ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0593.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: chemotherapy; radiotherapy; sex-specificity
Online: 24 June 2021 (08:47:39 CEST)
The impact of sex in the development of long-term toxicities affecting the quality of life of cancer survivors has not been investigated experimentally. To address this issue, a series of neurologic and cardiologic endpoints were used to investigate sex-based differences triggered by paclitaxel treatment and radiotherapy exposure. Male and female WT mice were treated with Paclitaxel (150 and 300 mg/kg) administered weekly over 6 weeks or exposed to 19 Gy cardiac irradiation. Cohorts were analyzed for behavioral and neurobiologic endpoints to assess systemic toxicity of paclitaxel or cardiovascular endpoints to assess radiotherapy toxicity. Interestingly, female WT mice exhibited enhanced tolerance compared to male WT mice regardless of the treatment regimen. To provide insight into the possible sex-specific protective mechanisms, rhoB deficient animals and elderly mice (22 months) were used with a focus on the possible contribution of sex hormones including estrogen. RhoB deficiency and advanced age had no impact on neurocognitive impairment induced by Paclitaxel but reversed the cardioprotection was observed in females after radiotherapy. Conversely, rhoB deficiency protected males from radiation toxicity. In sum, rhoB was identified as a molecular determinant driving estrogen dependent cardioprotection in female mice, whereas neuroprotection was not sex-hormone dependent. To our knowledge, this study revealed for the first time sex- and organ-specific responses to paclitaxel and radiotherapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0323.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Rhizopus; Mucor; Mucormycosis; Murine; sex
Online: 12 April 2021 (21:07:37 CEST)
There is increased concern that the quality, generalizability, and reproducibility of biomedical research can be influenced by the sex of animals used. We studied the differences between male and female mice in response to invasive pulmonary mucormycosis including susceptibility to infection, host immune reaction, and responses to antifungal therapy. We used diabetic ketoacidotic (DKA) or neutropenic mice infected with either Rhizopus delemar or Mucor circinelloides. The only difference detected was that when DKA mice were infected with M. circinelloides, female mice were more resistant to infection than male mice (median survival time of 5 vs. 2 days for female and male mice, respectively). However, a 100% lethality was detected among infected animals of both sexes. Treatment with either liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) or posaconazole (POSA) protected mice from infection and eliminated the difference seen between infected but untreated female and male mice. Treatment with L-AMB consistently outperformed POSA in prolonging survival and reducing tissue fungal burden of DKA and neutropenic mice infected with R. delemar or M. circinelloides, in both mouse sexes. Although little difference was detected in cytokine levels among both sexes, mucormycosis infection in the DKA mouse model induced more inflammatory cytokines/chemokines involved in neutrophil (CXCL1) and macrophage (CXCL2) recruitment vs. uninfected mice. As expected, this inflammatory response was reduced in the neutropenic mouse model. Our studies show that there are few differences between female and male DKA or neutropenic mice infected with mucormycosis with no effect on the outcome of treatment or host immune response.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0487.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: sex; anxiety disorders; 5-HT; tryptophan; immune system; inflammation
Online: 29 August 2018 (08:58:26 CEST)
Anxiety disorders manifest in women more than in men by almost twofold. This narrative review aims to summarize the sex-related biological factors, which underpin anxiety, focusing on the interactions of sex and tryptophan/serotonin with anxiety.A literature search was conducted using Google Scholar, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and EMBASE databases from inception until December 31, 2017. This review shows that sex may interact with many serotonin functions thereby modulating anxiety, including 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C receptors, 5-HT transporter and central 5-HT concentrations and metabolism. Sex-steroids modulate the expression of serotonin transporter genes, creating a difference in serotonin availability. Sex and estrous cycle phases lead to varying anxiety responses to tryptophan depletion. Testosterone, progesterone and estrogen are important factors in mediating sex differences in serotonin responses to anxiety-generating behavioral tests. At prenatal levels, there are sex-related differences in the reciprocal relationships between serotonin and the HPA-axis, which modulate anxiety-like behaviors. Activated immune-inflammatory pathways induce indoleamine-2,3-dioxynease (IDO) and the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway thereby increasing tryptophan degradation and increasing the production of TRYCATs including kynurenine and quinolinic acid, which may create an overall anxiogenic effect. The effects of immune activation on IDO are significantly more pronounced in women than men and therefore females may show increased levels of anxiogenic TRYCAT following immune challenge. Aberrations in the IDO-activated TRYCAT pathway are found in pregnant females and parturients and are associated with increased anxiety levels in the postnatal period. The results of this review underscore the necessity of studying the associations between serotonin and anxiety in both sexes taking into account the effects of immune activation on IDO and production of anxiogenic TRYCATs. Future anxiety research should focus on the interactions between serotonin/tryptophan and sex, sex hormones, the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, the HPA axis and the immune system through production of anxiogenic TRYCATs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0064.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: sex differences; suicide attempt; late life; depression; physical disability
Online: 11 December 2017 (13:04:01 CET)
Relatively little research attention has been paid to sex issues in late life suicidal behaviour. The aim was to compare clinical characteristics of women and men aged 70+ who were hospitalized after a suicide attempt. We hypothesized higher depression and anxiety scores in women, and we expected to find that men would more often attribute the attempt to health problems and compromised autonomy. Participants (56 women and 47 men, mean age 80) were interviewed by a psychologist. In addition to psychiatric and somatic health assessments, participants responded to an open-ended question concerning attributions of the attempt. There were no sex differences in depression and anxiety, but women were more likely to report that they found their situation hopeless (67.9% vs. 43.8%, p = 0.02). At least one serious physical disability was noted in 60.7% of the women and 53.2% of the men (p = 0.55). Proportions attributing their attempt to somatic illness did not differ (women, 14.5% vs. men 17.4%, p = 0.79), and similar proportions attributed the attempt to reduced autonomy (women, 21.8% vs. men, 26.1 %, p = 0.64). The unexpected lack of sex differences might be influenced by cultural context in which sex norms play a part.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0262.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: sex differences; eating behavior; food intake; biopsychosocial; children; brain imaging
Online: 26 January 2019 (02:49:04 CET)
The prevalence of obesity and eating disorders varies by sex, but the extent to which sex influences eating behaviors, especially in childhood, has received less attention. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on sex differences in eating behavior in children and present new findings supporting the role of sex in child appetitive traits and neural responses to food cues. In children, the literature shows sex differences in basic taste response, food acceptance, eating self-regulation, and appetitive traits. New analyses demonstrate that sex interacts with child weight status to differentially influence appetitive traits and neural responses to food cues. Further, neuroimaging results suggest that obesity in female children is positively related to brain reactivity to higher-energy-dense food cues in regions involved with learning, memory, and object recognition, while the opposite was found in males. In addition to differences in how the brain processes information about food, other factors that may contribute to sex differences include parental feeding practices, societal emphasis on dieting, and peer influences. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings, as they may have implications for the development of effective intervention programs to improve dietary behaviors and prevent obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1817.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Language and communication; sex/gender; Autism Spectrum Disorder; children
Online: 26 June 2023 (13:54:32 CEST)
Sex/gender (S/G) differences in ASD language profiles have been poorly investigated. The present study aims to explore whether male (M) and female (F) children with ASD and with normal non-verbal cognitive abilities differ in their linguistic profiles. A sample of 76 Italian children with ASD (range: 4.9 – 8 years), including 50 M and 26 F, was retrospectively recruited. Language profiles were analyzed using standardized tests for the evaluation of receptive and expressive vocabulary as well as grammar. Grammatical comprehension was the most impaired domain compared to the other language measures in both M and F children. Comparing language profiles between S/G, F showed significantly better scores than M in grammatical production (p=.002), and M showed better active negative sentences comprehension (p=.035). Moreover, comparing the language profiles between M and F with receptive disorder, F had significantly worse grammatical comprehension and better grammatical production than M. Even among children without receptive disorder, F had significantly higher grammatical production scores. The S/G differences in language profile, particularly better expressive language in F than M, can partially contribute to the delayed ASD diagnosis or underdiagnosis of F without intellectual disability. Finally, our results document the importance of accurately investigating both expressive and receptive abilities in children with ASD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0211.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: klotho; estrogen; hippocampus; chronic stress; sex difference; stress resilience
Online: 13 December 2022 (01:09:36 CET)
Klotho (KL) is a glycosyl hydrolase and aging-suppressor gene. Stress is a risk factor for depression and anxiety that are highly comorbid with each other. The aim of this study was to determine KL is regulated by estrogen and plays an important role in sex differences in stress resilience. Our results showed that KL was regulated by estrogen in rat hippocampal neurons in vivo and in vitro and was essential for estrogen-mediated increase in the number of presynaptic vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (Vglut1) positive clusters on the dendrites of hippocampal neurons. The role of KL in sex differences in stress responses was examined in rats using three-week chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). CUMS produced a deficit in spatial learning and memory, anhedonic-like and anxiety-like behaviors in male but not female rats, which was accompanied by a reduction in KL protein levels in the hippocampus of male, but not female rats. This demonstrated the resilience of female rats to CUMS. Interestingly, knockdown of KL protein levels in the rat hippocampus of both sexes caused a decrease in stress resilience in both sexes, especially in female rats. These results suggest that regulation of KL by estrogen plays an important role in estrogen-mediated synapse formation, and KL plays a critical role in the sex differences in cognitive deficit, anhedonic-like and anxiety-like behaviors induced by chronic stress in rats, highlighting an important role of KL in sex differences in stress resilience.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0591.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: inflammation; atopy; exercise induced asthma; exercise induced bronchoconstriction; sex differences
Online: 27 August 2020 (05:31:38 CEST)
Exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a common complication of athletes and individuals who exercise regularly. It is estimated that about 90% of patients with underlying asthma experience EIB. Sex differences in the prevalence of asthma have been widely reported, with higher rates in boys vs. girls before puberty, and higher rates in women than men after puberty. Because atopy has been reported to occur at higher rates in athletes than in non-athletes, in this study we investigated sex differences in EIB and atopy in athletes. A systematic literature review identified 60 studies evaluating EIB and/or atopy in post-pubertal adult athletes (n=7501). Collectively, these studies reported: 1) a 23% prevalence of EIB in athletes; 2) a higher prevalence of atopy in male athletes vs. females; 3) a higher prevalence of atopy in athletes with EIB; and 4) a significantly higher rate of atopic EIB in male vs. female athletes. Our analysis indicates that the physiological changes that occur during exercise may differentially affect male and female athletes, and suggest an interaction between male sex, exercise, and atopic status in the course of EIB. Understanding these sex differences is important to provide personalized management plans to athletes with underlying asthma and/or atopy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0101.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Covid-19; tourism; security measures; sex differences; ANOVA
Online: 4 August 2020 (16:05:20 CEST)
The tourism sector in general and the hotelier in particular face the challenge of managing appropriate measures to deal with the covid-19 pandemic. In this sense it is useful to know what the measures are most demanded by the clientele. This research, by analyzing the variance (ANOVA) of a factor concluded that women are more demanding than men in terms of the level of demand in relation to the measures to be taken in hotels. This, as a practical application, allows to know more accurately the expectations, demands and demands of the client segmented by sex, in order to satisfy and improve the tourist experiences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0168.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: fine motor precision; vision; proprioception; sex differences; individual differences; personality
Online: 15 November 2019 (03:46:22 CET)
Previous studies have reported certain sex differences in motor performance precision. The aim of the present study was to analyse sex differences in fine motor precision performance for both hands in different tests conditions. 220 Spanish participants (ages: 12-95) performed fine motor tasks - tracing over the provided models – lines of 40 mm for both hands, two sensory conditions (PV – proprioceptive-visual; P – proprioceptive only) and three movement types (F – frontal, T – transversal and S - Sagittal). Differences in line length (the task focused on precision) were observed through MANOVA analysis for all test conditions, both sexes and different age groups. Sex differences in precision were observed in F and T movement types (statistically significance level and higher Cohens’ d was observed in condition with vision). No any statistically significant differences were observed in both hands and sensory conditions in sagittal type. Sex differences in fine motor precision were more frequently observed in the PV sensory condition in the frontal movement type and less in the sagittal one.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0677.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: gender differences; cancer; oxidative stress; oestrogens; testosterone; antioxidant; reactive oxygen species; sex hormones; mitochondria.
