ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0595.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Vernacular housing; passive design strategies; indoor thermal environment; building energy performance; dynamic thermal simulations
Online: 8 June 2023 (05:17:24 CEST)
Vernacular architecture constitutes a rich source of information and ancestral knowledge that can become a key resource for sustainable development through its passive design strategies, which effectively respond to local climatic and weather conditions using locally sourced materials for the construction of its supporting structure and enveloping elements, as well as spatial organization and the incorporation of a buffer area (patio) that optimize the use of renewable resources. This qualitative study analyzes a traditional housing typology with a central patio located in the Historic Center of Azogues city, Ecuador, to evaluate its interior thermal comfort through in-situ monitoring in the different building spaces. Using the open-source software Open Studio and EnergyPlus, a simulation model was built to assess the annual thermal performance of the house. Field records were used to verify the effectiveness of the strategies that respond to the climatic conditions of the area. The analysis carried out on the passive strategies used in the selected house with regard to natural ventilation, solar protection, and thermal insulation, which depend on various aspects of the building, such as its location, internal space arrangement, design of openings (doors and windows), among others. The thermal simulations reveal that the traditional house located in the Historic Center of Azogues city is well adapted to the local climate, although interior thermal comfort is not entirely satisfactory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0571.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Solar energy; photovoltaic-thermal; electrical efficiency; thermal efficiency; exergetic efficiency; energy bandgap
Online: 30 November 2022 (10:07:52 CET)
We investigate the performance of a novel flat photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) module under high-vacuum through a 1D numerical model based on steady-state energy balance, with the aims of optimizing the simultaneous production of thermal and electrical energy. In the proposed design, the photovoltaic (PV) cell is positioned directly above the selective solar absorber (SSA), in a multilayer or fully integrated PV-SSA structure, which allows full exploitation of spectral solar radiation. In fact, in this configuration the losses related to non-absorption of low-energy photons and thermalization, typical of a classical single-junction PV cell, are reduced. The present study is conducted as the emittance and energy bandgap of the PV layer varied, thus admitting a wide variety of materials into the analysis. The dependence of the temperature coefficient, β(%/K), on the energy bandgap of the PV cell is also included. In the last part of the work, we discuss the performance of the proposed evacuated PV-T equipped with a SSA layer and thin film solar cells, namely those made of CdTe, CdS and GaAs. Overall, the paper highlights the great advantage of using high vacuum insulation, which suppresses conductive losses, and the versatility of the proposed system, which could be adapted to the user's needs simply by choosing the appropriate material for the photovoltaic layer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Ground coupled Heat Exchangers; Thermal Response Test; Thermal conductivity; Thermal diffusivity; Geotechnical properties; Borehole heat exchangers
Online: 11 February 2019 (16:13:18 CET)
The performance of ground heat exchangers systems depends on the knowledge of the thermal parameters of the ground like thermal conductivity, thermal capacity and diffusivity. The knowledge of these parameters often requires quite accurate experimental analysis, known under the name of Thermal Response Test (TRT). In this paper, after a general analysis of the various available types of TRT and the study of the theoretical basics of the method, the perspective of the definition of a simplified routine method of analysis based on the combination of a particular version of TRT and the routine geotechnical tests for the characterization of soil stratigraphy and of the ground characteristics, mandatory before the construction of a new buildings, even if limited to quite short drilling depth (lower than 30 m). The idea of developing TRT in connection with geotechnical test activity has the objective of promoting a widespread use of in-situ experimental analysis and of reducing TRT costs and time duration of the experimental analysis. The considerations exposed in the present paper lead to reconsider a particular variety of the TRT in particular the version known as Thermal Response Test while Drilling (TRTWD).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1871.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: thermal behavior; sandwich panels; mineral wool; heat transfer; thermal diffusivity
Online: 27 July 2023 (10:25:00 CEST)
The paper presents theoretical, experimental and numerical studies on the thermal behavior of mineral wool used in sandwich panels. The aim of this study is to investigate the thermal properties of mineral wool at elevated temperatures and provide a simple model that would allow to determine the heat propagation in sandwich panels during fire. The paper proposes a new method to experimentally evaluate thermal diffusivity, derived from theoretical premises. Experiments are conducted in a laboratory furnace, where specimens are placed and temperatures inside specimens are measured. Different methods are used to process the test results and calculate the thermal diffusivity of mineral wool. Finally, a numerical analysis of heat transfer using finite element method (FEM) is performed to validate the obtained thermal properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0169.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: thermopile sensor; actimetry; thermal camera, data classification; tele-medicine; polysomnography;
Online: 26 April 2017 (12:27:38 CEST)
This paper address the development of a new technic in the sleep analysis domain. Sleep is defined as a periodic physiological state during which vigilance is suspended and reactivity to external stimulations diminished. We sleep on average between six and nine hours per night and our sleep is composed of four to six cycles of about 90-minutes each. Each of these cycles is composed of a succession of several stages of sleep, more or less deep. The analysis of sleep is usually done using a polysomnography. This examination consists of recording, among other things, electrical cerebral activity by electroencephalography (EEG), ocular movements by electrooculography (EOG) and chin muscle tone by electromyography (EMG). The recording is done mostly in a hospital, more specifically in a service for monitoring the pathologies related to sleep. The readings are then interpreted manually by an expert to generate a hypnogram, a curve showing the succession of sleep stages during the night in 30-second epochs. The proposed method is based on the follow-up of the thermal signature that makes it possible to classify the activity into three classes: "awakening", "calm sleep" and "agitated sleep". The contribution of this non-invasive method is part of the screening of sleep disorders, to be validated by a more complete analysis of the sleep. The measure provided by this new system, based on temperature monitoring (patient and ambient), aims to be integrated into the tele-medicine platform developed within the framework of the Smart-EEG project by the SYEL - SYstèmes ELectroniques team. Analysis of the data collected during the first surveys carried out with this method showed a correlation between thermal signature and activity during sleep. The advantage of this method lies in its simplicity and the possibility of carrying out measurements of activity during sleep and without direct contact with the patient at home or hospitals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: CFD simulation; industrial furnace; heat flux; forging industry; thermal analysis
Online: 3 August 2016 (08:47:21 CEST)
Industries, which are mainly responsible for high energy consumptions, need to invest in research projects in order to develop new managing systems for rational energy use and to tackle the devastating effects of climate change caused by human behavior. The study reported in this paper concerns the forging industry, where the production processes generally start with the heating of the steel in furnaces and continue with other processes, such as heat treatments and mechanical machining. One of the most critical operations, in terms of energy loss, is the opening of the furnace doors for the insertion and extraction operations. During this time, the temperature of the furnaces decreases by hundreds of degrees in a few minutes. Because the dispersed heat needs to be supplied again through the combustion of fuel, increasing the consumption of energy and the pollutant emissions, the evaluation of the amount of the lost energy is crucial for the development of operating or mechanical systems able to contain this dispersion. To perform this study, CFD simulation software was used. Results show that at the door opening, because of temperature and pressure differences between the furnace and the ambient, turbulences are generated. Results also show that the amount of energy lost for an opening of 10 minutes for radiation, convection and conduction is equal to 5606 MJ where convection is the main contributor with 5020 MJ. The model created, after being validated, has been applied to perform other simulations in order to improve the energy performance of the furnace. Results show that a reduction of the opening time of the door allows energy savings and limits pollutant emissions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0019.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: thermal softening; nitrided layer; hot forging
Online: 1 December 2020 (12:44:08 CET)
This article is devoted to the issues of thermal softening of materials in the surface layer of forging tools. The research covers numerical modeling of the forging process, laboratory tests of tempering of nitrided layers and the analysis of tempering of the surface layer of tools in the actual forging process. Numerical modeling was supported by measuring the temperature inside the tools with a thermocouple inserted into the tool to measure the temperature as close to the surface as possible. The modeling results confirmed the possibility of tempering the die material. The results of laboratory tests made it possible to determine the influence of temperature on tempering at different surface layer depths. Numerical analysis and measurement of surface layer microhardness of tools revealed the destructive effect of temperature during forging on the tempering of the nitrided layer and on the material layers located deeper below the nitrided layer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0086.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: thermal model; fast charge; lithium-ion cell
Online: 27 July 2016 (16:30:36 CEST)
The cell case temperature versus time profiles of a multistage fast charging technique (4C-1C-CV)/fast discharge (4C) in a 2.3 Ah cylindrical lithium-ion cell are analyzed using a 1D thermal model. Heat generation is dominated by the irreversible component associated to cell overpotential, although evidences of the reversible component are also observed, associated to the heat related to entropy from the electrode reactions. The final charging stages (i.e., 1C-CV) significantly reduce heat generation and cell temperature during charge, resulting in a thermally safe charging protocol. Cell heat capacity was determined from cell specific heats and cell materials thickness. The 1D model adjustment of the experimental data during the 2 min. resting period between discharge and charge allowed us to calculate both the time constant of the relaxation process and the cell thermal resistance. The obtained values of these thermal parameters used in the proposed model are almost equal to those found in the literature for the same cell model, which suggests that the proposed model is suitable for its implementation in thermal management systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0866.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Thermal energy storage; Hydrocooler; Heat transfer; Refrigeration; Litchi
Online: 13 June 2023 (03:21:44 CEST)
The shortage of precooling equipment in litchi producing regions could lead to a high loss rate, poor quality of litchis. It is urgent to develop a portable precooling device for litchi producing regions. In this study, a novel spray hydrocooler with thermal energy storage (TES) were designed, fabricated, and tested. A simple mathematical model of TES capacity, ice coil thermal resistance and refrigeration system was employed to determine hydrocooler parameters. Then designed the structure of the spray hydrocooler. Maximum charging test was implemented with full TES capacity and litchi spray hydrocooling experiments were carried out at different charging times, spray flow rate, and litchi load with one-third TES capacity. Results showed that: (1) the spray hydrocooler allows for the rapid and effective precooling of litchis; (2) the hydrocooler can precool 299 kg litchis with one-third TES storage, meet the precooling requirements; (3) the effective TES capacity achieved 1.25×108 J at the maximum TES capacity of the hydrocooler, while the energy efficiency ratio (EER) is 2; (4) the precooling capacity was maximum and the average power consumption was minimum when the litchi load was 23 kg and the spray flow rate was 30 L min-1. Longer charging time is the most important factor in increasing precooling capacity and reducing average power consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0501.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: thermal bridge; modeling and dynamic analysis; system identification
Online: 22 July 2020 (06:10:36 CEST)
It is challenging to apply heat flow through a thermal bridge, which requires the analysis of 2D or 3D heat transfer to building energy simulation(BES). Research on the dynamic analysis of thermal bridges has been underway for many years, but their utilization remains low in BESs. This paper proposes a thermal bridge modeling and a dynamic analysis method that can be easily applied to BESs. The main idea begins with an analogy of the steady-state analysis of thermal bridges. As with steady-state analysis, the proposed method first divides the thermal bridge into a clear wall, where the heat flow is uniform, and the sections that are not the clear wall (the thermal bridge part). For the clear wall part, the method used in existing BESs is applied and analyzed. The thermal bridge part (TB part) is modeled with the linear time-invariant system (LTI system) and the system identification process is performed to find the transfer function. Then, the heat flow is obtained via a linear combination of the two parts. This method is validated by comparing the step, sinusoidal and annual outdoor temperature response of the finite differential method(FDM) simulation. When the thermal bridge was modeled as a third-order model, the root mean square error(RMSE) of annual heat flow with the FDM solution of heat flow through the entire wall was about 0.1W.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0099.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: PET; Petroleum Coke; Mechanical Alloying; Thermal studies; XRD
Online: 9 August 2016 (14:22:43 CEST)
The thermal degradation behaviour of 10:90 and 90:10 blends of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) and petroleum coke has been investigated using mechanical alloying (milling) at 300 rpm and for periods up to 1-10 hours. Milled specimens were characterised using SEM and x-ray diffraction; their thermal degradation behaviour was investigated using thermo-gravimetric analyser (TGA) for temperatures up to 1200°C. Whereas PET specimens showed a tendency towards flattening out and increased surface area during collisions in ball mills, petroleum coke particles tended to break down into smaller particles. 10:90 and 90:10 blends of PET and coke showed significant microstructural evolution with increasing speeds and time including fracture, strain hardening and re-welding. X-ray diffraction results showed clear evidence for increasing amorphous component in petroleum coke without much influence on PET crystallinity. Thermo-gravimetric results showed a significant increase in the overall degradation and much higher weight losses associated with mechanical alloying. This study has shown that mechanical alloying could be used to modify the degradation behaviour of coke/plastic blends and corresponding yield during pyrolysis with implications for plastic waste management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0177.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: combustion engines; thermal efficiency; fuel performance catalysts.
Online: 8 October 2020 (13:09:50 CEST)
The results from laboratory tests and field tests, available in the open literature for over ten years, despite the announcement of high efficiency translating into increased energy efficiency and such significant ecological advantages, have not so far resulted in widespread use of fuel performance catalysts (FPC) on a global scale. Wishing to explain why the above situation occurred and to verify the operation of catalytic additives for fuels; this article presents the results of research on the effect of using catalytic additives for fuel in a brand new diesel engine. The article contains an analysis of the results of exhaust gas emission tests from the Doosan MD196TI engine. During the tests, the engine was fueled with a typical diesel fuel and the same fuel with the a catalyst additive. The catalyst was added to the liquid fuel in the form of a commercially available product distributed by ProOne company under the name FMAX. The research was carried out in the form of a test, much more developed than the approval test on a stationary braking station in accordance with the requirements of ISO 8178. The article is concluded with a comparative analysis of exhaust gas emission results illustrating the effects of a catalyst in the form of reduction of solid particles, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and a slight increase in nitrogen oxide emissions. In addition, the effect of the catalyst depends on the product of thermal (brake) efficiency of the engine and the calorific value (CV) of the fuel used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1438.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Brazilian labelling regulation; energy efficiency; thermal comfort; university buildings.
