Preprint Article Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Urban Canyon in the CBD of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil): Thermal Profile of Avenida Rio Branco during Summer

Version 1 : Received: 10 July 2021 / Approved: 12 July 2021 / Online: 12 July 2021 (18:00:09 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 13 November 2021 / Approved: 15 November 2021 / Online: 15 November 2021 (12:30:33 CET)

How to cite: Lemos, L.D.O.; Oscar-Júnior, A.C.; Mendonça, F. Urban Canyon in the CBD of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil): Thermal Profile of Avenida Rio Branco during Summer. Preprints 2021, 2021070272 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202107.0272.v2). Lemos, L.D.O.; Oscar-Júnior, A.C.; Mendonça, F. Urban Canyon in the CBD of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil): Thermal Profile of Avenida Rio Branco during Summer. Preprints 2021, 2021070272 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202107.0272.v2).

Abstract

This study aims to evaluate the land surface temperature (LST) and the thermal characteristics of the Urban Canopy Layer (UCL) of the urban canyon in Avenida Rio Branco in the Central Business District (CBD) of Rio de Janeiro during summer. In order to conduct this evaluation, two methods were employed: 1) TIRS Landsat-8 sensor for data selection and processing (latest generation, 2011-2020); ; 2) field survey using nine sampling points — seven along two mobile transects, one fixed point, and one vertical measurement point, which required the use of a RPA (Remotely Piloted Aircraft). Three categories of analysis were established for the field survey based on the prevailing synoptic situations: stability, instability, and post-instability. The CBD is characterized by extensive areas with surface heat islands, in which temperatures were higher than 38.9°C; the areas with milder LSTs were Campo do Santana, Avenida Rio Branco, and one of the Mixed-Use Zones (Praça Mauá). With respect to Rio Branco Avenue, the LST niches of lowest elevation were derived through building shadowing; however, the orbital data diverged from the observation data of the ten field-study days. In situ data revealed that the characteristics urban morphology of Avenida Rio Branco is susceptible to the formation of heat islands, presenting heat islands of very strong magnitude (over 6.1°C) in atmospheric stability, strong magnitude (4.1-6.0°C) in atmospheric instability, and moderate magnitude (2.1°C-4.0°C) in post-atmospheric instability. Despite the synoptic situation, thermal cores were concentrated at 1 pm. The intersection between Avenida Rio Branco, Rua do Ouvidor, and Praça Mauá stored most of the solar energy received during the day due to the greater sky obstruction caused by the verticalization. Finally, vertical analysis demonstrated the formation of a thermal inversion on the night of the highest mean air temperature (29.5°C), probably, due to the roughness and number of buildings in the urban canyon.

Keywords

Urban climate; thermal field; three-dimensional structure; surface temperatures; heat islands; thermal inversion

Subject

EARTH SCIENCES, Atmospheric Science

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