Online: 10 May 2023 (03:44:32 CEST)
Genetic, developmental, biochemical, and environmental variables interact intricately to produce sex differences. The significance of sex differences in cancer susceptibility is being clarified by numerous studies. Epidemiological research and cancer registries have revealed over the past few years that there are definite sex variations in cancer incidence, progression, and survival. However, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction also have a significant impact on the response to treatment of neoplastic diseases. Young women may be more protected from cancer than men because most of the proteins implicated in the regulation of redox state and mitochondrial function are under the control of sexual hormones. In this review, we describe how sexual hormones control the activity of antioxidant enzymes and mitochondria, as well as how they affect several neoplastic diseases. The molecular pathways that underlie the gender-related discrepancies in cancer that have been identified may be better understood, which may lead to more effective precision medicine and vital information on treatment options for both males and females with neoplastic illnesses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0295.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Cardiovascular Diseases; Sex differences; Pakistani; Dietary intake patterns
Online: 23 May 2022 (10:30:30 CEST)
Objective: To explore sex differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) related risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, and demographic, anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, and nutritional differences among 40-60 years old Pakistani CVD patients.Design: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study.Setting: The present study was conducted at the Mayo/King Edward Medical University (K.E.M.U) Hospital Cardiology Department (CCU-I & CCU-II), Lahore, from February 2020 to June 2020. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection.Participants: A random sample of 300 cardiac patients was included in the study. Patient records, food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recall was used to solicit information about demographic, anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical measurements; dietary intake parameters; and CVD risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes, and smoking. Results: Men CVD patients had higher BMI (33.43 kg/m2 vs. 28.69 kg/m2) and higher prevalence of hypertension (81.1% vs. 59%), hypercholesterolemia (82.4% vs. 54.5%) and smoked more cigarettes (72.6% vs. 9%) as compared to women while there was higher prevalence of diabetes among women as compared to men (59% vs. 29.4%). There were 85% women vs. 80% men consuming white bread, while half of the men reported using meat daily, as compared to only 16.6% women. There were 51.5% women and 17% men who reported consuming fruits and vegetables daily. There were 40% men and 16% women who reported consuming soft drinks. Conclusion: The study showed significant sex differences in the nutritional status and risk factors of patients with CVD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0201.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Covid-19; tourism; security measures; sex differences; ANOVA; hotel sector
Online: 8 August 2020 (04:03:12 CEST)
The tourism sector in general and the hotelier in particular face the challenge of managing appropriate measures to deal with the covid-19 pandemic. In this sense it is useful to know what the measures are most demanded by the clientele. This research, by analyzing the variance (ANOVA) of a factor concluded that women are more demanding than men in terms of the level of demand in relation to the measures to be taken in hotels. This, as a practical application, allows to know more accurately the expectations, demands and demands of the client segmented by sex, in order to satisfy and improve the tourist experiences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0146.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Covid-19; tourism; security measures; sex differences; ANOVA; hotel sector
Online: 6 August 2020 (10:08:54 CEST)
The tourism sector in general and the hotelier in particular face the challenge of managing appropriate measures to deal with the covid-19 pandemic. In this sense it is useful to know what the measures are most demanded by the clientele. This research, by analyzing the variance (ANOVA) of a factor concluded that women are more demanding than men in terms of the level of demand in relation to the measures to be taken in hotels. This, as a practical application, allows to know more accurately the expectations, demands and demands of the client segmented by sex, in order to satisfy and improve the tourist experiences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0409.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: childhood trauma; major depressive disorder; bipolar disorder; sex difference; age
Online: 31 May 2022 (03:39:57 CEST)
Background. We investigated, for the first time, whether there are any sex differences in retrospective self-reported childhood maltreatment (CM) in Italian adult patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD). Furthermore, the potential impacts of patients’ age on the CM self-report was investigated. Methods. This retrospective, cross-sectional study used the data documented in the electronic medical records of patients who were hospitalized for a 4-week psychiatric rehabilitation program. The CM was assessed using the 28-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which evaluates emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, as well as emotional and physical neglect. The linear and logistic regression models were used (α = 0.01). Results. Three hundred thirty five patients with MDD (255 women and 80 men) and 168 with BD (97 women and 71 men) were included. In both samples, considerable CM rates were identified, but no statistically significant sex differences were detected in the variety of CTQ-based CM aspects. There was a significant association, with no sex differences, between the increasing patients’ age and a decreasing burden of CM. Conclusion. Both women and men with MDD or BD experienced a similar and considerable CM burden. Our findings support the routine CM assessment in psychiatric clinical practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0168.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: sex differences; blood pressure; redox state; perimenopausal women; nitric oxide
Online: 12 December 2019 (09:43:23 CET)
Background: Sex differences in blood pressure (BP) exist during all reproductive life between women and men whereas a sharper increase in BP occurs after menopause which is associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. This study examined cardiovascular and biochemical parameters in perimenopausal women (PW) aiming to investigate the influence of sex on a) office BP and for 24 hours; b) cardiac autonomic modulation; c) redox state by measuring MDA, SOD, and catalase; d) NOx- concentration. In addition, aerobic exercise training (AET) was applied for detecting changes in cardiovascular responsiveness during the menopausal transition. Methods: Thirty-one participants were enrolled, healthy PW and age-matched men. Cardiovascular and biochemical biomarkers were evaluated at baseline and after AET (8 weeks of exercise on a treadmill, three sessions/week, duration of 30-40 minutes). Results: At rest, PW presented: a) a lower diastolic BP during daytime; b) a lower absolute and normalized LF component as well as a higher HF normalized component; d) no sex differences for redox biomarkers and NOx- concentration. After AET, only PW was responsive in lowering systolic BP that was accompanied by an increase in NOx- concentration and SOD activity. Regarding HRV, both groups were responsive to the AET. Conclusions: During the menopausal transition, systolic BP was similar to men whereas cardiac autonomic modulation remained unaltered showing the influence of sex steroids on BP. In Addition, AET was fundamental during the menopause transition by preventing an elevation in BP, minimizing the effects of aging associated with estrogen deficiency on women's cardiovascular health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0152.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: chronic limb-threatening ischemia; outcome; sex; age; limb salvage
Online: 8 December 2022 (09:39:30 CET)
Background: Identifying sex-related differences/variables associated with 30-day/1-year mortality in patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI). Methods: Multicenter/retrospective/observational study. Database sent to all-the-Italian vascular surgeries to collect all-the¬-patients operated for CLTI in 2019. Acute lower-limb ischemia and neuropathic-diabetic foot not included. Follow-up: 1-year. Data on demographics/comorbidities, treatments/outcome, and 30-day/1-year mortality investigated. Results: Information on 2399 cases (69.8% men) from 36/143 (25.2%) centers. Median (IQR) age: 73 (66-80) and 79 (71-85) yrs for men/women, respectively (p<.0001). Women more over-75 (63.2%vs40.1%, p=.0001). More men smokers (73.7%vs42.2%, p<.0001), on hemodialysis (10.1%vs6.7%, p=.006), affected by diabetes (61.9%vs52.8%, p<.0001), dyslipidemia (69.3%vs61.3%, p<.0001), hypertension (91.8%vs88.5%, p=.011), coronaropathy (43.9%vs29.4%, p<.0001), bronchopneumopathy (37.1%vs25.6%, p<.0001), underwent more open/hybrid surgeries (37.9%vs28.8%, p<.0001), and minor amputations (22%vs13.7%, p<.0001). More women underwent endovascular revascularizations (61.6%vs55.2%, p=.004), major amputations (9.6%vs6.9%, p=.024), and obtained limb-salvage if with limited gangrene (50.8%vs44.9%, p=.017). Age >75 (HR3.63, p=.003) associated with 30-day mortality. Age >75 (HR2.14, p<.0001), nephropathy (HR1.54, p<.0001), coronaropathy (HR1.26, p=.036), infection/necrosis of the foot (dry, HR1.42, p=.040; wet, HR2.04, p<.0001) associated with 1-year mortality. No sex-linked difference in mortality statistics. Conclusion: Women exhibit fewer comorbidities, but are struck by CLTI when over-75, a factor associated with short/mid-term mortality, explaining why mortality doesn’t statistically differ between the sexes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1132.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: coagulopathy; COVID-19; CXCL; dendritic cells; ICU; IL6; IL7; IFN; sex differences and similarities
Online: 16 August 2023 (07:57:44 CEST)
COVID-19-associated coagulopathy (CAC) and ICU admissions were recognized as critical health issues that contributed to the morbidity and mortality in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. Here, we analyzed publicly available data from the Yale IMPACT cohort to address immunological misfiring and sex differences in early COVID-19 ICU patients by taking various biological variables into account that were not considered. In 2020, SARS-CoV-2 was considered far more pathogenic and lethal than other circulating respiratory viruses, and it is thus surprising that published studies failed to confirm whether all patients were indeed SARS-CoV-2+ at least by one method, thereby confounding many findings/conclusions. Several key findings were further missed or misinterpreted due to lack of consideration of several important biological variables such as days from symptoms onset (DFSO), risk factors, including obesity, and treatments that influence the immunological measures evaluated. The immune profile in the early phase of infection will differ vastly from mid-to-late phases of infection, which likely coincides with recovery or is the tipping point for progression to severe illness, and thus grouping patients from different phases/DFSO into one single group is not the right approach. Taken together, our analysis shows that interferon responses were dampened and none of the early treatments were effective in reducing levels of IL6, and that obese patients exhibited highest mortality and worst clinical scores. The opportunity to understand the contribution of biological sex, risk factors, and early treatments with respect to COVID-19-related ICU admission and progression to morbidity and mortality was missed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0843.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: B cells; T cells; B1 cells; human; white blood cells; cord blood; development; ontogeny; sex differences; gender medicine
Online: 12 June 2023 (13:33:46 CEST)
Background: Cord blood represents a link between intrauterine and early extrauterine development. Cord blood cells map an important time frame in human immune imprinting processes. It is unknown whether sex of the newborn affects the lymphocyte subpopulations in cord blood. Methods: 9 B and 21 T cell subpopulations were characterized by flow cytometry in human cord blood from 16 male and 21 female newborns, respectively. Results: Except for marginal zone B cells and transitional B cells, B cell count in all subsets was higher in cord blood of male newborns than in female newborns. Frequency of naive thymus negative Th cells was significantly higher in male cord blood whereas the remaining T cell subpopulations showed a higher count in cord blood of female newborns. Conclusion: Our study is the first revealing sex differences in B and T cell subpopulations of human cord blood. These results indicate that sex might have a higher impact for the developing immune system urging the need to expand research in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0288.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Nutrient patterns; Obesity; Sex differences; Total and regional adiposity; South Africa
Online: 20 October 2021 (10:17:40 CEST)
The study evaluated the association between nutrient patterns and body fat and regional adiposity in middle-aged black South African (SA) men and women and determined if this differed by sex. Body fat and regional adiposity (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), and dietary intake (7-day quantified food frequency questionnaire) were measured in black SA men (n=414) and women (n=346). Using principal component analysis, nutrient patterns were computed from 25 nutrients in the combined sample. Four nutrient patterns were extracted, explaining 67% of the variance in nutrient intake. Animal and fat, as well as the vitamin C, sugar and potassium driven patterns, were positively associated with total adiposity. In contrast, the retinol and vitamin B12 pattern was associated with the centralisation of fat. Notably, the strength of the association between the animal-driven nutrient pattern and BMI was greater in men (1.14 kg/m2, 95%CI (0.63-1.66)) than women (0.81 kg/m2, 95%CI (0.25-1.36)) (Pint=0.017). In contrast, the plant driven pattern was associated with higher abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in women (44 cm2, 95%CI (22-67)) but not men (Pint =1.54 x 10-4). These interactions suggest that although men and women have similar nutrient patterns, the associations with the whole body and regional body fat are different.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0867.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Sex differences; Chronic Kidney Disease; Atherosclerosis; Foam Cells; Parietal Epithelial Cells (PECs); Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEi)
Online: 13 June 2023 (03:22:47 CEST)
Background: This study analyzes sex-based differences in renal structure and response to the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Methods: ApoE-/- mice (8 weeks old) received enalapril (5 mg/kg/day, subcutaneous) or PBS as a control for an additional 14 weeks. Each group consisted of six males and six females. Results: Females exhibited elevated LDL-cholesterol levels, while males presented higher creatinine levels and proteinuria. Enalapril effectively reduced blood pressure in both groups, but proteinuria decreased significantly only in females. Plaque size analysis and assessment of kidney inflammation revealed no significant sex-based differences. However, males displayed more severe glomerular injury, with increased mesangial expansion, mesangiolysis, glomerular foam cells and activated parietal epithelial cells (PECs). Enalapril mitigated mesangial expansion, glomerular inflammation (particularly in females), and the hypertrophy of PECs in males. Conclusion: This study demonstrates sex-based differences in the response to enalapril in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Males exhibited more severe glomerular injury, while enalapril provided renal protection, particularly in females. These findings suggest potential sex-specific considerations for ACE inhibitor therapy in chronic kidney disease and atherosclerosis cardiovascular disease. Further research is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanism behind these observations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0675.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: pharmacogenes; transcripts; sex-bias; drug metabolism; sex differences
Online: 28 June 2021 (15:08:38 CEST)
Individual response to drugs is highly variable and largely influenced by genetic variants and gene-expression profiles. Also, it has been shown that response to drugs is strongly sex-dependent, both in terms of efficacy and toxicity. To expand current knowledge on sex differences in the expression of genes relevant for drug response, we generated a catalogue of differentially expressed human transcripts encoded by 289 genes in 41 human tissues from 838 adult individuals of the Genotype-Tissue Expression project (GTEx, v8 release) and focused our analysis on relevant transcripts implicated in drug response. We have detected significant sex-differentiated expression of 99 transcripts encoded by 59 genes in the tissues most relevant for human pharmacology (Liver, Lung, Kidney, Small intestine terminal ileum, Skin not sun-exposed, and Whole Blood). Among them, as expected, we observed significant differences in the expression of transcripts encoded by the cytochromes in the liver, CYP2B6, CYP3A7, CYP3A5, and CYP1A1. Our systematic investigation on differences between male and female in the expression of drug response related genes, reinforce the need to overcome the sex bias of clinical trials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0380.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: sex differences; drug repurposing; sex-bias; sex-aware; review; therapeutics; pharmaceuticals; computational drug repurposing
Online: 8 March 2022 (10:34:42 CET)
Sex differences are essential factors in disease etiology and manifestation in many diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neurodegeneration (1). The biological influence of sex differences (including genomic, epigenetic, hormonal, immunological, and metabolic differences between males and females) and the lack of biomedical studies considering sex differences in their study design has led to several policies. For example, the National Institute of Health’s (NIH) sex as a biological variable (SABV) and Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER)) policies to motivate researchers to consider sex differences (2). However, drug repurposing, a promising alternative to traditional drug discovery by identifying novel uses for FDA-approved drugs, lacks sex-aware methods that can improve the identification of drugs that have sex-specific responses (1,3–5). Sex-aware drug repurposing methods either select drug candidates that are more efficacious in one sex or deprioritize drug candidates based on if they are predicted to cause a sex-bias adverse event (SBAE), unintended therapeutic effects that are more likely to occur in one sex. Computational drug repurposing methods are encouraging approaches to develop for sex-aware drug repurposing because they can prioritize sex-specific drug candidates or SBAEs at lower cost and time than traditional drug discovery. Sex-aware methods currently exist for clinical, genomic, and transcriptomic information (3,6,7). They have not expanded to other data types, such as DNA variation, which has been beneficial in other drug repurposing methods that do not consider sex (8). Additionally, some sex-aware methods suffer from poorer performance because a disproportionate number of male and female samples are available to train computational methods (3). However, there is development potential for several different categories (i.e., data mining, ligand binding predictions, molecular associations, and networks). Low-dimensional representations of molecular association and network approaches are also especially promising candidates for future sex-aware drug repurposing methodologies because they reduce the multiple hypothesis testing burden and capture sex-specific variation better than the other methods (9,10). Here we review how sex influences drug response, the current state of drug repurposing including with respect to sex-bias drug response, and how model organism study design choices influence drug repurposing validation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0213.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Gekkota; reptiles; DNA-seq; sex chromosomes; sex determination; qPCR
Online: 5 November 2020 (14:14:53 CET)
Geckos demonstrate a remarkable variability in sex determination systems, but our limited knowledge prohibits accurate conclusions on the evolution of sex determination in this group. Eyelid geckos (Eublepharidae) are of particular interest, as they encompass species with both environmental and genotypic sex determination. We identified for the first time the X-specific gene content in the Yucatán banded gecko, Coleonyx elegans, possessing X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y multiple sex chromosomes by comparative genome coverage analysis between sexes. The X-specific gene content of Coleonyx elegans was revealed to be partially homologous to genomic regions linked to the chicken autosomes 1, 6 and 11. A qPCR-based test was applied to validate a subset of X-specific genes by comparing the difference in gene copy numbers between sexes, and to explore the homology of sex chromosomes across 11 eublepharid, two phyllodactylid and one sphaerodactylid species. Homologous sex chromosomes are shared between Coleonyx elegans and Coleonyx mitratus, two species diverged approximately 34 million years ago, but not with other tested species. As far as we know, the X-specific gene content of Coleonyx elegans / Coleonyx mitratus was never involved in the sex chromosomes of other gecko lineages, indicating that the sex chromosomes in this clade of eublepharid geckos evolved independently.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1276.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: transcription factors; interactome network; sex development; sex determination; Cucumber (Cucumis sativus); metabolomic processes
Online: 1 May 2023 (00:01:26 CEST)
Plant reproduction is a very important process on Earth from the perspective of biodiversity, biomass gain and crop productivity. It is therefore important to understand sex determination process and many researchers are investigating the molecular basis of this phenomenon. However, information on the influence of transcription factors (TFs) on this process is limited, although cucumber is a model plant in this regard. In the present study, based on RNA-seq data for differential gene expression (DEG) analyses, we aimed to investigate the regulatory TFs that may influence the metabolomic processes in the shoot apex containing the forming flower buds. Therefore, a robust TF database was established for the B10v3 cucumber genome. Sex-specific interactome network maps were generated, indicating the regulatory TFs by their effects on DEGs and further on processes leading to the formation of different sex flowers. The network analysis identified major families of regulatory TFs. The most abundant families were: MYB, AP2/ERF, NAC and bZIP, and those with the greatest impact on developmental processes were identified, namely the AP/ERF family, followed by DOF, MYB, MADS and others. Thus, the central nodes and key regulators in the networks were identified with respect to male, female and hermaphrodite. Here, we proposed the first model of the regulatory network of TFs that influences the metabolism of sex development in cucumber. These findings may help to understand the molecular genetics and functional mechanisms underlying sex determination processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0310.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: palatal rugae; sex; forensic dentistry
Online: 5 July 2023 (12:38:18 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to identify gender by highlighting common coordinates and discriminating coordinates in the two sexes through palatal rugoscopy, comparing sagittal sections of the hard palate and evaluating the assistance given by digital technology and its applicability in this method. In this study, 85 digital impressions were examined. The impressions were in .stl format. The palatal rugae, retroincisal papilla, and the palatal cusps of the second premolars were isolated using Meshmixer software (Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA) by eliminating everything else from the scan. Then the impressions were aligned using the same software so as to be subsequently imported to Geomagic® Control 14 software (3D System, NC, USA). Results: 2,223 impression sections were studied and 145 coordinates that were present with a frequency greater than 50% in one or both groups were obtained: 52 discriminating traits (DT) in the male group, 29 discriminating traits in the female group, and 64 common traits (CT). The sum of all the coordinates found in the 57 impressions was 9,328: 4,569 in the male group and 4,759 in the female group (P=0). The DTs in the female group showed no statistically significant difference from the same coordinates in the male one (P=0.832). Statistically significant differences were observed in the DTs in the male group compared to the same coordinates in the female group (P=0.018). No statistically significant differences were observed in the frequency of DTs in both sexes (P=0.056). Further research in forensic odontology is needed to determine its scientific certainty. It is certain that digital technology may one day be a valuable support for the forensic odontologist but to date the lack of dedicated and certified programs limits its reliability.
