccine among the elderly in Hong Kong are a subject of contention. The effectiveness of the influenza vaccine comes from observed studies which may be prejudiced since it is difficult to identify and justify the evidence. A review of various literatures has shown that influenza causes serious illness and death particularly highly vulnerable groups such as adults aged 65 years and above. Therefore, more efforts should be initiated to reduce mortality caused by influenza among the elderly. According to the WHO (2005), vaccination is among the most effective approach for preventing death associated with influenza to vulnerable groups such as the elderly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0009.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: south africa; COVID-19; vaccine acceptancy; vaccine hesitancy; vaccine denial
Online: 1 August 2022 (06:02:11 CEST)
Unprecedented in scale, immense COVID-19 immunization programmes have been rolled out globally. This article explores aspects of hypothetical vaccine acceptability in Soweto, South Africa, shortly before such vaccines became available. Whereas hypothetical acceptance was normative, this has not translated into uptake today, which remains concerningly low in South Africa, especially in Soweto. For that reason, we mobilise anthropological concepts to analyse acceptance, hesitancy, and denial, respectively, to gauge and understand public proclivity to inoculate. We find that COVID-19’s haphazard mediatization generated a ‘field of suspicion’ towards authorities and vaccination, which, amplified by dis- and misinformation, fostered othering, hesitancy, and denial considerably. It remains paramount during vaccination rollouts to unveil and address aspects detrimental to vaccine confidence and selectivity, especially in lower-income groups for underlying, context-specific cultural, spiritual, historical, and socioeconomic reasons. Appropriate mediazation alongside a debunking of counterfactual claims is crucial in driving forward immunization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0313.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Measles vaccine; Vaccine hesitancy; Measles vaccine uptake; Immunization; Sudan; PACV
Online: 20 December 2021 (13:58:34 CET)
Vaccine uptake is one of the indicators that has been used to guide immunization programs. This study aimed to evaluate whether the measles vaccine uptake is predicted by measles vaccine hesitancy. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in urban districts in Khartoum state in February 2019. Measles vaccine uptake among children was measured as either fully vaccinated or partially/not vaccinated. The Parents Attitude about Childhood Vaccination (PACV) scale was used to measure measles vaccine hesitancy. Multivariate logistic regression was run to identify the predictors of measles vaccination uptake controlling for sociodemographic variables and the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95% CI were calculated. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was performed, besides area under the curve (AUC) for the PACV was computed. Data was collected from 495 participants. We found that measles vaccine hesitancy (PACV scores) predicted the uptake of measles vaccine after controlling other potential social confounders such as mother’s age and the number of children (aOR 1.055, 95% CI 1.028-1.028). Additionally, the ROC for the PACV yielded area under the curve (AUC 0.686 (95% CI 0.620-0.751, P <0.001). Our findings show that measles vaccine hesitancy in Sudan directly influences the uptake of the measles vaccine. Addressing the determinants of vaccine hesitancy through communication strategies will improve vaccine uptake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0350.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Mental stress Covid-19; Covid-19 vaccine dataset; Vaccine sociodemographic; Vaccine acceptance rate; Vaccine perception
Online: 18 August 2022 (13:36:16 CEST)
In this study, we surveyed over 600 participants to determine: a) major causes to mental stress during the pandemic and its future impacts, and b) diversity in public perception and acceptance (specifically for children) of Covid-19 vaccination. Statistical results and intelligent clustering outcomes indicate significant relationships between sociodemographic diversity, mental stress causes, vaccination perception, and Covid-19 infections. For instance, statistical results indicate significant dependence between mental stress due to Covid-19 and gender (p = 1.7e-05). Over 25% of males indicated work related stress comparing 35% in females however, females indicated more stressed (17%) due to relationships comparing to males (12%). Around 30% of Asian/Arabic participants don’t feel vaccination being safe as compared to 8% of white-British and 22% of white-European indicating significant dependence (p = 1.8e-08) with ethnicity. More specifically, vaccination acceptance for children is significantly dependent to ethnicity (p = 3.7e-05) where only 47% participants show willingness towards children’s vaccination. Primary dataset in this study along with experimental outcomes identifying sociodemographic information diversity with respect to public perception and acceptance of vaccination to children and potential stress factors might be useful for public and policy makers to be better prepared for future epidemics as well as working globally to combat mental health issues and running more effective vaccination campaigns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0036.v1
Online: 4 October 2021 (09:44:35 CEST)
There are scarce data regarding flu vaccination among people with HIV infection (PWHIV). The goal of this explorative study is to assess hesitancy toward influenza vaccination in a group of PWHIV during the pandemic. A questionnaire was administered to 219 patients vaccinated at our clinic during the 2020-2021 campaign. It evaluated subjects’ adherence over the last 3 seasonal vaccination campaigns, vaccine confidence, complacency and convenience, and the effect of the pandemic on the choice to vaccinate. The population was divided into two groups: fully adherent (all 3 campaigns, 117 patients) and non-fully adherent (1 or 2 campaigns, 102 patients). Adherence increased in non-fully adherent group in 2020-2021, but the pandemic did not affect the choice. Misbelieves emerged: influenza vaccine was considered protective SARS-CoV-2 (22.8% of total population); almost half of all patients thought influenza vaccine could improve their CD4+ cell level (57.3% in fully adherent, 40.2% in non-fully adherent, p<0.05). A quarter of the non-fully adherent group would not have vaccinated in a location other than our clinic (24.5% vs 11.9% in fully adherent group, p<0.05). Conclusively, offering a secure and private space for vaccination seems to encourage vaccination; healthcare professionals should improve counselling to increase adherence and correct misbeliefs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0338.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine hesitancy; vaccine attitudes; vaccine development; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 15 September 2020 (10:32:28 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic continues to ravage the world, with the United States being highly affected. A vaccine provides the best hope for a permanent solution to controlling the pandemic. However, to be effective, a vaccine must be accepted and used by a large majority of the population. Structural equation modelling was used to analyze the relationships of several factors with attitudes toward potential COVID-19 vaccination. The survey was administered to 316 respondents across the United States by a survey corporation. Prior vaccine usage and attitudes predicted attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination. Assessment of the severity of COVID-19 for the United States was also predictive. Approximately 68% of all respondents were supportive of being vaccinated for COVID-19, but side effects, efficacy, and length of testing remained concerns. Longer testing, increased efficacy and development in the United States were significantly associated with increased vaccine acceptance. Messages promoting COVID-19 vaccination should seek to alleviate the concerns of those who are already vaccine-hesitant. Messaging directed at the benefits of vaccination for the United States as a country would address the second predictive factor. Enough time should be taken to allay concerns about both short and long-term side effects before a vaccine is released.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0702.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine acceptance; vaccine willingness; vaccine hesitancy; quantitative; online survey; Philippines
Online: 27 April 2021 (10:12:47 CEST)
With COVID-19 vaccines slowly being rolled out in many countries, it is important to understand the public’s acceptance of being vaccinated. This study aims to study the willingness and motivations among residents of the cities of Caloocan, Malabon, and Navotas, Philippines to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Based on an online survey of 137 respondents, who willingly participated in the study, 71% will take a COVID-19 vaccine if it becomes available, with similar rates among respondents from Caloocan (82%), Malabon (83 %), and Navotas (81%). If a vaccine is proven safe and effective, more respondents (82%) will take a COVID-19 vaccine. Furthermore, safety against COVID-19 as well as the safety and effectiveness of vaccines are the primary factors why respondents are willing or unwilling to get a vaccine. The results highlight the need for effective messaging that promotes COVID-19 vaccination, with emphasis on the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine, and its benefits to the public, especially that the vaccines that will be delivered in the country in the next few months are not the most preferred brands by the respondents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0463.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19 vaccines; vaccine effectiveness; BNT162b2 vaccine; mRNA-1273 vaccine; ChAdOx1 vaccine; 19 Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assay; reactogenicity; vaccine-associated symptoms
Online: 26 August 2022 (14:14:39 CEST)
This prospective study provides data on long-term humoral immunogenicity of a heterologous off-label vaccine regimen combining the adenoviral vectored ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 from Astra-Zeneca (ChAd) with the mRNA-1273 vaccine from Moderna (m1273) in comparison to two different homologous mRNA vaccine schedules. Of the 316 COVID-19 naïve adult health care workers (HCW) included to complete a survey on vaccine-associated symptoms (VAS), 197 had received the homologous BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine from Pfizer/BioNTech (BNT/BNT), 76 the homologous m1273/m1273, and 43 the heterologous ChAd/m1273 vaccine regimen. Concentration of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in plasma 5-7 months after the second vaccine dose was higher in the m1273/m1273 and ChAd/m1273 than the BNT/BNT vaccine group. The frequency of systemic VAS after first vaccine dose was 86% after ChAd compared to 35% and 39% after BNT and m1273, respectively (p < 0.0001), and after second vaccine dose highest (89%) in the m1273/m1273 group (p < 0.001). Individuals with systemic VAS achieved higher levels of antibodies irrespective of vaccine regimen. In conclusion, VAS serve as a strong predictor of long-term humoral immune response, and the heterologous ChAd/m1273 vaccine regimen provides an at least equal long-term humoral immune response compared with the standard vaccine regimens used in Denmark.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0532.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Vaccine access issues; vaccine uptake; vaccine hesitancy; vaccination hesitancy; measles; media-tion analysis
Online: 31 August 2022 (03:53:25 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to evaluate whether measles vaccine uptake can be predicted directly or indirectly by parental perceptions about the availability of measles vaccine services with parental hesitancy towards the measles vaccine as a potential mediator. Methods: This was a community-based cross-sectional study conducted at Omdurman locality in Khartoum state, Sudan in February 2019. The study population included parents/ guardians having at least one child aged 2 -3 years old. Mediation analysis was conducted using two models, the ordinary least squares path analysis and multiple logistic regression. Results: a total of 495 responded and the mean age of the mothers who participated in the study was 31.1 (SD=5.73). A half of the respondents (50.1%) completed university education and nearly three-quarters of the respondents (74.7%) were housewives. After controlling for the other factors, including the mother’s age and the number of children, parental perception about the accessibility and availability of the measles vaccine influences the uptake of the measles vaccine indirectly through the mediation effect of measles vaccine hesitancy. Conclusions: We suggest that intervening in measles vaccine hesitancy in addition to measles vaccination access issues will have positive impact on the uptake and coverage of the measles vaccine in Sudan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0552.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID19; vaccine; SARS nCoV-2; information technology; COVID19 vaccine survey; MIT vaccine survey
Online: 20 April 2021 (14:35:05 CEST)
With the onset of the COVID19 pandemic, information technology has played a critical role in healthcare. A broad spectrum of information technology tools and applications played an essential role to create awareness of the COVID19 vaccination drive and its health benefits. We use the COVID-19 Global Beliefs, Behaviors, and Norms Survey for analysis of prevalence and factors associated with vaccination drives among men and women aged 20-80 years in 60 countries worldwide. Our analysis of the global survey offers a unique perspective about the role of information technology associated with vaccination drives involving social norms and human behavior among 437,236 respondents. The international survey was organized using a pre-registered randomized experiment demonstrating the role of technology in reaching out to people based in diverse communities and evaluating their beliefs, behavior, and social norms. The study shows that vaccine acceptance can vary due to descriptive norms. Our analysis shows 65.06% of people all over the globe are willing to get vaccinated and a large proportion of the population thinks that the COVID19 pandemic is a viable threat to the community and preventive measures need to be taken including vaccination drives.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine; vaccine hesitancy; Healthcare Workers; Flu vaccine; Influenza; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:33:15 CEST)
Despite the research conducted worldwide, there is no treatment specific for SARS-CoV-2 infection with efficacy proven by randomized controlled trials. A chance for a breakthrough is vaccinating the majority of the global population. The public opinion surveys on vaccine hesitancy prompted our team to investigate the Polish medical community's attitude towards the SARS-CoV-2 and influenza vaccinations. In-person and online surveys of Healthcare Workers (HCWs): doctors, nurses, medical students, and other allied health professionals (n=419) took place between 14.09.2020 and 5.11.2020. In our study, 68.7% of respondents would like to be vaccinated with the COVID-19 vaccine. The safety and efficacy of vaccination against COVID-19 would persuade 86.3% of hesitant and those who would refuse to be vaccinated. 3.1% of all respondents claimed that no argument would convince them to get vaccinated. 61.6% of respondents declared a willingness to receive an influenza vaccination, of which 83.3% were also inclined to receive the planned COVID-19 vaccination. Although a significant part of respondents - 62.5% (262/419) indicated, they trusted the influenza vaccine more than the COVID-19 vaccine in direct comparison, more respondents intended to get the COVID-19 vaccination than the influenza vaccine in the 2020/2021 season.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0717.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: vaccine hesitancy; vaccine acceptance; anti-vaccination; COVID-19; coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; vaccine rejection
Online: 29 December 2020 (08:46:16 CET)
Utility of vaccine campaigns to control coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is not merely dependent on vaccine efficacy and safety. Vaccine acceptance among the general public and the healthcare workers, appears to have a decisive role for successful control of the pandemic. The aim of this review was to provide an up-to-date assessment of COVID-19 vaccination acceptance rates worldwide. A systematic search of the peer-reviewed English survey literature indexed in PubMed was done on December 25, 2020. Results from 30 studies, met the inclusion criteria and formed the basis for final COVID-19 vaccine acceptance estimates. Results of an additional recent survey from Jordan and Kuwait was considered in this review as well. Survey studies on COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rates were found from 33 different countries. Among adults representing the general public, the highest COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rates were found in Ecuador (97.0%), Malaysia (94.3%), Indonesia (93.3%) and China (91.3%). On the other hand, the lowest COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rates were found in Kuwait (23.6%), Jordan (28.4%), Italy (53.7), Russia (54.9%), Poland (56.3%), US (56.9%), and France (58.9%). Only eight surveys among healthcare workers (doctors, nurses) were found, with vaccine acceptance rates ranging from 27.7% in the Democratic Republic of the Congo to 78.1% in Israel. In a majority of survey studies among the general public (62%), the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination showed a level of ≥ 70%. Low rates of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance were reported in the Middle East, Russia, Africa and several European countries. This could represent a major problem in the global efforts that aim to control the current COVID-19 pandemic. More studies are recommended to address the scope of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Such studies are particularly needed in the Middle East Africa, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Middle and Latin America.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0132.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: adults; influenza; cell-cultured vaccine; egg-based vaccine; influenza vaccine; relative vaccine effectiveness; real word evidence; mutation; human / prevention & control*; comparative study