Online: 21 August 2023 (08:58:00 CEST)
Thermal comfort is extremely important in architecture, especially in environments with more people spending longer on studies or intellectual activities. This research describes a case study to investigate university buildings' energy and thermal performance as a part of the ANEEL program. Due to this importance, and the need to save energy in Brazilian public buildings, the ANEEL-the Brazilian Energy Electricity Regulatory Agency, launched 2016 a national program focusing on energy efficiency in public universities around the country. University offices and classrooms require high intellectual effort; thus, environmental comfort is critical for maintaining its users' physical and mental health. This study included a pre-diagnosis of the performance of the envelope, lighting, and air conditioning systems and a survey about the quality of the environments from the users' point of view. The Prescriptive Method of the Brazilian Labeling Program (PBE) for Commercial, Service, and Public Buildings (RTQ-C) assessed the building performance. Statistical analysis was applied to correlate the quality and thermal preference of the users from the PMV/PPD. The results showed a high rate of thermal discomfort in both environments of the studies, even when using air conditioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0077.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: multi-strand cable lines; ampacity; coupled electromagnetic and thermal phenomena
Online: 2 March 2021 (11:16:25 CET)
The paper is focused on numerical modeling of multi-strand cable lines placed in free air. Modeling is carried out within the framework of the so-called multi-physics approach using commercial software. The paper describes in detail the steps undertaken to develop realistic, reliable numerical models of power engineering cables, taking into account their geometries and heat exchange conditions. The results might be of interest to the designers of multi-strand cable systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0250.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: data transfer; haptic thermal interface; thermoelectric cooler; thermal cues; thermal patterns; thermal pulses; thermal icons; thermal communication
Online: 5 July 2023 (14:04:06 CEST)
This research is a preliminary phase of a general effort to develop a generic-data transferring capability via human haptic thermal sensation (generic-data refers to a coded language like Morse or Braille). For the capability to be effective, it must include a large variety of short recognizable cues. Hence, we propose the concept of cues based on sequences of thermal pulses, i.e., combinations of warm and cool pulses with several levels of intensity. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of basing a generic-data-transfer capability on thermal cues composed of sequences of short pulses. The research included defining the basic characteristics of the stimuli parameters and developing practical methods for generating and measuring them. Several sequences were designed in light of the relevant data known to date, and tests were conducted. The thermal cues presented to the participants were sensed and recognized by touch. The results indicate high feasibility for a capability that is applicable in various scenarios. In addition, the low impact on human skin temperature due to short stimuli duration represents an inherent advantage for later implementation. This report presents promising findings and offers insights for further investigation.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0051.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Electric vehicles; Battery thermal management system; Li-Ion batteries
Online: 6 January 2022 (09:39:49 CET)
Electric Vehicles (EVs) are the need of the hour due to growing climate change problems linked with the transportation sector. Battery Thermal Management System (BTMS), which is accountable for certifying safety and performance of lithium-ion batteries (LiB), is the most vital part of an EV. LiB has auspicious gravimetric energy density but the heat generation due to chemical reactions inside a LiB during charging and discharging causes temperature rise which has a direct effect on LiB performance and safety. This study specifically focuses on aircooled BTMS, defines different types of air-cooled BTMS (active and Passive), discusses limitations associated with air-cooled BTMS, and investigates different optimization techniques and parameters to improve performance of air-cooled BTMS. Maintaining temperature within optimum range and uniform temperature distribution between cells of a battery pack are the major design parameters for improving the performance and efficiency of air-cooled BTMS. Various optimization techniques including cell arrangement with a battery pack, air-flow channel optimization, and air inlet/outlet position variations are discussed and each technique is thoroughly reviewed. Finally, it’s noted that passive air-cooled BTMS is not that effective for long-distance vehicles so most researchers shifted their focus toward active air-cooled BTMS. Active air-cooled BTMS requires a lot of power for effective performance. Lastly, the most recent field of air-cooled BTMS technology which is Air-Hybrid BTMS is discussed and declared a very promising solution for overcoming major limitations associated with air-cooled BTMS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0299.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: battery thermal management; biodiesel fuel; hybrid vehicle; Li-ion battery; cooling technology
Online: 20 July 2022 (09:01:45 CEST)
This paper focuses on the comparative analysis of lithium-ion batteries (LIB) thermal management with aim to maintain working temperature in the range 15 ℃ – 35 ℃. This is to prevent thermal runaway and high temperature gradients. The proposed approach is to employ the biodiesel, situated inside the diesel/LIB powered hybrid electric vehicle, to supply as fuel and coolant. A 3S2P LIB module is simulated using Ansys-Fluent CFD software tool. The system without a coolant shows that LIB has exceeded the optimum maximum temperature, which leads to shortened life-cycle and poor performance. Four fatty acid methyl ester biodiesels are used as coolants, namely palm, karanja, jatropha, and mahua oils. When compared with conventional methods of cooling, using air and 3M Novec liquid, the palm biodiesel coolant proves to be the best option to maintain LIB temperature within the optimum working range. With the use of palm biodiesel, the system is estimated to lightweight the BTMS by 43%, compared to the case when 3M Novec is used to maintain the same temperature range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2054.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: cooling curves; microstructure; hypereutectic Al-Si alloy; thermal analysis; simulation
Online: 29 September 2023 (07:26:53 CEST)
Thermal analysis of a hypereutectic Al-Si alloy used for an automotive part was carried out in this research work. Solidification characteristics are recognized from the Temperature-time curve and its corresponding derivatives. This analysis was successfully used in a simulation software program with the aim of improving the resultant simulation accuracy. In this study, different types of molds, with and without cooling systems, were designed and used. The melt present in the furnaces of the factory was used to simulate the casting process. The effect of different cooling rates (1.2ºC/s, 2ºC/s, 2.3ºC/s and 2.9ºC/s) on the solidification parameters have been investigated. Differences in the resultant microstructure between wall and center of the molds have been analyzed and have been related to the T-t curve. Finally, the experimental results clearly indicate that the water-cooling rate of the molds and the melt temperature directly affects the solidification process as well as the final microstructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0325.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Data Center; Thermal Characteristics Analysis; Machine Learning, Energy Efficiency, Hotspots, Clustering Technique, Unsupervised Learning
Online: 15 July 2020 (09:16:23 CEST)
Energy efficiency of Data Center (DC) operations heavily relies on IT and cooling systems performance. A reliable and efficient cooling system is necessary to produce a persistent flow of cold air to cool servers that are subjected to constantly increasing computational load due to the advent of IoT- enabled smart systems. Consequently, increased demand for computing power will bring about increased waste heat dissipation in data centers. In order to bring about a DC energy efficiency, it is imperative to explore the thermal characteristics analysis of an IT room (due to waste heat). This work encompasses the employment of an unsupervised machine learning modelling technique for uncovering weaknesses of the DC cooling system based on real DC monitoring thermal data. The findings of the analysis result in the identification of areas for energy efficiency improvement that will feed into DC recommendations. The methodology employed for this research includes statistical analysis of IT room thermal characteristics, and the identification of individual servers that frequently occur in the hotspot zones. A critical analysis has been conducted on available big dataset of ambient air temperature in the hot aisle of ENEA Portici CRESCO6 computing cluster. Clustering techniques have been used for hotspots localization as well as categorization of nodes based on surrounding air temperature ranges. The principles and approaches covered in this work are replicable for energy efficiency evaluation of any DC and thus, foster transferability. This work showcases applicability of best practices and guidelines in the context of a real commercial DC that transcends the set of existing metrics for DC energy efficiency assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: solar collector; nanofluid; thermal efficiency; economic analysis; CO2 reduction
Online: 15 November 2017 (04:44:54 CET)
In this study, the efficiencies of flat-plate and U-tube solar collectors were investigated experimentally when an Al2O3 nanofluid was used as a working fluid and compared to those of solar collectors using water. The energy saving and CO2 and SO2 generated were calculated and compared to those of solar collectors using water. In addition, based on the experimental results, an economic analysis of the use of solar collectors in various countries was performed. As the concentration of the Al2O3 nanofluid increased, the performance of the solar collector improved. The highest efficiency for the solar collectors was shown at the concentration of 1.0 vol% with the nanoparticle size of 20 nm. The maximum efficiencies of the flat-plate and U-tube solar collectors using 1.0 vol%-Al2O3 nanofluid with 20-nm nanoparticles was 74.9% and 72.4%, respectively, when the heat loss parameter was zero. The efficiencies of the flat-plate and U-tube solar collectors using Al2O3 nanofluid were 14.8% and 10.7 higher, respectively, than those using water. When 50 EA flat-plate solar collectors were operated for one year using Al2O3 nanofluid, the coal use, generated CO2, and generated SO2 were 189.99 kg, 556.69 kg, and 2.03 kg less than those of solar collectors using water, respectively. In addition, the largest electricity cost reduction was in Germany.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0105.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: thermal lens spectrometry; thermal diffusivity; dispersions; thermal effects; measurement sensitivity
Online: 6 March 2023 (14:00:45 CET)
The growing interest in heat-conducting nanofluids requires highly sensitive methods for analyzing thermal properties. Thermal-lens spectrometry, despite its advantages over classical methods, does not have a general approach to measuring and interpreting results for dispersed systems. In this paper, by the example of nanofluids of silicon oxide in water in a wide range of concentrations and sizes, the selection of measurement parameters for transient and steady-state thermal lensing is justified, and the interpretation of the results of thermal diffusivity measurements is substantiated. The features of measurements of thermal diffusivity by thermal lens spectrometry under stationary state for dispersed systems are considered. Using this approach, it is possible to detect and distinguish thermal effects with high accuracy. For dispersions of silicon oxide, with increasing concentration, the thermal diffusivity passes through a minimum. Silicon oxide dispersions can be used both as a coolant or as a heat-removing liquid by selecting the particle size and concentration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0690.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: solar sail; aerospace; propulsion; mechanical systems; shape memory alloys; joule effect; thermal analysis.
Online: 27 November 2020 (13:10:37 CET)
Space vehicles may be propelled by solar sails exploiting the radiation pressure coming from the sun and applied on their surfaces. This work deals with the adoption of Shape-Memory Alloy (SMA) elements in the sail deployment mechanism activated by the Joule Effect, i.e. using the same SMA elements as a resistance within suitable designed electrical circuits. Mathematical models were analyzed for the thermal analysis by implementing algorithms for the evaluation of the temperature trend depending on the design parameters. Several solar sail prototypes were built up and tested with different number, size and arrangement of the SMA elements, as well as the type of the selected electrical circuit. The main parameters have been discussed in the tested configurations and advantages discussed as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0033.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Li-ion cell; Thermal runaway; Accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC); Pressure Change
Online: 10 February 2017 (16:58:01 CET)
In this work commercial 18650 lithium-ion cells with LiMn2O4, LiFePO4 and Li(Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33)O2 cathodes were exposed to external heating in an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (es-ARC, THT Company) to investigate the thermal behavior under abuse conditions. New procedures for measuring external and internal pressure change of cells were developed. The external pressure was measured utilizing a gas-tight cylinder inside the calorimeter chamber in order to detect venting of the cells. For internal pressure measurements, a pressure line connected to a pressure transducer was directly inserted into the cell. During the thermal runaway experiments, three stages (low rate, medium rate and high rate reaction) have been observed. Both pressure and temperature change indicated different stages of exothermic reactions, which produced gases or/and heat. The onset temperature of thermal runaway was estimated according to temperature and pressure changes. Moreover, the different activation energies for the exothermic reactions could be derived from Arrhenius plots.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0011.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: absorption chiller; thermal energy transportation; solution transportation; ammonia-water; COP; simulation
Online: 4 February 2017 (07:49:12 CET)
Utilization of wasted heat instead of fuel combustion is effective to reduce primary energy consumption for mitigating global warming problem. Because wasted heat sources are not necessarily located close to areas of heat demand, one of the difficulties is that wasted heat has to be transferred from heat source side to heat demand side, which may require heat transportation over long distance. From this point we proposed and have examined new idea of heat transportation using ammonia-water as the working fluid which system is named Solution Transportation Absorption chiller, in short STA. Our previous studies of STA were mainly the experimental investigation with STA facility which cooling power was 25RT (90kW). As a result, the COP of STA was found almost same value 0.65 with the conventional absorption chiller without depending on the transportation distances. The simulation using AspenHYSYS also examined with same experimental condition. The experimental data showed good agreement with the simulation calculation. In this study, we examined the large-scale cooling power STA on simulation. The examination cooling powers were from 90 kW(25RT) to 3517 kW(1000RT). All cooling power achieved around COP 0.64 including pump power consumptions. In addition, we performed the dynamic simulation. As the results, there was no effect of pipeline size on the cooling capacities and mass flow rates. Furthermore, the stability time of the cooling capacities and mass flow rates were almost same regardless of the pipeline size and cooling capacity. In other words, STA may be achieved the same COP even though having various complex conditions compared with the conventional absorption chiller.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0023.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: luffa sponge fiber bundles; mechanical properties; anatomical characteristic; moisture regain; thermal performance
Online: 6 March 2017 (04:32:21 CET)
The advancement in science and technology has led to luffa sponge (LS) being widely used as a natural material in industrial application as its polyporous structure and light texture. In order to enhance the utility of LS fibers as the reinforcement of lightweight composite materials, this study investigate its water absorption, mechanical properties, anatomical characteristic and thermal performance. Hence, moisture regain, tensile properties of LS fiber bundles were measured in accordance with standards and the structural characteristics were investigated via microscopic observation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the surface morphology and fracture surface of fiber bundles. Test results shows that the special structure where the phloem tissues degenerate to cavities had a significant influence on the mechanical properties of LS fiber bundles. Additionally, the transverse sectional area occupied by fibers in a fiber bundle (SF), wall thickness and ratio of wall to lumen of fiber cell, and crystallinity of cellulose had an impact on the mechanical properties of LS fiber bundles. Furthermore, the fiber bundles density of LS varies range of 385.46-468.70 kg/m3, much less than that of jute (1360.40 kg/m3) and Arenga engleri (950.20 kg/m3) while LS fiber bundles has superior specific modulus.
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: gas turbine engine; two-spool turboprop engine; pt6a engine; aero-thermal model; matlab-simulink; bio-diesel; start-up transient.