Online: 8 January 2018 (09:56:06 CET)
This brief essay explores both the social and biological dimensions of human sexuality in light of the possibility of a substantial commerce in sexually-enabled robots, and concludes with some potentially strategic considerations for those who find themselves involved with their design, production, and/or marketing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0187.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: dioecious; DNA quality; flower type; sample preservation method; sex genotype; sex phenotype; visual assay
Online: 14 February 2020 (04:22:20 CET)
Methods for high-quality DNA extraction and knowledge of sex expression and flowering time are essential for applying genomic-assisted breeding and improve the success with hybridization in Guinea yam. A dioecious or monoecious pattern of flowering and sometimes non-flowering is a common phenomenon within and between the Dioscorea species. The flowering in yam plants raised from botanical seeds often takes an extended period, mostly till the first clonal generation after propagation from the tubers. The prolonged process of testing required to identify plant sex and flowering intensity in yam breeding often poses a challenge to realize reduced breeding cycle and apply genomic selection. This study assessed sample preservation methods for DNA quality during extraction and potential of DNA marker to diagnose plant sex at the early seedling stage in white Guinea yam. The predicted sex at the seedling stage was further validated with the visual score for the sex phenotype at the flowering stage. DNA extracted from leaf samples preserved in liquid nitrogen, silica gel, dry ice, and oven drying methods was similar in quality with a high molecular weight than samples stored in ethanol solution. Yam plant sex diagnosis with the DNA marker (sp16) identified a higher proportion of ZW genotypes (female or monoecious phenotypes) than the ZZ genotypes (male phenotype) in the studied materials with 74% prediction accuracy. The results from this study provided valuable insights on suitable sample preservation methods for quality DNA extraction and the potential of DNA marker sp16 to predict sex in white Guinea yam.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0215.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: aging; body composition; kidney; sex differences
Online: 11 November 2022 (03:53:06 CET)
Aging is a complex biological process, with gradual and progressive decline in structure and function in many organ systems. Our objective is to determine if structural changes produced by aging, vary with sex, in a stressful situation such as dehydration. The expression of Slc12a3 mRNA in renal cortex, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and fibronectin, was evaluated in male and female rats aged 3 and 18 months submitted or not to water deprivation (WD) for 48 hours. When comparing ages, 18-month-old males showed lower expression of Slc12a3 mRNA than 3-month-old males, and control and WD 18-moth-old male and female rats exhibited higher expression of α-SMA than respective 3-month-old rats. Fibronectin was higher in both control and WD 18-month-old males than respective 3-month-old males. In females, only control 18-month-old rats showed higher fibronectin than control 3-month-old rats. When we compared sex, control and WD 3-month-old female rats had lower expression of Slc12a3 mRNA than re-spective males. WD 18-month-old male rats presented higher expression of fibronectin and α-SMA than WD 18-month-old female rats. When we compared hydric condition, WD 18-month-old males displayed lower relative expression of Slc12a3 mRNA and higher α-SMA expression than control 18-month-old males. Aging, sex, and dehydration lead to alteration in kidney structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0329.v1
Online: 15 September 2020 (04:41:50 CEST)
Intersectional experiences, socio-cultural meanings, ethnic traditions and morals compound stigma-related stress (Jackson et al., 2020; Schmitz 2019). Sex workers are subject to various stigmatizing forces which can lead to secrecy, isolation and lack of social and cultural support (Koken 2012). Stigmatizing forces include structural humanitarian governance and aid interventions that conflate migration and sex work with insidious constraints and coercion. This study explored how migrant female sex workers from distinctive ethnic cultures manage their identity on a day to day basis in relation to the separation of work and home life. Methods: The perspectives of female sex workers were collected via a series of in-depth semi-structured interviews. The inclusion criteria were that the women had worked in sex work for over 18months, defined their involvement in sex work as voluntary, and were over 18yrs of age. The perspectives of seven women from South Asian (Pakistani), Brazilian, and British backgrounds were analyzed using Grounded Theory (Glaser and Strauss, 1967). Ethnicity was considered to explore how the women experienced stigma, how it impacted on the management of their identity, and how the process of change occurred. Results: The women used a variety of methods to maintain work and home life boundaries, processes they used switch into a role and all experienced stigma and tried to deal with it in ways such as concealment from friends and family. Two core categories and properties emerged from the data as participants felt guilt and/or shame but only the South Asian participants spoke of this with reference to their culture and religion. Conclusion: It was not migration per se but rather the relationship of migration to culture that was key to identity management. Participants reflected that as their country was considered collectivist country with interdependent thought, that any negativity felt could not only be reflected on the individual, but also the entire family. For these reasons Pakistani sex workers were subject to more complex stigmatizing forces, shame and guilt as regards risk and exposure. Discussion focusses on the processes and management strategies used to extend social and cultural support.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0034.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: food marketing; sex/gender; advertising; nutrition
Online: 2 July 2019 (08:27:16 CEST)
In recent years, several brands have received much negative press coverage when trying to market their food and drink products specifically at women. This is, in part, because the taste preferences/sensitivities of men and women are actually quite similar. In fact, perhaps the one and only area where consumers are willing to accept (or should that be swallow) ingested products explicitly targeted at women or men is in the case of nutritional foods/supplements. Such products are not really sold on the basis of their taste/flavour anyway. Many consumers are also sensitive to the so-called pink tax, when near-identical products cost more when sold to women rather than to men (e.g., as in the case of female razors). As the four recent examples discussed in this review make clear, it can be difficult to roll-out a new food or beverage product, or else extend a pre-existing product line, that is especially for women without coming across as sexist/condescending. As such, marketers need to tread carefully, otherwise they may end-up generating unwanted negative publicity. Ultimately, therefore, adopting an implicit approach to gender-based marketing, should that be the direction that a brand wants to take, will likely have more chance of avoiding negative publicity than the explicit targeting of food/beverage-related products in what is undoubtedly a highly-politicized area.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0127.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: sex determination; exual systems; bivalvia; mitochondria
Online: 30 June 2017 (07:28:18 CEST)
In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on the different sexual systems and sex determining mechanisms in bivalves, with a focus on the various epigenetic and genetic factors that may be involved. The final section of the review provides recent discoveries on sex-specific mitochondrial genes in bivalves possessing the unconventional system of doubly uniparental inheritance of mitochondria (which is found in several members of the orders Mytiloida, Unionoida, Veneroida and Nuculanoida). The genes involved in this developmental pathway could represent the first sex determination system in animals in which mitochondrially-encoded genes are directly involved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1904.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: Face-lifting; vitamin D; collagen; sex difference
Online: 31 July 2023 (11:38:50 CEST)
Background/Aim: Rapid onset of facial ptosis can impact physical appearance and compromise the outcomes of facelift procedures. The level of vitamin D has a potential correlation with collagen formation and its deficiency with inflammatory processes that affect the breakdown of hyaluronic acid. This study aims to investigate the potential relationship between accentuated facial ptosis in women and low levels of vitamin D. Furthermore, it aims to explore preventive measures or strategies to slow down facial ptosis and enhance the longevity of facelift results. Materials and Methods: The study was focused on monitoring the vitamin D levels in women and men with advanced facial ptosis and comparing them with a control group. Results: Notably, a direct association between gender and serum vitamin D levels was observed, indicating less sustainable outcomes in women. Conclusion: Women face additional challenges in the aging process due to hormonal shifts after menopause or premenopausal, which are associated with osteoporosis and lower vitamin D levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1242.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Microsatellite; CpG island; sex chromosomes; DNA markers
Online: 16 June 2023 (12:41:59 CEST)
DNA markers have high occurrence and mutation rates and are generally located around the controlling regions of some tissue-specific genes and housekeeping genes that can change the expression pattern. Microsatellites and CpG islands are stretches of DNA with repeats and are known to influence gene expression. Microsatellites are more prone to mutations than the rest of the genomic DNA which allows the straightforward genomic nucleotide evolutionary transformation rate in different species. In the present study, these DNA markers are mined and an in-silico comparison was carried out to understand their occurrence pattern and distribution frequency in sex chromosomes (X and Y) of 12 different animal species using Perl and R programming pipelines. It was found that female-dominant X chromosomes had higher occurrence and distribution frequencies for these DNA markers than that of male-dominant sex chromosome i.e. Y which means that the former has a higher number of the evolutionary sites. The density of DNA markers however, showed remarkable variation for different animal species The results obtained need validation through wet-lab experimentation. Tri- and hexa-nucleotide repeats are more abundant in exons, whereas other repeats are more abundant in non-coding regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0185.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Salix; shrub willow; genome assembly; sex determination
Online: 12 December 2022 (01:46:15 CET)
Poplar and willow species in the Salicaceae are dioecious, yet have been shown to use different sex determination systems located on different chromosomes. Willows in the section Vetrix are interesting for comparative studies of sex determination systems, yet genomic resources for these species are still quite limited. Only a few annotated reference genome assemblies are available, despite many species in use in breeding programs. Here we present de novo assemblies and annotations of 11 shrub willow genomes from six species. Copy number variation of candidate sex determination genes within each genome was characterized and revealed remarkable differences in putative master regulator gene duplication and deletion. We also analyzed copy number and expression of candidate genes involved in floral secondary metabolism, and identified substantial variation across genotypes, which can be used for parental selection in breeding programs. Lastly, we report on a genotype that produces only female descendants and identified gene presence/absence variation in the mitochondrial genome that may be responsible for this unusual inheritance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0169.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: sex differences; syntactic development; Mandarin-speaking children
Online: 14 February 2022 (09:19:51 CET)
This study aimed to verify the sex differences in early syntactic development among Cantonese-speaking children by Tse et al. (2002), with the same corpus design but a different Chinese language: Mandarin. The utterances produced during half-hour play activities by 192 Beijing children, ranging from 3 to 6 years, were collected in the Early Child Mandarin Corpus (Li & Tse, 2011) and analyzed for this study. Their syntactic development was measured in terms of mean length of utterance (MLU), sentence type and structure, syntactic complexity, and verb pattern. The statistical analyses indicated significant age differences in MLU, sentence types and structures, and syntactic complexity. However, no sex or age-by-sex differences were found. This negative evidence indicates that sex difference is neither universal nor cross-language. The implications for early childhood education and future studies are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0116.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: sex ratio; prenatal stress; demography; ecological stress
Online: 6 April 2021 (14:57:54 CEST)
While sex ratios at birth (SRB) have been shown to vary within and across populations, after over a century of research, explanations have remained elusive. A variety of ecological, demographic, economic, and social variables have been evaluated, yet their association with SRB has been equivocal. Here, in an attempt to shed light on this unresolved topic within the literature, we approach the question of what drives variation in SRB using detailed longitudinal data spanning the frontier-era to the early 20th century in a US population. Using several measures of environmental harshness, we find that fewer boys are born during challenging times. However, these results hold only for the frontier-era and not into a period of rapid industrialization. We argue that the mixed state of the literature may result from the impact and frequency of exogenous stressors being dampened in post-industrial societies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: food marketing; sex/gender; personalization; customization; nutrition
Online: 2 November 2018 (07:00:20 CET)
In recent years, food and drink marketers have become increasingly interested in the question of whether there are any meaningful sex/gender differences in the world of taste/flavour perception. However, it turns out that while there are a large number of individual differences in the experience of food/drink, few, if any, fall neatly along sex/gender lines. As such, the marketers of food and drink need to tread very carefully when it comes to marketing food or beverage products specifically at men, or more usually, women. All too often, the brands entering this space soon find their attempts branded crass and/or sexist. Adopting a stealthy or implicit gender-based product development strategy is therefore perhaps more likely to succeed than the explicit targeting of food/beverage-related products in what is undoubtedly a highly-politicized area. That said, the one area where the public appear willing to accept products that are explicitly targeted at men or women is in the case of nutritional foods/supplements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0465.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: beliefs about the aetiology of sexual orientation; sexual prejudice; same-sex couples; same-sex parenting; gay fathers; lesbian mothers
Online: 12 January 2021 (12:34:39 CET)
Research found that those who believe sexual orientation is inborn have generally positive attitudes towards gay men and lesbians. However, other studies have also found that these beliefs could include negative eugenic ideas. This study aims to investigate the role of people’s beliefs about the aetiology of sexual orientation on attitudes towards adoption for both gay and lesbian couples. We hypothesized that this relationship would be mediated by sexual prejudice. To test the predictions, 256 Italian heterosexual participants were asked to answer to a scale about their beliefs regarding the aetiology of sexual orientation, sexual prejudice, and attitudes towards adoption by same-sex couples. Results confirmed that the relationship between aetiology beliefs and adoption support was fully mediated by sexual prejudice. These investigation results suggest that the belief that sexual orientation is controllable may serve to justify one’s prejudice and, in turn, result in a lower support for same-sex couples’ adoption.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1102.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Maternal obesity; placenta; environmental adaptation; sex specificities; reproduction
Online: 28 April 2023 (04:06:35 CEST)
Maternal obesity is increasingly prevalent and is associated with elevated morbidity and mortality rates in both mothers and children. As the interface between the mother and fetus, the placenta has mediates the impact of the maternal environment on fetal development. Most of the literature data on the effects of maternal obesity on placental functions do not exclude potential confounding factors like metabolic diseases (e.g. gestational diabetes). Moreover, it is now clear that the placental response to maternal environment depends on the fetal sex. In this context, we reviewed how maternal obesity (in the absence of gestational diabetes) affects the human placenta in terms of (i) endocrine function, (ii) morphological characteristics, (iii) nutrient exchanges and metabolism, (iv) inflammatory/immune status, (v) oxidative stress, and (vi) transcriptome, with a focus on fetal sex specificities. A better understanding of sex-specific placental responses to maternal obesity is crucial for improving pregnancy outcomes and the health of mothers and children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0049.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: ASVs; diet habit; Gekko japonicus; gut microbiota; sex
Online: 3 March 2023 (01:31:32 CET)