Online: 20 December 2021 (11:00:26 CET)
Avian mutations in vaccine strains obtained from embryonated eggs could impair vaccine effec-tiveness. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the adjusted relative vaccine effectiveness (arVE) of seed cell-cultured influenza vaccines (ccIV) compared to egg-based influ-enza vaccines (eIV) in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza related outcomes (IRO) or IRO by clinical codes, in subjects 18 and over. We completed the literature search in January 2021; ap-plied exclusion criteria, evaluated risk of bias of the evidence, and performed heterogeneity, pub-lication bias, qualitative, quantitative and sensitivity analyses. All estimates were computed us-ing a random approach. International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, CRD42021228290. We identified 12 publications that reported 26 adjusted arVE results. Five publications reported 13 laboratory confirmed arVE and seven reported 13 code-ascertained arVE. Nine publications with 22 results were at low risk of bias. Heterogeneity was explained by season and risk of bias. We found a significant 11% (8 to 14%) adjusted arVE favoring ccIV in preventing any IRO in the 2017-2018 influenza season. The arVE was 3% (-01 to 7%) in the 2018-2019 influenza season. We found moderate evidence of a significant advantage of the ccIV in preventing IRO, compared to eIV, in a well-matched A(H3N2) predominant season.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0051.v1
Online: 5 September 2022 (08:14:56 CEST)
This is a case study of a 55-year-old patient who died four months after receiving the mRNA-vaccine BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) against COVID-19 as a second dose, following an initial vaccination with the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vector vaccine (AstraZeneca) two months earlier. The autopsy diagnosis revealed general atherosclerosis. The histopathologic analyses of cardiac tissue demonstrated the presence of a thrombus occluding the right coronary artery (RCA) without evidence of plaque rupture. As a substitute trigger of clotting, the RCA presented with characteristics of acute lymphocytic vasculitis that extended to vasa vasorum in the adventitia and vessels in adjacent adipose tissue. Microthrombi were occasionally detected in these small vessels. It was obvious that lymphocytic myocarditis had been a chronic ongoing process temporally distinct from acute myocardial infarction. The myocardium contained patchworks of fibrotic areas alongside foci of displaying acute inflammation and fresh myocyte damage. SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein, but not nucleocapsid protein was sporadically detected in vessel walls by immunohistochemical assay. The cause of death was determined to be acute myocardial infarction and lymphocytic myocarditis. These findings indicate that myocarditis, as well as thrombo-embolic events following injection of spike-inducing gene-based vaccines, are causally associated with a injurious immunological response to the encoded agent. Because of the fact that the immune response to a first gene-based vaccination is very low in comparison with the immune response to the second vaccination, the found adverse events has rather to be attributed to the mRNA-based second vaccination as to the initial vector-based one.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0308.v2
Online: 25 August 2022 (03:54:58 CEST)
The current report represents a case of a 77-year-old man with Parkinson’s disease who died three weeks after receiving his third COVID-19 vaccination in January 2022. The patient was first vaccinated in May 2021 with the ChAdOx1 nCov- 19 vector vaccine, followed by two more doses with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in July and December 2021. The family of the deceased requested an autopsy due to the ambivalent clinical features noted before death. The underlying illness (Parkinson’s disease) was confirmed by autopsy. However, no sign of a florid COVID-19 was discovered. Meanwhile, the immunohistochemical staining of the brain and heart revealed previously undiagnosed conditions. The brain, in distinctive, revealed multifocal necrotizing encephalitis with massive inflammatory lymphocyte infiltrates. In addition, the heart showed signs of serious myocarditis. Finally, immunohistochemical staining revealed that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was evident in the tissues investigated. Based on these immunohistochemical findings, it appears that the inflammatory changes in the patient's brain tissues are most likely the result of immunological processes. Concurrently, the absence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid-protein was evidenced, indicating that the detected spike-protein is unrelated to a SARS-CoV-2 infection. If such an infection was the cause of the spike protein, the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein would also be detectable. As a consequence, the confirmed presence of the spike protein had to be attributed to the previous vaccination with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine that the deceased patient had received.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0232.v1
Online: 15 July 2022 (12:12:58 CEST)
(1) Background: The monkeypox virus (MPV) is a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the Poxviridae family, Chordopoxvirinae subfamily, and Or-thopoxvirus genu. It was called monkeypox because it was first discovered in monkeys, in a Danish laboratory, in 1958. However, the actual reservoir for MPV is still unknown. (2) Methods & Results: We have reviewed the existing literature on the options for Monkeypox virus. There are three available vaccines for orthopoxviruses: ACAM2000, JYNNEOS, and LC16, with the first being a replicating vaccine and the latter being non or minimally replicating. (3) Conclusions: Smallpox vaccinations previously provided coincidental im-munity to MPV. ACAM2000(a live‐attenuated replicating vaccine) and JYNNEOS (a live‐attenuated, non-replicating vaccine) are two US FDA‐approved vaccines that can prevent monkeypox. However, ACAM2000 may cause serious side effects, including cardiac problems, whereas JYNNEOS is associated with fewer com-plications. The recent outbreaks across the globe have once again highlighted the need for constant monitoring and the development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic modalities. Based on available data, there is still a need to develop an effective and safe new generation of vaccines specific for monkeypox that are killed or mRNA before monkeypox is declared a pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0415.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Coronavirus; Vaccine hesitancy; COVID-19 Vaccine; Saudi Arabia
Online: 31 May 2022 (09:22:49 CEST)
On 11th March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 as a pandemic. Vaccination programs have advanced greatly in the global health period, despite widespread anti-vaccination attitudes and misinformation. Vaccine hesitancy of COVID-19 vaccine is currently a major issue in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study was carried out from June 25, 2021 to October 2021 in order to investigate the knowledge levels of acceptance and hesitancy of COVID-19 vaccine among Saudi’s nationals. The data was collected through a close-ended structured questionnaire from a total of 565 respondents. Overall, 78.41% respondents were female, 62.48% having university level education and 61.06% were unemployed. Majority of the participants 82.30% (n=465) think that Pfizer vaccine has the highest efficiency against COVID-19. Our study concludes that majority of the participants have satisfactory knowledge about COVID-19 vaccination. Concerns over vaccine components, effectiveness of vaccine and possible side effects are among the key causes for vaccine hesitancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0650.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 vaccine; cellular and humoral immunogenicity; DNA vaccine
Online: 28 June 2021 (13:40:25 CEST)
The urgent need for effective, safe and equitably accessible vaccines to tackle the ongoing spread of COVID-19 led researchers to generate vaccine candidates targeting varieties of immunogens of SARS-CoV-2. Because of its crucial role in mediating binding and entry to host cell and its proven safety profile, the subunit 1 (S1) of the spike protein represents an attractive immunogen for vaccine development. Here, we developed and assessed the immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine encoding the SARS-CoV-2 S1. Following in vitro confirmation and characterization, the humoral and cellular immune responses of our vaccine candidate (pVAX-S1) was evaluated in BALB/c mice using two different doses, 25 µg and 50 µg. Our data showed high levels of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies in mice immunized with three doses of pVAX-S1. Analysis of the induced IgG subclasses showed a Th1-polarized immune response as demonstrated by the significant elevation of spike-specific IgG2a and IgG2b compared to IgG1. Furthermore, we found that immunization of mice with three doses of 50 µg of pVAX-S1 could elicit significant memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. Taken together, our data indicates that pVAX-S1 is immunogenic and safe in mice and is worthy of further preclinical and clinical evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0246.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Newcastle disease virus; Paramyxovirus; vaccine quality; vaccine stability; heat stability
Online: 10 February 2021 (08:23:38 CET)
Vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND), a devastating viral disease of chicken, is often hampered by thermal inactivation of the live vaccines, in particular in tropical and hot climate conditions. In the past “thermostable” vaccine strains (I-2) have been proposed to overcome this problem. In the current study, we compared the thermal stability of 6 commercially available ND vaccines. Subjected to 37°C as lyophilized preparation, two vaccines containing I-2 strains were more sensitive to inactivation than a third I-2 vaccine or when compared to three other vaccines based on different strains. However, after reconstitution strains proved to have a comparable tenacity. Interestingly, all vaccines retained a sufficient virus dose for protection (106 EID50) after 1 day at 37°C, still. However, experiments exposing ND-vaccines to elevated temperatures of 51°C and 61°C, clearly demonstrated inactivation of all dissolved vaccines within 2 to 4 hours. The data indicate preparation that specific factors may influence thermal stability rather than strain specific characteristics. Regardless of the ND strain used, the appropriate cold chain is mandatory for live ND-vaccines.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0153.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Virus; Vaccine; SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus; Covid-19; Covid-19 vaccine
Online: 7 September 2020 (03:46:59 CEST)
This tutorial is organized into three major sections—viruses, vaccines and the race for a Covid-19 vaccine. The goal is to provide enough background on viruses, history of vaccines, and the science of vaccinology founded on the principles of immunity. The hope is that this will enable us to understand the challenges, methods and prospects for developing a safe and effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. Many important viruses such as smallpox, HIV, HCV and SARS-CoV-2 which is responsible for causing the Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) are presented in detail, which is then followed by a description of different vaccine development methods and strategies. The tutorial then discusses different candidate SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and provides specific details of many of the prospective vaccines on the leader-board which are undergoing clinical trials. The tutorial concludes with a realistic projection for a safe and effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 based on the historical scientific record.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0334.v1
Online: 16 October 2018 (05:02:00 CEST)
Schistosomiasis, a disease historically associated with poverty, lack of sanitation and social inequalities, is a chronic, debilitating parasitic infection, affecting hundreds of millions of people in endemic countries. Although schistosomiasis control approach has shown that chemotherapy is capable of reducing morbidity in humans, rapid re-infection is a reminder that the impact of drug treatment on transmission control or elimination initiatives is marginal. In addition, and regardless of more than two decades of well-executed control activities based on large-scale chemotherapy, the disease is expanding in many areas including Brazil. The development of the Sm14/GLA-SE schistosomiasis vaccine is an emblematic open knowledge innovation that has successfully completed Phase I and Phase IIa clinical trials, with Phase II/III trials underway in the African continent and to be followed in Brazil. Discovery and experimental phases were long term achievements leading to a robust collection of data that are strongly supporting the presently ongoing Clinical Phase. This paper reviews the development of the Sm14 vaccine formulated with GLA-SE (Glucopyranosyl Lipid A), from the earlier experimental developments to clinical trials including the recent status of Phase II studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0333.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Urban; rural; COVID-19; Knowledge; Attitudes; Practices; vaccine acceptability; Vaccine hesitancy; Kenya
Online: 18 August 2022 (07:46:00 CEST)
An important step towards COVID-19 pandemic control is adequate knowledge and adherence to mitigation measures, including vaccination. We assessed the level of COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and practices among residents from an urban informal settlement in the City of Nairobi (Kibera), and a rural community in western Kenya (Asembo). A cross-sectional survey was implemented from April to May 2021 among randomly selected adult residents from a population-based infectious diseases surveillance (PBIDS) cohort in Nairobi and Siaya Counties. Factors associated with the level of COVID-19 KAP, were assessed using multivariable regression methods. COVID-19 vaccine acceptance was 83.6% for the participants from Asembo and 59.8% in Kibera. The reasons cited for vaccine hesitancy in Kibera were safety concerns (34.0%), insufficient information available to decide (18.0%), and a lack of belief in the vaccine (21.0%), while the reasons in Asembo were safety concerns (55.0%), insufficient information to decide (26.0%) and lack of belief in the vaccine (11%). Our study findings suggest the need for continued public education to enhance COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and practices to ensure adherence to mitigation measures. Urban informal settlements require targeted messaging to improve vaccine awareness, acceptability, and uptake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19 vaccine; vaccine hesitancy; healthcare workers; primary care; general practice; Singapore
Online: 1 March 2022 (03:49:13 CET)
Background: COVID-19 booster uptake remained poor among healthcare workers (HCW) despite evidence of improved immunity against Delta and Omicron variants. While most studies used a questionnaire to assess hesitancy, this study aimed to identify factors affecting true booster hesitancy by examining actual vaccine uptake across time. Method: COVID-19 vaccination database records among HCW working at 7 Singaporean public primary care clinics between January to December 2021 were extracted, with gender, profession, place of practice, vaccination type and dates. Time to booster was calculated from the date of vaccination minus date of eligibility. Chi-square test was used to compare relationship between 1st dose and booster hesitancy, Kaplan-Meier method and Log-rank test were adopted to evaluate differences in cumulative booster uptake. Multivariate cox regression was used to investigate predictors for timely booster vaccination. Vaccination rate was charted across time and corroborated with media releases pertaining to legislative changes. Results: 877 of 891 (98.9%) primary care HCW were fully vaccinated, 73.8% of eligible HCW had taken the booster. HCW were less booster hesitant [median 16 (5-31.3) days] compared to the 1st dose [median 39 (13-119.3) days]. 1st dose hesitant HCW were more likely to be booster hesitant (OR=3.66, 95%CI 2.61-5.14). Adjusting for sex, workplace and time to 1st dose, ancillary (HR=1.53, 95%CI 1.03-2.28), medical (HR=1.8, 95%CI 1.18-2.74) and nursing (HR=1.8, 95%CI 1.18-2.37) received boosters earlier compared with administrative staff. No temporal relationship was observed between booster uptake, legislative changes and COVID-19 infection numbers. Conclusion: Vaccine hesitancy among HCW had improved from booster to 1st dose, with timely booster vaccination among medical and nursing staff. Tailored education, risk messaging and strategic legislation might help to reduce delayed booster vaccination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0330.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Tdap; flow cytometry; acellular pertussis vaccine; whole cell pertussis vaccine; plasma cells
Online: 18 November 2021 (14:18:35 CET)
Pertussis is a vaccine-preventable disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Over the past years, the incidence and mortality of pertussis increased significantly. A possible cause is the switch from whole cell to acellular pertussis vaccines, although other factors may also contribute. To develop future vaccines and improve current vaccination strategies, it is critical to understand factors influencing the generation of immunological memory. We applied high-dimensional flow cytometry to investigate changes in B cells in individuals of different ages and distinct priming backgrounds upon administration of an acellular pertussis booster vaccine. These findings were correlated to vaccine-specific plasma cells and serum Ig levels. Expansion and maturation of plasma cells 7 days post-vaccination was the most prominent cellular change in all age groups, and was most pronounced for more mature IgG1+ plasma cells. Cellular responses were stronger in individuals primed with whole cell vaccine than in individuals primed with acellular vaccine. Moreover, IgG1+ plasma cell expansion weakly correlated with Prn- and PT- specific serum IgG levels. Our study points at plasma cells as a potential early cellular marker of an immune response and contributes to understanding differences in immune responses between age groups and priming backgrounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0579.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Reverse vaccinology, Subtractive proteomics, Vaccine candidates, Chimeric vaccine, Druggable targets.
