ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0527.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: caffeine, pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, intake, quintiles
Online: 20 April 2021 (11:08:10 CEST)
We aimed to assess the caffeine intake before and during pregnancy, compliance with caffeine recommendations during pregnancy (200 mg/day) and factors associated with higher intakes before and in first trimester of pregnancy. Caffeine consumption was collected in a Spanish cohort of pregnant women through a validated food questionnaire, before and in each trimester of gestation (T1, T2 and T3). 463 pregnant women were recruited and follow-up through pregnancy. Compliance with caffeine intake recommendations during pregnancy and quintiles of mg/day of caffeine before and in T1 of pregnancy were calculated. A multivariate logistic regression, comparing extreme quintiles of consumption (Q1 vs Q5) was used. Mean caffeine intake before pregnancy was 120.05 mg/day (SD 117.85), 42.76 mg/day (SD 63.90) at 12th GW, 42.00 mg/day (SD 59.76) at 24th GW and 39.34 mg/day (SD 50.9) at 32nd GW (p<0.001). 86% of women complied with caffeine recommendations during pregnancy. At pregnancy (T1), being an active smoker was associated with Q5 > 100.1 mg/day, aOR = 22.69; 95% CI 4.67- 110.26. igh diet quality, aOR = 0.30; 95% CI, 0.13- 0.68, and moderate physical activity level, aOR= 0.44; 95% CI, 0.19-1.00, were inversely associated with Q5 > 100.1 mg/day. Pregnant women are mostly adhering to current caffeine intake guidelines. Higher caffeine intake at pregnancy is associated with other unhealthy habits during pregnancy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0520.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: ectopic pregnancy; heterotopic pregnancy; laparoscopy; methotrexate; corpus luteum
Online: 28 December 2022 (01:16:33 CET)
Objective Ovarian pregnancy is a rare but well-known pathology. However, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment are not clearly established. Data sources. All case reports published in Pubmed from Nov 2011 till Nov 2022. Study eligibility criteria. A systematic review and 2 case reports of ovarian pregnancy Study appraisal and synthesis methods. Not applicable Results Ovarian pregnancies occur in 8% of women without or blocked oviducts and in 23% on the other side than the corpus luteum and the symptoms of ovarian pregnancies are not specific. Therefore ovarian pregnancy has to be suspected in all women with abdominal bleeding. As for extrauterine pregnancies, the presence of an intrauterine pregnancy does not rule out an ovarian pregnancy. Surgical excision is the preferred treatment. Important is that in women with both an intra-uterine and an ovarian pregnancy, care should be taken not to damage the corpus luteum. Conclusions Ovarian pregnancies can occur in women with blocked tubes, on the other side of the corpus luteum, in the presence of an intrauterine pregnancy, and even when pregnancy tests or tranvaginal ultrasonography are negative. The diagnosis being difficult to exclude, a laparoscopy is indicated in all women with intra-abdominal bleeding, keeping in mind that an intra-uterine pregnancy cannot be exluded and that a corpus luteum need to be respected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0548.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Pregnancy; cholesistitis; pancreatitis; ERCP
Online: 29 December 2022 (02:23:03 CET)
Abstract Aims: We aimed to present successful endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) applications and results in our pregnant cases. Method: The data of 14 successful ERCP applications in our pregnant patients between 2016 and 2022 were evaluated retrospectively. ERCP procedure was performed by endoscopists experienced in biliary endoscopy while the patients were on the left decubitus position. Fluoroscopy was performed using methods to reduce fetal radiation exposure. Short-term fluoroscopy were used during the procedure. Fluoroscopy times applied to the patient were recorded. Results: ERCP and sphincterotomy were applied to 14 pregnant women who presented with cholestasis findings. Two of the procedures were performed aproprate trimesters in whole patients. The mean maternal age in our pregnant women was 24.8±5.6 (19-38), mean gestational age was 17.8 weeks (10-34w). The fluoroscopy time was 0.16 min (0-35sec). Fetal radiation exposure was negligible in 10 pregnant women (10 sec) and between 10-14 seconds in 4 pregnant women. The estimated fetal radiation exposure of the two women was between 30 and 35 seconds. Procedure-related complications were one minimal bleeding after sphincterotomy, two hyperamylasemia after ERCP, and one acute respiratory distress syndrome. Cholecystitis developed in one pregnant woman two days after ERCP. Conclusion: When necessary precautions are taken under the control of a multidisciplinary team, ERCP can be safely applied during pregnancy, and successful results can be obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0263.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: Pregnancy; Diabetes; Screening, Lifestyle