Numerous studies have demonstrated that multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors shape the structure and composition of gut microbiota in a host. The disorder of gut microbiota may trigger various host diseases. Here, we collected fecal samples from wild-caught Japanese geckos (Gekko japonicus) and captive conspecifics fed with mealworms (mealworm-fed geckos) and fruit flies (fly-fed geckos), aiming to examine dietary and sexual correlates of gut microbiota. We used the 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology to determine the composition of gut microbiota. The dominant phyla with a mean relative abundance higher than 10% were Verrucomicrobiota, Bacteroidota and Firmicutes. Gut microbial community richness was higher in mealworm-fed geckos than in fly-fed and wild geckos, and community diversity was higher in mealworm-fed geckos than in wild geckos. Neither alpha nor beta diversity of gut microbiota differed among wild, mealworm-fed and fly-fed geckos. The beta rather than alpha diversity of gut microbiota was sex-dependent. Based on the relative abundance of gut bacteria and its gene functions, we concluded that gut microbiota contributed more significantly to the host’s metabolic and immune functions. Higher diversity of gut microbiota in mealworm-fed geckos could result from higher chitin contents of insects of the order Coleoptera. This study not only provides basic information about the gut microbiota of G. japonicus, but also shows that gut microbiota correlates with dietary habit and sex in the species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0377.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: aging; immunosenescence; physical fitness; physical activity; obesity; sex
Online: 26 September 2022 (05:00:15 CEST)
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is essential for sustained work ability in good health, but declines with aging as does the functionality of the immune system, the latter process commonly referred to as immunosenescence. This study aimed to compare the capacity of immunosenescence biomarkers with chronological age for predicting low CRF in a cross-sectional sample recruited from the regional working population. CRF was determined by submaximal bicycle ergometer testing in a cross-sectional sample of 597 volunteers aged 20–70 years from the ’Dortmund Vital Study’ (DVS, ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05155397). Low CRF was scored, if the ergometer test was not completed due to medical reasons or if the power output projected to a heart rate of 130 bpm divided by body mass was below sex-specific reference values of 1.25 W/kg for females and 1.5 W/kg for males, respectively. In addition to established biomarkers of immunosenescence, we calibrated a comprehensive metric of immune age to our data and compared its predictive capacity for low CRF to chronological age while adjusting our analysis for the influence of sex, obesity, and level of regular physical activity by applying univariate and multiple logistic regression. While obesity, low physical activity, chronological and immune age were all associated with increased probability for low CRF in univariate analyses, multiple logistic regression revealed that obesity and physical activity together with immune age, but not chronological age, were statistically significant predictors of low CRF outcome. Sex was non-significant due to the applied sex-specific reference values. These results demonstrate that biological age assessed by our immunological metric can outperform chronological age as a predictor for CRF and indicate a potential role for immunosenescence in explaining the inter-individual variability of the age-related decline in cardiorespiratory fitness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Ed/Ea; Fine-Gray model; HFpEF; LAVI; sex
Online: 23 September 2022 (08:09:57 CEST)
Objective: We aimed to clarify the differences in the association between re-admission for heart failure (HF) and left atrial (LA) overload indices by sex in heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Methods: We analysed 898 HFpEF patients hospitalized for acute decompensated HF. Blood tests and transthoracic echocardiography were performed before discharge. The primary endpoint was re-admission for HF during the first year. Results: The ratio of diastolic elastance to arterial elastance (p=0.014), a relative index of LA pressure overload, in men and LA volume index (LAVI, p=0.020) in women were significant for re-admission for HF during the first year in the multivariable Fine-Gray analysis. Stroke volume (SV)/LA volume (LAV), another index for LAV overload, was not a significant prognostic factor of re-admission for HF during this time. Conclusion: LA overload was an important prognostic factor for HF re-readmission during the first year after enrolment in patients with HFpEF, but the indices relating to LA overload differed by sex.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: COPD exacerbation; air pollution; hospital admission; sex differences
Online: 1 October 2021 (10:02:16 CEST)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a multifactorial lung inflammatory disease affecting 174 million people worldwide, with a recently reported increased incidence in female patients. Patients with COPD are especially vulnerable to the detrimental effects of environmental exposures, especially from air particulate and gaseous pollutants. Exposure to air pollution severely influences COPD outcomes, resulting in acute exacerbations, hospitalizations, and death. In the current study, we conducted a review of the literature addressing air pollution induced acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) in order to determine whether air pollution affects COPD patients in a sex-specific manner. We found that while the majority of studies enrolled both male and female patients, only a few reported results disaggregated by sex. Most studies had a higher enrollment of male patients, only four compared AECOPD outcomes between sexes, and only one study identified sex differences in AECOPD, with females displaying higher rates. Overall, our analysis of the literature confirmed that air pollution exposure is a trigger for AECOPD hospitalizations and revealed a significant gap in our knowledge of sex-specific effects of air pollutants on COPD outcomes, highlighting the need for more studies considering sex as a biological variable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0110.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cardiac fibroblasts; sex-specific; estrogen; fibrosis; heart failure
Online: 6 September 2021 (17:24:51 CEST)
Several studies have demonstrated estrogen’s cardioprotective abilities in decreasing the fibrotic response of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). However, the majority of these studies are not sex-specific, and those at the cellular level utilize tissue culture plastic, a substrate that has a stiffness much higher than physiological conditions. Understanding the intrinsic differences between male and female CFs under more physiologically “healthy” conditions will help to elucidate the divergences in their complex signaling networks. We aimed to do this by conducting sex-disaggregated analysis of changes in cellular morphology and relative concentrations of profibrotic signaling proteins in CFs cultured on 8kPa stiffness plates with and without 17-β estradiol (E2). Cyclic immunofluorescent analysis indicated that there is a negligible change in cellular morphology due to sex and E2 treatment and that the differences between male and female CFs are occurring at a biochemical rather than structural level. Several proteins corresponding to profibrotic activity had various sex-specific responses with and without E2 treatment. Single-cell correlation analysis exhibited varied protein-protein interaction across experimental conditions. These findings demonstrate the need for further research into the dimorphisms of male and female CFs to develop better tailored, sex-informed prevention and treatment interventions of cardiac fibrosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0067.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorders; Diagnostic Tools; Sex; Differential Diagnostic.
Online: 2 March 2021 (10:05:57 CET)
Studies on the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders show a gender disproportion. In the last years, there has been an increasing interest in the search for an explanation. There are two main lines of research; the first one looks for sex-related biological reasons that justifies the low prevalence of ASD in women (some protective factor related to hormones or immune system among others), and the second line of studies is related to the possible biases introduced in the diagnostic tools or procedures. In this article, a review of the latter line of research is made. Theoretical analysis following two objectives: a) Analysis of possible biases in diagnostic tools and b) Other non-biological explanations for gender differences in the prevalence of ASD. The literature analyzed provides contradictory results although it evidences the possible bias both in the construction of the diagnostic tools and in the assessment and determination of their standards. It is necessary to develop specific or complementary tools and diagnostic procedures differentiated by gender in order to control for this bias.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0579.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Problematic Internet use, sleep disturbance, sex difference, adolescents
Online: 24 October 2018 (14:15:09 CEST)
The Internet use has become an integral part of daily life, adolescents are especially at a higher risk to develop problematic Internet use (PIU). Although one of the most well-known comorbid conditions of PIU is sleep disturbance, little is known about the sex disparity in this association. This school-based survey in students of grades 7-9 was conducted to estimate the prevalence of PIU and sleep disturbance among Chinese adolescents, to test the association between PIU and sleep disturbance, and to investigate the role of the child’s sex in this association. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to recruit participants, and a two-level logistic regression models were fitted. The mean Internet addiction test scores was 37.2 (SD: 13.2), and 15.5% (736) met the criteria for PIU. After adjusting for control variables, problematic Internet users were at a higher risk of sleep disturbance (adjusted odds ratio=2.41, 95% CI=2.07-3.19). Sex-stratified analyses also demonstrated that association was greater in girls than boys. In this respect, paying more attention to the sleep patterns of adolescents who report excessive Internet use is recommended, and this early identification may be of practical importance for schools, parents, and adolescents themselves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0107.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Hippophae rhamnoides L.; dioecious; sex determination; RAPD; SCAR
Online: 9 April 2018 (10:48:47 CEST)
The dioecious property of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) prevents sex recognition via traditional observation at the juvenile stage, thus impeding breeding and economic cropping; RAPD and SCAR markers were used to identify the sexes. A total of 45 random decamer primers were used to screen genomic DNA pools of staminate and pistillate genotypes for genetic polymorphisms. One female sex-linked marker was identified. D15 (5′-CATCCGTGCT-3′) amplified a particular band of 885 bp, which showed polymorphism among staminate and pistillate genotype plants. The SCAR marker Hrcx-15 was obtained by sequencing the fragment. The alleles of 140 pistillate genotypes were examined but not of the 140 staminate genotypes discerned via taxonomy. Staminate and pistillate genotypes of sea buckthorn plants can be distinguished, using Hrcx-15 as a genetic marker for sex identification and for expediting cultivation for commercial applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; gender role; sex differences
Online: 4 August 2021 (15:30:46 CEST)
Background: from December 2019 and the spreading of syndemics, a lot of medical centers reg-istered data about their patients. In Italy, the most relevant quantity of patients was hospitalized in internal medicine wards. Methods: In this observational, retrospective cross-sectional study, all data of the COVID-19 patients, admitted Latio hospitals, from March 01 to December 31, 2020, were collected and their Epidemiological data, demographics, signs and symptoms on admission, comorbidities, laboratory findings, chest radiography and CT findings, treatment received and mortality rate were analyzed by gender to find any differences of gravity of disease. Clinician details were registered on database (one for every hospital). Cost analysis was performed by length of stay and antiviral drugs use, using point of view of Italian Healthcare System. Results: 2256 patients with mean age of 71.01 ± 28.02 years were included. For men, frequency of hyper-tension, COPD, use of oxygen therapy, Tocilizumab were significantly higher and epidemiolog-ical link was related to rehabilitation ward and community. The gender difference about hospi-talization was one day more for man. No strong significant difference by gender in the death rate was observed. Considering antiviral drugs and hospitalization, a man costs €1000 more than woman. Conclusions: In male patients, hypertension and COPD were observed more frequently and the epidemiological link was related to rehabilitation ward and community. In female sub-jects, the epidemiological link was related to Hospital and we observed significantly higher atypical chest-X ray. Tocilizumab, oxygen therapy and antiviral drugs were prescribed more in male subjects. No differences by gender we report in other treatments and outcomes. Future studies should be analyzed to get a more comprehensive understanding of COVID-19 by gender.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0163.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: equol; bioavailable testosterone; total testosterone; sex hormone-binding globulin
Online: 17 June 2019 (10:53:28 CEST)
Little is known about the association between equol and bioavailable testosterone (BT) in adults. We examined the associations of urinary equol concentrations with serum total, bioavailable and free testosterone (FT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfide (DHEAS), free androgen index (FAI) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations. This cross-sectional study included 1904 women aged 59.7 years. Urinary equol and serum sex hormone concentrations were measured. Overall, urinary equol tended to be inversely associated with bioactive forms of androgenic indices (BT, FT or FAI) but not with total testosterone (TT) or DHEAS. Urinary equol was also positively associated with SHBG. In multi-covariate-adjusted analyses stratified by menopausal status, graded and inverse associations between urinary equol and bioactive forms of androgenic indices (BT, FT and FAI) were observed in postmenopausal women (all p-trends <0.05), but not in premenopausal women. A significant positive association between urinary equol and SHBG was observed only in postmenopausal women. No significant associations were observed between urinary equol and TT or DHEAS in either group. A path analysis indicated that these associations of equol with androgens in postmenopausal women might be mediated by SHBG. Our findings indicated urinary equol exhibited graded and inverse associations with BT or FT but not TT in women.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1568.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: gender; modern thought; sex; capitalism; standardization; eugenics; postmodern thought; sexuality
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:42:07 CEST)
A presently ubiquitous idea, how gender is defined remains deeply indebted to modern thought, depending on the concept of sex as its reference point. Originating with practices arising with capitalism, modern thought’s concept of sex was enhanced with the search for the norm regarding standardization, then further refined through the research program of eugenics. Gender, in contrast to sex, has its roots in sexual practice changes from the second half of the twentieth century onward, developed in association with 1980s postmodern thought. The presuppositions of the two concepts differ radically. Understanding the difference between sex and gender matters because gender is now more than a critique of sex—it’s an idea accepted and understood in popular culture and affects how people interpret their sexuality. This review examines the foundations of modern and postmodern thought then focuses on sex and gender with respect to their history within these modes of thought. The conclusion, pointing to future research, is that a further reformulation of sexuality will be required for gender, as a postmodern idea, to truly separate itself from the presumptions of sex as a modern concept, permitting individuals to express their sexuality as they choose without negative social and psychological repercussions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0516.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: BOLD fMRI; HRF; resting state connectivity; aging; sex differences; confound
Online: 28 February 2023 (09:32:04 CET)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an indirect measure of neural activity with the hemodynamic response function (HRF) coupling it with unmeasured neural activity. The HRF, modulated by several non-neural factors, is variable across brain regions, individuals and populations. Yet, a majority of resting-state fMRI connectivity studies continue to assume a non-variable HRF. In this article, with supportive prior evidence, we argue that HRF variability cannot be ignored as it substantially confounds within-subject connectivity estimates and between-subjects connectivity group differences. We also discuss its clinical relevance with connectivity impairments confounded by HRF aberrations in several disorders. We present limited data on HRF differences between women and men, which resulted in a 15.4% median error in functional connectivity estimates in a group-level comparison. We also discuss the implications of HRF variability for fMRI studies in the spinal cord. There is a need for more dialogue within the community on the HRF confound, and we hope that our article is a catalyst in the process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0075.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: coronavirus; TMPRSS2; ACE2; SARS-CoV-2; androgens; sex hormones; antiandrogens
Online: 3 November 2022 (09:21:09 CET)