Online: 19 September 2019 (05:36:45 CEST)
Instead of simplified steady-state models, with modern computers, one can solve the complete aero-thermodynamics happening in gas turbine engines. In the present article, we describe a mathematical model and numerical procedure to represent the transient response of a PT6A gas turbine engine operating at off-design conditions. The aero-thermal model consists of a set of algebraic and ordinary differential equations that arise from the application of the mass, linear momentum, angular momentum, and energy balances in each engine's component. The solution code has been developed in Matlab-Simulink using a block-oriented approach. Transient simulations of the PT6A engine start-up have been carried out by changing the original Jet-A1 fuel with biodiesel blends. Time plots of the main thermodynamic variables are shown, especially those regarding the structural integrity of the burner. Numerical results have been validated against reported experimental measurements and GasTurb simulations. The computer model has been capable to predict acceptable fuel blends, such that the real PT6A engine can be substituted to avoid the risk of damaging it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0110.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: oscillating heat pipe; fluid flow motion; flow pattern; thermal performance; inner diameter
Online: 26 October 2016 (09:30:16 CEST)
The oscillating heat pipe (OHP) is a new member in the family of heat pipes, and it has great potential applications in energy conservation. However, the fluid flow and heat transfer in the OHP as well as the fundamental effects of inner diameter on them have not been fully understood, which are essential to the design and optimization of the OHP in real applications. Therefore, by combining the high-speed visualization method and infrared thermal imaging technique, the fluid flow and thermal performance in the OHPs with inner diameters of 1, 2 and 3 mm are presented and analyzed. The results indicate that three fluid flow motions, including small oscillation, bulk oscillation and circulation, coexist or, respectively, exist alone with the increasing heating load under different inner diameters, with three flow patterns occurring in the OHPs, viz. bubbly flow, slug flow and annular flow. These fluid flow motions are closely correlated with the heat and mass transfer performance in the OHPs, which can be reflected by the characteristics of infrared thermal images of condensers. The decrease in the inner diameter increases the frictional flow resistance and capillary instability while restricting the nucleate boiling in OHPs, which leads to a smaller proportion of bubbly flow, a larger proportion of short slug flow, a poorer thermal performance, and easier dry-out of working fluid. In addition, when compared with the 2 mm OHP, the increasing role of gravity induces the thermosyphon effect and weakens the 'bubble pumping' action, which results in a little smaller and bigger thermal resistances of 3 mm OHP under small and bulk oscillation of working fluid, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0342.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Jeffery nanofluid; radiation; thermal diffusion; finite difference method; moving plate and porous medium
Online: 19 August 2018 (05:19:58 CEST)
This paper reveals the physical properties of Jeffery nanofluid flow past a moving plate embedded in porous medium under the existence of radiation and thermal diffusion. The analysis is carried out in three cases of moving plate, namely stationary plate λ = 0, forth-moving plate λ = 1, back-moving plate λ = −1. Finite difference method is applied to solve the governing equations of the flow and pointed out the variations in velocity, temperature and concentration with the use of graphical presentations. The impact of several parameters on local skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number is also noticed and discussed. Enhancement of velocity is observed under the impact of Jeffery parameter for the cases of stationary plate and back-moving plate, whereas reverse nature is found in the case of forth-moving plate. The velocity enhances as the values of porosity parameter increases for the case of stationary plate and forth-moving plate but a reverse nature is noticed in the case of back-moving plate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0301.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Nanoliquids; Nanofluids; Thermal conductivity; cylinder; shapefactor; Nanoparticles; Simulation; Thermal radiation; Thermal expansion
Online: 19 March 2020 (13:58:10 CET)
In the presented paper, a comprehensive study will be done on shape factor analysis of MoS2-GO in H2O-C2H6O2 based hybrid nanoliquids associated with effect and influence of transverse magnetic field and thermal radiation. The effect of variation in different parameters and nanoliquids shapes under temperature and velocity distribution is explored and also non-linear thermal radiation will be analyzed. Algorithms are introduced in proportion to mathematical modeling based on their numerical results and comparative curves for further explanation. In addition, it will be done research for influence and effect of new significant parameters emerged to the model to do sensitivity analysis and also their output results are demonstrated, examined and compared together by presenting graphs and tables. Based on detailed discussions, authentication of attained results designates the high accuracy of applied methods deployed to solve presented model in the paper. Our results satisfy that our used approach is accurate, highly reliable and also effective. All mentioned steps will be described throughout the literature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0131.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Phase Change Materials (PCMs); PCM-filled window; transparent building envelope; Thermal energy storage (TES); glazing; SWOT analysis; review; experimental
Online: 20 October 2017 (02:49:56 CEST)
Building envelope can play a crucial role in building improvement efficiency and the adoption of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) coupled with transparent elements may (i) allow a better control of the heat flows from/to the outdoor environment, (ii) increase the exploitation of solar energy at building scale and (iii) modulate the light transmission to avoid glare effects. Starting from a literature review of experimental works, this research identifies the main possible integration of PCM in transparent/translucent building envelope components (in glazing, in shutters and in multilayer façade system) drawing a global picture potentials and limitations of these technologies. Transparent envelopes with PCMs have been classified from the simplest “zero” technology, which integrates the PCM into the double glass unit (DGU), to more complex solutions – with different numbers of cavities of the glass (TGU), different position of PCM layer (internal/external shutter), and in combination with other materials (TIM, aerogel, prismatic solar reflector, PCM curtain controlled by an electric pump). The results of the analysis are resumed in a SWOT (strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats) analysis table to underline strengths and weaknesses of transparent building envelope components with PCMs, and to indicate opportunities and threats for future research and building application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0438.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: MHSW; Organic fraction from MHSW, Thermal processing; Bio-char characterization; Bio-oil: Liquid hydrocarbons
Online: 26 August 2022 (03:16:54 CEST)
This work aims to investigate the effect of process temperature and catalyst content by pyrolysis and thermal catalytic cracking of (organic matter + paper) fraction from municipal household solid waste (MHSW) on the yields of reaction products (bio-oil, bio-char, H2O, and gas), acid value and chemical composition of bio-oils, and characterization of bio-chars, in laboratory scale. The collecting sectors of MHSW in the municipality of Belém-Pará-Brazil were chosen based on geographic and socio-economic database. The MHSW collected and transported to the segregation area. The gravimetric analysis of MHSW carried out and the fractions (Paper, Cardboard, Tetra Pack, Hard Plastic, Soft Plastic, Metal, Glass, Organic Matter, and Inert) separated. The selected organic matter and paper submitted to pre-treatment of crushing, drying, and sieving. The experiments carried out at 400, 450, and 475 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, and at 475 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, using 5.0, 10.0, and 15.0% (wt.) Ca(OH)2, in batch mode. The bio-oil characterized for acid value. The chemical functions present in bio-oil identified by FT-IR and the composition by GC-MS. The bio-char characterized by SEM, FT-IR and XRD. The variance in mass (wt.%) for organic fraction of municipal household solid waste, between 56.21 and 67.45% (wt.), lies with the interval of 56% (wt.) and 64% (wt.) of OFMHSW for middle and low income countries. The pyrolysis of MHSW fraction (organic matter + paper) show bio-oil yields between 2.63 and 9.41% (wt.), aqueous phase yields between 28.58 and 35.08% (wt.), solid phase yields between 35.29 and 45.75% (wt.), and gas yields between 16.54 and 26.72% (wt.). The bio-oil yield increases with pyrolysis temperature. For the catalytic cracking, the bio-oil and gas yields increase slightly with CaO content, while that of bio-char decreases, and the H2O phase remains constant. The GC-MS of liquid reaction products identified the presence of hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics) and oxygenates (carboxylic acids, ketones, esters, alcohols, phenols, and aldehydes), as well as compounds containing nitrogen, including amides and amines. The acidity of bio-oil decreases with increasing process temperature and with aid Ca(OH)2 as catalyst. The concentration of hydrocarbons in bio-oil increases with increasing Ca(OH)2-to-MHSW fraction ratio due to the catalytic deoxygenation of fatty acids molecules, by means of de-carboxylation/de-carbonylation, producing aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0243.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: : Palm oil; Neutralizing sludge, Thermal processing; Biofuels; Economic analysis; Technical fea-sibility.
Online: 16 September 2022 (08:37:52 CEST)
This work aims to investigate systematically the tecno-economic feasibility of ther-mos-catalytic cracking process for two solid waste materials, a lipid-base material (re-sidual fat/scum from retention box of the University Restaurant of UFPA) and a lig-nin-cellulosic material Açaí seed (Euterpe oleracea. Mart). The thermo-catalytic process-es were carried out in pilot scale (THERMTEK/LEQ/UFPA/IME/RJ), and their economic feasibility analyzed. The yields of biofuels produced by fractional distillation were al-so studied. The physicochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the organic liquid product (bio-oil) and the chemical composition of kerosene, light-diesel and heavy-diesel from the lipid-base material, as well as those of kerosene and light-diesel from the Açaí seed were also determined. The economic indicators for the evaluation of the most viable cracking (pyrolysis) and distillation process of bio-oils were: a) the sim-ple payback criterion, b) discounted payback, c) net present value (NPV), d) internal rate of return (IRR), and e) index of profitability (IP). The analysis of the indicators showed the economic viability of crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq) and unfeasibil-ity for the palm oil neutralization. The minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) obtained is this work for the biofuels was of 1.34 US$/L) and the breakeven point obtained was of 1.28 US$/L. The sensibility analysis demonstrated that the pyrolysis and distillation yields are the most important variables to affect the minimum fuel selling price (MFSP).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1099.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: multifunctional facade panel; phase change material (PCM); hot box testing; thermal transmittance; numerical simulations
Online: 28 April 2023 (03:49:21 CEST)
This work exclusively focuses on the assessment of the thermal performance of a multifunctional facade panel incorporating PCM in foam layers, recurring to a hot box heat flux meter method to determine the thermal transmittance (U-value). The experimental setup is based on the steady-state approach using climatic chambers, assuring a stable thermal environment. Even small fractions of PCM achieved a small reduction in thermal amplitude. Numerical simulations using Ansys Fluent were developed to evaluate the performance of PCM use over a wide range of temperature boundary conditions and operating modes. These numerical models were calibrated and validated using the results of experimental tests, achieving a correlation factor of 0.9674, thus accurately representing a real-world scenario. The decrement factor (f) was used to analyse the data. It was identified that the efficiency of the panel and size of the optimum region increased with the PCM fraction growth. The simulated behaviour was optimum when the input mean temperature is of 20 °C for a room temperature of between 18-20 °C. The results show the significant potential of the multi-layered panel and the thermal regulator effect of the PCM incorporated on indoor space temperature to reach good thermal comfort levels.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0948.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: UAS; thermal images; surface temperature maps; thermal target
Online: 14 July 2023 (09:42:07 CEST)
The aim of this study is to analyse problems related to thermal mapping obtained from thermal data acquired from Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) equipped with thermal cameras. We focused on an accurate analysis of uncertainties introduced by the PIX4D Mapper software used to obtain the surface temperature maps of thermal images acquired by the UAS. To achieve this aim, we used artificial thermal reference during the surveys, as well as natural hot targets, i.e. thermal anomalies in the Pisciarelli hydrothermal system in Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc). Artificial thermal targets, expressly created and designed for this goal, are a prototype here called “developed thermal target” (DTT) made by the drone Laboratory at Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Osservatorio Vesuviano (INGV-OV). We show the results obtained by three surveys during which thermal targets were positioned on land at different flight heights of the UAS. Different heights were also necessary to test spatial resolution of the DTT with the used thermal camera as well as possible temperature differences between the raw images acquired by UAS with the thermal mapping obtained from the PIX4D Mapper software. In this work we have estimated the uncertainty that may be introduced by the mosaic procedure and furthermore we find an attenuation of the measured temperatures introduced by the different distances between the thermal anomaly and sensor. These results appear to be of great importance for the subsequent calibration phase of the thermal maps especially in cases where these methodologies are applied for monitoring purposes of volcanic/geothermal areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0272.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Thermally Activated Building System; thermal comfort; thermal mass
Online: 19 January 2022 (14:18:14 CET)
In recent years, several alternatives for improving the thermal comfort conditions inside buildings have been proposed. Among these alternatives, Thermally Activated Building Systems (TABS) have become of interest due to the benefits this technology brings to the building sector. The TABS are embedded in different building components and exchange heat with building envelope to improve the indoor air temperature. This review presents relevant results presented in the literature on the thermal behavior of TABS, the different types of TABS configurations, and the main parameters of TABS studied such as pipe separation, fluid inlet temperature, fluid velocity, and volumetric flow rate. The potential of TABS to improve thermal comfort conditions and provide energy savings is also discussed. Further, this study presents the different modes of application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0528.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Carbohydrate; Menthol; Thermal Comfort; Thermal Sensation; Thirst; Water
Online: 20 November 2020 (09:30:10 CET)
Carbohydrate and menthol mouth-swilling have been used to enhance exercise performance in the heat. However, these strategies differ in mechanism and subjective experience. Participants (n=12) sat for 60 min in hot conditions (35°C; 15±2%), following a 15 min control period, participants undertook three 15 min testing blocks. A randomised swill (Carbohydrate; Menthol; Water) was administered per testing block (one swill every three minutes within each block). Heart rate, tympanic temperature, thermal comfort, thermal sensation and thirst were recorded every three minutes. Data were analysed by ANOVA, with carbohydrate intake controlled for via ANCOVA. Small elevations in heart rate were observed after carbohydrate (ES: 0.22 ± 90% CI: -0.09 to 0.52) and water swilling (0.26; -0.04 to 0.54). Menthol showed small improvements in thermal comfort relative to carbohydrate (-0.33; -0.63 to 0.03) and water (-0.40; -0.70 to -0.10), and induced moderate reductions in thermal sensation (-0.71; -1.01 to -0.40 and -0.66; -0.97 to -0.35, respectively). Menthol reduced thirst by a small to moderate extent. These effects persisted when controlling for dietary carbohydrate intake. Carbohydrate and water may elevate heart rate, whereas menthol elicits small improvements in thermal comfort, moderately improves thermal sensation and may mitigate thirst; these effects persist when dietary carbohydrate intake is controlled for.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0095.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: thermal barrier coatings; 8 %YSZ; thermal conductivity; microstructure
Online: 20 September 2017 (08:28:21 CEST)
In this paper, the effect of microstructure on the thermal conductivity of plasma-sprayed Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is investigated. Nine freestanding samples deposited on aluminum-base superalloy are studied. Cross-section morphology such as pores, cracks, m-phase content, grain boundary density of the coated samples are examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). Multiple linear regressions are used to develop quantitative models which describe the relationship between the particle parameters, m-phase content and the microstructure such as porosity, crack-porosity, the length density of small-angle-crack and the length density of big-angle-crack. Moreover, the relationship between microstructure and thermal conductivity is investigated. Results reveal that the thermal conductivity of the coating is mainly determined by the microstructure and grain boundary density at room temperature (25 ℃) and by the length density of big-angle-crack, monoclinic phase content and grain boundary density at high temperature (1200 ℃).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0117.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Thermal transport in nanocomposites; interfacial thermal conductance; graphene; borophene; multiscale modelling of thermal transport
Online: 6 January 2021 (13:26:46 CET)
Graphene and borophene are highly attractive two-dimensional materials with outstanding physical properties. In this study we employed a combined atomistic continuum multiscale modeling to explore the effective thermal conductivity of polymers nanocomposites made of PDMS polymer as the matrix and graphene and borophene as nanofillers. We first conduct classical molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the interfacial thermal conductance between graphene/PDMS and borophene/PDMS interfaces. Acquired results confirm that the interfacial thermal conductance between nanosheets and polymer increases from the single-layer to multilayered nanosheets and finally converges. The data provided by the atomistic simulations were then used in the finite element method simulations to evaluate the effective thermal conductivity of polymer nanocomposites at continuum level. We explore the effects of nanofillers type, their volume content, geometry aspect ratio and thickness on the nanocomposites effective thermal conductivity. As a very interesting finding, we show that borophene nanosheets, despite almost two orders of magnitude lower thermal conductivity than graphene, can yield very close enhancement in the effective thermal conductivity in comparison with graphene, particularly for low volume content and small aspect ratios and thicknesses. We conclude that for the polymer-based nanocomposites, significant improvement in the thermal conductivity can be reached by improving the bonding between the fillers and polymer or in another word enhancing the thermal conductance at the interface. By taking into account the high electrical conductivity of borophene, our results suggest borophene nanosheets as promising nanofillers to simultaneously enhance the polymers thermal and electrical conductivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1244.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Intelligent Data Analyzing; energy consumption; thermal comfort; inclusion; exclusion criteria; Delphi method
Online: 18 August 2023 (10:45:39 CEST)
This paper evaluates norms and assesses the level of knowledge in air conditioning project management within the construction industry. A total of 25 questions were distributed to multiple candidates, who were filtered based on pre-established inclusion and exclusion criteria. Thirty-nine candidates were ultimately approved to participate in the survey. The questions were designed to address five hypotheses, with each set of five questions corresponding to one hypothesis. The results were obtained after pre-processing the data using Matlab software. The data was pre-processed using Matlab software, and the results were analyzed using the Delphi method. The analysis revealed that only two hypotheses were approved: No matter whether there are nationalized safety rules or not, the impact of data sciences and smart technologies, including air conditioning management systems, is critical for human life in the building business.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0367.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: refractory castable; impregnation; liquid sodium silicate glass; alkali resistance; physical and mechanical properties, thermal shock resistance