Online: 11 January 2022 (12:24:01 CET)
Basildon and Thurrock University Hospital in the East of England region of the United Kingdom (U.K), witnessed rapidly increasing numbers of pregnant women with diabetes, causing overburdened specialist clinics, poorer patient experience and worsening clinical outcomes. This prompted the multidisciplinary team’s remodelling of care pathways, launching the General ownership of Diabetes (GooD) Pregnancy Network in 2014. Contrary to conventional limitation of care to specialist diabetes antenatal clinics, this novel initiative highlights contemporary necessity to equip and empower all maternity stakeholders to deliver basic care of gestational diabetes (GDM). It strategically connects a Midwife Tele-Clinic “hub” to Educating Gestational diabetics Group Sessions (EGGS) and standard antenatal clinics. Patients were key partners, regularly participating in feedback surveys and promoting public awareness by co-producing local newspaper articles that served up their stories as case studies. Furthermore, the EGGS “faculty” includes a former GDM patient whose video testimony has inspired almost 2000 patients and their families; aiming to foster long term healthy lifestyle changes. Final summative evaluation in November 2019 showed the new culture of wider consciousness has shortened ‘diagnosis to first consultation’ intervals and eliminated overbooked specialist clinics (none since January 2016), without further worsening of clinical outcomes. It also boosted research recruitment and avoided additional running costs to the tune of £66,384 a year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0496.v1
Online: 19 March 2021 (09:01:42 CET)
Background Cesarean scar ectopic pregnancies are a rare form of extrauterine pregnancies, yet their incidence has increased along with the rise in the number of cesarean deliveries. As with other ectopic pregnancies, cesarean scar ectopic pregnancies pose a greater risk for maternal hemorrhage and ultimately maternal mortality. Case presentation We present a series of clinical cases of cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasonography. Each patient received an individualized treatment: the rate of success depended on the particular maternal condition in each case. Due to the low frequency of this entity, there are no clear protocols for its treatment and thus there are numerous options for treatment and follow up: expectant management, medical therapy, surgical intervention, uterine artery embolization or a combined approach. Each method has different levels of success and is dependent on the surgeon’s skill and patient presentation. The transvaginal ultrasound is necessary to obtain the fine details of the gestation sac and its relation to the scar and must be followed by a meticulous abdominal scan with a full bladder. Conclusion Herein, we present a rare pathological phenomenon whose frequency is on the rise, and for which transvaginal ultrasound and flow doppler provide high diagnostic accuracy. Early diagnosis of cesarean scar ectopic pregnancies offers treatment options to that may help avoid uterine rupture and bleeding, thus preserving the uterus and future fertility.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0019.v1
Online: 3 June 2020 (13:49:43 CEST)
Background: ethical issues that arise during the care of a pregnant woman with cancer are challenging to physicians, policymakers, lawyers, and the bioethics community. This article is restricted to a discussion of ethical dilemmas and controversial case reports, mainly focused before the third trimester of pregnancy, when a conflict could exist between cancer and pregnancy outcomes.Methods: published literature was retrieved through searches in PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane and Google Academic in April 2020, using appropriate controlled keywords (cancer, neoplasm, pregnancy, ethics). Results were restricted to review articles, ethical perspectives, clinical practice guidelines and case-based teaching guides.Discussion: when a conflict arises in the maternal-foetus dyad, like the one related with cancer treatment and the risk of foetal demise, a range of ethical frameworks might be useful to consider in the decision-making process. Pragmatic theoretical approaches include case-based analysis, ethics of care, feminist theory, and traditional