COVID-19, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2), is estimated to have caused over 6.5 million deaths to date worldwide. The emergence of fast-evolving SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern alongside increased transmissibility and/or virulence as well as immune and vaccine escape capabilities highlight the urgent need for more effective antivirals to combat the disease in the long run along with regularly updated vaccine boosters. One of the early risk factors identified during the COVID-19 pandemic was that men are more likely to get infected by the virus, more likely to develop severe disease and exhibit higher likelihood of hospitalisation and mortality rates compared to women. An association exists between SARS-CoV-2 infectiveness and disease severity with sex steroid hormones and in particular androgens. Several studies underlined the importance of the androgen-mediated regulation of the host protease TMPRSS2 and the cell entry protein ACE2 as well as the key role of these factors in the entry of the virus into target cells. In this context, modulating androgen signalling is a promising strategy to block viral infection and antiandrogens could be used as a preventative measure at the pre- or early-hospitalisation stage of COVID-19 disease. Different antiandrogens, including commercial drugs used to treat metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer and other conditions, have been tested as antivirals with varying success. In this review, we summarise the most recent updates concerning the use of antiandrogens as prophylactic and therapeutic options for COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0446.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Age; Sex; Stroke Types; Outcomes; SEM; Tertiary Hospitals; Rivers State
Online: 20 July 2021 (11:45:13 CEST)
This study used structural equation modelling (SEM) to evaluate the direct effect of sex and age on stroke types and outcomes in Tertiary Health Facilities in Rives State, Nigeria. The study was a cross-sectional retrospective hospital-based research that utilized specific stroke patients’ information between 2015-2019. The study obtained the sex and age, stroke type (ischemic/hemorrhagic), and outcomes (No disability/disability/death) from the records. The retrieved data was Microsoft Excel (2016), then analyzed using SPSS (version 21, Amos) and STATGRAPHICS centurion (Stat Point Tech., Inc.). From the result, out of the recorded 1916 stroke patients, 1229 (64.1%) were female, while 687 (35.9%) were males. The older adults (>55 years) had more recorded cases (n=1289) than young adults (ages 18–35 years; n=77) and middle-aged adults (ages 36–55 years, n=550). The SEM results showed that age was significantly associated with stroke type (P<0.001) and outcomes (P=0.038), while sex was significantly associated with stroke outcomes (P<0.001). The likelihood of death was 1.3 times higher in hemorrhagic stroke than ischemic stroke. In conclusion, age and sex had direct effects on stroke type, while age had a direct effect on stroke outcome. Hemorrhagic stroke was more likely to cause death than ischemic stroke in the studied population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0034.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: long-term; sex ratio; action threshold; pest management; insecticide use
Online: 6 May 2019 (08:19:10 CEST)
A long-term investigation of D. suzukii dynamics in wild blueberry fields from 2012 - 2018 demonstrates relative abundance is still increasing seven years after initial invasion. Relative abundance is determined by physiological date of first detection and air temperatures the previous winter. Date of first detection of flies does not determine date of fruit infestation. The level of fruit infestation is determined by year, fly pressure, and insecticide application frequency. Frequency of insecticide application is determined by production system. Non-crop wild fruit and predation influences fly pressure; increased wild fruit abundance results in increased fly pressure. Increased predation rate reduces fly pressure, but only at high abundance of flies, or when high levels of wild fruit are present along field edges. Male sex ratio might be declining over the seven years. Action thresholds were developed from samples of 92 fields from 2012 - 2017 that related cumulative adult male trap capture to the following week likelihood of fruit infestation. A two-parameter gamma density function describing this probability was used to develop a risk-based gradient action threshold system. The action thresholds were validated from 2016-2018 in 35 fields and were shown to work well in two of three years (2016 and 2017).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0711.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: pornography; qualitative research; sexual behavior; sex education; sexual health; young women
Online: 9 August 2023 (09:05:39 CEST)
This study explores female university students' attitudes and concerns toward pornography, based on their experience watching it and on sexual encounters with men. It used a qualitative descriptive design. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 participants between March and April 2020. Thematic data analysis was performed using COREQ reporting guidelines. Three themes emerged from the data: 1) the sexual learning process, 2) the role of pornography in women’s sexuality, and 3) sexual experiences. Participants reported how they learned about sexuality and how pornography influenced sexual experiences. Self-esteem issues and societal norms regarding hair removal, and difficulty saying “no” to unwanted or humiliating sexual practices were found. Young women were not comfortable with women’s representations in mainstream pornography. They blame pornography for negative sexual experiences and claim it influences them and young men. Participants usually assumed submissive roles during sex and permitted aggressive sexual behaviors. The study reveals valuable information on how young women learn about sex, difficulty in refusing unwanted sexual activities, and even aggressive practices. Sexual education programs should include assertiveness training to improve sexual health, consent, and well-being.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0633.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Reproductive Medicine Keywords: natural products; polycystic ovarian syndrome; lipid profile; sex hormone; blood glucose
Online: 11 July 2023 (05:19:58 CEST)
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in women, characterized by fluid-filled sacs in the ovaries and various symptoms including high androgen levels, endometrial irregularities, and cysts. While the cause of PCOS is unknown, it has been linked to genetic, endocrine, and metabolic factors, and there are several treatment options, including lifestyle modifications, medications, and surgery. Natural products, such as medicinal plants and fruits, are being explored as potential treatments for PCOS due to their bioactive compounds with pharmacological effects related to antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, and antidiabetic properties. Some of these compounds improve insulin sensitivity, reduce inflammation, and enhance glucose metabolism, which is beneficial for women with PCOS. This review examined the effects of natural products on PCOS, including their effects on ovarian histological changes, blood glucose, sex hormones, and lipid profile, based on animal and human studies. This study suggests that the use of natural products as complementary medicine can be a promising resource for the development of effective therapeutics for PCOS, but that further research is needed to fully understand their benefits
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1440.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Anti-Müllerian hormone; Cyclopterus lumpus; Male-specific marker; Genetic sex identification
Online: 19 May 2023 (11:36:20 CEST)
Production of lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) has become crucial in controlling sea lice levels in salmonid aquaculture. To improve their breeding, there is a need for early sex identification. The genomic region containing anti-Müllerian hormone (amh) gene was suggested as the candidate sex-determining gene in lumpfish. However, the genome of lumpfish contains three copies of amh with ambiguous sex specificity, designated amh1, amh2, and amh3. The study aims to analyse the male-specific region between these amh paralogues, for its application as a sex marker. In this study, we utilised polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays to identify the male-specific amh markers in lumpfish and estimate the length of the male-specific region in the lumpfish genome. Our results suggest that a region of approximately 26 kilobase (kb) region containing amh1 and amh2 is male-specific, while both sexes share amh3. The developed PCR-based genetic sex identification assays targeting amh1 and amh2 exhibited more than 97% accuracy. Further experiments in other members of the Cyclopteridae: Aptocyclus ventricosus, Eumicrotremus taranetzi, and E. asperrimus revealed male-specific amh fragments only in A. ventricosus. Phylogenetic analyses using the available Cyclopteridae amh sequences suggest that male-specific amh arose early in the Cyclopteridae lineage. These findings and development of the PCR test will be of service to lumpfish aquaculture as well as to future studies attempting to further elucidate the sex-determination system and sex chromosome evolution in lumpfish.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0355.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: testosterone; estrogen; cyprotenone acetate; masculinizing; feminizing; cytochrome P450; sex-specific genes
Online: 18 November 2022 (10:10:00 CET)
Transgender (TG) describes individuals whose gender identity differs from the social norms. Some TG people undergo gender-affirming hormone therapy (HT) and may be considered as a sub-group of population susceptible to environmental contaminants for their targets and modes of action. Aim of the work is to set appropriate HT doses and identify specific biomarkers to implement TG animal models. Four adult rats/group/sex are subcutaneously exposed to 3 doses of HT (plus control) selected starting from available data. Demasculinizing-feminizing model (dMF): β-estradiol plus cyproterone acetate: 0.09+0.33, 0.09+0.93 and 0.18+0.33 mg, 5 times/week. Defeminizing-masculinizing model (dFM): testosterone 0.45, 0.95 and 2.05 mg, 2 times/week. Clitoral gain and sperm count, histophatological analysis of reproductive organs and liver, hormone serum levels and gene expression of sex-dimorphic CYP450 are evaluated. In dMF model, the selected doses, leading to T serum levels at the range of the corresponding cisgender, induced strong general toxicity and cannot be used in long-term studies. In dFM model, 0.45 mg of testosterone represents the correct dose. In addition, the endpoints selected are considered suitable and reliable to implement the animal model. The sex-specific CYP expression is a suita-ble biomarker to set proper (de)masculinizing/(de)feminizing HT and to implement TG animal models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: alcohol dependence; comorbidity; gene network; genome-wide association study; sex differences
Online: 9 August 2022 (10:35:29 CEST)
At least 50% of factors predisposing to alcohol dependence (AD) are genetic and women affected with this disorder present with more psychiatric comorbidities, probably indicating different genetic factors involved. We aimed to run a genome-wide association study (GWAS) followed by a bioinformatic functional annotation of associated genomic regions in male and female patients with AD and eight related clinical measures. A genome-wide significant association of rs220677 with AD (p-value = 1.33×10^-8 calculated with the Yates-corrected Chi-square test under the assumption of dominant inheritance) was discovered in female patients. Associations of AD and related clinical measures with seven other single nucleotide polymorphisms listed in previous GWAS of psychiatric and addiction traits were differently replicated in male and female patients. The bioinformatic analysis showed that regulatory elements in the eight associated linkage disequilibrium blocks define the expression of 80 protein-coding genes. Nearly 68% of these and of 120 previously published coding genes associated with alcohol phenotypes directly interact in a single network. This study indicates that a number of genes behind the pathogenesis of AD are different in male and female patients, but implicated molecular mechanisms are functionally connected. The results also suggest the genetic basis of sex-specific psychiatric comorbidities of AD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0555.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: Trichinella spiralis; muscle larvae; sex steroids receptors; oocytes; helminth; PGRMC; progesterone
Online: 26 July 2021 (09:08:31 CEST)
We explored the hypothesis that progesterone direct effect on Trichinella spiralis might be mediated indeed by a new steroid-binding parasite protein. Our first results showed that Progesterone decreases the parasite molting rate. We amplify, isolated, cloned and sequenced the PGRMC2 sequence using specific primers from known species. Furthermore, we expressed the protein and developed an antibody to performance immunofluorescent confocal microscopy, where detected that parasite cells showed expression of a P4-binding protein exclusively located at the oocyte and the parasite´s cuticle. Presence of the PGRMC2 protein in these cells was also confirmed by western blot and flow cytometry. Molecular modeling studies accompanied by computer docking using the sequenced protein showed that PGRMC2 is potentially able to bind steroid hormones such as progesterone, estradiol, testosterone, and dihydrodrotestosterone with different affinities. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence alignment clearly demonstrated that Trichinella spiralis PGRMC2 is related to a steroid-binding protein of another platyhelminths. Progesterone may probably act upon Trichinella spiralis oocytes probably by binding to PGRMC2. This research has implications in the field of host-parasite co-evolution as well as the sex-associated susceptibility to this infection. In a more practical matter, present results may contribute to the molecular design of new drugs with anti-parasite actions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0159.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Sex; COVID-19; SARS Cov-2; ACE2; innate immunity; adaptive immunity
Online: 14 June 2020 (03:18:35 CEST)
Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has affected nearly 7 million individuals and claimed more than 0.4 million lives to date. There are several reports of gender differences related to infection and death due to COVID-19. This raises important questions such as “Whether there are differences based on gender in risk and severity of infection or mortality rate?” and “What are the biological explanation and mechanisms underlying these differences?” Emerging evidence has proposed sex-based immunological, genetic, and hormonal differences to explain this ambiguity. Besides biological differences, women have also faced social inequities and economic hardships due to this pandemic. Several recent studies have shown that independent of age males are at higher risk for severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Although susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 was found to be similar across both genders in several disease cohorts, a disproportionate death ratio in men can be partly explained by the higher burden of pre-existing diseases and occupational exposures among men. From an immunological point of view, females can engage a more active immune response, which may protect them and counter infectious diseases as compared to men. This attribute of better immune responses towards pathogens is thought to be due to high estrogen levels in females. Here we review the current knowledge about sex differences in susceptibility, the severity of infection and mortality, host immune responses, and the role of sex hormones in COVID-19 disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0364.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; gender; transcriptomics; RAS; hydrolase activity; sex-based immunological differences
Online: 23 May 2020 (06:03:25 CEST)
Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) at the end of 2019, the clinical presentation of the disease showed a great heterogeneity with a diverse impact between different subpopulations. Emerging evidence from different parts of the world showed significantly poor outcome among males compared to female patients. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind this difference might be a fundamental step for a more effective and targeted response to the outbreak. For that reason, here we try to investigate the molecular basis of the gender variations in mortality rates related to COVID-19 infection. To achieve this, we used our in-house pipeline to process publicly available lung transcriptomic data from 141 females compared to 286 males. After excluding Y specific genes, our results showed a shortlist of 73 genes that are differentially expressed between the two groups. Our results showed downregulation of a group of genes that are involved in the regulation of hydrolase activity including (AGTR1, CHM, DDX3X, FGFR3, SFRP2, and NLRP2), which is also believed to be essential for lung immune response and antimicrobial activity in the lung tissues in males compared to females. In contrast, our results showed an upregulation of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1), a member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that plays a role in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activity modulation. Interestingly, recent reports and experimental animal models highlight an important role of this receptor in SARS-Coronavirus lung damage as well as pulmonary edema, suggesting a possible role of its blockers like losartan and olmesartan as potential therapeutic options for COVID-19 infection. Finally, our results also showed a differential expression of different genes that are involved in the immune response including the NLRP2 and PTGDR2, further supporting the notion of the sex-based immunological differences. Taken together, our results provide an initial evidence of the molecular mechanisms that might be involved in the differential outcomes observed between both genders during the COVID-19 outbreak. This might be essential for the discovery of new targets and more precise therapeutic options to treat COVID-19 patients from different clinical and epidemiological characteristics with the aim of improving their outcome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0180.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: BMP; TGF-β; signaling; sex; chromosomes; XIST; genomic imprinting; hormones; fibrosis
Online: 11 May 2018 (09:49:48 CEST)