Online: 6 November 2023 (15:10:28 CET)
This study examines the impact of the impregnation of fireclay-based conventional (CC) and medium cement castables (MCC) with liquid sodium silicate glass under vacuum conditions. The goal is to assess how this treatment affects physical, mechanical properties, and durability (alkali and thermal shock resistance) of these castables used in biomass combustion boilers, where they are exposed to temperatures up to 1100°C. The research work employs standard test methods to evaluate physical and mechanical properties. Additionally, advanced techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and specific tests for alkali resistance and thermal shock resistance are used. The research findings suggest that impregnation with sodium silicate glass under vacuum significantly enhances the alkali resistance of both CC and MCC castables. This improvement is primarily due to the reduction in porosity and the increase in density. SEM images reveal that impregnated samples are coated with a glassy layer and the pores are partially filled with sodium silicate. Tests for alkali resistance demonstrate the formation of a protective glassy layer (with a thickness of 0.9-1.5 mm) on the castables surfaces, thereby reducing further penetration of alkali into deeper layers of the samples. However, it is important to mention that impregnated refractory castables have reduced resistance to thermal shock cycles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0178.v2
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: thermal mass; natural ventilation; thermal resilience; materials design; life cycle analysis; thermal optimization; low carbon
Online: 16 July 2019 (08:50:05 CEST)
What proportions should a thermally massive building have? How should the thermal mass be distributed? Should the "massing" change with the choice of material? This paper shows how to optimize the physical proportions of a building so that it synchronizes ambient heat exchanges in a natural feedback cycle. The internal mass is thermally coupled with buoyancy ventilation; the cycle is driven by the daily swing of outdoor temperature. Tripling up functions in this way—so that structural materials can reliably cool and power the ventilation for buildings—could help decarbonize the construction industry and provide an effective strategy for adapting to life-threatening heatwaves. Based on harmonic analysis, the method allows designers to thermally tune the form and mass of a building to meet chosen targets for temperature and ventilation in free-running mode. Once the optimal balance of exchange rates is known, design teams can proportionally vary the building height and ventilation openings against the surface area and thickness of an internal thermal mass. The possible permutations are infinite but parametrically constrained, allowing teams to fairly compare the functional and environmental credentials of different construction materials while they produce and evaluate preliminary options for organizing the exterior form and interior spaces of a building. An example study suggests that thin-shell structures of minimum weight, and even timber buildings, may be optimally tuned to produce ample ventilation and temperature attenuation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC earth electrode; electro-thermal coupling; abnormal resistance region (ARR); shell theory, finite element method
Online: 5 April 2017 (15:04:47 CEST)
During HVDC earth return operation systems, a high magnitude current will be injected into soil through earth electrode, the potential on the surface would change widely and produce unfavorable effects on the AC systems around. This paper presents an effective finite element method (FEM) coupling electric field with thermal field to evaluate the electrical field induced by the injected DC current. Firstly, owe to the characteristic of FEM, this method can consider arbitrary soil and earth electrode structure. Secondly, by setting the electrical and thermal parameters of soil as a function of temperature at the same time, the dynamic coupling process of electric field and thermal field is simulated accurately. Thirdly, to deal with the singular point in FEM subdivision and the huge computation in traditional three-dimensional FEM, the FEM coupling 2-D earth electrode with 3-D soil based on "shell" theory is introduced. Finally, based on the suggested method, the effect of abnormal resistance region (ARR) near DC earth electrode on electric field distribution is analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0290.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: thermal interface materials; graphene; hot-pressing; thermal annealing; bidirectional
Online: 6 November 2023 (09:34:26 CET)
Traditional graphene-based films normally possess high thermal conductivity (TC) only along single direction, which is not suitable for thermal interface materials (TIMs). Here, a graphene film with excellent bidirectional TC and mechanical properties was prepared by hot-pressing super-elastic graphene aerogel (SEGA). Thermal annealing at 1800℃ improves the further restacking of graphene sheets, bring the SEGA high structure stability for enduring the hot-pressing process. The junctions and nodes between the graphene layers in the hot-pressed SEGA (HPSEGA) film provide bidirectional heat transport paths. The in-plane TC and through-plane TC of HPSEGA film with thickness of 101μm reach 740 Wm-1K-1 and 42.5 Wm-1K-1, respectively. In addition, HPSEGA film with higher thickness still maintains excellent thermal transport properties due to the interconnected structure reducing the effect of the defects. The infrared thermal images visually manifest the excellent thermal-transfer capability and thermal dissipation efficiency of the HPSEGA films, indicating the great potential as advanced bidirectional TIMs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1147.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: ASHRAE; climate change; passive cooling; thermal comfort; thermal sensation
Online: 16 May 2023 (10:06:20 CEST)
A variety of factors ranging from ethnicity and occupants’ lifestyles to local climatic characteristics of any studied location and people’s age factors can affect thermal comfort assessment globally. Due to the detrimental impact of climate change, the building industry has started to implement energy efficiency schemes while considering the thermal comfort of vulnerable population both for the society and any sphere of economy. Although, considering human-based approaches have been neglected by other scholars in thermal comfort studies. This paper reviews energy effectiveness of state-of-the-art passive systems in providing neutral adaptive thermal comfort for elderly people, through exploring passive design strategies in four distinct climates namely, Canada, India, Abu Dhabi and the South-eastern Mediterranean basin. The aim of the study is to analyze the available data provided by the ASHRAE Global Thermal Comfort Database II version record 2.1. The main objective of the study is to develop an effective methodological framework for the on-going development of adaptive thermal comfort theory. To this extend, this study presents a comprehensive review on the assessment of energy effectiveness of passive design systems. To accomplish this, the impact of climate change factor in passive design systems was investigated. The meta-analysis method was adopted to determine the input variables for the statistical analysis. Cramer’s V and Fisher’s Exact tests were used to assess occupants’ thermal sensation votes (TSVs). The findings revealed that there are discrepancies detected between the in-situ field experiments and the data recorded in the ASHRAE Global Thermal Comfort Database II. According to the Köppen-Geiger climate classification, it was found from the study that the slightly high temperature fluctuations were identified in India where the weather is dry and savanna climate. The study findings contribute to the development of adaptive thermal comfort theory by reviewing the existing methodologies globally. Furthermore, a critical review on the significance of occupants’ age differences should be conducted in the identification of neutral adaptive thermal comfort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0394.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: EPDM vulcanizates; thermal-oxidative aging; thermal decomposition kinetics; antioxidant
Online: 17 April 2023 (04:07:38 CEST)
A thermal-oxidative aging test at 120°C was condutcted on Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) vulcanizates of the semi-efficient vulcanization system. The effect of thermal-oxidative aging on EPDM vulcanizates was systematically studied by curing kinetics, aging coefficient, cross-linking density, macroscopic physical properties, contact angle, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and thermal decomposition kinetics. The results show that the content of hydroxyl and carbonyl groups as well as the carbonyl index increased with increasing aging time, indicating that EPDM vulcanizates are gradually oxidized and degraded. As a result, the EPDM vulcanized rubber chains were cross-linked, and its conformational transformation was limited and its flexibility was weakened. The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrates the thermal degradation of EPDM vulcanizates had competitive reactions of cross-linking and degradation, and the thermal decomposition curve can be divided into three stages, meanwhile the thermal stability of EPDM vulcanizates gradually decreases with the increase of aging time. The introduction of antioxidant in the system can promote the cross-linking speed and reduce the cross-linking density of EPDM vulcanizates, while inhibiting the surface thermal and oxygen aging reaction. This is attributed to the fact that the antioxidant can reduce the thermal degradation reaction level, but it is not conducive to the formation of a perfect crosslinking network structure and reduce the activation energy of thermal degradation of the main chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0225.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: 3D thermal model; image fusion; smart phone; thermal IR
Online: 16 May 2018 (08:26:39 CEST)
Thermal infrared imagery provides temperature information on target objects, and has been widely applied in non-destructive testing. However, thermal infrared imagery is not always able to display detailed textures of inspected objects, which hampers the understanding of geometric entities consisting of temperature information. Although some commercial software has been developed for 3D thermal model displays, the software requires the use of expensive specific thermal infrared sensors. This study proposes a cost-effective method for 3D thermal model reconstruction based on image-based modeling. Two smart phones and a low-cost thermal infrared camera are employed to acquire visible images and thermal images, respectively, that are fused for 3D thermal model reconstruction. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method is able to effectively reconstruct a 3D thermal model which extremely approximates its corresponding entity. The total computation time for the 3D thermal model reconstruction is intensive while generating dense points required for the creation of a geometric entity. Future work will improve the efficiency of the proposed method in order to expand its potential applications to in-time monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0023.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Packed beds; Thermal heat; Porosity effect; Thermal contact resistance
Online: 3 August 2016 (08:29:06 CEST)
Modelling water vapour flow, heat transfer and porosity in porous adsorbent is somewhat challenging simulation problem. Primary macroscopic water vapour flow models, such as Darcy's law, fail to predict the pressure drop entirely correctly for the reason that many of flow parameters not considered because of the simplifications that remain made for the multi-scale structure of the porous adsorbents. For one to develop a good physical understanding of such water vapour flows and the accuracy of existing 3D simulation models, there is a need for some accurate 3D geometry to be studied. This present work describes two-phase water vapour flow and adsorption/ desorption performed on porous adsorbent by a Dynamic vapour sorption (DVS). The CFD simulation results are associated with experiments results. It is decided that for such complex porous adsorbent CFD simulation problems the use of COMSOL Multiphysics and SolidWorks flow simulation will be utilised.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1946.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Economical load dispatch; Social Spider Algorithm; Particle Swarm Optimization; Thermal power system,; Plug-in electric vehicles
Online: 28 June 2023 (04:49:38 CEST)
The economical load dispatch problem is a critical concern in thermal power systems to ensure cost-effective operation. This paper conducts a comparative analysis between the Social Spider Algorithm (SSA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for economical load dispatch in a 6-unit thermal power system with the integration of 11,000 plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Both SSA and PSO are population-based optimization techniques designed to minimize the overall fuel cost while satisfying the load demand by determining the optimal power output of each unit. SSA emulates the social behavior of spiders, while PSO simulates the collective intelligence of a swarm of particles. Performance evaluation of the algorithms considers power system data, such as unit fuel costs, minimum and maximum loads, and total load demand. The objective is to minimize fuel cost while meeting the load demand. Comparative analysis of SSA and PSO includes convergence speed, solution quality, and computational efficiency. Experimental results indicate that SSA outperforms PSO in achieving a more optimal and economical load dispatch solution for the 6-unit thermal power system. SSA demonstrates faster convergence and provides superior-quality solutions compared to PSO. This paper contributes to the field by highlighting SSA's effectiveness in achieving cost-efficient operation of thermal power systems. The findings suggest that SSA holds promise as an optimization technique for similar power system optimization problems, enhancing overall operational efficiency and reducing costs for thermal power plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1613.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Energy system; decarbonization; heating; cooling; buildings; industry; thermal energy storage; PCM; demand-side management; economics
Online: 25 October 2023 (09:04:49 CEST)
The transition of the energy system to renewable sources means the cheap energy storage in fossil fuels must be replaced by other options. A large part of the demand for useful energy is heat and cold, often produced from electric energy by a resistance heater, compression heat pump or cooler. The question is then to store the initial electric energy by electric energy storage (EES) or the useful energy by thermal energy storage (TES). In a desktop study both options were compared, by the choice made in existing applications, and also generally analyzing current technology data. For the latter, cost, round-trip efficiencies, life cycles and life time of EES, specifically for batteries, and of TES, specifically for hot and cold water, ice and other PCM were collected. Applications studied are heating and cooling in buildings and in industry. Application-typical conversion efficiencies were also collected and taken into account. The results show that in many existing installations TES, incl. by PCM, is already preferred, and that TES is advantageous in most investigated applications economically, in addition to technical advantages. Thus, TES has a large potential in the transition of the energy system to stabilize the electricity grid by demand side management.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: pyroelectricity; temperature modulation; molecular ferroelectrics; non-contact measurement; thermal diffusion model; lithium niobate
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:22:29 CEST)
A temperature-modulated pyroelectricity measurement system for a small single crystal is developed and applied to standard sample measurements performed on a thin single crystal of lithium niobate. The modulation measurement is based on the AC technique, in which the temperature of the sample is periodically oscillated, and the synchronized pyroelectric signal is extracted using a lock-in amplifier. Temperature modulation is applied by irradiating periodic light on the sample placed in the heat exchange gas. To apply this technique to the transparent reference sample, a commercially available black resin is coated on the sample’s surface to absorb the light energy and transmits it to the specimen. The experimental results are analyzed using a two-layer heat transfer model to verify the effect of the light-absorbing layer as well as the non-contact temperature modulation system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2071.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: thermally conducive fillers; through-plane thermal conductivity (K⊥), thermal conductivity; polymer composites; Thermally Conductive Polymer Composites (TCPC); Thermal interface materials (TIMs); thermal management
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:11:18 CEST)
The internet of things and growing demand for smaller and advanced devices has created the problem of high heat production in the electronic equipment which greatly reduces the work performance and life of the electronic instruments. Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are placed in between heat generating micro-chip and the heat dissipater to conduct all the produced heat to the heat sink. Development of suitable TIMs with excellent thermal conductivity (TC) in both in-plane and through-plane directions is a very important need at present. For efficient thermal management, polymer composites are potential candidates. But in general their thermal conductivity is low compared to that of metals. The filler integration into the polymer matrix is one of the two approaches used to increase the thermal conductivity of polymer composites and is also easy to scale up for industrial production. Another way to achieve this is to change the structure of polymer chains, which fall out of the scope of this work. In this review, considering the first approach, the authors have summarized recent development in many types of fillers with different scenarios by providing multiple cases with successful strategies to improve through-plane thermal conductivity (TPTC) (K⊥). For better understanding of TC the comprehensive background is also presented. In the end, it is given a detailed conclusion which provides drawbacks of some filler, multiple significant routes recommended by other researchers to build Thermally Conductive Polymer Composites, future aspects along with direction so that the researchers can get a guideline to design an effective polymer based Thermal interface materials. A number of methods to improve the effective (out-plane) thermal conductivity of polymer composites are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0034.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: personal cooling system; heat and mass transfer; environmental temperature; relative humidity; phase change materials; thermal management
Online: 3 December 2018 (16:11:11 CET)
The hybrid personal cooling system (HPCS) consisted of ventilation fans and phase change materials (PCMs) covered with insulation pads is a promising wearable cooling system to mitigate heat strain and heat-related illnesses of occupational workers with heavy labor in hot environments. Effects of clothing characteristics (e.g., thermal resistance of insulation pads, latent heat and melting temperature of PCMs) on the thermal performance of the HPCS have been investigated in detail in our previous study. Apart from the aforementioned factors, environmental conditions, i.e., environmental temperature and relative humidity, also significantly affect the thermal performance of the HPCS. In this paper, a numerical parametric study was performed to investigate the effects of the environmental temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the thermal management of the HPCS. Five levels of air temperature under environmental RH=50% were chosen (i.e., 32, 34, 36, 38 and 40 ºC) to study the impact of environmental temperature on the HPCS’s cooling performance. In addition, four levels of environmental RH at ambient temperatures of 36 and 40 ºC were selected (i.e., 30, 50, 70 and 90%) to examine the effect of RH on cooling performance of the HPCS. Results show that high environmental temperatures could accelerate the PCM melting process and thereby weaken the cooling performance of HPCS. In the moderately hot environment (36 °C), the HPCS presented good cooling performance with the maximum core temperature at around 37.5 °C during excise when the ambient RH≤70%, whereas good cooling performance could be only seen under RH≤50% in the extremely hot environment (40 °C). Thus, it may be concluded that the maximum environmental RH for the HPCS exhibiting good cooling performance decreases with the increase in the environmental temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0524.v1
Online: 21 November 2018 (11:27:40 CET)
The study sought to determine solar irradiation in Homa Bay County which can be tapped and utilized in improving lives of residents of the region by converting the solar thermal energy in Home Bay to other forms of energy such as electric form, mechanical form and light. The study was done by assessing the local atmospheric conditions which included sunshine duration data and air temperature records for the period of two years and the data obtained subjected to statistical analysis to determine the localized characteristics of the resource. The characteristics that were examined include; seasonal and annual power expectations as well as resource reliability. The solar irradiance of Home County was found to be 768.0 W/m2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0485.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Palm oil; Neutralizing sludge, Thermal processing; Biofuels; Economic analysis; Technical fea-sibility.
