Preprint Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Unanswered Questions Regarding Sex and BMP/TGF-β Signaling

Version 1 : Received: 11 May 2018 / Approved: 11 May 2018 / Online: 11 May 2018 (09:49:48 CEST)

How to cite: Shah, T.A.; Rogers, M.B. Unanswered Questions Regarding Sex and BMP/TGF-β Signaling. Preprints 2018, 2018050180 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201805.0180.v1). Shah, T.A.; Rogers, M.B. Unanswered Questions Regarding Sex and BMP/TGF-β Signaling. Preprints 2018, 2018050180 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201805.0180.v1).

Abstract

Crosstalk between the BMP and TGF-β signaling pathways regulates many complex developmental processes from the earliest stages of embryogenesis throughout adult life. In many situations, the two signaling pathways act reciprocally. For example, TGF-β signaling is generally pro-fibrotic whereas BMP signaling is anti-fibrotic and pro-calcific. Sex-specific differences occur in many diseases including cardiovascular pathologies. Differing ratios of fibrosis and calcification in stenotic valves suggests that BMP/TGF-β signaling may vary in men and women. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of the interplay between sex and BMP/TGF-β signaling and pose several unanswered questions.

Subject Areas

BMP; TGF-β; signaling; sex; chromosomes; XIST; genomic imprinting; hormones; fibrosis

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