ethical principlism using the framework of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Also, societal and practitioner values could add value and an ethics consultation may be helpful to mediate conflict resolution. The physician must balance autonomy and beneficence-based obligations to the pregnant woman with cancer, along with beneficence-based obligations to the foetus.Conclusions: ethical challenges have received less attention in the literature, particularly before the third trimester of pregnancy. Best, unbiased and balanced information must be granted both to the patient and to the family, regarding the benefits and harms for the woman herself as well as for the foetal outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0251.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Pregnancy; Birth-defect; National; PRAMS (Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System); Smoking; Diabetes; Depression
Online: 18 October 2022 (05:48:22 CEST)
Abstract: Objective: To assess both individual and interactive effects of prenatal medical conditions depression and Diabetes, and health behaviors including smoking during pregnancy on infant birth defects. Methods: The data for this research study were collected by the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) in 2018. Birth certificate records were used in each participating jurisdiction to select a sample representative of all women who delivered a live-born infant. Complex sampling weights were used to analyze the data with a weighted sample size of 4,536,867. Descriptive statistics were performed to explore frequencies of the independent and dependent variables. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to examine associations among the independent and dependent variables. Results: The results indicate and significant interaction between the variables smoking and Depression and Depression and Diabetes (OR= 3.17; p-value <0.001 and OR= 3.13; p-value <0.001 respectively). Depression during pregnancy was found to be strongly associated with delivering an infant with a birth defect (OR= 1.31, P-value < 0.001). Conclusion: Depression during pregnancy and its interaction with smoking and Diabetes are vital in determining birth defects in infants. The results indicate that birth defects in the United States can be lowering Depression in pregnant women.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0426.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: microRNA; diabetes; pregnancy; prenatal testing
Online: 27 December 2021 (11:37:18 CET)
Background/Aims: Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are currently done at 24 - 28 weeks of conception, missing out on the most vulnerable period of organogenesis and thus preventing clinicians from starting treatments until the late second or third trimester. MicroRNAs (miR) are small non-coding RNA molecules that could aid in detecting or predicting GDM through establishing a novel non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) tool. The objective of this study was to summarize the most recent updates on plasma microRNAs as GDM diagnostic biomarkers. Methods: Between April and June 2021, a PubMed literature search was undertaken to review recent articles on human plasma miR associated with GDM. Animal studies and papers that are written in languages other than English were excluded. Only plasma miRNAs were used to avoid coagulation biases. Results: A total of 31 miRNAs were found significantly upregulated in the plasma samples of patients with GDM. It was found mainly during the 2nd or 3rd trimester except for miR-223 and miR-23a that were upregulated at 9 – 11 weeks of gestation. Conclusion: Though extensive prospective cohort studies are required, miR-223 and miR-23a should be considered the most promising to develop a successful NIPT tool because they were found to be upregulated earliest, during the first trimester.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0544.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: litter size; prolactin; progesterone; pregnancy; rabbits
Online: 20 April 2021 (12:58:57 CEST)