Online: 25 February 2021 (12:06:13 CET)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a critical healthcare challenge due to its ability to cause persistent infections and the acquisition of antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Lack of preventive vaccines and rampant drug resistance phenomenon has rendered patients vulnerable. As new antimicrobials are in the preclinical stages of development, mining for the unexploited drug targets is also crucial. Here, we designed a chimeric vaccine against P. aeruginosa using a subtractive proteomics approach and identified nine unique enzymes as novel drug targets in PAO1 proteome. A total of five unique proteins were selected as potential vaccine candidates based on essentiality, extracellular localization, virulence, antigenicity, pathway association, protein-protein interaction analysis, hydrophilicity, and low molecular weight. These include two outer membrane porins OprF (P13794) and OprD (P32722), a protein activator precursor pra (G3XDA9), a probable outer membrane protein precursor PA1288 (Q9I456), and a conserved hypothetical protein PA4874 (Q9HUT9). These proteins were further analyzed using a reverse vaccinology approach to identify immunogenic and antigenic T cell and B cell epitopes. The best scoring epitopes qualifying for all set criteria were then further subjected to the construction of a polypeptide multi-epitope vaccine construct with cholera toxin B (CtxB) subunit as an adjuvant. The identified drug targets qualifying the screening criteria were: UDP-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucuronic acid 3-dehydrogenase WbpB (G3XD23), aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (Q51344), 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-hydroxymethyldihydropteridine pyrophosphokinase (Q9HV71), 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic-acid transferase (Q9HUH7), glycyl-tRNA synthetase alpha chain (Q9I7B7), riboflavin kinase/FAD synthase (Q9HVM3), aconitate hydratase 2 (Q9I2V5), probable glycosyltransferase WbpH (G3XD85) and UDP-3-O-[3-hydroxylauroyl] glucosamine N-acyltransferase (Q9HXY6). For druggability and pocketome analysis crystal and homology structures of these proteins were retrieved and developed. A sequence-based search was performed in different databases (ChEMBL, Drug Bank, PubChem and Pseudomonas database) for the availability of reported ligands and tested drugs for the screened targets. These predicted targets may provide a basis for the development of reliable antibacterial preventive and therapeutic options against P. aeruginosa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0671.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Dengue; Dengue vaccine trials; vaccine efficacy; cross-protection; serotypes; serostatus; Bayesian approach
Online: 27 September 2020 (08:37:14 CEST)
There is a growing public health need for effective preventive interventions against dengue, and a safe, effective and affordable dengue vaccine against the four serotypes would be a significant achievement for disease prevention and control. Two tetravalent dengue vaccines, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur) and DENVax (Takeda Pharmaceutical Company), have now completed phase 3 clinical trials. While Dengvaxia resulted in serious adverse events and is restricted to individuals with prior dengue infections, DENVax has shown, at first glance, some encouraging results. Using the available data for the TAK 003 trial, we estimate, via the Bayesian approach, vaccine efficacy (VE) of the post-vaccination surveillance periods. Although better measurement over long time was expected for the second part of the post-vaccination surveillance, variation in serotype-specific efficacy needs careful consideration. Besides observing that individual serostatus prior to vaccination is determinant of DENVax vaccine efficacy, we also compare the VE estimations for 12 and 18 months and we observe that the efficacy is decreasing over time. The comparison of efficacies over time is informative and very important, bring up the discussion of the role of temporary cross-immunity in dengue vaccine trials and the impact of serostatus prior to vaccination in the context of dengue fever epidemiology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0477.v1
Subject: Keywords: respiratory syncytial virus vaccine; clinical trial; safety and immunogenicity; RSV promising vaccine
Online: 31 May 2020 (16:07:57 CEST)
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of acute lower respiratory infection globally. There are vaccines in pipeline to prevent it but a systematic review on immunogenicity and safety of vaccine is lacking. Methods: This systematic review of RSV vaccine clinical trials was undertaken using 4 databases. Searches were conducted using both controlled vocabulary terms such as ‘Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human’, ‘Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections’, ‘Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines’, ‘Immunization’, ‘Immunization Programs’ and ‘Vaccines’ and corresponding text word terms. The searches for published papers were limited to clinical trials published from January 2000 to August 6th, 2018. RSV infection case was defined as RSV associated medically attended acute respiratory illness (MAARI) or RSV infection by serologically-confirmed test (Western Blot) during the RSV surveillance period. We calculated the relative risk of each vaccine trial with RSV infection case. Results: Of 4395 publications, 24 were included and data were extracted covering 4 major types of RSV vaccine candidates, these being live-attenuated/chimeric (n=9), recombinant-vector (n=10), subunit (n=1) and nanoparticle vaccines (n=4). For RSV infection cases, 7 trials were involved and none of them showed a vaccine-related increased MAARI during RSV surveillance season. Conclusion: LID ∆M2-2, MEDI M2-2, and RSVcps2 (live-attenuated) were considered the most promising vaccine candidates in infant and children. In the elderly, a nanoparticle F vaccine candidate was considered as a potential effective vaccine. Although no promising vaccine was identified from pregnant-women test, RSV F-024 subunit vaccine candidate and an RSV F nanoparticle vaccine showed encouraging results in healthy non-pregnant women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0433.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: adjuvant; COVID-19; immunogenic epitopes; peptide vaccine; subunit vaccine; molecular dynamics simulation
Online: 29 March 2020 (11:14:42 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease that was first reported in Wuhan, China and has subsequently spread worldwide. In the absence of any antiviral or immunomodulatory therapies, the disease is spreading at an alarming rate. 5 to 10% of recovered patients in Wuhan test positive again; this suggest that for controlling COVID-19, vaccines may be better option than drugs. A clinical trial to evaluate an anti-COVID-19 vaccine has started recently. However, its efficacy and potency have to be evaluated and validated. As an alternative, we are presenting a first-of-its-kind, designed multi-peptide subunit based epitope vaccine against COVID-19. The vaccine construct comprise an adjuvant, CTL, HTL, and B-cell epitopes joined by linkers. The vaccine is non-toxic, non-allergenic, thermostable and immunogenic with the capability to elicit a humoral and cell-mediated immune response. The findings are validated with high-end computation-based methods. This unique vaccine is made up of 33 highly antigenic epitopes from three proteins that have a prominent role in host receptor recognition, viral entry, and pathogenicity. We advocate this vaccine must be synthesized and tested urgently as public health priority.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0353.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: inactivated vaccine; vaccine matching; composition; deep sequencing; degraded RNA; FMDV; whole genome
Online: 28 November 2019 (04:03:46 CET)
Appropriate vaccine selection is crucial in the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Vaccination can prevent clinical disease and reduces viral shedding, but there is a lack of cross-protection between the seven serotypes and their sublineages, making the selection of an adequately protective vaccine difficult. Since the exact composition of their vaccines is not consistently disclosed by all manufacturers, incompatibility of the strains used for vaccination with regionally circulating strains can cause vaccination campaigns to fail. Here, we present a deep sequencing approach for polyvalent inactivated FMD vaccines that can identify all component strains by their genome sequences. The genomes of all strains of a commercial pentavalent FMD vaccine were de-novo assembled and the vaccine composition determined semi-quantitatively. The genome assembly required high stringency parameters to prevent misassemblies caused by conserved regions of the genome shared by related strains. In contrast, reference-guided assembly is only recommended in cases where the number of strains is previously known and appropriate reference sequences are available. The presented approach can be applied not only to any inactivated whole-virus FMD vaccine, but also to vaccine quality testing in general and allows for better decision-making for vaccines with unknown composition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0046.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19 vaccines; seroconversion; inactivated SARS-CoV2 vaccine; BNT162 Vaccine; COVID-19 vaccine booster shot; heterologous vaccination; mixed vaccination; vaccination strategy
Online: 2 March 2022 (12:05:03 CET)
This study aimed to evaluate the mixed and homogeneous application of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine CoronaVac (CV) and the mRNA vaccine BNT162b2 (BNT). This prospective cohort study included 235 health care workers, who had received two prime shots with CoronaVac. They were divided into three cohorts after the third month: Cohort-I (CV/CV); Cohort-II (CV/CV/CV) and Cohort-III (CV/CV/BNT). Anti-S-RBD-IgG and total an-ti-spike/anti-nucleocapsid-IgG antibody concentrations were examined in vaccinated health workers at the 1st, 3rd and 6th months following the second dose of the vaccination. The mean age of 235 health care workers who participated in the project was 39.51±10.39 (min-max: 22-64). At the end of the 6th month, no antibodies were detected in 16.7% of Cohort-I participants, and anti-S-RDB IgG levels showed a decrease of 60% compared to the levels of the 3rd month. The antibody concentrations of the 6th month were found to have increased by an average of 5.13 times compared to the 3rd-month levels in the Cohort-II and 20.4 times in Cohort-III. The heterologous vaccination strategy “CoronaVac and BNT162b2 regimen” is able to induce a stronger immunity and it will help remove inequalities in the developing world where CoronaVac was the initial prime.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine; COVID-19 vaccine; cardiovascular effects; myocarditis; adolescents; Thailand
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:40:23 CEST)
This study focuses on cardiovascular effects, particularly myocarditis and pericarditis events, after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine injection in Thai adolescents. This prospective cohort study enrolled students from two schools aged 13–18 years who received the second dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Data including demographics, symptoms, vital signs, ECG, echocardiography and cardiac enzymes were collected at baseline, Day 3, Day 7, and Day 14 (optional) using case record forms.We enrolled 314 participants; of these, 13 participants were lost to follow up, leaving 301 participants for analysis. The most common cardiovascular effects were tachycardia (7.64%), shortness of breath (6.64%), palpitation (4.32%), chest pain (4.32%), and hypertension (3.99%). Seven participants (2.33%) exhibited at least one elevated cardiac biomarker or positive lab assessments. Cardiovascular effects were found in 29.24% of patients, ranging from tachycardia, palpitation, and myopericarditis. Myopericarditis was confirmed in one patient after vaccination. Two patients had suspected pericarditis and four patients had suspected subclinical myocarditis. Conclusion: Cardiovascular effects in adolescents after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination included tachycardia, palpitation, and myocarditis. The clinical presentation of myopericarditis after vaccination was usually mild, with all cases fully recovering within 14 days. Hence, adolescents receiving mRNA vaccines should be monitored for side effects. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT05288231
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0051.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: African swine fever; vaccination; efficacy; domestic pigs; wild boar; oral vaccine; intramuscular vaccine
Online: 2 August 2022 (08:36:03 CEST)
African swine fever (ASF) is a pandemic threat to the global pig industry and wild suids. A safe and efficacious vaccine could monumentally assist in disease eradication. In the past years, promising live attenuated vaccine candidates emerged in proof-of-concept experiments, among them, “ASFV-G-∆MGF”. In our study, we tested the vaccine candidate in three animal experiments intramuscularly in domestic pigs one orally in wild boar. Further, a macrophage-grown vaccine virus and a virus grown on permanent cells could be employed. Irrespective of the production system of vaccine virus, a two-dose intramuscular immunization could induce close to sterile immunity with full clinical protection against challenge infection. After oral immunization, 50% of the vaccinees seroconverted and all responders were completely protected against subsequent challenge. All non-responders developed ASF upon challenge with two acute lethal infections and two mild and transient courses. The latter results show a lower efficiency after oral administration that would have to be taken into consideration when designing vaccination-based control measures. Our findings suggest that “ASFV-G-∆MGF” could help to contain the disease under an appropriate vaccination campaign. Further research is needed to characterize safety aspects and define possible improvements of oral efficiency.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0578.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: HPV, HPV vaccine; Social Media; Mobile Technology; HPV vaccine intervention; RE-AIM Framework
Online: 28 January 2021 (08:15:38 CET)
Social media HPV vaccination interventions show promise for increasing HPV vaccination rates. An important consideration for the implementation of effective interventions into real-world practice in the translation potential, or external validity, of the intervention. To this end, we conducted a systematic literature review to describe the current body of evidence regarding the external validity of social media HPV vaccination-related interventions. Constructs related to external validity were based on the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance) framework. Seventeen articles published between 2006 and 2020 met inclusion criteria. Three researchers independently coded each article using a validated RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness/efficacy, adoption, implementation, maintenance) framework. Discrepant codes were discussed with a fourth reviewer to gain consensus. Of these 17 studies, three were pilot efficacy studies, 10 were RCTs to evaluate effectiveness, one was a population-based study, and three did not explicitly state which type of study was conducted. Reflecting this distribution of study types, across all studies the mean level of reporting RE-AIM dimensions varied with reach recording 90.8%, effectiveness (72.1%), adoption (40.3%), implementation (45.6%), and maintenance (26.5%). This review suggests that while the current HPV vaccination social media-driven interventions provide sufficient information on internal validity (reach and effectiveness), few have aimed to gather data on external validity needed to translate the interventions into real world implementation. Our data suggest that implementation research is needed to move HPV vaccination-related interventions into practice. Included in this review are recommendations for enhancing the design and reporting of these HPV vaccination social media-related interventions.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0141.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; pneumococcal vaccine; vaccination; cross-reactivity; protection; molecular mimicry; CRM197; rubella vaccine
Online: 4 September 2020 (10:45:26 CEST)
Various studies indicate that vaccination, especially with pneumococcal vaccines, protects against symptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and death. This paper explores the possibility that pneumococcal vaccines in particular, but perhaps other vaccines as well, contain antigens that might be cross-reactive with SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Comparison of the glycosylation structures of SARS-CoV-2 with the polysaccharide structures of pneumococcal vaccines yielded no obvious similarities. However, while pneumococcal vaccines are primarily composed of capsular polysaccharides, some are conjugated to CRM197, a modified diphtheria toxin, and all contain about three percent protein contaminants, including the pneumococcal surface proteins PsaA, PspA and probably PspC. All of these proteins have very high degrees of similarity, using very stringent criteria, with several SARS-CoV-2 proteins including the spike protein, membrane protein and replicase 1a. CRM197 is also present in Hib and meningitis vaccines. Equivalent similarities were found at lower rates, or were completely absent, among the proteins in diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, and poliovirus vaccines. Notably, PspA and PspC are highly antigenic and new pneumococcal vaccines based on them are currently in human clinical trials so that their effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 disease is easily testable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0098.v1
Online: 7 June 2022 (09:00:26 CEST)
Despite the remarkable success of SARS CoV-2 vaccines, the rise of variants, some of which are more resistant to the effects of vaccination, highlights the potential need for additional COVID-19 vaccines. We used the Multiple Antigen Presenting System (MAPS) technology, in which proteins are presented on a polysaccharide polymer to induce antibody, Th1, Th17 and CD8+ T cell responses, to engineer a novel vaccine targeting SARS CoV-2. This vaccine contains a fragment of the spike (S) protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) sequence of the original D614G strain and was used to immunize nonhuman primates (NHP) for assessment of immunological responses and protection against SARS CoV-2 challenge. The SARS CoV-2 MAPS vaccine generated robust neutralizing antibodies as well as Th1, Th17 and cytotoxic CD8 T-cell responses in NHPs. Furthermore, MAPS-immunized NHPs had significantly lower viral loads in the nasopharynx and lung compared to control animals. Taken together, these findings support the use of the MAPS platform to make a SARS CoV-2 vaccine. The nature of the platform also could enable its use for the inclusion of different variants in a single vaccine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: SARS-CoV2; inactivated vaccine; mRNA vaccine; COVID-19; homologous vaccination; heterolo-gous vaccination; protectivity
Online: 8 June 2022 (05:39:30 CEST)
This prospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccine schemes, ho-mologous versus heterologous vaccine strategies, and vaccine-induced anti-S-RBD-IgG antibody response in preventing COVID-19 among 942 healthcare workers one year after vaccination with the inactivated and/or mRNA vaccines. All participants received the first two primary doses of vaccines, 13.6% of them lacked the dose-3, 50.5% the dose-4, and 90.3% the dose-5. Antibody lev-els increased with the increase in number of vaccine doses and also in heterologous vaccine regi-mens. In both inactive and mRNA vaccines, infection rates were significantly higher in 2-dose-receivers, but lower in 4- or 5-dose receivers and increasing the total number of vaccine doses resulted in more protection against infection: the 3-dose regimen yielded 4.71 times more protection, the 4-dose 11.76 times and 5-dose 38.46 times more protection from COVID-19 infec-tion, compared to any 2-dose vaccination regimens. Antibody levels at the end of the first year of 4- or 5-dose-receivers were significantly higher than 2- or 3-dose-receivers. To conclude; increased number of total vaccine doses and anti-S-RBD antibody levels increased the protection from COVID-19 infection. Therefore, four or more doses are recommended in one year, for effective protection, especially in risk groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0236.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19 Vaccines; Vaccine Hesitancy; Healthcare workers; Vaccine acceptance; Vaccination; Vaccines; Arab Healthcare workers
Online: 9 April 2021 (08:41:36 CEST)
Background: Health Care Workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of acquiring and transmitting COVID-19 infection. Also, they present role models for communities with regards to attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination. Hence, hesitancy of HCWs towards vaccination can crucially affect the efforts aiming to contain the pandemic. Previously published studies paid little attention to HCWs in Arab countries, which has a population of over 440 million. Objectives: to assess the rates of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in Arabic-speaking HCWs residing in and outside the Arab countries, and their perceived barriers towards vaccination. Methods: a cross-sectional study based on an online survey was conducted from 14-Jan 2021 to 29-Jan 2021, targeting Arabic-speaking HCWs from all around the world. Results: the survey recruited 5,708 eligible participants (55.6% males, 44.4% females, age 30.6±10 years) from 21 Arab countries (87.5%) and 54 other countries (12.5%). Our analysis shows a significant rate of vaccine hesitancy among Arabic-speaking HCWs residing in and outside Arab countries (25.8% and 32.8%, respectively). The highest rates of hesitancy were among participants from the west region of the Arab world (Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria). The most cited reasons for hesitancy were concerns about side effects and distrust in vaccine expedited production and healthcare policies. Factors associated with higher hesitancy included age of 30-59, previous or current suspected or confirmed COVID-19, female gender, not knowing the vaccine type authorized in the participant’s country, and not regularly receiving the influenza vaccine. Conclusion: this is the first large-scale, multinational, post-vaccine-availability study on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among HCWs. It reveals high rates of hesitancy among Arab-speaking HCWs. Unless addressed properly, this hesitancy can impede the efforts for achieving widespread vaccination and collective immunity.