Online: 28 November 2022 (01:29:13 CET)
This work aims to investigate systematically the tecno-economic feasibility of ther-mos-catalytic cracking process for two solid waste materials, a lipid-base material (re-sidual fat/scum from retention box of the University Restaurant of UFPA) and a lig-nin-cellulosic material Açaí seed (Euterpe oleracea. Mart). The thermo-catalytic process-es were carried out in pilot scale (THERMTEK/LEQ/UFPA/IME/RJ), and their economic feasibility analyzed. The yields of biofuels produced by fractional distillation were al-so studied. The physicochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the organic liquid product (bio-oil) and the chemical composition of kerosene, light-diesel and heavy-diesel from the lipid-base material, as well as those of kerosene and light-diesel from the Açaí seed were also determined. The economic indicators for the evaluation of the most viable cracking (pyrolysis) and distillation process of bio-oils were: a) the sim-ple payback criterion, b) discounted payback, c) net present value (NPV), d) internal rate of return (IRR), and e) index of profitability (IP). The analysis of the indicators showed the economic viability of crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq) and unfeasibil-ity for the palm oil neutralization. The minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) obtained is this work for the biofuels was of 1.34 US$/L) and the breakeven point obtained was of 1.28 US$/L. The sensibility analysis demonstrated that the pyrolysis and distillation yields are the most important variables to affect the minimum fuel selling price (MFSP).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0479.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Isotropic rectangular plate; Kirchhoff–Love plate theory; thermal gradient; Fourier sine transform; Navier solution; Lévy solution
Online: 18 June 2021 (12:52:52 CEST)
The object of this paper is the bending analysis of isotropic rectangular Kirchhoff plates subjected to a thermal gradient (TG) using the Fourier transform method. The bottom and top surfaces of the plate are assumed to have different changes in temperature, whereas the change in temperature of the mid-surface is zero. According to classical plate theory, the governing equation of the plate contains second derivatives of the TG; these derivatives are zero by constant value of the TG, which leads to the absence of the TG in the governing equation. This paper presented an approach by which Fourier sine transform was utilized to describe the TG, while the double trigonometric series of Navier and the simple trigonometric series of Lévy were utilized to describe the deflection. Thus, the TG appeared in the governing equation, which simplified the analysis. Rectangular plates simply supported along all edges were analyzed, bending moments, twisting moments, and deflections being determined. In addition, rectangular plates simply supported along two opposite edges were analyzed, the other edges having various support conditions (free, simply supported, and fixed).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0587.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Pyrolysis; Kinetics; Thermal degradation; PMMA; COC.Pyrolysis; Kinetics; Thermal degradation; PMMA; COC
Online: 25 May 2021 (08:04:51 CEST)
In this investigation, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was mixed with cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) because of its hardness, strength, and transparency properties. The results of thermal analysis through TGA and DTG showed that the thermal properties of the alloy are improved using 40% cyclic olefin copolymer. Kinetics of thermal degradation (pyrolysis) of polymers have been studied and analyzed and thermal pyrolysis of polymethyl methacrylate and cyclic olefin copolymer thermoplastic polymer was conducted. The computation of kinetic analysis is measured along with the different methods used to study the kinetics. The activation energy (E) of degradation of studied materials was estimated using Ozawa Flynn and Wall (OFW), Starink and Kissinger’s methods, and evaluation of three kinetic parameters taken appropriate kinetic model in terms of percent change for both types of polymers have been proposed, and finally, simulated curves were compared with the experimental curves. Both mechanisms of degradation for COC and PMMA under nitrogen atmosphere will reflect intramolecular transfer and random scission of the main chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0290.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: chemical modification; electronics cooling; thermal management nanocomposites; thermal conductivity; silver nanoparticles
Online: 25 October 2018 (10:33:13 CEST)
Polymer composites with high thermal conductivity have a great potential for applications in modern electronics due to their low cost, easy process, and stable physical and chemical properties. Nevertheless, most polymer composites commonly possess unsatisfactory thermal conductivity, primarily because of the high interfacial thermal resistance between inorganic ﬁllers. Herein, we developed a novel method through silver functionalized graphene nanosheets (GNS) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composites with excellent thermal properties to meet the requirements of thermal management. The effects of composites on interfacial structure and properties of the composites were identiﬁed, and the microstructures and properties of the composites were studied as a function of the volume fraction of fillers. An ultrahigh thermal conductivity of 12.3 W/mK for polymer matrix composites was obtained, which is an approximate enhancement of 69.1 times compared to the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix. Moreover, these composites showed more competitive thermal conductivities compared to untreated fillers/PVA composites applied to the desktop central processing unit, making these composites a high-performance alternative to be used for thermal management.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: atmospheric plasma spray (APS) process; particle size; thermal insulation; thermal barrier coating (TBC); thermal diffusivity; coating microstructure; coating porosity
Online: 3 July 2019 (14:49:12 CEST)
In the present work, three different atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) alumina coatings were fabricated using three fused and crushed alumina powders of different particle size fine, medium and coarse. The influence of the particle size on thermal properties and micro-structural features of the produced coating were investigated by thermal insulation test and detailed image analysis technique, respectively. The analyzed micro-structural features include the total porosity, pore size (fine, medium, and large) and cracks. All types of cracks were considered in calculations as voids and were evaluated according to their sizes as pores. All spray parameters except the particle size were fixed throughout the spraying process. The results revealed that the fine starting powder has produced the densest coating with the lowest total porosity and that the total porosity increases with an increasing particle size. This was expected as powders of smaller particle size will reach a higher in-flight temperature and velocity than powders of bigger particle sizes as long as the same spray parameters are applied. However, a detailed image analysis investigation on the three produced coatings showed that the fraction of fine pores and cracks versus the total porosity is substantially higher in coatings produced by using fine starting powders than those produced using medium and coarse powders. In this work, a connection between the thermal insulation and the porosity fraction, which includes fine pores and cracks, was revealed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1064.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: solar heating system; dynamic performance; seasonal thermal storage; underground water pit seasonal storage; operation strategies
Online: 17 July 2023 (10:38:12 CEST)
Solar heating technology is a promising solution to promote China to achieve the “3060 double carbon” target as soon as possible. And seasonal thermal storage (STS) can effectively solve the mismatch problem of solar heating systems between the supply and demand of thermal energy. Due to the instability of solar radiation resources and heat demand, it is necessary to analyze the dynamic response characteristics of the system. Yet, related studies are still scarce. In this study, a solar heating system with a solar tower receiver and STS was introduced in north China. The dynamic performance of the system is analyzed with a dynamic simulated method in a typical day or typical operation modes, and the switch mechanism between multiple operation modes is also revealed. The impact of different heating strategies on system performance was analyzed. Results showed that the solar fraction of the system reached 89.4% in the third year, which was 3.6% higher than the first year. The quality-quantity heating operation strategies can be effective ways to improve the discharge efficiency of STS and the system performance without any heat pump. The electricity consumption of the pump on the heating side could be significantly reduced by 44.6% compared with the quality control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0067.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: people; counting; thermal; sensor
Online: 8 January 2020 (08:35:48 CET)
People counting applications have been used in diverse applications. The ability and accuracy of thermal imaging over conventional image cameras has led to the implementation of thermal cameras in people counting applications. This paper present a thermal people counting smart glass windows. The people counting application would be remotely monitored from a single centralized PC station as it’s connected to a multiplex of mass monitoring of 20 thermal camera, all embedded into different glass windows. The thermal cameras would then be able to detect body temperatures of all individuals who pass through any of the camera range and also count the numbers of people who passed through the camera range. The data gotten can then be further utilized in various ways, example is in the control of air conditioning and lightening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1424.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: polyimide film; optical transparency; coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE); benzanilide; thermal properties
Online: 20 June 2023 (10:10:44 CEST)
Light-colored and transparent polyimide (PI) films with good high-temperature dimensional stability are highly desired for advanced optoelectronic applications. However, in practice, the simultaneous achievement of good optical and thermal properties in one PI film is usually difficult due to the inter-conflicting molecular design for the polymers. In the present work, a series of PI-SiO2 nanocomposite films (ABTFCPI) were developed based on the PI matrix derived from hydrogenated pyromellitic anhydride (HPMDA) and an aromatic diamine containing benzanilide and trifluoromethyl substituents in the structure, 2,2'-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4'-bis[4-(4-aminobenzamide)]biphenyl (ABTFMB). The inorganic SiO2 fillers were incorporated into the nanocomposite films with the form of colloidal nanoparticles dispersed in the good solvent of N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) for the PI matrix. The derived ABTFCPI nanocomposite films showed good film-forming ability, flexible and tough nature, good optical transparency, and good thermal properties with the loading amounts of SiO2 up to 30 wt% in the system. The ABTFCPI-30 film with the SiO2 content of 30 wt% in the film showed the optical transmittance of 79.6% at the wavelength of 400 nm (T400) with a thickness of 25 μm, the yellow index (b*) of 2.15, and the 5% weight loss temperatures (T5%) of 491 oC, which are all comparable to those the pristine ABTFCPI-0 matrix without filler (T400=81.8%; b*=1.77; T5%=492 oC). Meanwhile, the ABTFCPI-30 film exhibited obviously enhanced high-temperature dimensional stability with the linear coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of 25.4×10-6/K in the temperature range of 50 to 250 oC, which is much lower than that of the AMTFCPI-0 film (CTE=32.7×10-6/K).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0299.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Metal 3D printing; Additive manufacturing; Powder bed fusion; Thermal simulation; Thermal history
Online: 17 September 2021 (09:28:45 CEST)
The powder bed fusion (PBF) metal additive manufacturing (AM) method uses an energy source like a laser to melt the metal powders. The laser can locally melt the metal powders and creates a solid structure as it moves. The complexity of the heat distribution in laser PBF metal AM is one of the main features that need to be accurately addressed and understood to design and manage an optimized printing process. In this research, the dependency of local thermal rates and gradients on print after solidification (in the heat-affected zone) was numerically simulated and studied to provide information for designing the print process. The simulation results were validated by independent experimental results. The simulation shows that the local thermal rates are higher at higher laser power and scan speed. Also, the local thermal gradients increase if the laser power increases. The effect of scan speed on the thermal gradients is opposite during heating versus cooling times. Increasing the scan speed increases the local thermal gradients in the cooling times and decreases the local thermal gradients during the heating. In addition, these simulation results could be used in artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning for developing digital additive manufacturing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0370.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Seasonal Variance; Pedestrians Thermal Comfort; Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET); Adaptive Thermal Comfort
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:14:58 CET)
Season plays a key role in the development of outdoor spaces for pedestrians in hot humid cities. This research studies the influence of seasonal variations on pedestrian thermal comfort on the pedestrian level by means of meteorology and field observations of selected footpaths in the major tourist area of Malacca. This experiment was carried out on selected clear calm days indicative of each season during the development of a research project, and hourly meteorological transects from 10:00 am to 6:00 pm and questioned 200 respondents on their thermal awareness, comfort, and preferences were conducted. Adaptation, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, age, season and hour of the day were significant non-meteorological factors, apart from meteorological information. The findings of analyzes showed that the thermal experience and expectation existed and in different seasons people changed perceptions for the outside thermal environment. Almost 80% local tourist and 55 % international tourist was accepted Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) range affected by the local climate and thermal adaptation. The subjective thermal sensation on physiological equivalent temperature generated an acceptable physiological equivalent temperature of 32.6°C to 36.8°C based on the seasonal variations for Malacca tourist zone in Malaysia. These findings shed light on the optimal design of outdoor spaces for increasing the utilization rate. The seasonal variation must be taken into account so that the outdoor landscape design provides more opportunities for different seasons to communicate with the atmosphere and so enhance thermal comfort and utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0247.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Ga-In; thermal conductivity; CALPHAD; comparative cut bar method; thermal interface material
Online: 11 August 2020 (03:12:07 CEST)
Thermal interface material (TIM) that can exist as liquid at the service temperature enables efficient heat transfer across two adjacent surfaces in electronic applications. In this work, the thermal conductivities of different phase regions in the Ga-In system at various compositions and temperatures are measured for the first time. A modified comparative cut bar technique is used for the measurement of the thermal conductivities of InxGa1-x (x=0, 0.1, 0.214, 0.3, and 0.9) alloys at 40, 60, 80, and 100oC that are the temperatures commonly encountered in consumer electronics. The thermal conductivity values for the liquid and semi-liquid (liquid+β) Ga-In alloys are higher than the TIM currently used in consumer electronics. These measured quantities, along with the available experimental data from the literature, served as input for the thermal conductivity parameter optimization using the CALPHAD (CALculation of PHase Diagram) method for the pure elements, solution phase, and two-phase region. A set of self-consistent parameters for the description of the thermal conductivity of the Ga-In system is obtained. There is good agreement between the measured and calculated thermal conductivity values for all the phases. Hence, it can be envisaged that liquid/semi-liquid Ga-In alloys can be considered as a potential TIM in consumer electronics due to its high thermal conductivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0155.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: cooling effect; urban park; thermal comfort; physiological equivalent temperature; perceived thermal comfort
Online: 16 September 2019 (01:17:53 CEST)
This empirical study investigates large urban park cooling effects on the thermal comfort of occupants in the vicinity of the main central park, located in Madrid, Spain. Data were gathered during hot summer days, using mobile observations and a questionnaire. The results showed that the cooling effect of this urban park of 140 ha area at a distance of 150 m is able to reduce temperature by an average of 0.63°C and 1.28°C for distances of 380 m and of 665 meters from the park. Moreover, the degree of the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) index at a distance of 150 meters from the park is on average 2°C PET and 2.3°C PET less compared to distances of 380 m and 665 m, respectively. Considering distance from the park, the correlation between occupant Perceived Thermal Comfort (PTC) and PET is inverse. That is, augmenting the distance from park increases PET, while the extent of PTC reduces accordingly. The correlation between these two factors at the nearest and furthest distances from the park is meaningful (P-value <0/05). The results also showed that large-scale urban parks generally play a significant part in creating a cognitive state of high-perceived thermal comfort spaces for residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0213.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: residual fat; activated carbon pellets; chemical activation; thermal catalytic cracking; catalyst bed reactor; liquid hydrocarbons