Abstract: Ovulation failure was associated with a reduction in pre-mating concentrations of oestradiol-17β and prolactin (PRL). The present study aimed to evaluate whether pre-mating PRL levels have a role on the reproductive efficiency of doe rabbits. A total of 78 multiparous California does (2nd parity) were divided, according to plasma pre-mating PRL, into five categories, >20-25, >25-30, >30-35, >35-40, and >40-45 ng/ml. Does in all categories were naturally mated and kindled, then their reproductive measurements and progesterone (P4) levels were determined. Results show that pre-mating PRL averaged 23.60±0.78, 28.00±0.83, 33.46±0.43, 38.17±0.49 and 41.98±0.68 ng/ml in five categories (p < 0.05), respectively, representing the highest distribution (38.5%) in the 3rd-category. Live body weight of doe rabbits, at mating, pregnancy, and parturition increased (p < 0.05) with increasing pre-mating PRL level. The number of services, litter size, and pregnancy rate increased (p < 0.05) by increasing PRL levels. Reproductive traits and P4 level at mid-pregnancy of does, and average weight of kits at birth increased (p < 0.05) by increasing PRL levels. The pre-mating PRL profile is important for the identification of reproductive performance in doe rabbits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0178.v1
Online: 6 April 2021 (13:30:25 CEST)
Background Pregnancy is a process of maturity for women that requires adaptation to the changes in their new roles. Adjustment to a new role is not easy, especially if the pregnancy is accompanied by risks, so it is necessary to get treatment to minimize complications. Dyad models that optimize husband or family support are very important to prevent the risk of complications and adapt mothers to their new roles. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the dyad model on high-risk pregnancies. The method used with a literature review is through the collection of articles from Scopus, ebsco, ProQuest and PubMed. The results obtained were articles from Scopus 9, Ebsco 107, PubMed 214 and ProQuest 85 which carried out identification, screening and eligibility for 25 articles. Overall results mention. Journals are categorized into 4 groups, Dyad Model and social support, high-risk pregnancy, maternal role and Self Efficacy. Conclusion, there is an effect of the dyad model on care for high-risk pregnancies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Human papillomavirus; vaccine; pregnancy; attitudes; knowledge
Online: 2 March 2021 (10:47:19 CET)
We aimed to assess awareness, knowledge, and attitudes of healthy pregnant women towards human papillomavirus (HPV), to estimate factors associated with a positive attitude towards HPV immunization and to assess the uptake of the vaccine among their children. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the University Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Belgrade, Serbia among pregnant women attending their regular gynecological check-ups at the 12th gestational week. Knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccine was assessed using a specifically designed 12-item and 5-item questionnaires. Out of total 265 included women, 79.3% had heard of HPV, and 37.5% knew that HPV vaccine exists. HPV vaccine knowledge score was associated with higher odds for a positive attitude towards vaccination of both female (OR = 4.10, 95% CI 1.50-11.29) and male (OR = 3.71, 95% CI 1.52-9.01) child. The number of children (OR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.04-1.67) and high vaccine knowledge score (OR = 1.64 95% CI 1.13-2.39) were independent predictors associated with willingness to vaccinate child against HPV. The gynecologist was the preferable point of reference for information seeking about the HPV vaccine. Despite relatively high HPV awareness and knowledge among pregnant women in Serbia, about one-third of them are HPV vaccine aware, and are willing to vaccinate their children against HPV.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0405.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: caffeine; coffee; systematic review; pregnancy; safety
Online: 23 August 2018 (05:33:43 CEST)
In 2016–2017, we conducted and published a systematic review on caffeine safety  that set out to determine whether conclusions presented in the heavily cited Health Canada assessment, Nawrot et al. , remain supported by more recent data. To that end, we reviewed data from 380 studies published between June 2001 and June 2015, which were identified from an initial batch of over 5,000 articles through a stringent search and evaluation process . In the current paper, we use plain language to summarize our process and findings, with the intent of sharing additional context for broader reach to the general public. We addressed whether caffeine doses previously determined not to be associated with adverse effects by Health Canada (400 mg/day for healthy adults, 300 mg/day for pregnant women, 2. 5 mg/kg body weight/day for adolescents and children, and 10 g/day for acute effects) remain appropriate for five outcome areas (acute toxicity, cardiovascular toxicity, bone & calcium effects, behavior, and development and reproduction) in healthy adults, pregnant women, adolescents, and children. We used a weight-of-evidence approach to draw conclusions for each of the five outcomes, as well as more specific endpoints within those outcomes, which considered study quality, consistency, level of adversity, and magnitude of response. In general, updated evidence confirms the levels of intake put forth by Nawrot et al., as not being associated with any adverse health effects, and our results support a shift in caffeine research from healthy to sensitive populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0264.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: environmental tobacco exposure; pregnancy; infancy; measurement