Crosstalk between the BMP and TGF-β signaling pathways regulates many complex developmental processes from the earliest stages of embryogenesis throughout adult life. In many situations, the two signaling pathways act reciprocally. For example, TGF-β signaling is generally pro-fibrotic whereas BMP signaling is anti-fibrotic and pro-calcific. Sex-specific differences occur in many diseases including cardiovascular pathologies. Differing ratios of fibrosis and calcification in stenotic valves suggests that BMP/TGF-β signaling may vary in men and women. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of the interplay between sex and BMP/TGF-β signaling and pose several unanswered questions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0353.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: quality of life; COVID-19; pandemic; rectal cancer; radiochemotherapy; age; sex; stage
Online: 5 May 2023 (10:39:38 CEST)
Colorectal cancer remains one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers. Advanced rectal cancer patients receive neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy as well as surgery and suffer under reduced health-related quality of life due to various side effects. We were interested in the role of the COVID-19 pandemic and how it affected those patients’ quality of life. A total of 489 advanced rectal cancer patients from the University Hospital Erlangen in Germany were surveyed between May 2010 and March 2022 and asked to fill out the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR38 questionnaire over eight different time points: in the beginning, during and after radiochemotherapy, right before surgery and in yearly intervals after surgery for up to four years. Answers were converted to scores to compare the COVID-19 period to the time before March 2020 focusing on the follow-ups, the developments over time – including by sex and age - and the influence of the TNM cT-stage. Overall, a trend of impaired functional and symptom scores was found across all surveys with few significances (body image -10.6 percentage points (pp) after one year; defecation problems +13.5 pp, insomnia +10.2 pp and weight loss +9.8 pp after three years; defecation problems +11.3 pp after four years). cT4-stage patients lost significantly more weight than their cT1-3-stage counterparts (+10.7 to 13.7 pp). Further studies should be conducted to find possible causes and develop countermeasures for future major infectious diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0403.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: visual perception; emotion; emoji; emoticon; sex differences; anger; fear; emotional communication; texting
Online: 23 January 2023 (08:43:06 CET)
Emojis are colorful ideograms resembling stylized faces commonly used for expressing emotions in instant messaging, in social network sites and in email communication. Notwithstanding their increasing and pervasive use in electronic communication, they are not much investigated in terms of their psychological properties and communicative efficacy. Here we presented 112 different human facial expressions and emojis (expressing neutrality, joy, surprise, sadness, anger, fear and disgust) to a group of 96 female and male university students engaged in the recognition of their emotional meaning. Both Analysis of Variance and Wilcoxon tests showed that men were significantly better than women at recognizing emojis (especially negative ones) while women were better than men at recognizing human facial expressions. Quite interestingly, men were better at recognizing emojis than human facial expressions per se. These findings are in line with more recent evidences suggesting how men may be more competent and inclined to use emojis to express their emotions in messaging (especially sarcasm, tease and love) than previously thought. Finally, the data indicate how emojis are less ambiguous than facial expressions (except for neutral and surprise emotions), possibly because of the limited number of fine-grained details, and the lack of morphological features conveying facial identity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0420.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: fitness assessment; sport-specific; athlete classification; high-intensity functional training; sex differences
Online: 22 December 2022 (06:34:53 CET)
To create normative scores for all CrossFit® Open (CFO) workouts and compare male and female performances, official scores were collected from the official competition leaderboard for all competitors of the 2011-2022 CFO competitions. Percentiles were calculated in athletes (18 – 54 years) who completed all workouts within a single year ‘as prescribed’ and met minimum scoring thresholds. Independent t-tests revealed significant (p < 0.05) sex differences for 56 of 60 workouts. In workouts scored by repetitions completed, men completed more repetitions in 18 workouts by small-to-large differences (d = 0.22-0.81), whereas women completed more repetitions in 6 workouts by small-to-medium differences (d = 0.36-0.77). When workouts were scored by time-to-completion, men were faster in 10 workouts by small-to-large differences (d = 0.23-1.12), while women were faster in three workouts by small differences (d = 0.46). In three workouts scored by load lifted, men lifted more weight by large differences (d = 2.00-2.98). All other differences were either trivial or not significant. Despite adjusted programming for men and women, the persistence of performances differences across all CFO workouts suggest resultant challenges are not the same. These normative values may be useful to training and research in male and female CrossFit® athletes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0125.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: hybridization; sexuality; asexuality; biotype; species; sex determination; ploidy level; Carassius auratus complex
Online: 7 July 2022 (09:56:49 CEST)
Sexual vs asexual reproduction—unisexual vs bisexual populations—diploid vs polyploid biotypes—genetic vs environmental sex determination: all these natural phenomena are associated with the genus of teleost fish, Carassius. Two Carassius entities with completely different biological characteristics exist: one globally widespread and invasive Carassius gibelio, and the other C. carassius with decreasing trend of natural occurrence. Comprehensive biological and cytogenetic knowledge of both entities, including the physical interactions between them, can help to balance advantages of highly invasive and disadvantages of threatened species. For example, benefits of a wide-ranged colonization can lead toward extinction of native species or be compensated by parasitic enemies and lead to equilibrium. This review emphasizes the comprehensive biology and cytogenetic knowledge and importance of the Carassius genus as one of the most useful experimental vertebrate models for evolutionary biology and genetics. Secondly, the review points out that effective molecular cytogenetics should be used for identification of various species, ploidy levels, and hybrids. The proposed investigation of these hallmark characteristics in Carassius may be applied in conservation efforts to sustain threatened populations in their native ranges. Also, the review focuses on consequences of co-occurrence of native and non-native species and outlines future perspectives of Carassius research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0528.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: black carbon; systolic blood pressure; diastolic blood pressure; sex; obesity; traffic enforcers
Online: 30 September 2021 (16:08:10 CEST)
Exposure to traffic-related air pollution is linked with acute alterations in blood pressure (BP). We examined the cumulative short-term effect of black carbon (BC) exposure on systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP and assessed effect modification by participant characteristics. SBP and DBP were repeatedly measured on 152 traffic enforcers. Using a linear mixed-effects model with random intercepts, quadratic (QCDL) and cubic (CCDL) constrained distributed lag models were fitted to estimate the cumulative effect of BC concentration on SBP and DBP during the 10-hours (daily exposure) and 7-days (weekly exposure) before the BP measurement. Ambient BC was related to increased BP with QCDL models. An interquartile range change in BC cumulative during the 7-days before the BP measurement was associated with increased BP [1.2% change in mean SBP, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.1 to 2.3; and 0.5% change in mean DBP, 95% CI, –0.8 to 1.7]. Moreover, the association between the 10-hours cumulative BC exposure and SBP was stronger for females (4.0% change, 95% CI: 2.1–5.9) versus males, and for obese (2.9% change, 95% CI: 1.0–4.8) vs. non-obese traffic enforcers. Short-term cumulative exposure to ambient traffic-related BC could bring about cardiovascular diseases through mechanisms involving increased BP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0309.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: sex differences; fundamental motor skill; motor skills; physical activity; exercise effects; pediatrics
Online: 14 August 2021 (14:45:07 CEST)
The aim of this study was to determine gender differences in the level of motor skills and effects of a multi-year exercise program on the level of motor skills in 161 preschool children (5-6 yo). Patricipants were deployed into one control and three experimental groups. Motor skills were assessed with the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2). To determine difference in scores for each BOT-2 tests between control and experimental groups, one-way ANOVA was used for girls and boys separately while two-way ANOVA was employed to determine difference between the gender in the overall BOT-2 score. The results indicates that one-year multilateral exercise program has a positive effect on the level of motor skills in preschool children. Interestingly, additional years of participation in exercise program yielded in maintenance of acquired motor skills level. Also, exercise program affected more girls than preschool boys considering both individual and composite BOT-2 scores. According to the findings of this study, presented exercise program could have potential benefits on multilateral development of the motor skills in preschool children which could facilitate balance of locomotor and manipulative skills. Therefore, integration of multilateral program intended for preschool children could be considered for implementation within the kindergarten curriculum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0457.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Body weight; Genetic variations; GWAS; Metabolic disease; Obesity; Sex difference; UK-Biobank
Online: 20 May 2021 (08:55:42 CEST)
One of the major challenges in the post-genomic era is elucidating the genetic basis of human diseases. In recent years, studies have shown that polygenic risk scores (PRS), based on aggregated information from millions of variants across the human genome, can estimate individual risk for common diseases. In practice, the current medical practice still predominantly relies on physiological and clinical indicators to assess personal disease risk. For example, caregivers mark individuals with high body mass index (BMI) as having an increased risk to develop type 2 diabetes (T2D). An important question is whether combining PRS with clinical metrics can increase the power of disease prediction in particular from early life. In this work we examined this question, focusing on T2D. We show that an integrated approach combining adult BMI and PRS achieves considerably better prediction than each of the measures on unrelated Caucasians in the UK Biobank (UKB, n=290,584). Likewise, integrating PRS with self-reports on birth weight (n=172,239) and comparative body size at age ten (n=287,203) also substantially enhance prediction as compared to each of its components. While the integration of PRS with BMI achieved better results as compared to the other measurements, the latter are early-life measurements that can be integrated already at childhood, to allow preemptive intervention for those at high risk to develop T2D. Our integrated approach can be easily generalized to other diseases, with the relevant early-life measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0108.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Capacitation; Computer-assisted sperm analysis; Hyperactivation; Sex-sorted semen; Sperm motility subpopulation
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:08:43 CEST)
We attempted to establish an objective method to accurately evaluate the motility of bull sperm and examined the effects of media for sperm suspensions and frame rates on data of computer-assisted sperm motility analysis (CASA). Sperm incubated in Brackett and Oliphant medium (BO) more clearly showed hyperactivation-like motility than those in synthetic oviductal fluid. Sperm images captured at 150 frames per second (fps) showed a trajectory that was closer to the real pathway than those at other frame rates (30, 50, and 75 fps). We then examined the characteristics of sex-sorted and non-sorted semen using a cluster analysis followed by a discriminant analysis of sperm motility in BO at 150 fps. The results indicated that sex-sorted semen contained sperm with hyperactivation-like motility as the main subpopulation immediately after thawing and this subpopulation decreased after 2-h incubation. The main subpopulation in non-sorted semen had progressive motility that was maintained during incubation. In conclusion, usage of BO for sperm suspensions and capturing sperm motility at 150 fps by CASA were appropriate for evaluating bovine sperm motility. A discriminant analysis using data from a cluster analysis of motile sperm has the ability to accurately describe differences in the structures of sperm motility subpopulations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0563.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: HIV; HTLV-1; HTLV-2; sex; risk factors; prevalence; co-infection; public policies
Online: 8 September 2023 (09:39:50 CEST)
The inaugural AIDS Program in Brazil was established in São Paulo in 1983, with the Instituto Adolfo Lutz appointed for laboratory assistance. Subsequently, research on HIV infections and HIV/HTLV (HIV/HTLV-1 and HIV/HTLV-2) co-infections were conducted. This narrative review focuses on studies from the Immunology Department (1983–2017) that significantly influenced AIDS diagnosis or provided epidemiological data such as prevalence rates, sex, age, and risk factors. Ten studies, encompassing over 8,000 individuals, are discussed. During 1983–1985, nearly all AIDS cases were attributed to homosexual/bisexual men aged 31 years old. Subsequently, heterosexual men and women emerged as risk groups owing to intravenous drug use (IDU) and/or unprotected sexual intercourse with AIDS patients or multiple partners per year. From 1985 onwards, vertical transmission led to child infections. HIV/HTLV co-infection rates decreased over time, initially associated with male IDU, and in the 2010s, with females, IDU, and individuals aged >40 years. Trends in HIV and HIV/HTLV co-infections among younger men and women (<30 years of age) were observed from 2015–2017. The changing characteristics and risk groups for HIV and HIV/HTLV co-infections over the years underscore the necessity for ongoing public policies to prevent retrovirus transmission, particularly among adolescents and young adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0159.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Nicotine; Cotinine; Corticosterone; LCMS; Sex; C57BL/6J mouse; CYP2A5; Plasma Levels; Subcutaneous Injection
Online: 7 September 2020 (08:08:54 CEST)
We assessed if there were any sex-related differences in the ability of nicotine to increase plasma corticosterone secretion after single or repeated nicotine administration. For single-dose studies, male and female mice were habituated to the test room for 1 h and injected with saline or nicotine (0.25 or 1 mg/kg, s.c.). In repeated-dosing studies, mice were injected with saline or nicotine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) once daily for six days, and, on day 7, received nicotine (1 mg/kg, s.c.). The mice were euthanized 15 min later, and trunk blood was collected for the measurement of corticosterone, nicotine, and cotinine. Our results showed that saline or nicotine each significantly increased plasma corticosterone levels in both male and female mice, with a greater response in female mice. Plasma corticosterone levels were increased in male but not female mice after repeated compared to single nicotine administration. The level of cotinine, a biomarker of nicotine use, was significantly higher in female than in male mice. Taken together, these novel findings suggest that female mice responded to nicotine and stress of handling more than male mice and provide for the first-time quantitative data on the male-female differences in nicotine-induced elevations of corticosterone and of cotinine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0646.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: energy cost; endurance; training; technique; tactic; fatigue; performance; time series; mathematical modelling; sex difference
Online: 11 September 2023 (14:45:18 CEST)
Pacing strategy refers to the distribution of effort and speed throughout the race to achieve optimal performance. The study aims to understand whether the choice of pacing strategy in swimming depends on the length of competitions and how sex, age, and performance level influence this strategy. Participants were the finalists of the 800-meter and 1500-meter freestyle events at the elite and junior world championships in 2022-2023. Race outcomes and pacing parameters were compared between the two distances and across different groups of swimmers. Swimmers in both distances did not break world records. Pacing strategy generally followed a U-shape with significant differences in the frequency and duration of speed changes between the two distances. The 800-meter exhibited more frequent changes in acceleration while the 1500-meter events generally followed a more consistent time series pattern. There were differences in pacing strategies between males and females and between junior and elite swimmers. Swimmers closer to world records showed more consistent pacing patterns compared to those farther from records. The study suggests that pacing strategies are influenced by race distance, sex, age, and performance level. The research highlights the complex interplay between physiological and psychological factors that shape a swimmer's decision-making during a race.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0468.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: dasatinib; imatinib; nilotibin; ponatinib; children; therapeutic drug monitoring; sex and gender pharmacology; personalized medicine.