Online: 24 April 2022 (02:55:25 CEST)
This work aims to investigate the influence of reaction time and catalyst-to-residual fat ratio by catalytic upgrading from pyrolysis vapors of residual fat at 400 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, on the yields of reaction products, physicochemical properties (density, kinematic viscosity, and acid value) and chemical composition of bio-oils, over a catalyst fixed bed reactor of activated carbon pellets impregnated with 10.0 M NaOH, in semi pilot scale. The experiments were carried out at 400 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, using a process schema consisting of a thermal cracking reactor of 2.0 L coupled to a catalyst fixed bed reactor of 53 mL, without catalyst and using 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0% (wt.) activated carbon pellets impregnated with 10.0 M NaOH, in batch mode. Samples of liquid phase products were withdrawn during the course of reaction at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 and 120 minutes in order to investigate the process kinetics. The physicochemical properties (density, kinematic viscosity, and acid value) of bio-oils were determined by official methods. The chemical composition of bio-oils determined by GC-MS. The thermal catalytic cracking of residual fat show bio-oils yields from 55.55 to 30.22 (wt.%), aqueous phase yields between 2.83 and 3.19 (wt.%), solid phase yields between 13.56 and 9.75 (wt.%), and gas yields from 27.89 to 55.60 (wt.%). The yields of bio-oil decreases from 74.41 to 30.22% (wt.) with increasing catalyst-to-Tallow kernel oil ratio, while that of gaseous phase increases from 12.87 to 55.60% (wt.). For all the thermal and thermal catalytic cracking experiments, the density, kinematic viscosity, and acid value of bio-oils decreases as the reaction time increases varying from 0.9266 to 0.8220 g/cm³, 8.10 to 2.24 mm²/s, and 144.14 to 2.37 mg KOH/g. The GC-MS of liquid reaction products identified the presence of hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, ring-containing alkanes, ring-containing alkenes, and aromatics) and oxygenates (carboxylic acids, ketones, esters, alcohols, and aldehydes). For all the pyrolysis and catalytic cracking experiments, the hydrocarbon selectivity in bio-oil increases with increasing reaction time, while those of oxygenates decrease, reaching concentrations of hydrocarbons up to 95.35% (area.). The best results for the physicochemical properties density, kinematic viscosity, and acid value were 0.8220 g/cm³, 3.03 mm2/s, and 2.37 mg KOH/g, respectively, with a maximum hydrocarbon concentration of 97.194% (area.) and 2.806% ketones (area.) were obtained at 400 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, 80 minutes, without catalyst. For the catalytic cracking experiments, the maximum hydrocarbon content of 75.763% (area.) and 17.041% (area.) carboxylic acids, 4.702% (area.) ketones (area.), and 2.494% (area.) non-identified oxygenates was obtained at 400 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, 90 minutes, using a catalyst fixed bed reactor, with 10.0% (wt.) activated carbon pellets impregnated with 10.0 M NaOH as catalyst.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0050.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: modelling and simulation for control; advanced control design; model–based and data-driven approaches; artificial intelligence; thermal unit nonlinear system
Online: 9 December 2016 (03:17:38 CET)
The paper presents the design and the implementation of different advanced control strategies that are applied to a nonlinear model of a thermal unit. A data–driven grey–box identification approach provided the physically meaningful nonlinear continuous–time model, which represents the benchmark exploited in this work. The control problem of this thermal unit is important since it constitutes the key element of passive air conditioning systems. The advanced control schemes analysed in this paper are used to regulate the outflow air temperature of the thermal unit by exploiting the inflow air speed, whilst the inflow air temperature is considered as an external disturbance. The reliability and robustness issues of the suggested control methodologies are verified with a Monte–Carlo analysis for simulating modelling uncertainty, disturbance and measurement errors. The achieved results serve to demonstrate the effectiveness and the viable application the suggested control solutions to air conditioning systems. The benchmark model represents one of the key issues of this study, which is exploited for benchmarking different model–based and data–driven advanced control methodologies through extensive simulations. Moreover, this work highlights the main features of the proposed control schemes, while providing practitioners and heating, ventilating and air conditioning engineers with tools to design robust control strategies for air conditioning systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0855.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: CALTEX red engine oil; nanofluids; thermal conductivity; thermal diffusivity; volumetric heat capacity; flashpoint
Online: 13 October 2023 (08:23:53 CEST)
The efficiency, durability, and overall performance of a car engine are influenced by several critical factors. The quality and properties of engine oil play a crucial role, and oil is used in internal combustion engines for lubrication and cooling purposes. This research study aimed to compare the impact of fullerene-C60 (99.5%), Fe2O3, and TiO2 nanoparticles on the thermal properties of C.A.L.T.E.X. red engine oil with grades 10W30, 20W40, and 20W50. This study focused on the effect of a nanoparticle concentration of 0.01 wt.% in different engine oil grades at various temperature values of 30-120 ℃. The Nanofluids were prepared using the two-step direct mixing method, employing a magnetic stirrer and an ultrasonicator, ensuring uniform distribution of nanoparticles in the base fluids. The thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity of the base fluids and nanofluids were measured using the FLUCON LAMBDA thermal conductivity meter. Additionally, flash points were measured using the flash point tester. It was concluded that the thermal properties of TiO2 and Fe2O3 showed considerable enhancement; in contrast, Fullerene only showed the 212 ℃ flash point.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0272.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Urban climate; thermal field; three-dimensional structure; surface temperatures; heat islands; thermal inversion
Online: 15 November 2021 (12:30:33 CET)
This study aims to evaluate the land surface temperature (LST) and the thermal characteristics of the Urban Canopy Layer (UCL) of the urban canyon in Avenida Rio Branco in the Central Business District (CBD) of Rio de Janeiro during summer. In order to conduct this evaluation, two methods were employed: 1) TIRS Landsat-8 sensor for data selection and processing (latest generation, 2011-2020); ; 2) field survey using nine sampling points — seven along two mobile transects, one fixed point, and one vertical measurement point, which required the use of a RPA (Remotely Piloted Aircraft). Three categories of analysis were established for the field survey based on the prevailing synoptic situations: stability, instability, and post-instability. The CBD is characterized by extensive areas with surface heat islands, in which temperatures were higher than 38.9°C; the areas with milder LSTs were Campo do Santana, Avenida Rio Branco, and one of the Mixed-Use Zones (Praça Mauá). With respect to Rio Branco Avenue, the LST niches of lowest elevation were derived through building shadowing; however, the orbital data diverged from the observation data of the ten field-study days. In situ data revealed that the characteristics urban morphology of Avenida Rio Branco is susceptible to the formation of heat islands, presenting heat islands of very strong magnitude (over 6.1°C) in atmospheric stability, strong magnitude (4.1-6.0°C) in atmospheric instability, and moderate magnitude (2.1°C-4.0°C) in post-atmospheric instability. Despite the synoptic situation, thermal cores were concentrated at 1 pm. The intersection between Avenida Rio Branco, Rua do Ouvidor, and Praça Mauá stored most of the solar energy received during the day due to the greater sky obstruction caused by the verticalization. Finally, vertical analysis demonstrated the formation of a thermal inversion on the night of the highest mean air temperature (29.5°C), probably, due to the roughness and number of buildings in the urban canyon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0160.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: solar thermal systems; phase change materials; thermoplastic elastomer; mechanical property; photo-thermal performance
Online: 11 July 2019 (11:54:58 CEST)
Traditional phase change composites usually suffer poor mechanical property and easy collapsing in the phase changing process. Herein, a highly flexible phase change composite is fabricated using thermoplastic elastomer as the basic gel and the expanded graphite/paraffin as the filler. This new phase change composite shows a tensile strength of 2.1 MPa and a breaking elongation of 220%. It has a melting enthalpy of 145.4 J•g-1 and a thermal conductivity of 2.2 W•m-1•K-1 with 70% of expanded graphite/paraffin. The thermoplastic elastomer based phase change composite exhibits great reversible property after 200 heating/cooling cycles. This flexible phase change composite demonstrates good photo-thermal energy charging/discharging property and shows great potential to be applied in the solar thermal energy systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0140.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: laser surface glazing; Ti6Al4V alloy; FEA; thermal model; biomedical application; heating and cooling rates; depth of modified zone; hardness; wear resistance
Online: 19 March 2018 (06:42:48 CET)
Ti64 alloy plays a significant role in the biomedical applications such as bioimplants for its excellent biocompatibility. Its usage can be further extended by improving the surface hardness and wear resistance. In this respect, laser surface glazing (LSG), an advanced surface modification technique, is very useful which can produce thin hardened surface layer and strong metallurgical bonding. Investigation of temporal and spatial temperature distributions of laser glazed surface of materials are essential because temperature plays significant role in achieving required surface properties. Therefore, in this study, a 3D Finite element analysis has been developed to perform transient thermal analysis of LSG for Ti64 alloy. The model investigated temperature distribution, depth of modified zone and heating and cooling. The results show that the peak temperature is attained 2095 K for 300 W laser power, 0.2 mm beam width and 0.15 ms residence time. Since this temperature is above the melting point (1933 K) of Ti64 alloy, the melt depth is calculated 22.5 μm. Furthermore, from the simulation results, the average heating and cooling rates are estimated 1.19×107 Ks-1 and 2.71×106 Ks-1 respectively which indicate the presence of hard phases in the modified zone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2149.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: aerodynamics; airflow; humidifier; thermal uniformity
Online: 31 August 2023 (10:44:46 CEST)
The seedling plant factory requires precise environmental control to ensure uniform growth within a short time cultivation period. To provide optimal temperature, humidity, and airflow, it is necessary to interpret the internal aerodynamics. However, the analysis based on field experiments has limitations in interpreting the invisible flow patterns. To overcome this limitation, CFD simulations were employed. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a CFD model of the seedling plant factory with the porous panel for improving the internal environment and to identify the fluid dynamics issues using the validated model. Based on the field monitoring data obtained by 90 data loggers, the average temperature and humidity during the 16-hour light period and 8-hour dark period were maintained within 1% of the set values. However, regional differences occurred, which led to the design of a CFD model incorporating the porous panel to simulate these variations. The Realizable k-ε turbulence model, which exhibited an error of 4.0% in comparison with the field data, was selected through validation test among four different turbulence models with the same configuration of the seedling plant factory. The CFD simulation results were interpreted quantitatively and qualitatively, focusing on the airflow, temperature, and humidity distributions caused by the air conditioner and humidifier. Variations in average temperature of up to 0.5 degrees and velocity differences of 0.28 m/s were observed depending on the location of the cultivation shelves. The locations and causes of stagnant regions resulting from the airflow patterns were identified through the simulations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0197.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: molecular dynamics; polymorph; thermal decomposition
Online: 4 July 2023 (11:34:06 CEST)
A self-consistent charge density-functional tight-binding method combined with molecular dynamics simulations is employed to reveal the effect of polymorph on the thermal decomposition stability of 1,1-Diamino-2,2-Dinitroethylene (FOX-7). Two types of heating, constant temperature heating and temperature-programmed heating, are adopted. Potential evolution indicates that γ-FOX-7 possesses the lowest thermal stability, as it is closer to the decomposition state. Crystal form has an important influence on the thermal decomposition of FOX-7, resulting in different decomposition rates and initial reactions. In general, β- and γ-FOX-7 always decompose more completely than α-FOX-7. This work emphases the importance of polymorph dependent initial decay of an energetic polymorphic compound once heated in a volume constrained condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0493.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Thermal uncertainties; Disequilibrium; Husimi distributions
Online: 19 November 2020 (07:31:23 CET)
In this paper we establish information theoretical bridges between 1) Thermal Heisenberg uncertainties $\Delta x \Delta p$ (at temperature $T$), and 2) LMC structural quantifiers. After having achieved such purpose, we determine to what an extent our bridges can be extended to both the semi classical and classical realms. Also, we find a strict bound relating a special LMC structural quantifier to quantum uncertainties.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0391.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Nickel; nanoparticles; Thermal; FTIR; SEM
Online: 17 July 2020 (15:25:55 CEST)
In this scientific research, thermally stable nickel nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized. Nickel nanoparticles were synthesized using phenol –formaldehyde by chemical method followed by calcination. The polymer metal complex was confirmed by FTIR and NMR. The spherical morphology of nickel nanoparticles confirmed by SEM. The crystallographic structure is confirmed by XRD and size of cobalt nanoparticles is 24.0 nm. The TGA analysis was performed over a range of 29-600OC. The TGA thermograph predicts mass decomposition of 11%, for nickel phenol-formaldehyde nanocomposite. The decomposition rate of composites is very low 2% weight loss per 100OC increment in temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0132.v1
Online: 8 March 2020 (04:40:36 CET)
Body temperature responses were recorded during phases of work (waiting to work in close proximity to search site, active work in a search site, and post-work recovery crated in vehicle) in human remains detection dogs during search training. State or federally certified human remains detection dogs (n = 8) completed eight iterations of searching, rotating through six different types of search environments to detect numerous scent sources including partial and complete, buried, hidden, or fully visible human remains. Internal temperature (Tgi) of the body was measured continuously using an ingestible thermistor in the gastrointestinal tract. Mean total phase times were: waiting to work: 9.17 minutes (± 2.27); active work: 8:58 minutes (± 2:49); and post work recovery: 24:04 minutes (± 10.59). Tgi was impacted by phase of work (P < 0.001) with a small increase during active work, with mean peak temperature 39.4 °C (± 0.34 ºC) during that period. Tgi continued to increase for a mean of 7:37 (± 6:04) minutes into the post-work recovery phase in the handler’s vehicle with a mean peak Tgi of 39.66 °C (± 0.41 ºC). No significant increase in temperature was measured during the waiting to work phase, suggesting anticipation of work did not appear to contribute to overall body temperature increase during the waiting to work recovery cycle. Continued increase of gastrointestinal body temperature several minutes after cessation of exercise indicates that risk of heat injury does not immediately stop when the dog stops exercising, although none of the dogs in this study reached clinically concerning body temperatures or displayed any behavioral signs suggestive of pending heat injury. More work is needed to better understand the impact of vehicle crating on post-work recovery temperatures in dogs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0179.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: methane; desorption; hydraulic; thermal; high pressure water injection
Online: 10 May 2018 (08:22:23 CEST)