Online: 30 March 2018 (09:51:09 CEST)
Background: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) presents substantial health risks for pregnant women and newborn infants. Measurements of ETS include invasive and expensive biochemical tests as well as less invasive and lower-cost self-reported exposure and avoidance measures. Better understanding of self-report measures will help to select ETS assessments for evaluation. Methods: This analysis was conducted within the context of a tailored video intervention to reduce tobacco smoking and ETS exposure during pregnancy and after delivery, in the control group sample of 147 nonsmoking women. Measurements of salivary cotinine concentration, self-reported ETS exposure and avoidance behaviors were captured at 32 weeks gestation and 6 months postpartum. Results: Salivary cotinine concentration was significantly related to ETS avoidance among pregnant nonsmokers at 32 weeks gestation, but not ETS exposure. At 6 months postpartum, both the reported ETS exposure of the infant and maternal avoidance behaviors to reduce her infant’s exposure were associated with the infant’s salivary cotinine concentration. At 32 weeks gestation and 6 months postpartum, avoidance behaviors decreased as exposure increased. Discussion: This study suggests that for nonsmoking women during pregnancy, report of tobacco smoke avoidance is more valid than report of exposure. After delivery, self-reported ETS exposure or avoidance are associated with each other and biochemical measurement of salivary cotinine. These results provide researchers and clinicians with evidence to support inclusion of avoidance behaviors in the selection of ETS measure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0539.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: preeclampsia; prediction; machine leaning; pregnancy; first trimester
Online: 29 November 2022 (07:09:22 CET)
(1) Background: Preeclampsia (PE) prediction in the first trimester of pregnancy is a challenge for the clinicians. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the predictive performances of machine-learning based models for the prediction of preeclampsia, and its subtypes; (2) Methods: This prospective case-control study evaluated pregnancies that occurred in women who attended a tertiary maternity hospital in Romania between November 2019 and September 2022. The patients’ clinical and paraclinical characteristics were evaluated in the first trimester, and were included in 4 machine learning based models: decision tree (DT), naïve Bayes (NB), support vector machine (SVM), and random forest (RF), and their predictive performance was assessed; (3) Results: early-onset PE was best predicted by DT (accuracy: 94.1%), and SVM (accuracy: 91.2%) models, while NB (accuracy: 98.6%), and RF (accuracy: 92.8%) models had the highest performance when used to predict all types of PE. The predictive performance of these models was modest for moderate and severe types of PE, with accuracies ranging from 70.6% and 82.4%; (4) The machine learning-based models could be useful tools for PE prediction in the first trimester of pregnancy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0371.v1
Online: 22 August 2022 (04:00:03 CEST)
COVID-19 infection in the pediatric population usually leads to a mild illness, however, a rare but serious complication of MIS-C has been seen in children. MIS-C usually presents 2-4 weeks after COVID-19 infection or exposure, and rare reports have been documented in neonates. Vaccinations for COVID-19 have been approved for children 6 months and above in the United States, and recent reports suggest significantly low prevalence and risk of complications of MIS-C in vaccinated children compared to unvaccinated children. Vaccinations for COVID-19 are safe and recommended during pregnancy and prevent severe maternal morbidity and adverse birth outcomes. Evidence from other vaccine-preventable diseases suggests that through passive transplacental antibody transfer, maternal vaccinations are protective against infections in infants during the first 6 months of life. Various studies have demonstrated that maternal COVID-19 vaccination is associated with the presence of anti-spike protein antibodies in infants, persisting even at 6 months of age. Further, completion of a 2-dose primary mRNA COVID-19 vaccination series during pregnancy is associated with reduced risk for COVID-19–associated hospitalization among infants aged 6 months or less. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that maternal COVID-19 vaccination can reduce the risk of and severity of MIS-C in infants. In this article, we review the literature to support this hypothesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0479.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: cerebral palsy; perinatal risks; children; pregnancy; childbirth