Online: 7 August 2023 (11:53:12 CEST)
Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors work by blocking the tyrosine kinases responsible of the dysregulation of intracellular signalling pathways in tumour cells. This study looked at the impact of age and sex on the levels of imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, and ponatinib in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples of patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia. Imatinib and dasatinib were used to treat the majority of the enrolled patient and most of them were paediatrics. The 82.4% of patients were men; however, sex-related differences in drugs pharmacokinetics were not found. Age and imatinib plasma concentration were found to be inversely correlated: as patients ages increased, drug levels decreased. The dasatinib concentrations in plasma were found to be substantially lower than those found in cerebrospinal fluid, particularly in paediatrics. Analysing the obtained data, we can state that Therapeutic Drug Monitoring is a useful method for adjusting a patient treatment schedule depending on drug concentrations in biological fluids. The use of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in conjunction with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia is supported by a number of sources of evidence. As a result, as the research develops, Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Therapeutic Drug Monitoring classification needs to be refined in terms of factors like sexes and ages.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Testis; granulosa-cell tumor; adult–type; sex cord-stromal tumor of testis; testicular cancer
Online: 16 May 2023 (07:27:50 CEST)
Testicular granulosa cell tumors (TGCTs) are rare tumors of sex cord stromal origin. TGCTs can be classified into the adult type and the juvenile type. The adult type is extremely rare with only 93 known cases reported in the literature. We, herein, present a report of a case of a 30 year old male patient who presented with a testicular mass, underwent radical inguinal orchiectomy and the pathology examination revealed an adult type granulosa tumor. We additionally review the literature to summarize the scientific knowledge of an entity barely described worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0108.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Triple X syndrome; Adults; Neurocognitive functioning; Sex Chromosomal Disorders; Attention; Psychomotor speed; Executive functioning
Online: 7 June 2022 (11:26:18 CEST)
Triple X syndrome (TXS, also known as trisomy X or 47,XXX) has been associated with impaired overall neurocognitive functioning in children and relatively young adults. However, neurocognitive functioning in adults with TXS is poorly understood. The aim of this study was, therefore, to examine cognitive functioning in adults with TXS. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data were collected from 34 adult women with TXS (mean age = 32.9; SD = 13.1) and 31 controls (mean age = 34.9; SD = 13.7). General intellectual functioning, semantic/verbal memory, visual/episodic memory, psychomotor speed, and attention and executive functioning were then compared between these two groups. Results: We found that general intellectual functioning was significantly lower in the TXS group compared to the control group. In addition, women with TXS had more attention problems and lower psychomotor speed, particularly motor processing speed. When the analyses were adjusted for IQ, the strength of these associations decreased. The women in the TXS group also scored significantly lower at free recall in the verbal memory test, but not in immediate or delayed recognition. Finally, visual/episodic memory and executive functioning did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions: Our analysis revealed that women with TXS score lower in general intellectual functioning and have impairments in motor processing speed and attention compared to controls, but do not differ with respect to executive functioning. These results offer new insights for improving the support of adults with TXS both at school and in the workplace.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0219.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: 46,XX disorder of sex development; SRY-negative male; Testis determination; DMRT1; DMRT1 duplication
Online: 14 December 2021 (07:58:55 CET)
Background. 46,XX disorders of sex development are rare. Approximately, 90% of XX males are SRY-positive, while testicular development in the absence of SRY takes place in a minority. Methods: A boy with 46,XX karyotype (SRY-negative; absence of SOX9 duplications) was investigated by targeted Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), and Comparative Genomic Hybridization array (CGH-array). Results: The boy had normal male phenotype and normal prepubertal values of testicular hormones. He presented a heterozygous duplication of 49.626 bp, encompassing exons 2 and 3 of DMRT1. The result was arr[GRCh37] 9p24.3(845893_895518)x3. Since both breakpoints are harbored in the intronic regions, the duplication does not stop or shift the coding frame. Additional known pathogenic or uncertain variants in pro-testis gene cascade were not identified. Conclusions: This study report a boy with 46,XX testicular disorder of sex differentiation, showing a de novo partial intragenic duplication of DMRT1. This intragenic duplication may result in a gain of function, acting as primary pro-testis gene (or anti-ovary gene) in a 46,XX human foetus and permitting normal pre-pubertal endocrine testis function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: asian sand dust; in utero exposure; secondary sex ratio; male reproduction; daily sperm production
Online: 20 September 2016 (11:39:47 CEST)
In recent experimental studies, we reported the aggravating effects of Asian sand dust (ASD) on male reproductive function in mice. However, the effects of fetal ASD exposure on male reproductive function have not been investigated. The present study investigated the effects of fetal ASD exposure on reproductive function in male offspring. Using pregnant CD-1 mice, ASD was administered intratracheally on days 7 and 14 of gestation, and the reproductive function of male offspring was determined at 5, 10, and 15 weeks after birth. The secondary sex ratio was significantly lower in the fetal ASD-exposed mice than in the controls. Histologic examination showed partial vacuolation of seminiferous tubules in immature mice. Moreover, daily sperm production (DSP) was significantly less in the fetal ASD-exposed mice than in the controls. DSP in the fetal ASD-exposed mice was approximately 10% less than the controls at both 5 and 10 weeks. However, both the histologic changes and the DSP decrease were reversed as the mice matured. These findings suggest that ASD exposure affects both the fetal development and the reproductive function of male offspring. In the future, it will be necessary to clarify the onset mechanisms of ASD-induced male fetus death and male reproductive disorders.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0073.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: ecological stoichiometry; predator; spider; sex; nutrition; nutritional ecology; arthropod; nutrient cycling; trophic link; food web
Online: 29 July 2020 (09:40:28 CEST)
Nutritional limitations may shape populations and communities of organisms. This phenomenon is often studied by treating populations and communities as pools of homogenous individuals with average nutritional optima and experiencing average constraints and trade-offs that influence their fitness in a standardized way. However, populations and communities consist of individuals belonging to different sexes, each with specific nutritional demands and limitations. Taking this into account, we used the ecological stoichiometry framework to study sexual differences in the stoichiometric phenotypes, reflecting stoichiometric niches, of four spider taxa differing in hunting mode. The species and sexes differed fundamentally in their elemental phenotypes, including elements beyond those most commonly studied (C, N and P). Both species and sexes were distinguished by the C:N ratio and concentrations of Cu, K and Zn. Species additionally differed in concentrations of Na, Mg and Mn. Phosphorous was not involved in this differentiation. Sexual dimorphism in spiders’ elemental phenotypes, related to differences in their stoichiometric niches, suggests different nutritional optima and differences in nutritional limitation experienced by different sexes and species. This may influence the structure and functioning of spider populations and communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0347.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Cannabidiol; S-Ketamine; Sex; Mice strain; Flinders Sensitive Line rats; Tail suspension test; Forced Swim Test.
Online: 25 October 2021 (12:32:45 CEST)
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-intoxicating compound extracted from Cannabis sativa, showing antidepressant-like effects in different rodent models. However, inconsistent results have been described depending on the species and the strain used to assess depressive-like behaviour. Moreover, only a few studies have investigated the effect of CBD in female rodents. Therefore, we aimed to i) investigate the effects of CBD in two different strains of mice (Swiss and C57BL/6) and in a rat model of depression based on selective breeding (Flinders Sensitive and Resistant Lines, FSL and FRL) subjected to tests predictive of antidepressant-like effects; and ii) investigate the influence of sex in the effects of CBD in both mice and rats. CBD induced an antidepressant-like effect in male Swiss but not in female Swiss or C57BL/6 mice in the tail suspension test (TST). In male FSL rats, CBD produced an antidepressant-like effect one-hour post-injection. However, in female FSL, CBD induced a bimodal effect, increasing the immobility time at one hour and decreasing it at two hours. Ketamine produced an antidepressant-like effect in male and female FSL rats at different doses. In conclusion, strain, sex, and administration time affect CBD's behavioural response to rodents exposed to tests predictive of antidepressant effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0285.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: extended evolutionary synthesis; inheritance of acquired characters; stress-induced mutagenesis; fitness-dependent sex; horizontal gene transfer
Online: 25 July 2019 (08:24:32 CEST)
Here, I introduce a concept called autonomous selection to refer to a source of selection that is part of the individuals upon which it acts. The concept is motivated by a set of phenomena with the following characteristics: Natural selection shaped a variant (e.g., gene, epigenetic mark, or combination thereof) to act in a manner that reduces the frequency of one or more heritable traits of the individual in which it is located if those traits are detrimental to individual or group fitness. Phenomena with these characteristics are peculiar to traditional evolutionary theory but have been identified rather frequently in recent decades. They are also relevant to adaptive evolution: By reducing the frequency of a trait detrimental to fitness, the variant accelerates the evolution of adaptations, which allows its holders to adapt better to constantly changing environments. The variant is shaped by (natural) selection, but also does (autonomous) selection. Several phenomena with these characteristics have been invoked by proponents of the extended evolutionary synthesis (EES). The concept of autonomous selection helps resolve some of the controversy surrounding the EES: EES proponents call attention to the incompleteness of contemporary theory, emphasizing individuals’ processes that influence which adaptations those individuals evolve. I argue for the special importance of individuals’ processes that do not just influence those individuals’ adaptations, but also accelerate the adaptive evolution of those individuals. All known phenomena that fit this description are examples of autonomous selection. Other phenomena raised by EES proponents do not meet this threshold.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0075.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Sex chromosomes; Hill-Robertson interference; male-driven molecular evolution; pseudoautosomal region; pseudogenes; purifying selection; protein structure; Psittaciformes
Online: 6 December 2021 (13:21:10 CET)
Avian sex chromosomes evolved after the divergence birds and crocodilians from their common ancestor, so they are much younger than the better-studied chromosomes of mammals. It has long been recognized that there may have been several stages to the evolution of avian sex chromosomes. For example, the CHD1 undergoes recombination in paleognaths but not neognaths. Genome assemblies have suggested there may be variation in the timing of barriers to recombination among Neognathae, but there remains little understanding of the extent of this variability. Here, we look at partial sequences of ATP5F1A, which is on the avian Z and W chromosomes. It is known that recombination of this gene has independently ceased in Galliformes, Anseriformes, and at least five neoavian orders, but whether there are other independent cessations of recombination among Neoaves is not understood. We used a combination of data extracted from published chromosomal-level genomes with data collected using PCR and cloning to identify Z and W copies in 22 orders. Our results suggest there may be at least 19 independent cessations of recombination within Neognathae, and 3 clades that may still be undergoing recombination (or have only recently ceased recombination). Analyses of ATP5F1A protein sequences revealed an increased amino acid substitution rate for W chromosome gametologs, suggesting relaxed purifying selection on the W chromosome. Supporting this hypothesis, we found that the increased substitution rate was particularly pronounced for buried residues, which are expected to be more strongly constrained by purifying selection. This highlights the dynamic nature of avian sex chromosomes, and that this level of variation among clades means they should be a good system to understand sex chromosome evolution.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0040.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cannabis sativa L.; Humulus lupulus L.; Humulus japonicus Siebold & Zucc.; sex chromosomes; DNA repeats; transposons; genome sequencing
Online: 3 December 2021 (09:25:39 CET)
Heteromorphic sex chromosomes are rarely found in plants. They were observed only in 47 species from phylogenetically distant families, suggesting that the evolution of sex chromosomes was independent in these species. It was shown that DNA repeat sequences are one of the major factors driving sex chromosomes evolution, and an accumulation or elimination of the repetitive DNA elements are closely linked with the formation of differences in the sex chromosomes. The goal of this study was to characterize the transposon composition in male and female plants of Cannabis sativa L., Humulus lupulus L. and Humulus japonicus Siebold & Zucc. For the first time, the male and female genomes of H. japonicus as well as male genomes of H. lupulus and C. sativa have been sequenced (there were no open data about them). The analysis of genome-wide sequencing data with using Repeatexplorer2 and author’s scripts was carried out. It was shown that accumulation of Ty3-gypsy may be associated with speciation in Cannabaceae family which is the opposite of the theory of speciation throw whole-genome duplication. Moreover, the sex-specific DNA repeat clusters in C. sativa and H. japonicus were found. The analysis also revealed that the concentration of Tekay, Retand and Ikeros repeats in the Y chromosome of C. sativa is lower than in the X chromosome and the Angela concentration is higher in the Y chromosome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0310.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Sex-recognition; mate-recognition; sexual orientation; puberty; vomeronasal-organ; VNO; learning sexual behavior; Medial-geniculate-nucleus; MGN; MASH
Online: 24 February 2022 (10:06:07 CET)
A large part of our understanding of the biological substrates of sex-recognition and mate-recognition is derived by studying animal models. In performing those tasks, rodents rely mostly of pheromones and other olfactory cues, whereas humans rely mostly on visual cues. That may hinder the translation of rodents’ biology to humans’ biology, especially at the neural-networks level, where those cues traverse different networks in humans and rodents brains. That may be called the “pheromonal-visual gap”. A theoretical model presented here addresses those issues. The model merges observations from humans and model-animals, as reported in specific scientific reports, and general biological principles that are accepted by the scientific community. The model suggests that the voices of men and women are the innate cues based on which humans learn to use visual cues in sex-recognition and mate-recognition. Children learn the two tasks in associative learning mechanisms, by being immersed in their community, and observing adult role-models in innocuous, non-sexual scenarios. The model proposes that the human medial-geniculate-nucleus (MGN) is the analog of the rodents’ accessory-olfactory-bulb (AOB) and the main-olfactory-bulb (MOB), and that the human MASH pathway (MGN, amygdala, bnST, hypothalamus) is the analog of the rodents’ VNOP (Vomeronasal-organ-pathway). Considering the differences in the pathways should facilitate the translation from rodents’ brain nuclei and tracks to humans’. Also, the model hypothesizes that innate direct and indirect connections between auditory centers, e.g., MGN, and sex-control centers, e.g., hypothalamus, vary across three groups of children, and those variations determine the individual’s mate-recognition that emerges at puberty.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: androgens; athletic performance; cross-hormone therapy; gender dysphoria; muscle; sex hormones; sporting policies; strength; transgender men; transgender women
Online: 13 May 2020 (11:25:23 CEST)
Sex dimorphism starts during early embryogenesis and is further manifested in response to hormones during puberty. As this leads to physical divergence that is measurably different between sexes, males enjoy physical performance advantages over females within competitive sport. While this advantage is the underlying basis of the segregation into male and female sporting categories, these sex-based categories do not account for transgender persons who experience incongruence between their biological sex and their experienced gender identity. Accordingly, the International Olympic Committee determined criteria by which a transgender woman may be eligible to compete in the female category, requiring total serum testosterone levels to be suppressed below 10 nmol/L for at least 12 months prior to and during competition. Whether this regulation removes the male performance advantage has not been collectively scrutinized. Here, we aim to review how differences in biological characteristics between biological males and females affect sporting performance and assess whether evidence exists to support the assumption that testosterone suppression in transgender women removes the male performance advantage. In this review, we report that the performance gap between males and females amounts to 10-50% depending on sport. The performance gap is more pronounced in sporting activities relying on muscle mass and strength, particularly in the upper body. Longitudinal studies examining the effects of testosterone suppression on muscle mass and strength in transgender women consistently show very modest changes, where the loss of lean body mass, muscle area and strength typically amounts to approximately 5% after 1 year of treatment. Thus, current evidence shows that the biological advantage enjoyed by transgender women is only minimally reduced when testosterone is suppressed. Sports organizations may therefore be compelled to reassess current policies regarding participation of transgender women in the female category of sport.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0307.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors; anti-PD-1/PDL-1; anti-CTLA-4; gender; sex; Nivolumab; Pembrolizumab; Atezolizumab; Ipilimumab; Durvalumab
Online: 15 November 2018 (07:02:24 CET)