Subject: Keywords: heterologous vaccine; receptor-binding domain; subunit vaccine; coronavirus; COVID-19; SARS; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 4 March 2020 (05:19:16 CET)
A SARS-CoV receptor-binding domain (RBD) recombinant protein was developed and manufactured under current good manufacturing practices in 2016. The protein known as RBD219-N1 when formulated on Alhydrogel®, induced high-level neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity with minimal immunopathology in mice after a homologous virus challenge with SARS-CoV (MA15 strain). In this report, we examined published evidence in support of whether the SARS-CoV RBD219-N1 could be repurposed as a heterologous vaccine against Coronavirus Infectious Disease (COVID)-19. Our findings include evidence that convalescent serum from SARS-CoV patients can neutralize SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, a review of published studies using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against SARS-CoV RBD and that neutralize the SARS-CoV virus in vitro, finds that some of these mAbs bind to the receptor-binding motif (RBM) within the RBD, while others bind to domains outside this region within RBD. This information is relevant and supports the possibility of developing a heterologous SARS-CoV RBD vaccine against COVID-19, especially due to the finding that the overall high amino acid similarity (82%) between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 spike and RBD domains is not reflected in RBM region (59%). However, the high similarity (94%) in the region outside of RBM offers the potential of conserved neutralizing epitopes between both viruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0071.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: 2019-nCoV; novel corona virus; Wuhan virus; drug; vaccine; spike protein; epitope; vaccine design
Online: 5 February 2020 (15:34:15 CET)
The recent outbreak of the new virus in Wuhan city, China from the sea food market has led to the identification of a new strain called the corona virus and named as novel corona virus (2019-nCoV) belonging to Coronaviridae family. This has created major havoc and concern due to the mortality of 250 persons and affecting more than 10,000 people. This virus causes sudden fever, pneumonia and also kidney failure. In this study a computational approach is proposed for drug and vaccine design. The spike protein sequences were collected from a protein database and analysed with various bioinformatics tools to identify suitable natural inhibitors for the N-terminal receptor binding domain of spike protein. Also, it is attempted to identify suitable vaccine candidates by identifying B-Cell and T-cell epitopes. In the drug design, the tanshinone Iia and methyl Tanshinonate were identified as natural inhibitors based on the docking score. In the vaccine design, B-cell epitope VLLPLVSSQCVNLTTRTQLPPAYTN was found to have the highest antigenicity. FVFLVLLPL of MHC class-I allele and FVFLVLLPL of MHC class-II allele were identified as best peptides based on a number of alleles and antigencity scores. The present study identifies natural inhibitors and putative antigenic epitopes which may be useful as effective drug and vaccine candidates for the eradication of novel corona virus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0317.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: universal influenza vaccine; chimeric hemagglutinin; nucleoprotein; live attenuated influenza vaccine; sequential immunization; ferret model
Online: 27 December 2018 (10:14:21 CET)
The development of universal influenza vaccines, i.e. vaccines that can provide broad protection against seasonal and potentially pandemic influenza viruses, has been a priority for more than 20 years. Several approaches have been proposed that redirect the adaptive immune responses from immunodominant hypervariable regions to low-immunogenic but highly conserved regions of viral proteins. Here we induced broadly reactive anti-hemagglutinin (HA) stalk antibody by sequential immunizations with live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) expressing chimeric HA (cHA). These vaccines contained the HA stalk domain from H1N1pdm09 virus but antigenically unrelated globular head domains from avian influenza viruses H5N1, H8N4 and H9N2. In addition, the source of the viral nucleoprotein (NP) of the LAIV strains was changed from A/Leningrad/17 master donor virus (MDV) to wild-type (WT) H1N1pdm09 virus, in order to induce CD8 T-cell immune responses more relevant to current infections. To avoid any difference in protective effect of the various anti-neuraminidase (NA) antibodies, all LAIVs were engineered to contain the NA gene of Len/17 MDV. Naïve ferrets were immunized with three doses of (i) classical LAIVs containing non-chimeric HA and NP from MDV (LAIVs (NP-MDV)); (ii) cHA-based LAIVs containing NP from MDV (cHA LAIVs (NP-MDV)); and (iii) cHA-based LAIVs containing NP from H1N1pdm09 virus (cHA LAIVs (NP-WT)). A high-dose challenge with H1N1pdm09 virus induced significant pathology in the control, non-immunized ferrets, including high virus titers in respiratory tissues, clinical signs of disease and histopathological changes in nasal turbinates and lung tissues. All three vaccination regimens protected animals from clinical manifestations of disease: immunized ferrets did not lose weight or show clinical symptoms, and their fever was significantly lower than in the control group. Further analysis of virological and pathological data revealed the following hierarchy in the cross-protective efficacy of the vaccines: cHA LAIVs (NP-WT) > cHA LAIVs (NP-MDV) > LAIVs (NP-MDV). This ferret study showed that prototype universal LAIVs that combine the two approaches of inducing anti-HA stalk antibody and more relevant CD8 T-cell immune responses are highly promising candidates for further clinical development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0333.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: antibody; BNT162b2; coronavirus disease 2019; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; vaccine hesitancy; vaccine booster
Online: 25 February 2022 (10:01:23 CET)
This was a retrospective cohort study, which aimed to investigate the factors associated with hesitancy to receive the third dose of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine. A paper-based questionnaire survey was administered to all participants. Accordingly, the study included participants who provided answer in the questionnaire whether they have an intent to receive the third dose of vaccine. Data on sex, age, area of residence, adverse reactions after the second vaccination, whether the third vaccination was desired, and reasons to accept or hesitate booster vaccination were retrieved. Among the 2439 participants with mean (±SD) age of 52.6±18.9 years, and median IgG-S antibody titer of 324.9 (AU/mL), 97.9% of participants indicated their intent to accept a third vaccination dose. The logistic regression revealed that younger age (OR=0.98; 95% CI: 0.96-1.00) and higher antibody level (OR=2.52; 95% CI: 1.27-4.99) are positively associated with the third vaccine hesitancy. The efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine and concerns about adverse reactions had significant impact on the third vaccination behavior. A rapid increase in the booster dose rate is needed to control the pandemic, and specific approaches should be taken in these groups that are likely to hesitate the third vaccine, subsequently increasing booster contact rate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0725.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: mRNA vaccine; viral vector vaccine; Spike protein; antigen presentation; polyethylene glycol; platelet factor 4; thrombosis
Online: 30 June 2021 (09:46:15 CEST)
Infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has reached pandemic proportions. A number of effective vaccines have been produced, including mRNA vaccines and viral vector vaccines, which are now being implemented on a large scale in order to control the pandemic. The mRNA vaccines are composed of the Spike S1 protein encoding mRNA, incorporated in a lipid nanoparticle, stabilized by polyethylene glycol (PEG). mRNA vaccines are novel in many respects, including cellular uptake, the intracellular routing, processing, and secretion of the viral protein. Viral vector vaccines have incorporated DNA sequences encoding the SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 protein into (attenuated) adenoviruses. The antigen presentation routes in MHC class I and class II, in relation to induction of virus neutralizing antibodies and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes will be reviewed. In rare cases, mRNA vaccines induce unwanted immune mediated side effects. mRNA based vaccines may lead to an anaphylactic reaction. This reaction may be triggered by PEG. The intracellular routing of PEG, and potential presentation in the context of CD1 will be discussed. Adenovirus vector based vaccines have been associated with thrombocytopenic thrombosis events. The anti-platelet factor 4 antibodies found in these patients could be generated due to conformational changes of relevant epitopes presented to the immune system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0558.v1
Subject: Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Adjuvants; Vaccine Production; Vaccine Delivery; Clinical Trials; Neutralizing Antibodies; Th1
Online: 22 November 2020 (11:57:51 CET)
With the COVID-19 pandemic now ongoing for close to a year, people all over the world are still waiting for a vaccine to become available. The initial focus of accelerated global research and development efforts to bring a vaccine to market as soon as possible was on novel platform technologies that promised speed but had limited history in the clinic. In contrast, recombinant protein vaccines, with numerous examples in the clinic for many years, missed out on the early wave of investments from government and industry. Emerging data are now surfacing suggesting that recombinant protein vaccines indeed might offer an advantage or complement to the nucleic acid or viral vector vaccines that will likely reach the clinic faster. Here, we summarize the current public information on the nature and on the development status of recombinant subunit antigens and adjuvants targeting SARS-CoV-2 infections.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0330.v1
Online: 24 May 2022 (10:08:35 CEST)
Uncovering the predictors of vaccine immunogenicity is essential for infection control. We have reported that the most prevalent polymorphism of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene, rs671, may be associated with an attenuated immune system. To test the inverse relation between rs671 and antibody production after COVID-19 vaccination, the levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein S1 subunit (S1) IgG were repeatedly measured for four months before and after vaccination with BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273, in 88 Japanese workers and students (including 45 females, aged 21–56 years, with an rs671 variant allele frequency of 0.3). The mixed model including fixed effects of the vaccine type, weeks post vaccination (categorical variable), sex, age, body height, smoking status, ethanol intake, exercise habit, perceived stress, steroid use, allergic diseases, and dyslipidemia, indicated an inverse association between log-transformed anti-S1 IgG levels and the number of rs671 variant alleles (partial regression coefficient = -0.15, p = 0.002). Our study indicated for the first time that the variant allele of ALDH2, rs671, is associated with the attenuated immunogenicity of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Our finding may provide a basis for personalized disease prevention based on a genetic polymorphism that is prevalent among East Asians.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0245.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Age; Antibody titers; Diphtheria; Immunosenescence; Vaccine
Online: 12 July 2021 (11:33:20 CEST)
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the antibody responses in two adult age groups after diphtheria vaccination. Study Design: An observational analytic study was carried out to determine the difference in serum titer of anti-diphtheria antibody. Methods: Serum antibody titers were measured just before and 3 months after injection of Diphtheria toxoid vaccine. Vaccine was given to two adult age groups of health care personnel in hospital: the young (< 40 years) and the middle-aged (≥ 40 years). Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test (p < 0.05). Results: Significant increase in serum anti-diphtheria antibody titers were recorded after vaccination in both age group (p < 0.001 in young adult and p = 0.001 in middle-aged adult, respectively). There were no substantial differences between the two groups in terms of antibody titer before vaccination (p = 0.741), 3 months after vaccination (p = 0.317) and in the increase of antibody titer (p = 0.479). Conclusions: This study showed that there was no significant difference in the increase of anti-diphtheria antibody titers between the two age groups, proving that both young and middle-aged adults had an equal immune response to a given diphtheria vaccine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0304.v1
Online: 11 June 2021 (08:41:04 CEST)
Influenza B virus (IBV) is a major respiratory pathogen of humans, particularly in the elderly and children and vaccines are the most effective way to control it. In previous work, incorporation of two mutations (E580G, S660A) along with the addition of a HA epitope tag in the PB1 segment of B/Brisbane/60/2008 (B/Bris) resulted in an attenuated strain that was safe and effective as a live attenuated vaccine. A third attempted mutation (K391E) in PB1 was not always stable. Interestingly, viruses that maintained the K391E mutation were associated with the mutation E48K. To explore the contribution of the E48K mutation for stability of the K391E mutation, a vaccine candidate was generated by inserting both mutations along with attenuating mutations E580G and S660A in PB1 of B/Bris (B/Bris PB1att 4M). Serial passage of the B/Bris PB1att 4M vaccine candidate in eggs and MDCK indicated high stability. In silico structural analysis revealed a potential interaction between amino acids at positions 48 and 391. In mice, B/Bris PB1att 4M was safe and provided complete protection against homologous challenge. These results confirm the compensatory effect of mutation E48K to stabilize the K391E mutation, resulting in a safer, yet still protective, IBV LAIV vaccine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Human papillomavirus; vaccine; pregnancy; attitudes; knowledge
Online: 2 March 2021 (10:47:19 CET)
We aimed to assess awareness, knowledge, and attitudes of healthy pregnant women towards human papillomavirus (HPV), to estimate factors associated with a positive attitude towards HPV immunization and to assess the uptake of the vaccine among their children. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the University Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Belgrade, Serbia among pregnant women attending their regular gynecological check-ups at the 12th gestational week. Knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccine was assessed using a specifically designed 12-item and 5-item questionnaires. Out of total 265 included women, 79.3% had heard of HPV, and 37.5% knew that HPV vaccine exists. HPV vaccine knowledge score was associated with higher odds for a positive attitude towards vaccination of both female (OR = 4.10, 95% CI 1.50-11.29) and male (OR = 3.71, 95% CI 1.52-9.01) child. The number of children (OR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.04-1.67) and high vaccine knowledge score (OR = 1.64 95% CI 1.13-2.39) were independent predictors associated with willingness to vaccinate child against HPV. The gynecologist was the preferable point of reference for information seeking about the HPV vaccine. Despite relatively high HPV awareness and knowledge among pregnant women in Serbia, about one-third of them are HPV vaccine aware, and are willing to vaccinate their children against HPV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0024.v1
Online: 4 June 2020 (05:50:09 CEST)
COVID-19 pandemic has caused a large-scale havoc in almost every country across the globe, putting major challenges for the healthcare system in many parts of the world. Several of the laboratories are running in the race with undying efforts for developing potential vaccine, drugs or therapeutics to treat or prevent the infection. However, with the limited time window and high rate of infection, the task is very big for humanity to find a cure. With hundreds of genomic data of SARS-CoV-2 virus isolates from humans are being submitted almost every day, it is coming into knowledge that virus is mutating, slower in countries with sporadic cases, but higher in countries experiencing large outbreak. These types of mutations in virus may bring challenges in vaccine or therapeutic development for use in each and every country, as each hotspot region may have their own pattern of mutations in virus with ongoing outbreak. In our current study, we retrieved non-synonymous mutation data of around 12,225 SARS-CoV-2 virus samples isolated from humans globally, and discovered all mutations that are collectively happening in antibody epitope regions of the virus country-wise. We found a few numbers of epitope regions in SARS-CoV-2 that are highly conserved collectively in all variants and may be used for epitope-based vaccine development for whole world. We also found epitope regions that are conserved collectively in SARS-CoV-2 variants country-wise and can be used for customized epitope-based vaccine development in each different country.