Moisture and thermal are the key factors for influencing methane desorption during CBM exploitation. Using high pressure water injection technology into coalbed, new fractures and pathways are formed to methane transport. It is existed a phenomenon of water inhibiting gas flow. This study is focused on various water pressures impacted on gas adsorbed coal samples, then the desorption capacity could be revealed under different conditions. And the results are shown that methane desorption capacity was decreased with water pressure increased at room temperature and the downtrend would be steady until water pressure was large enough. Heating could promote gas desorption capacity effectively, with the increasing of water injection pressures, the promotion of thermal on desorption became more obvious. These results are expected to provide a clearer understanding of theoretical efficiency of heat water or steam injection into coalbed, they can provide some theoretical and experimental guidance on CBM production and methane control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0162.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: thermal emittance; conversion efficiency; selective solar absorber; thermal energy; evacuated flat panel; solar energy
Online: 20 October 2020 (12:18:01 CEST)
This study refers to the optimization of a Selective Solar Absorber to improve the Sun-to-thermal conversion efficiency at mid temperatures in high vacuum flat thermal collectors. Efficiency has been evaluated by using analytical formula and a numerical thermal model. Both results have been experimentally validated using a commercial absorber in a custom experimental set-up. The optimization procedure aimed at obtaining Selective Solar Absorber is presented and discussed in the case of a metal dielectric multilayer based on Cr2O3 and Ti. The importance of adopting a real spectral emissivity curve to estimate high thermal efficiency at high temperatures in selective solar absorber is outlined. Optimized absorber multilayers can be 8% more efficient than the commercial alternative at 250 °C operating temperatures and up to 27% more efficient at 300 °C. Once the multilayer has been optimized the choice of a very low emissivity substrate such as copper allows to further improve efficiency and to reach stagnation temperature higher than 400 °C without Sun concentration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1010027
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: phase change materials; cement; smart material; energy storage; buildings; thermal performance; DSC; thermal conductivity
Online: 26 April 2019 (00:00:00 CEST)
When focusing on materials science in civil engineering, the current trend is to investigate the use of innovative solutions in order to enhance thermal and energy performances. This trend is amplified with the need for a sustainable development strategy for the construction sector. This paper assesses the integration of a Phase Change Material (PCM) in cement intended for building construction. The key characteristic of PCMs is their capacity to absorb energy and restore it. In building construction, this feature could be harnessed to save energy by incorporating PCMs in the materials used. In this study, passive integration of PCM in cement was tested and thermal properties of such an integration was assessed. The results provide insights into how PCMs affect cement as part of the concrete mixture, thus identifying the contribution of PCM-based cements in concrete mixtures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0684.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Thermal updraft velocity; Thermal convection; Soaring; Atmospheric Boundary Layer; Soaring birds; Sailplane; Aviation safety.
Online: 29 October 2018 (13:10:05 CET)
A forecasting scheme of the thermal updraft velocity based on a theoretical model and data collected from flights records at gliding competitions, is presented. The forecasting scheme was based on the hypothesis that there is linear relationship between the overheat function at ground surface and the temperature difference between soil and air. The proportionality factor of this relationship was determined experimentally using observations recorded during gliding flights. The results showed that based on this simple scheme forecasting thermal convection is possible at any geographical location.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0355.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: solar energy; photovoltaic-thermal; electrical efficiency; thermal efficiency; exergetic efficiency; high-vacuum; evacuated flat plate
Online: 26 May 2022 (03:48:23 CEST)
This work deals with the performance evaluation of novel flat photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) modules under vacuum. Through a 1D (dimensional) steady-state-energy-balance numerical model developed in MATLAB, two different layouts are studied: the first consisting of a photovoltaic (PV) cell installed just below the glass encapsulating the flat panel, and the second where the PV cell is placed on the selective solar absorber (SSA). In both cases the thermal and electrical efficiencies have been evaluated at different SSA operating temperatures, in the range of 323 K to 423 K. The analysis has been conducted at different energy bandgap (Ebg) of the PV cell and assuming a variable transmittance or emittance of the PV cell, depending on the design. The two systems efficiency comparison has been carried out at the same operating temperature. Overall, this work highlights the importance of high vacuum insulation, which guarantees the reduction of convective thermal losses, and shows that the maximum energy is produced for PV cells with Ebg ≈1.5-1.7 eV, depending on layout and operating temperature, by including the thermal output in the PV-T optimization. The energy and exergy efficiencies obtainable using the proposed PV-T systems are considerably improved compared to the results previously reported in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0750.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Solar thermal; flat-plate collector; stagnation; steam range; two-phase mixture model; thermal-hydraulic model.
Online: 30 December 2020 (10:02:25 CET)
Stagnation is the transient state of a solar thermal system under high solar irradiation where the useful solar gain is zero. Both flat-plate collectors with selective absorber coatings and vacuum-tube collectors exhibit stagnation temperatures far above the saturation temperature of the glycol-based heat carriers within the range of typical system pressures. Therefore, stagnation is always associated with vaporization and propagation of vapor into the pipes of the solar circuit. It is therefore essential to design the system in such a way that vapor never reaches components that cannot withstand high temperatures. In this article, a thermal-hydraulic model based on the integral form of a two-phase mixture model and a drift-flux correlation is presented. The model is applicable to solar thermal flat-plate collectors with meander-shaped absorber tubes and selective absorber coatings. Experimental data from stagnation experiments on two systems, which are identical except for the optical properties of the absorber coating, allowed comparison with simulations carried out under the same boundary conditions. The absorber of one system features a conventional highly selective coating, while the absorber of the other system features a thermochromic coating, which exhibits a significantly lower stagnation temperature. Comparison of simulation results and experimental data show good conformity. This model is implemented into an open-source software tool called “THD” for the thermal-hydraulic dimensioning of solar systems. The latest version of THD, updated by the results of this article, enables planners to achieve cost-optimal design of solar thermal systems and to ensure failsafe operation by predicting the steam range under the initial and boundary conditions of worst-case scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0130.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: epoxy resin; ZnO nanoparticles; thermal; nanoindentation
Online: 2 November 2023 (08:40:24 CET)
In this study, the effect of ZnO nanoparticles (Zn NPs) on the performance of epoxy resin composites was investigated. The new ZnO/epoxy resin composites were synthesized using halloysite nanotubes (HNT) and different types of ZnO nanoparticles (commercial ZnO and ZnO-ODTES). These ZnO nanoparticles were utilized for intending to enhance the interfacial bonding between the epoxy resin and the reinforcement. Various methods such as FTIR, TGA, DSC, TEM-EDX, and Nanoindentation analyses were used to prove that the ZnO nanoparticles can improve the properties of epoxy resin composites. The thermal properties of the epoxy resin composites were enhanced to a greater extent by the addition of ZnO NPS. DSC testing proved that the epoxy resin composites modified with ZnO NPS are more flexible and elastic than unmodified epoxy resin. It was seen that the epoxy resin modified with ZnO-ODTES shows a much improved hardness and penetration depth compared to the other samples. These findings can pave the way for the developing of ZnO-based marine coatings with improved properties.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0064.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: proteinoids; origin of life; thermal proteins
Online: 1 November 2023 (13:11:45 CET)
Understanding the origins of life involves dealing with the unresolved question of how the first informational polymers and cell-like structures emerged from prebiotic chemistry. The formation of thermal proteinoids through the heating of mixtures of amino acids, leading to the spontaneous formation of protocells enclosed by membranes, presents a compelling model for the synthesis of polypeptides in an abiogenic context. Recent research has revealed the presence of electrical excitability and signal processing capacities in proteinoids, indicating the possibility of primitive cognitive functions and problem-solving capabilities. The present study provides a comprehensive examination of the features shown by heat proteinoids and their potential significance in the context of the artificial formation of polypeptides during the early stages of Earth’s development. Experiments showcasing the possibility for unconventional computing with proteinoids as well as modelling proteinoid assemblies into synthetic proto-brains are given. Proteinoids’ robust abiogenic production, biomimetic features, and computational capability shed light on potential phases in the evolution of polypeptides and primitive life from the primordial environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0187.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: UAV; thermal images; surface temperature; calibration
Online: 4 October 2023 (11:44:26 CEST)
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) thermal imagery offers several advantages in environmental monitoring, as it can provide a low-cost, high-resolution, and flexible solution to measure the temperature of the surface of the land. Limitations related to the maximum load of the drone lead to use of lightweight uncooled thermal cameras whose internal components are not stabilized to a constant temperature. Such cameras suffer from several unwanted effects that contribute to the increase in temperature measurement error from ±0.5 °C in laboratory conditions, to ±5 °C in unstable flight conditions. This article describes a post processing procedure, that reduces the above unwanted effects. It consists of following steps: i) devignetting using single image vignette correction algorithm, ii) georeferencing of images using EXIF data, scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) stitching, and gradient descent optimisation, and iii) temperature calibration by minimisation of bias between overlapping thermal images using gradient descent optimisation. The solution was tested in several case studies of river areas, where natural water bodies were used as a reference temperature benchmark. In all tests, the precision of the measurements was increased. The root of the mean of the Square of Errors RMSE on average was reduced by 39.0% and Mean of the absolute value of Errors MAE by 40.5%. The proposed algorithm can be called self-calibrating, as in contrast to other known solutions is fully automatic, uses only field data and does not require any calibration equipment or additional operator effort. A Python implementation of the solution is available on GitHub.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1151.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: bio-based lubricant; thermal stability; tribology
Online: 19 September 2023 (04:08:53 CEST)
Castor oil may be differentiated from other non-edible vegetable oils because of its main composition of hydroxylated fatty acids. Ricinoleic acid comprises 80–90% wt. of fatty acids in castor oil (Ricinus communis). In this study, the thermo-oxidative stability and tribological behavior of bio-based lubricant samples synthesized from castor oil using isoamyl alcohol were evaluated. Initially, the compositional and physicochemical properties of the obtained samples were assessed using 1H NMR, FTIR, and ASTM methods. Oxidative stability of the samples was evaluated using Rancimat method at 110 °C under air flow. The final biolubricant sample (BL2), obtained after esterification, epoxidation, and oxirane rings opening reactions, presented an oxidation stability time (OST) of 14.3 h. The thermal stability was also evaluated by thermogravimetry (TG) from the mass variations under inert and oxidative atmosphere. BL2 showed higher thermal stability compared to the other samples, demonstrating higher decomposition temperatures in both inert (339.04 °C) and oxidative (338.47 °C) atmospheres, for a mass loss of 50%. The tribological properties of the samples were evaluated using a four-ball tribometer configuration. The BL1 and BL2 samples exhibited lower friction coefficients than the mineral oil sample (MOS) by 21.5% and 43.1%, respectively. Regarding wear, the observed wear scar diameter (WSD) was also lower in BL1 and BL2 compared to MOS by 5.2% and 40.4%, respectively. The results of the tribological evaluation suggest that both samples obtained in this study have promising potential for applications in lubricating machines and mechanical systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0499.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: thermal; object detection; conditioning; weather-aware
Online: 7 September 2023 (09:29:00 CEST)
Deployments of real-world object-detection systems often experience a degradation in performance over time due to concept drift. Systems that leverage thermal cameras are especially susceptible because the respective thermal signatures of objects and their surroundings are highly sensitive to environmental changes. In this study, a conditioning method is investigated. The method aims to guide the training loop of thermal object detection systems by leveraging an auxiliary branch to predict the weather, while directly or indirectly conditioning the baseline detection system. Leveraging such an approach to train detection networks does not necessarily improve the performance of native architectures, however, it can be observed that conditioned networks manage to extract a signal from thermal images that guides the network to detect objects that baseline models miss. As the extracted signal appears to be quite noisy and very challenging to regress accurately, further work is needed to identify an ideal optimization vector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0867.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: thermal insulation; energy efficiency; environmental impact
Online: 11 May 2023 (13:54:19 CEST)
The thermal insulation properties of building walls are critical to the overall energy efficiency and comfort of a building. One important factor that can affect these properties is the type of bricks used in construction. Bricks can vary in their geometry and thermal coefficient, which can impact their ability to transfer heat through the wall. The geometry of a brick can affect its thermal properties by altering the amount of air trapped within it and the surface area available for heat transfer. Hollow bricks or those with complex geometries may have lower thermal conductivity than regular solid bricks due to the air pockets trapped within them. Conversely, larger surface areas on the exterior of the brick can increase heat transfer. The thermal coefficient of clay, a common material used in brick production, is another important factor. Clay has a relatively low thermal conductivity, meaning it is a poor conductor of heat. However, the quality of the clay, as well as the firing temperature and duration used in brick production, can impact its thermal coefficient. Higher firing temperatures and longer firing times can result in a more compact and dense clay brick, which can improve its thermal properties. In summary, the thermal insulation properties of building walls can be significantly affected by the type of bricks used in their construction. It is important to consider the geometry and thermal coefficient of the bricks when designing a building to achieve the desired level of thermal insulation. By selecting bricks with appropriate properties, designers can help to improve the energy efficiency and comfort of the building while reducing its environmental impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0411.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Brominated butyl rubber; Thermal decomposition; Lifetime
Online: 23 September 2021 (13:15:39 CEST)
The thermal decomposition of brominated butyl rubber under air atmosphere was investigated by thermogravimetry (TG) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) at various heating rates. The kinetic parameters were evaluated by TG and the isoconversional method developed by Ozawa. One prominent decomposition stage was observed in the DTG curves at high heating rates while an additional small peak was observed at low heating rates. The apparent activation energy determined using the TG method ranged from 219.31–228.13 kJ·mol-1 at various heating rates. The non-isothermal degradation was found to be a first order reaction, and the activation energy, as determined by the isoconversional method, increased with an increase in mass loss. The kinetic data suggested that brominated butyl rubber had excellent thermal stability. This study will indirectly aid in improving rubber pyrolysis methods and in enhancing the heat resistance of materials.