Online: 28 September 2021 (21:54:37 CEST)
Introduction: Cerebral palsy is the most common childhood disability Aims: Analyze and determine the main risk factors for the development of cerebral palsy in the population of Kazakhstan Materials and methods: Retrospective, analytical "case" - "control". Core group "case" - medical records of 100 pregnant women whose children at different ages has been diagnosed with cere-bral palsy Results: Thus, a retrospective analysis revealed the following features and complications in the perinatal period, which could promote the formation of cerebral palsy in children. Analytical results of the study are set significant results in cerebral palsy development Conclusion: Premature birth and urinary tract infections turned out to be the largest contribu-tors to the development of cerebral palsy, however, according to statistics, the rate of preterm birth, as well as the detection of infections, stably remains at the same level, while the number of cerebral palsy has been steadily growing since the early 1990s in Kazakhstan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0599.v1
Online: 29 January 2021 (06:03:03 CET)
Objective: The study aimed to explore the experiences of women undergoing Assisted Reproductive Technologies namely; Invitro Fertilization and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection at the Finney Hospital and Fertility Centre, New Bortianor, Ghana. Method: A qualitative research design was employed to analyse and describe the experiences of the women seeking Assisted Reproductive Technologies. Fifteen women were invited and interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. The responses were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Results: Three themes emerged from the study: the women’s experiences, challenges and the roles and contributions of significant others. The women were anxious, stressed-up, exhausted and financially burdened. Spouses and health professionals played significant roles by providing social, emotional and financial support for these women. Significant others such as spouses and close relatives were supportive and provided encouragement to the women. Conclusion: The experiences of women undergoing Assisted Reproductive Technologies are multi-dimensional. Thus psychosocial intervention as part of ART services with health insurance cover may be client-centered and more appropriate for these group of women.
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: pregnancy; implantation; invasion; conflict; evolutionary innovation; feminism
Online: 14 April 2020 (15:17:44 CEST)
Embryo implantation is a hallmark of the female reproductive biology of eutherian (placental) mammals and does not exist in a sustainable form in any other vertebrate group. Implantation is the initial process that leads to a sustained fetal-maternal unit engendering a complex functional relationship between the mother and the embryo/fetus. The nature of this relationship is often portrayed as one of conflict between an aggressive embryo and a passive or defensive maternal organism. Recent progress in elucidating the evolutionary origin of eutherian pregnancy leads to a different picture. The emerging scenario suggests that the very initial stages in the evolution of embryo implantation require evolutionary changes to the maternal physiology, which modified an ancestral generic mucosal inflammation in response to the presence of the embryo into an active embedding process. This “female-first” evolutionary scenario also explains the role of endometrial receptivity in human pregnancy. On the marsupial side, where in most animals the fetal-maternal interaction is short and does not lead to a long term sustainable placentation, the relationship is mutual. In these mammals uterine inflammation is followed by parturition in short order. The inflammatory signaling pathways, however, are cooperative, i.e. they are performed by both the fetus and the mother and therefore we call this relationship “cooperative inflammation.” Based on these discoveries we reconceive the narrative of the maternal-fetal relationship.