Online: 31 May 2020 (18:28:15 CEST)
Dengue is one of the life-threatening common neglected tropical diseases of the world, yet to develop any therapeutic for its treatment and prevention. Although there is a licensed vaccine reported, but becomes less efficacious due to the presence of multiple serovars of the dengue virus (DENV). Thus, an efficacious dengue vaccine potent to work against all the serovars is very crucial and time-demanding. Here we used a comprehensive hierarchical reverse vaccinology approach to design an epitope-based vaccine, targeted against multiple serovars of the DENV. Conservancy and population coverage analysis of the promiscuous epitopes revealed the robust immune response against multiple serovars of the DENV and various ethnicities. Final vaccine constructs comprising of B and T-cell epitopes, Universal pan-HLA DR or PADRE (AKFVAAWTLKAAA) sequence, and an adjuvant (β-defensin) at N-terminal of the construct with suitable linkers. Physiochemical properties and secondary structure profiling of the vaccine protein secured its hydrophilic, thermostable, and other structural nature. Molecular docking analysis indicates the deep binding of the proposed vaccine in the binding groove of the human immune TLR4 receptor present on the dendritic cell. In addition, disulfide engineering was coped to extend its stability. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulation of the modeled vaccine-TLR8 complex showed minimum deformability. Finally, in silico cloning approach of the vaccine construct within an expression vector (pET28a+) assure good expression. Proposed vaccine may give novel insights for treatment of dengue patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0359.v1
Online: 25 February 2020 (05:18:22 CET)
During December 2019, a novel coronavirus named as 2019-nCoV, has emerged in Wuhan, China. The human to human transmission of this virus has also been established. Untill now the virus has infected more than seven thousand people and has spread to fifteen countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared 2019-nCoV as global health emergency due to its outburst well beyond China. There is need to develop some vaccines or therapeutics to control or prevent 2019-nCoV infections. The bottleneck with current conventional approaches is that these require longer time for vaccine development. However, computer assisted approaches help us to produce effective vaccine in short time compared with conventional methods. In this study, bioinformatics analysis was used to predict B cell and T cell epitopes of surface glycoprotein of 2019-nCoV that could be suitable to trigger significant immune response. The sequence of surface glycoprotein was collected from the database and analyzed to identify the immunogenic epitope. Both B cell and T cell epitopes were analyzed so the predicted epitopes can stimulate both cellular and humoral immune responses. We predicted 13 B cell and 05 T cell epitopes that later on were joined with GPGPG linker to make a single peptide. This computational approach to design a multi epitope peptide vaccine against emerging 2019-nCoV allows us to find novel immunogenic epitopes against the antigen targets of surface 2019-nCoV surface glycoprotein. This multi epitope peptide vaccine may prove effective to combat 2019-nCoV infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0240.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: artifacts; confounders; infant mortality rate; linear regression analysis; vaccination rates; vaccines; vaccine doses; hepatitis B vaccine
Online: 16 June 2022 (11:00:46 CEST)
Background—In 2011, Miller and Goldman published a study in Human and Experimental Toxicology that found a counterintuitive, positive correlation, r = 0.70 (r2 = 0.49, p < .0001), demonstrating that as nations require more vaccine doses for their infants, infant mortality rates (IMRs) tend to increase (worsen). The dataset (n = 30) included the United States, a nation that required the most vaccines for their infants, and all nations with better IMRs than the United States. Dr. E. Bailey, a professor at BYU, and her students, recently read the Miller-Goldman study and found it "troublesome that this manuscript is in the top 5% of all research outputs" and falsely claimed that its findings were due to "inappropriate data exclusion," i.e., failure to analyze the "full dataset" of all 185 nations. The "Bailey reanalysis," titled Infant vaccination does not predict increased infant mortality rate: correcting past misinformation, was posted to the medRxiv preprint server on September 10, 2021 (version 1) and October 5, 2021 (version 3) and Europe PMC preprint server on September 10, 2021. Objective—This present study examines the various claims postulated by the Bailey reanalysis and assesses the robustness of their methodology, analyses, and reported results and conclusions. Methods—Data discussed in this paper are based on the previously mentioned study by Miller and Goldman and the Bailey reanalysis. Results—Linear regression analysis of IMR and the number of vaccine doses for each country yield a statistically significant positive correlation of r = 0.70 (p < .0001) for the top nations (n = 30) chosen by Miller-Goldman and r = 0.16 (p < .04) for the "entire dataset" chosen by Bailey et al (n = 185). Bailey also conducted linear regression analyses (for the year 2019) of IMRs as a function of vaccination rates for each of eight different vaccines and reported statistically significant inverse correlations for 7 of 8 vaccines over the entire range of vaccination rates. However, Miller and Goldman reanalyzed the Bailey analyses for nations with vaccination rates below 60% and found no statistically significant correlation for six vaccines (DPT, Hib, hepatitis B, polio, rotavirus, and measles) and statistically significant positive correlations for tuberculosis (r = 0.8, p < .005) and pneumococcal (r = 0.6 p < .023) vaccines. Conclusions—Bailey’s reanalysis corroborates a statistically significant positive correlation originally reported by Miller and Goldman. However, Bailey’s reported correlation (r = +0.16, p < .04) is small, likely due to poor methodology (failing to account for covariates, i.e., disparities among numerous socioeconomic factors that add uncertainty to their conclusion). The r-value reported by the Bailey reanalysis demonstrates an effect size that is about one-fourth (0.16/0.70) that reported by Miller-Goldman—underscoring how critically important it is for Bailey's reanalysis to eliminate confounding variables. Moreover, Bailey’s linear regression analyses of IMR as a function of vaccination rates for each of eight different vaccines demonstrate that some countries with low vaccination rates have low IMRs, while other countries with high vaccination rates have high IMRs. Rather than supporting a strong inverse correlation, the Bailey reanalysis demonstrates high vaccination rates are neither necessary nor sufficient to cause low IMR.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0078.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine; vaccine development; vaccine discovery; systems biology; machine learning; platform technologies; adjuvants; smart clinical trials; human genetics; regulatory convergence; real world evidence; vaccines safety
Online: 7 June 2020 (10:11:02 CEST)
The urgency to develop vaccines against Covid-19 is putting pressure on the long and expensive development timelines which are normally required for development of lifesaving vaccines. There is a unique opportunity to take advantage of new technologies, smart and flexible design of clinical trials, and evolving regulatory science to speed up vaccine development against Covid-19 and transform vaccine development altogether.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0371.v1
Online: 22 August 2022 (04:00:03 CEST)
COVID-19 infection in the pediatric population usually leads to a mild illness, however, a rare but serious complication of MIS-C has been seen in children. MIS-C usually presents 2-4 weeks after COVID-19 infection or exposure, and rare reports have been documented in neonates. Vaccinations for COVID-19 have been approved for children 6 months and above in the United States, and recent reports suggest significantly low prevalence and risk of complications of MIS-C in vaccinated children compared to unvaccinated children. Vaccinations for COVID-19 are safe and recommended during pregnancy and prevent severe maternal morbidity and adverse birth outcomes. Evidence from other vaccine-preventable diseases suggests that through passive transplacental antibody transfer, maternal vaccinations are protective against infections in infants during the first 6 months of life. Various studies have demonstrated that maternal COVID-19 vaccination is associated with the presence of anti-spike protein antibodies in infants, persisting even at 6 months of age. Further, completion of a 2-dose primary mRNA COVID-19 vaccination series during pregnancy is associated with reduced risk for COVID-19–associated hospitalization among infants aged 6 months or less. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that maternal COVID-19 vaccination can reduce the risk of and severity of MIS-C in infants. In this article, we review the literature to support this hypothesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0204.v1
Online: 11 August 2022 (03:22:22 CEST)
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 commonly known as SARS-CoV-2 is the utmost challenging pandemic that attracted scientific community to discover therapeutics as well as vaccination solutions to control SARS-CoV-2. Different diagnostic and detection methods have been improved and re-introduced from the previous observations of SERS and MERS. Due to the high mortality rate and fast spread, researchers all around the globe gathered to develop an effective vaccine. The review article summarizes various types of vaccines, mutants of virus, strategies in tackling virus, vaccine development and its global distribution with the focus on the use of mix and match of vaccines to fight the virus. The reported studies depict the design and production of successful COVID-19 vaccines with good efficacy as the selected vaccine population embrace high-risk personages i.e. above the age of 60, frontline workers and other essential service workers. We have targeted at delivering an outline of the determinations devoted to an effectual vaccine for novel Covid-19 that has restricted the domain by means of human health, economy, as well as life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0200.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Newcastle disease; poultry; Pakistan; vaccine; economic affects
Online: 13 October 2021 (11:59:23 CEST)
The poultry industry is affected by many epidemics and Newcastle Disease (ND) is a constant threat, known as a devastating disease for poultry farmers around the world. According to the average death time of chicken embryos, virus strains can be classified as lentogenic, mesogenic, or velogenic. The current research will clarify the vulnerable host range as well as the epidemiology and geographic distribution of ND in Pakistan. The introduction of the virus into poultry can have serious economic consequences, including the loss of production of sick and dying poultry, the cost of control measures (such as population reduction and disinfection measures), and possible trade restrictions in the event of an outbreak. The virus is transmitted by direct contact with sick poultry or carriers. Infected birds can also spread the virus in their feces. It can also be spread through respiratory secretions, contaminated feed, equipment, water, or feces. We will also discuss vaccines that which vaccines are available for NDV in Pakistan and vaccines can fight against this disease or not? In this study, a qualitative risk analysis was carried out to assess Pakistan's vulnerability to the introduction of virulent NDV strains
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0034.v5
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: SARS-CoV2; Biomathematics; vaccine; variants; mRNA; Fibonacci; numerical standing waves
Online: 20 April 2021 (10:05:55 CEST)
ABSTRACT. In this paper, we suggest a biomathematical numerical method for analysing mRNA nucleotides sequences based on UA/CG Fibonacci numbers proportions. This method is used to evaluate then compare the spike genes related to the main SARS-CoV2 VARIANTS currently circulating within the world population. The 10 main results proposed to be reproduced by peers are: 1/ SARS-CoV2 genome and spike evolution in one year 2020-2021. 2/ SARS-CoV2 Origins. 3/ Comparing 11 reference variants spikes. 4/ analysing 32 CAL.20C California variant patients spikes. 5/ Toward a meta mRNA Fibonacci gene end message code. 6/ Analysing S501 UK, S484 South Africa and « 2 mutations » INDIA variants. 7/ Suggesting a possible variants spike mRNA palindrome symmetry metastructure improving mRNA stability then infectiousness. 8/ Analysing Fibonacci Metastructures in the mRNA coding for the vaccines PFIZER and MODERNA. 9/ Does the CG-rich modification of the synonymous codons of the spikes of the 2 mRNA vaccines affect the expression and quantity of SARS-CoV2 antibodies? 10/ The exceptional case of the Brazilian variant P.1. Particularly, we suggest the following conjecture at mRNA folding level : CONJECTURE of SARS-CoV2 VARIANTS: The growth of long Fibonacci structures in the shape of "podiums" for almost all of the variants studied (UK, California, South Africa, India, etc.) suggests the probable folding of the Spike mRNA in the form of a "hairpin", which can strengthen the cohesion and the lifespan of this mRNA. Finally, we show that these kinds of Fibonacci matastructures disapear TOTALLY by analysing the published mRNA sequences of PFIZER and MODERNA vaccines. One fact is certain, the two mRNAs of the Moderna and Pfizer vaccines will result in a low functionality of the spike vaccine. This is because their designers by seeking greater stability, have doped to build CG rich sequences which, as soon as they are inserted into the human host, will, paradoxically, seek to mutate, like SARS-CoV2 variants, towards CG ==> UA forms in order to improve their STABILITY and LIFETIME. We conclude using new biomathematics theoretical methods (Master code and numerical standing waves), and comparing the Spikes of the two vaccines Moderna and Pfizer, that there will be very probable differences in stability and shelf life of the two respective mRNAs vaccines. However, “State of the Art” analyzes will disclose that their two protein sequences are strictly identical. By modified their synonymous codons using different strategies, no one can guarantee that the quantity of antibodies generated will be identical in the two cases. We wish to draw attention to the great ADAPTATION power - at the global scale of their genomes - of the most infectious VARIANTS, such as the BRAZIL 20J / 501Y.V3 variant (P.1). This is very worrying for the VACCINES <==> VARIANTS run: We demonstrate how the Brazilian variant P.1 which becomes uncontrollable in Brazil in April 2021 has a level of organization of long metastructures of 17,711 bases covering the genome which is 3.6 more important than that of the 2 reference genomes SARS-CoV2 and worldwide D614G. We suggest that this high level of overall structure of this variant contributes to the stability of this genome and, might explain its greater contagiousness.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0353.v1
Online: 17 February 2021 (09:36:15 CET)
Rapid online surveys are an important tool in tracking the public’s knowledge and perceptions during infectious disease outbreaks. In June 2020, during the early phases of COVID-19 vaccines development, a survey had been conducted, aimed at assessing attitudes and opinions about vaccination of 885 Italian adults, in addition to their vaccine literacy levels (i.e. skills of finding, understanding and using information about vaccines). In January 2021, the same questionnaire has been administered to a similar population (n=160). Interactive vaccine literacy was significantly higher than in June 2020 (mean score 3.38 vs 3.27 respectively, P=.0021). The percentage of participants willing to be vaccinated against COVID-19 was assessed by the means of either-or questions, and was equally high in both surveys (>90%), which is quite reassuring, despite metrics based on categorical scales cannot identify hesitant subjects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0136.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: tick-borne encephalitis; vaccination; NS1; vaccine; flavivirus
Online: 11 February 2020 (09:10:41 CET)
Vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is based on the use of formalin-inactivated, culture-derived whole-virus vaccines. Immune response following vaccination is primarily directed to the viral envelope (E) protein, the major viral surface antigen. In Europe, two TBE vaccines are available in adult and pediatric formulations, FSME-IMMUN® (Pfizer) and Encepur® (GlaxoSmithKline). Herein, we analyzed the content of these vaccines using mass spectrometry (MS). The MS analysis revealed that the Encepur vaccine contains not only proteins of the whole virus particle, but also viral non-structural protein 1 (NS1). MS analysis of the FSME-IMMUN vaccine failed due to the high content of human serum albumin used as a stabilizer in the vaccine. However, the presence of NS1 in FSME-IMMUN was confirmed by immunization of mice with six doses of this vaccine, which led to a robust anti-NS1 antibody response. NS1-specific western blot analysis detected anti-NS1 antibodies also in sera of humans who received multiple doses of either of these two vaccines; however, most vaccinees who received ≤3 doses were negative for NS1-specific antibodies. The contribution of NS1-specific antibodies to protection against TBE was demonstrated by immunization of mice with purified NS1 antigen, which led to a significant (p < 0.01) prolongation of the mean survival time after lethal virus challenge. This indicates that stimulation of anti-NS1 immunity by the TBE vaccines may increase their protective effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0076.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Lassa fever; immunoinformatics; peptide vaccine; immune simulation
Online: 9 September 2019 (08:46:04 CEST)