Evidence has recently emerged on the influence of gender on the immune system. In this systematic review and meta-analysis of phase III randomized clinical trials (RCTs), we explored the impact of gender on survival in patients with advanced cancer treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). We performed a comprehensive search of the literature updated to April 2018, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, and EMBASE. We extracted data on study characteristics and risk of bias in duplicate. Of 423 unique citations, 21 RCTs were included, inherently to 12,635 patients. Both males and females showed reduced risk of death associated with ICIs use (HR 0.73, p<0.001 and HR 0.77, p<0.001, respectively). Subgroup analyses by specific ICI showed similar OS in both genders for anti-PD-1/PDL-1. Anti-CTLA-4 use was associated with longer OS in men only (HR 0.77, p<0.012), with the exception of melanoma (in women, HR 0.80, p=0.006). PFS was longer in men than in women (HR 0.67, p<0.001 and HR 0.77, p=0.100, respectively). Conclusively, ICIs use was associated with more favorable outcomes in men, particularly for anti-CTLA-4 agents. In melanoma, not gender-related factors may influence the anti-tumor immune response evoked by ICIs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0307.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: neck; isometric assessment; hand‐held dynamometer; functional capacity; cervical flexion/extension ratio; injury prevention; strength asymmetries; rehabilitation; sex effect
Online: 6 September 2023 (04:27:26 CEST)
The functional capacity of the cervical spine plays a central role in healthy living. This study evaluated and created a comprehensive strength, range of motion (ROM), and musculoskeletal pain profile of the cervical spine in young adults. 60 physically active individuals (30 males/30 females; 19-24 year-old) participated in the study. Cervical ROM (forward flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and rotation), maximal isometric strength (forward flexion, extension, lateral flexion), and musculoskeletal pains were assessed using an electronic goniometer, a handheld dynamometer, and the Nordic questionnaire, respectively. Data analysis revealed that: a) fe-males had higher ROM values, during extension and lateral flexion, than males (p<0.05), b) males had higher absolute strength values than females in all movement directions, higher rela-tive strength values/body mass (at forward flexion) and flexion/extension ratio values (p<0.05), c) ROM and strength values were not significantly different between right-left sides (p>0.05), d) a great proportion (43.3%) of the participants had cervical pains (no sex-related differences) and e) cervical strength showed significant small negative correlation with pains (p<0.05; r=-0.225 to -0.345). The reference values created may be used by health and fitness professionals to exten-sively evaluate the cervical spine and to design specific exercise programs for injury prevention and rehabilitation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0121.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 infection; COVID-19; modulating factors; Adverse Outcome Pathway; sex; age; co-morbidities; lifestyle; environment; pre-existing conditions
Online: 8 June 2022 (09:47:23 CEST)
Addressing factors modulating COVID-19 is crucial since abundant clinical evidence shows that outcomes are markedly heterogeneous between patients. This requires identifying the factors and understanding how they mechanistically influence COVID-19. Here, we describe how eleven selected factors influence COVID-19 by applying the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework well-established in regulatory toxicology. This framework aims to model the sequence of events starting from an initial interaction of a stressor with the organism and the progress through key biological events leading to an adverse health outcome. Several linear AOPs depicting pathways from the binding of the virus to ACE2 up to clinical outcomes observed in COVID-19 patients have been developed and integrated into a network offering a unique overview of the mechanisms underlying the disease. As SARS-CoV-2 infectibility and ACE2 activity are the major starting points and inflammatory response is central in the development of COVID-19, we evaluated how eleven intrinsic and extrinsic factors modulate those processes impacting clinical outcomes. Applying this AOP-aligned approach enables the identification of current knowledge gaps orientating for further research and allows to propose biomarkers to identify of high-risk patients. This approach also facilitates expertise synergy from different disciplines to address public health issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0463.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Mass Spectroscopy, Bioinformatics, FGF14, Voltage Gated Channels, Schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s Disease, Sex-Specific Differences, Synaptic Plasticity, Cognitive Impairment, Excitatory/Inhibitory Tone
Online: 19 November 2018 (11:54:50 CET)
Fibroblast growth factor 14 (FGF14) is a member of the intracellular FGFs, a group of proteins with roles in neuronal ion channel regulation and synaptic transmission. We have previously demonstrated that a male Fgf14-/- mouse model recapitulates salient endophenotypes of synaptic dysfunction and behaviors associated with schizophrenia (SZ). As the underlying etiology of SZ and its sex-specific onset remain elusive, the Fgf14-/- model provides a valuable tool to interrogate pathways that might be related to the disease mechanism. Here, we performed label free quantitative proteomics and bioinformatics to identify enriched pathways at the proteome level in the male and female hippocampi from Fgf14+/+ and Fgf14-/- mice. We discovered that many differentially expressed proteins in Fgf14-/- animals are associated with SZ. In addition, measured changes in the proteome and signaling pathways were predominantly sex-specific with the male Fgf14-/- being distinctly enriched for pathways associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and addiction and the female exhibiting modest changes. In the male Fgf14-/- mouse the major protein changes that could in part explain the previously described neurotransmission and behavioral phenotype of this model were loss of ALDH1A1 and PRKAR2B. ALDH1A1 has been shown to mediate an alternative pathway for GABA synthesis, while PRKAR2B is essential for dopamine 2 receptor signaling, which is the basis of current antipsychotics. Collectively, our results provide new insights in the role of FGF14 and support the use of the Fgf14-/- mouse as a useful preclinical model of SZ for generating hypothesis on the disease mechanism, sex-specific manifestation and therapy.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0153.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Tree of Life; origins of species; cellular lineage escape; endogenous compartmentation; proto-organelles; eukaryogenesis; origins of sex; syntrophic biofilms; endosymbiosis
Online: 24 October 2017 (04:27:17 CEST)
This article reevaluates the Woesean concept of crossing a ‘Darwinian threshold’ from pre-genomic communality, as prevailing in an ancestral ‘progenote’ state, to vertically stable lineages of autonomous and self-similar cells. This transition from collective trunk-line evolution to Darwinian speciation is dependent on the generation of modular organismal genomes. The same general principle should be valid at subcellular levels, allowing the emergence of semi-autonomous genomic agents, such as viruses and plasmid-carrying endogenous vesicles with organelle-like properties. As compartmentalized agents of endogenous nature could start with smaller genomes than those required for fully autonomous cells, it is conjectured that stable subcellular lineages emerged earlier than their cellular counterparts. Referring to the recent ‘pre-endosymbiont hypothesis’, it is proposed that free-living bacteria (the first ‘prokaryote’ cells) arose by ‘lineage escape’ from plasmid-bearing organelle-like compartments, evolving inside the internally complexifying ‘paracells’ of the progenote community. The double-membrane envelopes of diderm bacteria may have resulted from cell-biological processes facilitating cellular lineage escape. The later emergence of archaeal cells (resembling bacteria in ‘prokaryote’ appearance with unichromosomal genomes) and eukaryotic organisms (with compartmented cells and multichromosal genomes) can also be interpreted in terms of this modified progenote hypothesis. Conceivably, the multichromosomal genomes of eukaryotes were bundled in endogenous nuclear compartments to organize a ‘nuclear-cytoplasmic lineage’, which became vertically stable by perfecting mitosis/meiosis-like divisions and yet retained some intra-species population confluence by sexual division-fusion cycles.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: preterm birth; oxidative stress; sex differences; male disadvantage; female advantage; bronchopulmonary dysplasia; retinopathy of prematurity; necrotizing enterocolitis; intraventricular hemorrhage; periventricular leukomalacia; mortality.
Online: 3 September 2021 (11:08:04 CEST)
A widely accepted concept is that boys are more susceptible than girls to oxidative stress related complications of prematurity, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). We aimed to quantify the effect size of this male disadvantage by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies exploring the association between sex and complications of prematurity. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were calculated by a random-effects model. Of 1365 potentially relevant studies, 41 met the inclusion criteria (625680 infants). Male sex was associated with decreased risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, fetal distress, and C-section, but increased risk of low Apgar score, intubation at birth, respiratory distress, surfactant use, pneumothorax, postnatal steroids, late onset sepsis, any NEC, NEC>stage 1 (RR 1.12, CI 1.06-1.18), any IVH, severe IVH (RR 1.28, CI 1.22-1.34), severe IVH or PVL, any BPD, moderate/severe BPD (RR 1.23, CI 1.18-1.27), severe ROP (RR 1.14, CI 1.07-1.22), and mortality (RR 1.23, CI 1.16-1.30). In conclusion, preterm boys have higher clinical instability and greater need for invasive interventions than preterm girls. This leads to a male disadvantage in mortality and short-term complications of prematurity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0436.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Prophase I of meiosis; chromatin; synaptonemal complex; chromosome; satellite DNA; chromocenter; nuclear architecture; MSCI; sex chromosomes; interactions of non-homologous chromosomes; chromatin silencing
Online: 23 November 2021 (15:58:17 CET)
Pericentromeric regions of chromosomes enriched in tandemly repeated satellite DNA although representing a significant part of eukaryotic genomes are still understudied mainly due to interdisciplinary knowledge gaps. Recent studies suggest their important role in genome regulation, karyotype stability and evolution. Thus, the idea of satellite DNA as a junk part of the genome was refuted. Integration of data about molecular composition, chromosome behaviour and details of in situ organization of pericentromeric regions is of great interest. The objective of this work was a cytogenetic analysis of the interactions of pericentromeric regions non-homologous chromosomes in mouse spermatocytes using immuno-FISH. We analysed two events: the associations between cerntomeric regions of X chromosome and autosomes, and associations between centromeric regions of autosomal bivalents forming chromocenters. We conclude that X chromosome form temporary synaptic associations with different autosomes in early meiotic prophase I which normally can be found at pachytene-diplotene without signs of pachytene arrest. These associations are formed between the satellite DNA-enriched centomeric regions of X chromosome and different autosomes but not involve the satellite-poor centromeric region of Y-chromosome. We suggest the mechanism of X chromosome competitive replacement from such associations during synaptic correction. We showed that centromeric region of the X chromosome remains free of γH2Ax-dependent chromatin inactivation, while Y chromosome is completely inactivated. This findings highlights the predominant role of associations between satellite DNA-enriched regions of different chromosomes including X. We assume that X-autosome temporary associations is a manifestation of an additional synaptic disorders checkpoint. These associations are normally corrected before the late diplotene. We revealed that the intense spreading conditions applied to the spermatocytes I nuclei did not lead to destruction of stretched chromatin fibers i.e. elongated chromocenters enriched in satellite DNA. Revealed by us tight associations between pericentromeric regions of different autosomal bivalents and X chromosome may represent the basis for repeat stability maintenance in autosomes an X chromosome. The consequences of our findings are discussed. We obtained the preparations of mouse spermatocytes nuclei in the meiotic prophase I using two approaches: standard and extremely intense surface spread techniques. Using immuno-FISH we visualized tandemly repeated mouse Major and Minor satellite DNA located in the pericentromeric regions of chromosomes and performed a morphological comparison of the standard- and intensely spreaded meiotic nuclei. Based on our results, we assume the remarkable strength of the chromocenter-mediated associations, “chromatin “bridges”, between different bivalents at the pachytene and diplotene stages. We have demonstrated that the chromocenter “bridges” between the centromeric ends of meiotic bivalents are enriched in both tandemly repeated Major and Minor satellite DNA. Association of centromeric regions of autosomal bivalents and X-chromosome but not with Y-chromosome correlates with the absence of Major and Minor satellites on Y-chromosome. We suggest that revealed tight associations between pericentromeric regions of bivalents may represent the network-like system providing dynamic stability of chromosomal territories, as well as add new data for the hypothesis of ectopic recombination in these regions which supports sequence homogeneity between non-homologous chromosomes and does not contradict the meiotic restrictions imposed by the crossing-over interference near centromeres. We conclude that nuclear architecture in meio-sis may play an essential role in contacts between the non-homologous chromosomes providing the specific characteristics of pericentromeric DNA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0112.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: forensic medicine; forensic dentistry; forensic anthropology; 3D CNN; AI; deep learning; biological age determination; sex determination; 3D cephalometric; AI face estimation; growth prediction
Online: 5 November 2021 (10:00:56 CET)
Three-dimensional convolutional neural networks (3D CNN) as a type of artificial intelligence (AI) are powerful in image processing and recognition using deep learning to perform generative and descriptive tasks. The advantage of CNN compared to its predecessors is that it automatically detects the important features without any human supervision. 3D CNN are used to extract features in three dimensions where input is a 3D volume or a sequence of 2D pictures e.g., slices in a cone-beam computer tomography scan (CBCT). The main aim of this article was to bridge interdisciplinary cooperation between forensic medical experts and deep learning engineers. With emphasis activating clinical forensic experts in the field with possibly basic knowledge of advanced artificial intelligence techniques with interest in its implementation in their efforts to advance the forensic research further. This paper introduces a novel workflow of 3D CNN analysis of full-head CBCT scans. Authors explore and present 3D CNN method for forensic research design concept in five perspectives: (1) sex determination, (2) biological age estimation, (3) 3D cephalometric landmark annotation, (4) growth vectors prediction, (5) facial soft-tissue estimation from the skull and vice versa. In conclusion, 3D CNN application can be a watershed moment in forensic medicine, leading to unprecedented improvement of forensic analysis workflows based on 3D neural networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0568.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Voice and sexual orientation; Human sex pheromones; Evolution of sexual orientation; Development of sexual orientation; Puberty; Causes of sexual orientation; Biology of sexual orientation
Online: 23 March 2021 (12:47:18 CET)
The biology of sexual orientations has intrigued people for generations. Many models have been providing insights to that topic, but there are still unanswered questions. In humans, sexual orientation has a learned component. Humans have to learn cues by which they identify the sex of their mates, and cues of the emotional messages that those mates broadcast. Many of those cues depend on arbitrary societal conventions. The cues are learned automatically and subconsciously during childhood, based on non-sexual experiences. When sexual orientation emerges at puberty, the youngsters cannot tell how and when they have acquired it. A model that deals with those phenomena is presented. A basic tenet of the model is that a sexual orientation is determined by the innate wirings of the brain. The model describes how the brain learns cues for identifying the sex of the mate, and cues for identifying emotional messages that the mate broadcasts. The learning mechanism is conditioning. The unconditioned stimulus is human voice. The unconditioned responses are the triggers of the physical and emotional manifestations of sexual activity. The model suggests that innate connections from auditory detectors of men’s and women’s voice onto brain centers that trigger sexual activities, such as the hypothalamus, determine the sexual orientation that emerges at puberty. Innate connections from those auditory centers to emotional centers, such as the amygdala, determine the learned emotional cues. It is also proposed that during evolution, the roles of the chemosensory system in identifying mates were taken over by the auditory system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0833.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Cancer-testis-antigens; parthenogenetic; polyploid giant cancer cells; PGCCs; genome fragility; phylostratigraphic analysis; innate immunity-placentation; endogenous retroviruses; sex determination; male infertility; endocrine disruption; environmental pollution
Online: 12 June 2023 (12:59:23 CEST)
The increasing frequency of male cancer coupled with the reduction in male fertility seen worldwide motivated us to seek a potential evolutionary link between these two phenomena, concerning the reproductive transcriptional modules observed in cancer and the expression of cancer-testis-antigens (CTA). The phylostratigraphy analysis of the human genome allowed us to link the early evolutionary origin of cancer by reproductive life cycles of the unicellulars and early multicellulars, potentially driving soma-germ transition, female meiosis and parthenogenesis of polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs), with the expansion of the CTA multi-families, very late during evolution. CTA adaptation was aided by retrovirus domestication in the unstable genomes of mammals, for protecting male fertility in stress conditions, particularly that of humans, as compensation for the energy consumption by a large complex brain which also exploited retrotransposition. We found that the early and late evolutionary branches of human cancer are united by the immunity-proto-placental network, which evolved in the Cambrian and shares stress regulators with the finely-tuned sex determination system. We further propose that social stress and endocrine disruption caused by environmental pollution with organic materials, which alter sex determination in male foetuses and further spermatogenesis in adults, bias the development of PGCC-parthenogenetic cancer by default.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0234.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: corticotropin releasing factor (CRF); patch-clamp electrophysiology; sex difference; alcohol use disorder (AUD); Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA); central amygdala (CeA); spontaneous inhibitory post synaptic currents (sIPSCs)
Online: 16 June 2022 (08:41:35 CEST)
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronically relapsing disease characterized by loss of control in seeking and consuming alcohol (ethanol) driven by recruitment of brain stress systems. However, AUD differs among the sexes: men are more likely to develop AUD, but women progress from casual to binge drinking and heavy alcohol use more quickly. The central amygdala (CeA) is a hub of stress and anxiety, with corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)-CRF1 receptor and GABAergic signaling dysregulation occurring in alcohol dependent male rodents. However, we recently showed that GABAergic synapses in female rats are less sensitive to the acute effects of ethanol. Here, we used patch clamp electrophysiology to examine the effects of alcohol dependence on the CRF-modulation of rat CeA GABAergic transmission of both sexes. We found that GABAergic synapses of naïve female rats were unresponsive to CRF application compared males, although alcohol dependence induced a similar CRF responsivity in both sexes. In situ hybridization revealed that females had less CeA neurons containing mRNA for the CRF1 receptor (Crhr1) than males, but in dependence, the percentage of Crhr1-expressing neurons in females increased, unlike males. Overall, our data provide evidence for sexually dimorphic CeA CRF system effects on GABAergic synapses in dependence.