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Green roof; Sheet metal; Thermal insulation
Online: 15 March 2021 (11:28:53 CET)
The purpose of this study was to arrange a green roof on a sheet metal house to achieve winter heat preservation and summer thermal insulation using different plants and soil media, and to maintain the advantage of cost-saving and quick installation of sheet metal houses. In terms of the research method, the roof insulation, heat preservation and plant growth index were tested. Plants were grown in 10 container-type green roofs on the sheet metal house roof, and the physical environment of the building was monitored for one year. Five containers of commercially-available culture soil and five containers of sustainable composite were used as the media for growing five kinds of plants, respectively. The control group only had a sheet metal house roof. There were 11 experimental modules for testing whether the green roofs had thermal insulation, heat preservation and plant growth effects on a general sheet metal house. The results showed that, regarding the thermal insulation benefit assessment, the Sedum acre cv. robustum of green roof Groups B to D caused the temperature to be 38.29°C lower than the surface of the simple sheet metal house roof in August, showing a temperature difference of 54%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0394.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: thermal properties; temperature diffusivity; nano cellulose
Online: 17 July 2020 (15:36:15 CEST)
The thermal properties of novel nanomaterials play a significant role in determining the performance of the material in technological applications. Herein, direct measurement of the temperature diffusivity of cellulose nanocomposite films was carried out by the micro-contact method. Polymer films containing up to 2%wt. of nanocellulose were synthesised by a simple chemical process. Films of a high optical transmittance T ≈ 80 % (for a 200- μ m-thick film), which were up to 44% crystalline, were characterised. Two different modalities of temperature diffusivity based on: 1) a resistance change and 2) micro-thermocouple detected modulation of a heat wave, were used for the polymer films with cross-sections of ∼ 100 μ m thickness. Twice different in-plane α ‖ and out-of-plane α ⊥ temperature diffusivities were directly determined with high fidelity: α ‖ = 2 . 12 × 10 − 7 m 2 /s and α ⊥ = 1 . 13 × 10 − 7 m 2 /s. An amorphous polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber was measured for comparison α ‖ = 1 . 15 × 10 − 7 m 2 /s. This work provides an example of a direct contact measurement of thermal properties of nanocellulose composite films. The thermal diffusivity, which is usually high in strongly interconnected networks and crystals, was investigated for the first time in this composite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0226.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: polypropylene, talc, boron nitride, thermal properties
Online: 22 January 2019 (17:45:38 CET)
The preparation and thermal properties of polypropylene foils, filled with ceramic microparticles, talc or boron nitride, are described. A slow, linear increase of thermal conductivity with volume percent of filler up to 30 vol % is detected. Reduction of the foil thickness bellow 200 micrometers leads to a significant increase of thermal conductivity. Specific thermal capacities of foils are temperature dependent, they decrease with filler incorporation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0156.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: nanocomposite; melting; freezing; graphene; thermal conductivity
Online: 16 January 2019 (08:33:16 CET)
In the present work freezing and melting characteristics of water seeded with chemically functionalized graphene nano-platelets in a vertical cylindrical capsule was experimentally studied. The volume percentage of functionalized graphene nano-platelets was varied from 0.1% to 0.5% with an interval of 0.1%. The stability of the synthesised samples were carried out by zeta potential distribution. The thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite samples were experimentally measured using transient hot wire method. A maximum enhancement of ~24% in the thermal conductivity was observed for the 0.5% volume percentage in the liquid state while a ~53% enhancement in the solid state. Freezing and melting behaviour of water dispersed with graphene nanoplatelets were carried out using a cylindrical stainless steel capsule in a constant temperature bath. The bath temperatures considered for studying freezing characteristics were considered to be −6 °C and −10 °C, while to study the melting characteristics the bath temperature was set as 31 °C and 36 °C. The freezing and melting time decreased for all the test conditions when the volume percentage of GnP increased. The freezing rate was enhanced by ~ 43% and ~32% for the bath temperatures of −6 °C and −10 °C respectively at 0.5 vol % of graphene loading. The melting rate was enhanced by ~42% and ~63% for the bath temperature of 31 °C and 36 °C respectively at 0.5 vol % of graphene loading.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0184.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: density; gas permeability; thermal conductivity; densification
Online: 10 July 2018 (14:44:48 CEST)
This study investigated the evolution of density, gas permeability and thermal conductivity of sugar maple wood during the thermo-hygro-mechanical densification process. The results suggested that the oven-dry average density of densified samples was significantly higher than that of the control samples. However, the oven-dry density did not show a linear increase with the decrease of wood samples thickness. The radial intrinsic gas permeability of the control samples was 5 to 40 times higher than that of densified samples, which indicated that the void volume of wood was reduced notably after the densification process. The thermal conductivity increased by 0.5 - 1.5% per percent increase of moisture content for densified samples. The thermal conductivity of densified wood was lower than that of the control samples. The densification time had significant effects on the oven-dry density and gas permeability. Both the densification time and the moisture content had significant effects on thermal conductivity, but their interaction effect was not significant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Shadings; Thermal Performance; Iwan; experimental; EnergyPlus
Online: 12 October 2017 (05:49:55 CEST)
In this paper, the effect of an exterior shading element (Iwan) on energy consumption in four different climatic regions, and for different geographical directions, has been investigated numerically and experimentally. By applying different materials and techniques and creating various elements and spaces, architects make hard climatic conditions more tolerable for residents. Iwan is one of the cooling elements which is used in different forms and dimensions in the Islamic architecture. In the present research, Iwan has been introduced as a climatic element in traditional and contemporary architectures and its role in reducing the energy consumption in buildings has been studied. In this respect, first, the thermal loads of a building without Iwan are computed by means of EnergyPlus software. Then, four different forms of Iwan are added to the above-mentioned structure along the four principal geographical directions, and the effect of Iwan on the reduction of thermal loads is analyzed for four different climates. Finally, the design parameters of Iwan, in terms of depth and form, that can help reduce the thermal loads in different climatic conditions are presented. The results show that the best position for using an Iwan is the south direction and the use of Iwan in temperate & humid, hot & humid, cold & mountainous and hot & dry climates could reduce the energy consumption in buildings by 32%, 26%, 14%, and 29%, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0042.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: bilayer graphene; in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities; non-equilibrium molecular dynamics; anisotropic thermal transport
Online: 2 October 2023 (05:09:39 CEST)
Efficient thermal management of modern electronics requires the use of thin films with highly anisotropic thermal conductivity. Such films enable the effective dissipation of excess heat along one direction while simultaneously providing thermal insulation along the perpendicular direction. In this study, we investigate the thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene (BLG) sheets using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics, examining both in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities. The in-plane thermal conductivity of 10 nm × 10 nm BLG with zigzag and armchair edges at room temperature is found to be around 204 W/m.K and 124 W/m.K, respectively. The in-plane thermal conductivity of BLG increases with sheet length. For all sizes, BLG with a zigzag edge exhibits higher thermal conductivity than that of the armchair edge, with this difference becoming more pronounced as the lengths of the sheets increase. In addition, increasing temperature from 300 K to 600 K decreases the in-plane thermal conductivity of a 10 nm× 10 nm zigzag BLG by about 34%. Similarly, the application of a 12.5% tensile strain induces a 51% reduction in its thermal conductivity compared to the strain-free values. Armchair configurations exhibit similar responses to variations in temperature and strain, but with less sensitivity. Furthermore, the cross-plane thermal conductivity of BLG at 300 K is estimated to be 0.05 W/m·K, significantly lower than the in-plane results by approximately four orders of magnitude. The cross-plane thermal conductance of BLG decreases with increasing temperatures, specifically, at 600 K, its value is almost 16% of that observed at 300 K.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2001.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: Perlite Composite-filled Paper Honeycomb Sandwich; Thermal Insulation Board; Green Sandwich Structure; Flexural Properties; Thermal Conductivity
Online: 31 July 2023 (02:21:42 CEST)
In this work, three different types of sandwich structures were manufactured using Formica sheet (a paper-based sheet) as skin and perlite/sodium silicate foam as core with/without the paper honeycomb. The sandwich structures were fabricated by attaching Formica sheets on both sides of the honeycomb, perlite/sodium silicate foam, and perlite/sodium silicate foam-filled honeycomb core panels. The flexural characteristics were studied by a three-point bending test and the thermal conductivity was measured using Lee’s thermal conductivity apparatus. The results demonstrated a significant improvement in flexural properties, including core shear stress, facing stress, bending stress, and energy absorption, when incorporating the paper honeycomb reinforcement. The thermal conductivity and flexural properties were found to be well-compatible with the existing building materials for similar applications in the literature. The failure investigation revealed that the sandwiches with paper honeycomb only prematurely failed due to core buckling, whereas the foam-filled honeycomb core-based sandwiches were able to sustain higher loads, exhibiting material failures such as core shear failure, skin rapture, and delamination. It is found that the foam-filled paper honeycomb sandwich structures can withstand higher bending loads compared to foam core-based and paper honeycomb-based sandwich structures. These developed sandwiches offer potential as green materials due to the characteristics of their constituent materials and can find valuable applications in the building thermal insulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0284.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Park cooling effect; Urban Heat Island; Thermal comfort; Perceived Thermal Comfort; Physiological Equivalent Temperature; Cognitive Maps
Online: 12 August 2020 (11:32:18 CEST)
The combined effects of global warming and increasing urban heat islands (UHIs) on air temperature and heat stress in cities are notable physical and mental health implications for citizens. With research having shown the effective role of urban green spaces in decreasing urban heat, this study investigated the cooling effect of a large urban park on thermal comfort outside the park area, from psychological and physiological perspectives. The studied park is located in the center of Madrid and adjacent to UHI. The study was performed by conducting field measurements and a survey with questionnaires. The measurements made on six summer days (with two-week intervals) showed that the park’s cooling effect could decrease the air temperature by 2.4-2.8°C right up to the edge of the heat island (600m), and decrease the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) by about 3.9°C. By decreasing air temperature and PET, this park was also shown to increase the perceived thermal comfort (PTC) of the citizens from the psychological perspective in the defined area of effect. This perceived thermal comfort was found to have a significant inverse relationship with PET (P-value <0.05). The examination of cognitive maps drawn by citizens showed that out of the 145 respondents, 68.3% marked the park as the area that they perceive as having the greatest thermal comfort, and prefer as the place to spend time enjoying thermal comfort, irrespective of its distance from their location.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: earth-air heat exchanger; energy efficiency; using thermal mass; smart and integrated control systems; thermal comfort
Online: 7 December 2019 (01:48:05 CET)
Growing popularity of buildings with integrated sub-systems, requires a review of methods to optimize the preheat of ventilation air. An integrated system permits using geothermal heat storage parallel to the direct outdoor air intake with additional treatment in the mechanical room as a part of building automatic control system. Earth Air Heat Exchanger (EAHX) has many advantages but also has many unanswered questions. Some of the drawbacks are: a possible entry of radon gas, high humidity in the shoulder seasons as well as the need for two different air intake sources with a choice that depends on the actual weather conditions. While in winter, the EAHX may be used continuously to ensure thermal comfort, in other seasons, its operation must be automatically controlled. To generate the missing information about the EAHX technology we have examined two nearly identical EAHX systems, one placed in ground next to the building and the other under the basement slab. In another project, we have reinforced the ground storage action by heat exchanger placed on the return pipes of the hydronic heating system. Effectively, the information provided in this paper, shows advantages of merging both these approaches while the EAHX could be placed under the house or near the basement foundation that is using an exterior basement insulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0088.v2
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: earth-air heat exchanger; energy efficiency; using thermal mass; smart and integrated control systems, thermal comfort
Online: 29 October 2019 (09:58:31 CET)
Growing popularity of smart and integrated buildings requires a review of methods to optimize the preheat of ventilation air. An integrated system permits using heat ex-changers located in the mechanical room or in the future even using an exterior wall as a heat exchanger. One may ask the question how does the earth-air heat exchanger (EAHX) technology fitts into this function. EAHX has many advantages but also has many unanswered questions. Some of the drawbacks are: a possible entry of radon gas, high humidity in the shoulder seasons as well as the need for two different air intake sources with a choice that depends on the actual weather conditions. While in winter, the EAHX may be used continuously to ensure thermal comfort, in other seasons, its operation must be automatically controlled. To generate the missing information about the EAHX technology we reviewed literature and examined two nearly identical EAHX systems, placed either in ground next to the building or under the basement slab. Effectively, the information provided in this paper, shows advantages of merging both these approaches while the EAHX shoud be placed under the house or near the basement foundation.