Lassa virus (LASV) is responsible for a type of acute viral haemorrhagic fever referred to as Lassa fever. Lack of adequate treatment and preventive measures against LASV resulted in a high mortality rate in its endemic regions. In this study, a multi-epitope vaccine was designed using immunoinformatics as a prophylactic agent against the virus. Following a rigorous assessment, the vaccine was built using T-cell (NCTL=8 and NHTL=6) and B-cell (NLBL=4) epitopes from each LASV-derived protein with suitable linkers and adjuvant. The physicochemistry, immunogenic potency and safeness of the designed vaccine (~68 kDa) were assessed. In addition, chosen CTL and HTL epitopes of our vaccine showed 97.37% worldwide population coverage. Besides, disulphide engineering also improved the stability of the chimeric vaccine. Molecular docking of our vaccine protein with toll-like receptor (TLR2) showed binding efficiency followed by dynamic simulation for stable interaction. Furthermore, higher levels of cell-mediated immunity and rapid antigen clearance were suggested by immune simulation and repeated-exposure simulation, respectively. Finally, the optimized codons were used in in silico cloning to ensure higher expression within E. coli K12 bacterium. With further assessment both in vitro and in vivo, we believe that our proposed peptide-vaccine would be potential immunogen against Lassa fever.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0129.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: negatively factors; pertussis; preschool children; vaccine immunity
Online: 8 June 2018 (11:28:56 CEST)
Introduction: The top priority of active immunoprophylaxis of pertussis is immunisation of infants as they can develop severe multiple-organ complications or even die from this disease. Objectives: The aim of the work is the identification of factors negatively affecting vaccine immunity to pertussis in preschool children prior to the administration of the first booster. Patients and Methods: The research was conducted on 352 children from 4.5 to 5.9 years of age who were hospitalised in the University Children’s Hospital in Lublin (Poland) from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2015. The children taking part in the study had been administered all the mandatory vaccines from their birth to the age of 2 or 2.5 years old according to the Polish Immunisation Program 2008-2009. The immunoenzymatic method ELISA was applied to assess vaccine immunity to tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), poliomyelitis (IPV), mumps, rubella and measles. The level of vaccine antibodies to hepatitis type B was determined chemilumiscently. Results: The protective antibody titer was not found in 41 (11.65%) children before the administration of the booster. To verify the collective impact of parameters analised on antibody titer to pertussis, the Generalized Linear Model (GLZ) was used. Gender, type of vaccine, asthma, Hib and mumps antibody titers have been shown to be predicators of vaccine immunity to pertussis. Conclusions: Immunomodulation considered on the example of titer of IgG antibody to pertussis can serve as a useful model of the assessment of development of acquired immunity after mandatory vaccinations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0072.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Variants; COVID-19 vaccine; Chimeric adenovirus-vectored vaccine; GS linker; Neutralizing activity; Th1 immune responses
Online: 8 April 2022 (05:03:04 CEST)
Several COVID-19 platforms have been licensed across the world thus far, but vaccine platforms research that can lead to effective antigen delivery is still ongoing. Here, we constructed AdCLD-CoV19 that could modulate humoral immunity by harboring SARS-CoV-2 antigens onto a chimeric adenovirus 5/35 platform that was effective in cellular immunity. By replacing the S1/S2 furin cleavage sequence of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) protein mounted on AdCLD-CoV19 with the linker sequence, high antigen expression was confirmed in various cell lines. The high levels of antigen expression contributed to antigen-specific antibody activity in mice and non-human primates (NHPs) with single vaccination of AdCLD-CoV19. Furthermore, the adenovirus-induced Th1 immune response was specifically raised for the S protein, and these immune responses protected the NHP against live viruses. While AdCLD-CoV19 maintained neutralizing antibody activity against various SARS-CoV-2 variants, it was reduced to single vaccination for β and ο variants, and the reduced neutralizing antibody activity was restored with booster shots. Hence, AdCLD-CoV19 can prevent SARS-CoV-2 with single vaccination, and the new vaccine administration strategy that responds to various variants can maintain the efficacy of the vaccine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine hesitancy; children; pediatrics; public health
Online: 1 September 2022 (02:25:22 CEST)
Background: This study describes the attitudes and practices of Brazilian adults regarding the mandatory vaccination for COVID-19 and the hesitancy to children´s vaccination. Methods: The participants answered an online questionnaire disseminated on social networks. An adaptation of the SAGE-WG questionnaire was used to measure the children's vaccination hesitancy. Results: Among 1,007 participants, 677 (67.4%) believed that vaccination for COVID-19 among adults should be mandatory. Just over half of the participants (51.5%) believe that parents and guardians should be free to decide whether their children should be vaccinated against COVID-19, and 9.1% were unsure about this. Younger, non-religious people who have higher self-perceptions of risk for COVID-19, and who evaluate the federal government's performance in combating the disease as bad or very bad, have a higher agreement with mandatory vaccination, a lower agreement that parents and guardians should be free to vaccinate their children, and lower child vaccination hesitancy scores. Conclusion: In Brazil, mandatory COVID-19 vaccination for adults is far from a consensus, and an expressive part of the population believes that parents and guardians should be free to choose whether or not to vaccinate their children. These perceptions and vaccine hesitancy for children are associated with religious and political inclinations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0014.v2
Online: 2 August 2022 (12:25:20 CEST)
Introduction: Studies conducted in real-life scenarios on vaccine protection against COVID-19 constitute an important global priority, but one that is currently mostly neglected in low- and middle-income countries such as Angola. Here, we analyze for the first-time vaccine protection against COVID-19 in a real-life scenario after 6 months of implementing a multi-vaccination plan in Angola, providing estimation of odds ratios in vaccinated individuals and vaccine efficacy against infection by SARS-CoV-2 in a period that coincided with the identification of the Omicron variant in the country. Methods: We used a negative test case-control design to assess the effectiveness of vaccination against confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. A total of 4.232 vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals with the result of a rapid antigen diagnostic test against SARS-CoV-2 performed from December 27 to 28, 2021 were included in the study. Data were extracted from the Digital Vaccination Record Platform (Rediv) of the Ministry of Health of Angola. All ethical procedures related to the authorization necessary to carry out the study were followed. Statistical analyzes were performed using version 184.108.40.206 of CDC's Epi Info. Frequency distributions and measures of central tendency were used to characterize the study universe. The general and sex-adjusted and age-adjusted odds ratios, were evaluated by comparing the chances of vaccination between cases and controls, and their associated 95% CI, which were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel stratification method. The risk classification of Axel Kroeger, Piscoya and Alarcon was used to interpret the odds ratio. The Breslow-Day statistic was used to assess the homogeneity of the odds ratios. Vaccine efficacy was calculated using the odds ratio applying the accepted statistical vaccine efficacy formula:(1 − odds ratio) × 100. For all estimates, a P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The population consisted of 63.63% male and 36.37% female. The mean age was 36 years with a standard deviation of 13. 83. Regarding vaccination status, 83.27% of individuals were vaccinated and 16.73% were unvaccinated, with 21.81% positive and 78.19% negative for SARS -CoV-2. The odds of SARS-CoV-2 infection were 0.85 (95% CI 0.70 – 1.03) times lower in vaccinated compared to unvaccinated individuals, with P=0.09. The overall vaccine efficacy (VE) was 15% (95% CI -3 – 30). Conclusion: There was no statistically significant decrease in the chances of SARS-CoV-2 infection in vaccinated versus unvaccinated individuals. However, the overall vaccine efficacy was 15%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0174.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine; booster; variants of concern; neutralization
Online: 12 July 2022 (07:43:56 CEST)
We determined the levels of neutralizing antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 ancestral strain, Delta and Omicron variants of concern (VOCs) in 125 healthcare workers, who received Coro-naVac as their primary vaccination and later received either a single ChAdOx1 or a combination of two consecutive boosters using either two ChAdOx1 doses or a ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 as the primary and second boosters, respectively, or 2 doses of BNT162b2. The titers 12 weeks after primary vaccination were inadequate to neutralize the all strains. After a single ChAdOx1 boost-er, the levels of neutralization at Day 30 varied significantly, only a small proportion of partici-pants developing neutralizing titers against Omicron at Day 7 and 30. The two doses of ChA-dOx1 as the booster induced lowest activity. A combination ChAdOx1 and BNT162b2 induced greater neutralization than by two doses of ChAdOx1. Two doses of BNT162b2 as the booster had the maximal activity against Omicron VOC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0321.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae; 10-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine; Pakistan
Online: 24 May 2022 (04:50:14 CEST)
The 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine was introduced in Pakistan’s Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 2013 as a 3+0 schedule without catchup. We conducted three annual cross-sectional surveys from 2014-2016 to measure vaccine-type (VT) carriage in infants from a rural part of Pakistan. Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected by random sampling of infants from 2 union councils of Matiari. Samples were then transported to Infectious Disease Research Laboratory (IDRL) at the Aga Khan University within 6-8 hours of collection. Serotypes were established using sequential multiplex PCR. Of the 665 children enrolled across three surveys, 547 were culture positive for pneumococcus. VT carriage decreased from 21·8% in 2014 to 12·7% in 2016 (p-value for trend <0·001). Those who were not vaccinated or partially vaccinated were found to be at higher risk of carrying a VT serotype (aOR 2·53, 95% CI 1·39, 4·63 for non-vaccinated) and (aOR 3·35, 95% CI 1·82, 6·16 for partially vaccinated). On the other hand, being enrolled in the most recent survey was negatively associated with VT-carriage (aOR 0·51, 95% CI 0·28, 0·93). We found that PCV10 was effective in decreasing the carriage of vaccine-type serotypes in Pakistani infants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0283.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy; Misinformation; Government Actions; Communication
Online: 21 March 2022 (10:29:33 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the adverse consequences created by an infodemic specifically on compliance with public health guidance and vaccine uptake. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is a complex construct that is related to health beliefs, misinformation exposure, and perceptions of governmental institutions. This study draws on theoretical models and current data on the COVID-19 infodemic to explore the association between perceived risk of COVID-19, levels of misinformation endorsement, and opinions about the government response on vaccine uptake. We surveyed a sample of 2,697 respondents from the US, Canada, and Italy using a mobile platform between 21-28 May, 2021. Using multivariate regression, we found that country of residence, risk perception of contracting and spreading COVID-19, perception of government response and transparency, and misinformation endorsement was associated with the odds of vaccine hesitancy. Higher perceived risk was associated with lower odds of hesitancy, while lower perceptions of government response, and higher misinformation endorsement were associated with higher hesitancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0533.v1
Online: 22 June 2021 (08:30:30 CEST)
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has created immense threats to public health on various levels around the globe. The unpredictable outbreak of this disease and the pandemic situation are causing severe depression, anxiety and other mental as physical health related problems among the human beings. To combat against this disease, vaccination is essential as it will boost the immune system of human beings while being in the contact with the infected people. The vaccination process is thus necessary to confront the outbreak of COVID-19. This deadly disease has put social, economic condition of the entire world into an enormous challenge. The worldwide vaccination progress should be tracked to identify how fast the entire economic as well as social life will be stabilized. The monitor ofthe vaccination progress, a machine learning based Regressor model is approached in this study. This tracking process has been applied on the data starting from 14th December, 2020 to 24th April, 2021. A couple of ensemble based machine learning Regressor models such as Random Forest, Extra Trees, Gradient Boosting, AdaBoost and Extreme Gradient Boosting are implemented and their predictive performance are compared. The comparative study reveals that the AdaBoostRegressor outperforms with minimized mean absolute error (MAE) of 9.968 and root mean squared error (RMSE) of 11.133.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0149.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: vaccine; Staphylococcus aureus; T cell response; mastitis; bovine
Online: 7 June 2021 (07:54:02 CEST)
Staphylococcus aureus mastitis remains a major challenge for dairy farming. Here, 24 mice were immunized and divided into four groups: G1: control; G2: Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) DNA vaccine; G3: F0F1 ATP synthase subunit α (SAS), succinyl-diaminopimelate (SDD), and cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (CTS) recombinant proteins; and G4: SAS+SDD+CTS plus GM-CSF DNA vaccine. The lymphocyte subpopulations and the intracellular interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and interferon-γ production in the draining lymph node cells were immunophenotyped by flow cytometry. The immunophenotyping and lymphocyte proliferation was determined in spleen cells cultured with and without S. aureus stimulus. Immunization with S. aureus recombinant proteins generated memory cells in draining lymph nodes. Immunization with the three recombinant proteins plus GM-CSF DNA led to an increase in the percentage of IL-17A+ cells among overall CD44+ (memory), T CD4+, CD4+ T CD44+ CD27-, γδ TCR, γδ TCR+ CD44+ CD27+ and TCRVγ4+ cells. Vaccination with S. aureus recombinant proteins associated with GM-CSF DNA vaccine downregulates TH2 immunity. Immunization with the three recombinant proteins plus the GM-CSF DNA led to a proliferation of overall memory T, CD4+ and CD4+ TEM cells upon S. aureus stimulus. This approach fostered type 3 immunity, suggesting the development of a protective immune response against S. aureus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0039.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: LAIV, Influenza, HA, IgA, IgG, vaccine, genome rearrangement
Online: 1 June 2021 (15:02:27 CEST)
Influenza B virus (IBV) is considered a major respiratory pathogen responsible for seasonal respiratory disease in humans, particularly severe in children and the elderly. Seasonal influenza vaccination is considered the most efficient strategy to prevent and control IBV infections. Live attenuated influenza virus vaccines (LAIVs) are thought to induce both humoral and cellular immune responses by mimicking a natural infection, but their effectiveness have recently come into question. Thus, the opportunity exists to find alternative approaches to improve overall influenza vaccine effectiveness. Two alternative IBV backbones were developed with re-arranged genomes, re-arranged M (FluB-RAM) and a re-arranged NS (FluB-RANS). Both re-arranged viruses showed temperature sensitivity in vitro compared to the WT type B/Bris strain, were genetically stable over multiple passages in embryonated chicken eggs and were attenuated in vivo in mice. In a prime-boost regime in naïve mice, both re-arranged viruses induced antibodies against HA with hemagglutination inhibition titers considered of protective value. In addition, antibodies against NA and NP were readily detected with potential protective value. Upon lethal IBV challenge, mice previously vaccinated with either FluB-RAM or FluB-RANS were completely protected against clinical disease and mortality. In conclusion, genome re-arrangement renders efficacious LAIV candidates to protect mice against IBV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0605.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Transcriptome; gene expression; camel; MERS-CoV; vaccine; immunogenicity
Online: 22 April 2021 (10:34:12 CEST)
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infects dromedary camels and zoonotically infects humans, causing a respiratory disease with severe pneumonia and death. With no approved antiviral or vaccine interventions for MERS, vaccines are being developed for camels to prevent virus transmission into humans. We have previously developed a chimpanzee adenoviral vector-based vaccine for MERS-CoV (ChAdOx1 MERS) and reported its strong humoral immunogenicity in dromedary camels. Here, we looked back at total RNA isolated from three immunised dromedaries pre and post-vaccination during the first day; and performed RNA sequencing and bioinformatic analysis in order to shed light on the molecular immune responses following a ChAdOx1 MERS vaccination. Our finding shows that a number of transcripts were differentially regulated as an effect of the vaccination, including genes that are involved in innate and adaptive immunity, such as type I and II interferon responses. The camel Bcl-3 and Bcl-6 transcripts were significantly upregulated, indicating a strong activation of Tfh cells, B cell, and NF-kB pathways. In conclusion, this study gives an overall view of the first changes in the immune transcriptome of dromedaries after vaccination; it supports the potency of ChAdOx1 MERS as a potential camel vaccine to block transmission and prevent new human cases and outbreaks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0141.v1
Subject: Keywords: Immunoinformatics; Neisseria Gonorrhea; Dihydroliponamide Acetyltransferase; Peptide vaccine; Epitope
Online: 8 January 2021 (10:50:36 CET)
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as Gonorrhea is associated with serious morbidity and mortality rates in the world considering the multiple virulence factors possessed. The disease is manifested as salpingitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and bacteremia and is controlled by macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, T cells, epithelial cells and cytokines. Dihydroliponamide acetyltransferase, a component of the mitochondrial pyruvate complex can be used as immunogenic target. Recent changes in the strain allowed the bacteria to acquire resistance against antibiotics.Vaccination remains an alternative to prevention against the disease. This study predicts an effective epitope-based vaccine against dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase of Neisseria Gonorrhea using immunoinformatics approaches. Sequences retrieved from NCBI were passed on several prediction tests to analyze for possible B-cell, T-cell MHC class I epitopes and class II. Two epitopes showed high binding affinity for B-cells, while thirteen epitopes showed high binding affinity for MHCI and forty-five for MHCII. A population coverage of 100% for combined MHC I and II dictates the huge number of individuals who will benefit from formulating the vaccine. We recommend invivo and invitro studies to prove our prediction results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0452.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: RNA; self-amplifying RNA; replicon; vaccine; drug delivery
Online: 18 December 2020 (11:12:44 CET)
This review will explore the four major pillars required for design and development of an saRNA vaccine: antigen design, vector design, non-viral delivery systems, and manufacturing (both saRNA and lipid nanoparticles (LNP)). In will report on the major innovations, preclinical and clinical data reported in the last five years and will discuss future prospects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: BCG; Eudragit, oral vaccine; tuberculosis; in vitro viability
Online: 5 April 2019 (11:59:53 CEST)
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) in humans and animals. It is most commonly administered parenterally but oral delivery is highly advantageous for immunisation of cattle and wildlife hosts of TB in particular. Since BCG is susceptible to inactivation in the gut, vaccine formulations were prepared from suspensions of Eudragit L100 copolymer powder and BCG in PBS, containing Tween 80, with and without the addition of mannitol or trehalose. Samples were frozen at -20oC, freeze-dried and the lyophilised powders were compressed to produce BCG-Eudragit matrices. Production of the dried powders resulted in a reduction in BCG viability. Substantial losses in viability occurred at the initial formulation stage and at the stage of powder compaction. Data indicated that the Eudragit matrix protected BCG against simulated gastric fluid (SGF). The matrices remained intact in SGF and dissolved completely in SIF within three hours. The inclusion of mannitol or trehalose in the matrix provided additional protection to BCG during freeze-drying. Control needs to be exercised over BCG aggregation, freeze-drying and powder compaction conditions to minimise physical damage of the bacterial cell wall and maximise the viability of oral BCG vaccines prepared by dry powder compaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0006.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Dengue virus; E; NS1-2a; electroporation; DNA vaccine
Online: 1 December 2016 (10:37:10 CET)
Dengue virus (DENV), the causative agent of dengue fever (DF), is one of the most important mosquito-borne viruses that can infect humans. Although much effort has been made on prevention and control of dengue, there are currently no anti-viral drugs or worldwide approved vaccines yet. In this study, we immunized six-week-old Balb/c mice with DNA vaccine candidates E and NS1-2a of DENV serotype 2 or the combination of them (E+NS1-2a) via an electroporation (EP)-assisted intramuscular gene delivery system and evaluated the immune response and protection. The highest specific antibody titres and cytokine levels secreted by splenocytes as well as the highest survival rate were observed in the E+NS1-2a group, followed by E group and NS1-2a group. Our data suggested that the combination of E and NS1-2a delivered by EP may be a superior preventive strategy against DENV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0558.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Yersinia pestis; vaccine; guinea pigs; bubonic plague; inactivated vaccine; phage; bacterial ghost; protection; protein-E-mediated lysis, holin-endolysin system
Online: 30 November 2021 (11:08:18 CET)
To develop a modern plague vaccine, we used hypo-endotoxic Yersinia pestis bacterial ghosts (BGs) with combinations of genes encoding the bacteriophage ɸX174 lysis-mediating protein E and/or holin-endolysin systems from λ or L-413C phages. Expression of the protein E gene resulted in the BGs that retained the shape of the original bacterium. Co-expression of this gene with genes coding for holin-endolysin system of the phage L-413C caused formation of structures resembling collapsed sacs. Such structures, which have lost their rigidity, were also formed as a result of the expression of only the L-413C holin-endolysin genes. Similar holin-endolysin system from phage λ containing mutated holin gene S and intact genes R-Rz coding for the endolysins caused generation of mixtures of BGs that had (i) practically preserved and (ii) completely lost their original rigidity. The addition of protein E to the work of this system shifted the equilibrium in the mixture towards the collapsed sacs. The collapse of the structure of BGs can be explained by endolysis of peptidoglycan sacculi. Immunizations of laboratory animals with the variants of BGs followed by infection with a wild-type Y. pestis strain showed that bacterial envelopes protected only cavies. BGs with peptidoglycan maximally hydrolyzed had a greater protectivity compared to BGs with preserved peptidoglycan skeleton.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: mucosal immunization; mucosal vaccine; vaccine delivery; administration volume; targeted vaccines; M cell targeting; dendritic cell targeting; C5aR1; C5a1R; CD88; EP54; EP67
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:17:30 CEST)
Generating long-lived mucosal and systemic antibodies through respiratory immunization with protective antigens encapsulated in nanoscale biodegradable particles could potentially decrease or eliminate the incidence of many infectious diseases but requires incorporation of a suitable mucosal immunostimulant. We previously found that respiratory immunization with a model protein antigen (LPS-free OVA) encapsulated in PLGA 50:50 nanoparticles (~380 nm diameter) surface modified with complement peptide-derived immunostimulant 02 (CPDI-02; formerly EP67) through 2kDa PEG linkers increases mucosal and systemic OVA-specific memory T-cells with long-lived surface phenotypes in young, naïve female C57BL/6 mice. Here, we determined if respiratory immunization with LPS-free OVA encapsulated in similar PLGA 50:50 microparticles (~1 μm diameter) surface modified with CPDI-02 (CPDI-02-MP) increases long-term OVA-specific mucosal and systemic antibodies. We found that, compared to MP surface modified with inactive, scrambled scCPDI-02 (scCPDI-02-MP), intranasal administration of CPDI-02-MP in 50 μL sterile PBS greatly increased titers of short-term (14 days post-immunization) and long-term (90 days post-immunization) antibodies against encapsulated LPS-free OVA in nasal lavage fluids, bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, and sera of young, naïve female C57BL/6 mice. Thus, surface modification of biodegradable microparticles with CPDI-02 is likely to increase long-term mucosal and systemic antibodies against encapsulated protein antigen after respiratory and possibly other routes of mucosal immunization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0207.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Germinal Center; Herpesvirus; Recombinant protein; rgD5; Vaccine; Long-Lasting
Online: 14 June 2022 (16:21:47 CEST)
Bovine herpesvirus (BoHV)-5 is a worldwide distributed pathogen usually associated with a lethal neurological disease (meningoencephalitis) in dairy and beef cattle resulting in important economic losses due to the cattle industry. Using recombinant glycoprotein D of BoHV-5 (rgD5), we evaluated the long-duration humoral immunity of the recombinant vaccines in a cattle model. Here we report that two doses of intramuscular immunization, particularly with the rgD5ISA vaccine, are superior to iBoHV-5ISA immunization in the induction of long-lasting antibody responses. Recombinant gD5 antigen elicited tightly mRNA transcription of the Bcl6 and the chemokine receptor CXCR5 which mediate memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells in germinal centers (GCs). In addition, using an in-house Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) we observed higher and earlier responses of rgD5-specific IgG antibody and the upregulation of mRNA transcription of IL2, IL4, IL10, IL15 and IFN-γ cytokines in rgD5 vaccinated cattle, indicating a mixed immune response. We further show that rgD5 immunization provides protection against both BoHV -1 and -5. Our findings indicate that the rgD5-based vaccine represents an effective vaccine strategy to induce an efficient control of alpha-herpesviruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0123.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Influenza vaccines; Vaccine hesitancy; Healthcare workers (HCWs); South Africa
Online: 8 June 2022 (10:03:21 CEST)
Vaccination attitudes among healthcare workers (HCWs) is a vital factor for measuring their level of vaccination uptake and intention to recommend vaccinations to their patients. To our knowledge, no study has been conducted in South Africa to assess hesitancy to influenza vaccines among HCWs. We used questionnaire adapted from Betsch and colleagues to conduct an online and face-to-face cross-sectional study among HCWs at the start of COVID-19 vaccine roll-out prior to the flu season. Main outcome was influenza vaccine hesitancy. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess predictors of influenza vaccine hesitancy. Of 401 participants, 64.5% were women, 49.2% nurses, and 12.5% physicians. A total of 54.9% were willing to accept vaccination, 20.4% were undecided, and 24.7% intended to refuse. Older participants above 17-25 years and physicians were likely to receive the vaccine. Key predictors of vaccine acceptance were confidence in the effectiveness, consideration of benefits and risks, and willingness to be vaccinated to protect others. Influenza vaccine hesitancy was highest in those who did not trust that influenza vaccines are safe. For future flu seasons, tailored education programs targeting younger HCWs and more information about the composition of flu vaccines would be vital to improve vaccine uptake.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0038.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: tick-borne encephalitis virus; vaccine; non-structural protein 1
Online: 3 June 2022 (09:48:01 CEST)
The presence of a non-structural protein 1 (NS1) in tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccines and the possible induction of an NS1-specific immune response in vaccinated individuals remains a somewhat controversial topic. Previously, we detected the presence of NS1 in Encepur TBE vaccine by mass spectrometry and found the induction of NS1-specific IgG antibodies in mice vaccinated with FSME-Immun TBE vaccine. Here, in this follow-up study, we examined the dynamics and extent of the NS1-specific IgG response in mice vaccinated with these two vaccines in more detail and compared it with the IgG response to the whole virus (WV). Mice were vaccinated at two-week intervals with a total of six doses of each vaccine, and levels of IgG antibodies to TBE virus WV and NS1 were measured by ELISA after each dose. Both vaccines elicited a robust anti-WV IgG response after two doses. The Encepur vaccine did not elicit NS1-specific IgG even after all six doses. In contrast, FSME-Immun vaccine triggered production of NS1-specific IgG after four doses. The results indicate that FSME-Immun is the only vaccine that elicits an NS1-specific antibody response in mice. However, compared to WV-specific IgG, the NS1-specific response is weaker, and a higher number of doses is required to induce detectable levels of NS1-specific IgG antibodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0302.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: HPV vaccination; vaccine hesitancy; barriers; health literacy; cervical cancer
Online: 22 March 2022 (13:58:09 CET)
The incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer are rising among young women in Japan. In November 2021, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare reinstated the active recommendation for the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, which was discontinued in June 2013 due to reports of adverse reactions, including chronic pain and motor dysfunction, following vaccination. However, vaccine hesitancy among the younger generation remains, and it is essential to identify the barriers in vaccination uptake. Therefore, we aim to conduct a randomized study using different methods of providing educational contents to improve health literacy regarding cervical cancer and HPV vaccination among female students in Japan. Here, we present the results of our preliminary report and discuss current topics related to HPV vaccination in Japan. Data were collected from 27 female students—divided into three groups: no intervention, print-based intervention, and SNS-based intervention—using the Health Literacy Scale and Communicative and Critical Health Literacy scale. Our primary results indicate that participants’ knowledge and health literacy improved post intervention. Therefore, medical professionals must provide accurate scientific knowledge regarding routine HPV vaccination and the risk of cervical cancer to young women to improve their health literacy and subsequently increase the HPV vaccination rates.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0067.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Antimalarial Drug; Malaria Vaccine; Drug Discovery; Artimisnine; K13; Malaria
Online: 4 February 2022 (10:22:34 CET)
Mosquitoes conveying Plasmodium store parasites into the skin of the mammalian host. Parasites make a trip through the circulation system to the liver, where they cross a few hepatocytes prior to building up a disease. Inside the last hepatocyte the parasite goes through morphogenesis and afterward abiogenetically partitions to become more than 20,000 blood-infective parasites, called merozoites. On account of P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. cynomolgi, the parasites can stay lethargic in the liver in structures called hypnozoites. The merozoites are delivered once again into the circulation system, where they start the repetitive blood stage. Inside erythrocytes, a little division of parasites separate into male or female gametocytes. These gametocytes are ingested by the mosquito during blood taking care of, where they will duplicate explicitly, in the long run prompting the arrangement of sporozoites
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0398.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Type I hypersensitivity; IgE; AIT; SIT; extracellular vesicles; vaccine
Online: 24 December 2021 (10:52:50 CET)
Allergic diseases represent a global health and economic burden of increasing significance. The lack of disease-modifying therapies besides specific allergen immunotherapy (AIT) which is not available for all types of allergies, necessitates the study of novel therapeutic approaches. Exosomes are small endosome-derived vesicles delivering cargo between cells and thus allowing inter-cellular communication. Since immune cells make use of exosomes to boost, deviate, or suppress immune responses, exosomes are intriguing candidates for immunotherapy. Here, we review the role of exosomes in allergic sensitization and inflammation and we discuss the mechanisms by which exosomes could be used in immunotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of allergic diseases. We propose the following approaches: a) Mast cell derived exosomes expressing IgE receptor FcεRI could absorb IgE and down-regulate systemic IgE levels. b) Tolerogenic exosomes could suppress allergic immune responses via induction of regulatory T cells. c) Exosomes could promote TH1-like responses towards an allergen. d) Exosomes could modulate IgE-facilitated antigen presentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0034.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Japanese encephalitis; Vaccine, Flavivirus; Antibody-dependent enhancement; Advax; Adjuvant
Online: 4 October 2021 (09:05:14 CEST)
ccJE+Advax is an inactivated cell culture Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine formulated with Advax™, a novel polysaccharide adjuvant based on delta inulin. This vaccine has previously shown promise in murine and equine studies and the current study sought to better understand its mechanism of action and assess the feasibility of single dose vaccine protection. Mice immunised with ccJE-Advax had higher serum neutralisation titres than those immunised with ccJE alone or with alum adjuvant. ccJE+Advax induced extraordinarily broad cross-neutralising antibodies against multiple flaviviruses including West Nile virus (WNV), Murray Valley Encephalitis Virus (MVEV), St Louis Encephalitis virus (SLE) and Dengue-1 and -2 viruses. Notably, the DENV-2 cross-neutralising antibodies from ccJE+Advax immunised mice uniquely had no DENV-2 antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) activity, by contrast to high ADE activity seen with DENV-1 cross-reactive antibodies induced by mbJE or ccJE alone or with alum adjuvant. JEV-stimulated splenocytes from ccJE+Advax immunised mice showed increased IL-17 and IFN-γ production, consistent with a mixed Th1 and Th17 response, whereas ccJE-alum was associated with production of mainly Th2 cytokines. There is an ongoing lack of human vaccines against particular flaviviruses, including WNV, SLE and MVEV. Given its ability to provide single-dose JEV protection as well as to induce broadly neutralising antibodies free of ADE activity, ccJE+Advax vaccine could be highly useful in all situations where rapid protection is desirable but ADE needs to be avoided, e.g. during a local outbreak or for use in travellers or the military requiring rapid travel to JEV endemic regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0089.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Pig; Porcine Circovirus 2; ORF2 capsid protein; vaccine; protection.
Online: 3 August 2021 (15:01:17 CEST)
Porcine Circovirus 2 (PCV2) vaccines are based on either inactivated whole virion, or recombinant ORF2 capsid protein assembled into Virus-like Particles (VLPs). No data are available instead about the immunizing properties of free, non-assembled capsid protein. To investigate this issue, ORF2 of a reference PCV2b strain was expressed in a Baculovirus-based expression system without assembly into VLPs. The free purified protein was formulated into an oil vaccine at three distinct Ag payloads: 10.8 / 3.6 / 1.2 micrograms /dose. Each dose was injected intramuscularly into five, 37-day old piglets, carefully matched for maternally-derived antibody. Five control piglets were injected with sterile PBS in oil adjuvant. Twenty-eight days later, all the pigs were challenged intranasally with 200,000 TCID50 of PCV2b strain DV6503. After challenge infection, all the pigs remained in good clinical conditions. The recombinant vaccine did not induce significant antibody and PCV2-specific IFN-gamma responses. ELISPOT and lymphocyte proliferation data confirmed poor induction of cell-mediated immunity. In terms of PCV2 viremia, there was no significant difference between vaccinated and control animals. The histological data indicated the absence of a detectable viral load and of PCVAD lesions in both vaccinated and control animals, as well as of histiocytes and multi-nucleated giant cells. We conclude that free, non-assembled ORF2 capsid protein does not induce protective immunity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0180.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: LAIV, Influenza, HA, IGIP, IgA, IgG, vaccine, natural adjuvant
Online: 7 June 2021 (13:03:43 CEST)
Live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines elicit a combination of systemic and mucosal immunity by mimicking a natural infection. To further enhance protective mucosal responses, we incorporated the gene encoding the IgA-inducing protein (IGIP) into the LAIV genomes of the cold-adapted A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (H2N2) strain (caLen) and the experimental attenuated backbone A/turkey/Ohio/313053/04 (H3N2) (OH/04att). Incorporation of IGIP into the caLen background led to a virus that grew poorly in prototypical substrates. In contrast, IGIP in the OH/04att background (IGIP-H1att) virus grew to titers comparable to the isogenic backbone H1att (H1N1) without IGIP. IGIP-H1att- and H1caLen-vaccinated mice were protected against lethal challenge with a homologous virus. The IGIP-H1att vaccine generated robust serum HAI responses in naïve mice against the homologous virus, equal or better than those obtained with the H1caLen vaccine. Analyses of IgG and IgA responses using a protein microarray revealed qualitative differences in humoral and mucosal responses between vaccine groups. Overall, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage samples from the IGIP-H1att group showed trends towards increased stimulation of IgG and IgA responses compared to H1caLen samples. In summary, introduction of genes encoding immunomodulatory functions into a candidate LAIV that can serve as natural adjuvants to improve overall vaccine safety and efficacy.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: influenza; intensive care unit; vaccine effectiveness; length of stay
Online: 24 May 2021 (15:02:34 CEST)
Seasonal influenza is a common cause of hospital admission, especially in older people and those with comorbidities. The objective of this study was to determine influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in preventing intensive care admissions and shortening the length of stay (LOS) in hospitalized laboratory-confirmed influenza cases (HLCI) in Catalonia (Spain).A retrospective cohort study was carried out during the 2017-2018 season in HLCI aged ≥ 18 years from 14 public hospitals. Differences in means and proportions were assessed using a t-test or a chi-square test as necessary and the differences were quantified using standardized effect measures; Cohen’s d for quantitative and Cohen’s w for categorical variables. Adjusted influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing severity was estimated by multivariate logistic regression where the adjusted VE = (1-adjusted odds ratio) ·100%; adjustment was also made using the propensity score.We analyzed 1414 HLCI aged ≥ 18 years; 465 (33%) were vaccinated, of whom 437 (94%) were aged ≥ 60 years, 269 (57.8%) were male and 295 (63.4%) were positive for influenza type B. ICU admission was required in 214 (15.1%) cases. There were 141/1118 (12.6%) ICU admissions in patients aged ≥ 60 years and 73/296 (24.7%) in those aged < 60 years (p<0.001). The mean LOS and ICU LOS did not differ significantly between vaccinated and unvaccinated patients. There were 52/465 (11.2%) in vaccinated cases) ICU admissions in vaccinated cases vs. 162/949 (17.1%) in unvaccinated cases. Patients admitted to the ICU had a longer hospital LOS (mean: 22.4 [SD 20.3] days) than those who were not (mean: 11.1 [SD14.4] days); p<0.001. Overall, vaccination was associated with a lower risk of ICU admission. Taking virus types A and B together, the estimated adjusted VE in preventing ICU admission was 31% (95% CI 1-52; p=0.04). When stratified by viral type, the aVE was 40% for type A (95% CI -11-68; p = 0.09) and 25% for type B (95% CI -18-52; p = 0.21). Annual influenza vaccination may prevent ICU admission in cases of HLCI. A non-significantly shorter mean hospital stay was observed in vaccinated cases. Our results support the need to increase vaccination uptake and public perception of the benefits of influenza vaccination in groups at a higher risk of hospitalization and severe outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0468.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Vaccine Development; Clinical Trial; COVID-19; SARS-COV-2
Online: 19 April 2021 (12:04:31 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic is a devastating blow to the entire world community and changes the order of human life. All efforts and strategies are being carried out to contain and reduce the spread of the SARS-COV-2 virus, both by tightening the health protocol and using vaccines to the public. Currently, several vaccines are available and have passed phase 3 clinical trials, such as vector vaccines (Gamaleya Sputnik V Russia, University of Oxford/AstraZeneca, CanSino, and Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies), mRNA-based vaccines (Moderna/BioNTech/Fosun Pharma/Pfizer), inactivated vaccines (SinoVac and SinoPharm from China, Covaxin from Bharat Biotech India), and adjuvanted recombinant protein nanoparticles (Novavax from the USA) are expected to be able to suppress the spread of the virus and produce a minimum of 70 percent herd-immunity in a population. Each vaccine's efficacy varies from the lowest, namely the Sinovac vaccine (CoronaVac) 50% to the highest the Novavax vaccine (NVX-Cov2373) 96% effectivity value. Moreover, further rigorous research is still being carried out for the development of an effective and efficient vaccine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0072.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: T cells; protein immunodominance; cytokine polarization; influenza viruses; vaccine
Online: 2 April 2021 (14:28:32 CEST)
The role of T cell immunity has been acknowledged in recent vaccine development and evaluation. We tested the humoral and cellular immune responses to Flucelvax®, a quadrivalent inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine containing two influenza A (H1N1 Singapore/GP1908/2015 IVR-180 and H3N2 North Carolina/04/2016) and two influenza B (Iowa/06/2017 and Singapore/INFTT-16-0610/2016) virus strains, using peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by pools of peptides overlapping all the individual influenza viral protein components. Baseline reactivity was detected against all four strains both at the level of CD4 and CD8 responses and targeting different proteins. CD4 T cell reactivity was mostly directed to HA/NA proteins in influenza B strains, and NP/M1/M2/NS1/NEP proteins in the case of the Influenza A strains. CD8 responses to both influenza A and B viruses preferentially targeted the more conserved core viral proteins. Following vaccination, both CD4 and CD8 responses against the various influenza antigens were increased in day 15 to day 91 post vaccination period and maintained a Th1 polarized profile. Importantly, no vaccine interference was detected, with the increased responses balanced across all 4 included viral strains for both CD4 and CD8 T cells, and targeting HA and multiple additional viral antigens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; pandemic; medical staff; vaccine
Online: 3 March 2021 (09:36:41 CET)
Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic has triggered the need for developing rapidly effective and safety vaccines to prevent infection, particularly in those at-risk populations such as medical personnel. The objective of this study was to assess perception of COVID-19 vaccination amongst Colombian physicians featuring two different sceneries of COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out through an online survey, directed at medical staff in several cities in Colombia. The percentage of physicians who have a positive perception to be vaccinated and the associated factors that determine that decision were determined. A binomial regression analysis adjusted for age and sex was carried out, taking as a dependent variable the acceptance of free vaccination with an effectiveness of 60 and 80%. The most significant factors were determined in the non-acceptance of vaccination. Results: Between 77.1% and 90.8% of physicians in Colombia, accept COVID-19 vaccination, according to the scenario evaluated where the effectiveness of the vaccine was 60 or 80%, respectively. Medical specialty, have ever paid for a vaccine, recommend administrating the vaccine to their parents or people over 70 years and dispense the vaccine to their children were the factors to be vaccinated for free with an effectiveness of 60% and 80%. Conclusions: There is a high perception of the intention to vaccinate physicians in Colombia against COVID-19. But it is very similar to that of the general population, according to results reported in other studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0504.v1
Online: 23 February 2021 (09:29:59 CET)
Background: Renewed measles outbreaks in recent years indicate that despite the routine availability of vaccines for a disease that is considered contagious, dangerous and deadly, many anti-vaccinationists do not vaccinate their children, which consequently endangers public health. This study aimed to investigate the factors that influence mothers to vaccinate their children, and whether the Health Belief Model (HBM) could predict compliance or non-compliance. Methods: This was a quantitative correlational research, utilizing a 40-item questionnaire administered to 181 mothers in Israel. Results: The findings indicated two main factors that affected mothers' intention to vaccinate their children against measles: first, their perception of the vaccine's advantages, and second, their perception of the severity of the disease. It was also found that the HBM variables significantly affected the intention to administer vaccines. Conclusion: Consequently, raising public awareness of the vaccine's advantages and importance to preventing mass infection, as well as attempts by the health system and practitioners to understand the motivations of anti-vaccinationists (including health beliefs and cultural sensitivities) could significantly increase the percentage of vaccinated children, and eradicate the measles epidemic.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; vaccine; coronavirus; monoclonal antibodies
Online: 3 December 2020 (09:20:35 CET)
Knowing the “point of view” of the immune system is essential to understand the characteristic of a pandemic, such as that generated by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2, responsible for the Coronavirus Disease (COVID)-19. In this review, we will discuss the general host/pathogen interactions dictating protective immune response or immunopathology, addressing the role of immunity or immunopathology in influencing the clinical infection outcome, and debate the potential immunoprophylactic and immunotherapy strategies required to fight the virus infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0295.v1
Online: 14 July 2020 (06:02:40 CEST)
The Covid-19 infodemic can be countered by scientific evidences, clear and consistent communication and improved health literacy of both individuals in need of information and those providing it. A rapid online survey was carried out to evaluate vaccine literacy (VL) skills in the general population and perceptions about candidate Covid-19 vaccines, as well as behavior and beliefs about current vaccinations. Observed VL levels were sufficiently high and consistent with previous observations - where comparable self-reported tools were administered face-to-face and paper-and-pencil - the mean functional score being =2.92, while the interactive-critical one was =3.27, on a maximum of 4. Perceptions regarding future Covid-19 vaccines, along with beliefs about vaccination, were mostly positive and significantly associated with functional and interactive-critical VL scales. Despite obvious limitations, the study confirms that rapid surveys via web are a suitable method to evaluate and trail attitudes during infectious disease outbreaks, and to assess health literacy skills about vaccination, which can be useful to adapt medical communication strategies, for a better understanding of the value of immunization.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0326.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; neutralizing antibodies; immunotherapy; vaccine
Online: 19 April 2020 (04:52:17 CEST)
We review aspects of the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of the COVID- 19 pandemic. The topics we cover are relevant to immunotherapy with plasma from recovered patients and with monoclonal antibodies against the viral S-protein. The development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, an essential public health tool, will also be informed by an understanding of the antibody response in infected patients. Although virus-neutralizing antibodies are likely to protect, antibodies could potentially trigger immunopathogenic events in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients or enhance infection. An awareness of these possibilities may benefit clinicians and the developers of antibody-based therapies and vaccines.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0091.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Coronavirus; Pneumonia; COVID-19; Virus; Flu; Vaccine; Epidemic; Pandemic
Online: 7 April 2020 (11:15:55 CEST)
The SARS-CoV-2 is a recently identified positive sense single stranded RNA virus and member of the coronavirus family of viruses. It is thought to be the etiological factor for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. This virus is thought to have originated from bats and acquired ability of human-to-human transmission. While SARS-CoV-2 is relatively benign, it has infected more than half a million people (as of March 29th 2020) worldwide and the number of infected people continues to rise. More than 170 countries have reported COVID-19 positive cases. With a mortality rate of less than both the previous coronavirus outbreaks, COVID-19 has (conversely) caused the death of over 33,980 (as of 29th March, 2020 at 22.00 hours EDT) people worldwide and the number is increasing. Given the enormous impact of this virus on human health and wellbeing and consequent devastating impacts on world trade, economics and quality of life, it is important to understand this virus better and get insight into its pathogenic mechanisms which will aid in devising effective measure to curb its spread and predict future pattern of its interaction with humans. Though very little is known about this SARS-CoV-2 but its mechanisms and patterns of spread can be speculated (with caution, nevertheless) from what we know about its closest relatives SARS-CoV-1 (responsible for SARS-2002 epidemic) and MERS-CoV (responsible for MERS-2012 epidemic). In the present review, we aim at bringing together the coherent and peer reviewed literature about the SARS-CoV-2 and its close relatives and try to understand its infection patterns and reconstruct its pathogenic mechanisms with anecdotes on diagnosis and future directions. We hope that this paper will serve the purpose of being a reliable source of information to scientists, clinicians and general public.
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: 2019-nCoV; coronavirus; peptide vaccine; CD4+ epitope; CD8+ epitope
Online: 8 February 2020 (05:56:31 CET)
In this report, we demonstrate that it is possible to design epitope-based peptide vaccine candidates to counteract the novel China coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by using an approach similar to the one used in cancer neoantigen vaccination therapy. We identified multiepitope peptide vaccine candidates against 2019-nCov that can potentially trigger both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell immune response with increased efficiency due to the presence of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell epitopes and a cathepsin-sensitive linker. Furthermore, we suggest that the peptide design strategy should incorporate population-specific HLA alleles in order to optimize binding specificity of the peptides. We refer to this as populationalized vaccinomics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0210.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: post-marketing surveillance; vaccine safety; pertussis; Tdap; pregnancy; infant
Online: 18 July 2019 (09:26:02 CEST)
We aimed to evaluate the safety of maternal Tdap we assessed health events by examining the difference in birth and hospital-related outcomes of infants with and without fetal exposure to Tdap. This was a retrospective cohort study using linked administrative datasets. The study population were all live-born infants in New Zealand (NZ) weighing at least 400 grams at delivery and born to women who were eligible for the government funded, national-level vaccination program in 2013. Infants were followed from birth up to one year of age. There were a total of 69,389 eligible infants in the cohort. Of these, 8,299 infants were born to 8,178 mothers exposed to Tdap (12%), primarily between 28-38 weeks gestation as per the national schedule. Among the outcomes, we found a reduced risk for moderate to late preterm birth, low birth weight, small for gestational age, large for gestational age, respiratory distress syndrome, transient tachypnea of newborn, tachycardia or bradycardia, haemolytic diseases, other neonatal jaundice, anaemia, syndrome of infant of mother with gestational diabetes, and hypoglycemia in infants born to vaccinated mothers. There was no association between maternal Tdap and stillbirth, infant Apgar score at 5 minutes after birth, microcephaly, asphyxia, sepsis or infection, or hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Infant exposure to Tdap during pregnancy was associated with a higher mean birthweight (not clinically significant) and higher odds for ankyloglossia and neonatal erythema toxicum diagnoses. There were insufficient observations to allow examination of the effect of Tdap on extreme preterm and very preterm birth, and infant death. Overall, we found no outcomes of concern associated with the administration of Tdap during pregnancy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0760.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Multiplex serology, serosurveillance, vaccine monitoring, emerging diseases, clinical microbiology
Online: 1 November 2018 (18:02:59 CET)
High throughput multiplex serological systems enable the small developer to set up tests at small cost, for microbes for which there are no commercial tests, and for aspects which have not been addressed by them. An example is testing for Zika and Tick Borne Encephalitis virus antibodies, where antigenic cross-reactions make diagnosis problematic. Our technique variant, Suspension Multiplex Immunoassay (SMIA) allows many samples to be tested for antibodies to many antigens in a short time. Computational compensation for cross-reactions is possible if a SMIA panel contains most of the potentially cross-reacting antigens. Using antibody avidity and pattern of reactivity to whole virus and nonstructural protein, antibodies due to vaccination and infection, respectively, as well as probable degree of protection, can be determined with high throughput. These multiplex techniques hold great promise for future diagnostic development. Theoretically, even large scale serological monitoring, like blood donor pathogen testing, could be done inexpensively and rationally with multiplex serology developed in house. However, the quality control demands are steep and in most cases out of scope for a single laboratory. There remain however a number of clinical applications where in house multiplex serology can be performed with adequate quality control under high throughput conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0156.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Sporothrix schenckii; bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells; vaccine; sporotrichosis
Online: 8 August 2018 (04:32:10 CEST)
Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis affecting humans and other animals that can be transmitted a zoonosis with cats as the main vector. The conventional anti-fungal therapy is especially inefficient in immunocompromised patients, who tend to develop the most severe forms of the disease, thus prompting the search for alternative therapies. Given their antigen-presenting properties, dendritic cells (DCs) have been used in both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination strategies. Hence, this study aims to assess the use of DCs as a prophylactic tool in sporotrichosis by evaluating the immune profile induced by Sporothrix schenckii cell wall proteins (SsCWP)-stimulated bone-marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs). Mouse BMDCs were stimulated with SsCWP for 24 hours and analyzed for the surface expression of co-stimulatory molecules and TLR-4, as well as the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and IL-10. Following that, activated BMDCs were cocultured with splenocytes for 72 hours and had the same cytokines measured in the supernatant. SsCWP-stimulated BMDCs showed higher expression of CD80, CD86, and CD40, but not TLR-4, and higher secretion of IL-6, IL-17A, and TNF. On the other hand, higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-2 were found in the supernatants of the coculture as compared with the BMDCs alone; TNF secretion was almost completely abrogated, whereas IL-6 was only partially inhibited and IL-17A was unaffected. Our results thus suggest SsCWP-stimulated BMDCs are able to induce a Th1-prone cytokine profile, known to be protective against other fungal diseases. This result could lead to evaluate the development of prophylactic and/or therapeutic DC-based tools against sporotrichosis.