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: evo-devo; individuality; novelty; pregnancy; reproduction; transition
Online: 11 October 2019 (05:38:00 CEST)
The question of how to conceive of the relation between the pregnant female and the embryo has become a recent focus of debate in the philosophical literature. Here we consider this problem in the context of current debates on individuality in the philosophy of biology by looking at how pregnancy is individuated in different disciplinary contexts. Firstly, we review different notions of biological individuality in the literature, examine how each of them applies to the case of pregnancy, and claim that recent work on the evolution of eutherian reproduction offers insights for new criteria for rethinking the individuality of pregnancy. Then, we reconstruct the main assumptions underlying the established biological account of pregnancy. Finally, we develop an alternative account based on the hypothesis that pregnancy is an evolved relational novelty and maintain that pregnant females are conceived as historical reproductive individuals. In the final section before the conclusions, we discuss how the historical reproductive biological individuality of pregnancy differs from, and coexists with, other views of individuality, and examine some of its consequences.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: multiple sclerosis; pregnancy; epigenetics; experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Online: 1 October 2018 (14:00:35 CEST)
The role of pregnancy in multiple sclerosis (MS) is of importance because many patients with MS are young women in the childbearing age who require information to inform their reproductive decisions. Pregnancy is now well-known to be associated with fewer relapses of MS and reduced activity of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, in women with multiple sclerosis, this benefit is not always sufficient to protect against a rebound of disease activity if disease modulating therapy is ceased for pregnancy. There is reason to be concerned that use of assisted reproductive therapies can be associated with relapses of MS. It is thought that the beneficial effects of pregnancy are due to the pregnancy-associated changes in the maternal immune system. There is some evidence of this in human studies and studies of EAE. There is also evidence that having been pregnant leads to better long-term outcome of MS. The mechanism for this is not fully understood but it could result from epigenetic changes resulting from pregnancy or parenthood. Further studies of the mechanisms of the beneficial effects of pregnancy could provide information that might be used to produce new therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: iodine; pregnancy; qualitative research; awareness; perceptions; nutrition
Online: 2 February 2018 (07:29:44 CET)
Iodine is essential for thyroid hormones synthesis and normal neurodevelopment; however, 60% of pregnant women do not meet the WHO recommended intake. Using a qualitative design, we explored perceptions, awareness and experiences of pregnancy nutrition, focusing on iodine. Women in the perinatal period (n=48) were interviewed and filled in a food frequency questionnaire for iodine. Almost all participants achieved the recommended 150 μg/day intake for non-pregnant adults (99%), but only 81% met the increased demands of pregnancy (250 μg/day). Most were unaware of the importance, sources and recommendations of iodine intake. Attitudes to dairy products consumption were positive (e.g. helps with heartburn; easy to increase). Increased fish consumption was considered less achievable, with barriers around taste, smell, heartburn and morning sickness. Community midwives were the main recognised provider of dietary advice. The dietary advice received focused most often on multivitamin supplements rather than food sources. Analysis highlighted a clear theme of commitment to change behaviour, motivated by pregnancy, with desired focus on user-friendly documentation and continued involvement of the health services. The study highlights the importance of redirecting advice on dietary requirements in pregnancy and offers practical suggestions from women in the perinatal period as the main stakeholder group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Amazonian region; ZIKV in pregnancy; Exanthematic disease in pregnancy; Torch syndrome; Abortion; Stillbirth; Mycrocephaly; Preterm delivery; Low birth weight
Online: 2 October 2020 (08:47:53 CEST)
The epidemic transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil has been identified as a cause of microcephaly and other neurological malformations in babies of ZIKV-infected women. This study provides a descriptive analysis, since the onset of symptoms to the delivery, of a cohort who were registered as having ZIKV infection in pregnancy, from November 2015 to December 2016. Suspected cases were registered at a referral center for infectious and tropical diseases in Manaus, in the Brazilian Amazonian region. A total of 834 women with suspected ZIKV in pregnancy were included, of whom 91.4% had confirmed pregnancy. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed ZIKV infection in 42.2% of the cohort. In 35.2% of the cohort, ZIKV was the sole infection identified. Severe adverse pregnancy outcomes (abortion, stillbirth, or microcephaly) were observed in both RT-PCR ZIKV-positive (4.96%) and ZIKV-negative (2.15%) cases. Women with suspected ZIKV infection were much more likely to have adverse pregnancy outcomes if they were symptomatic during the first trimester of pregnancy (odds ratio 10.5; 95% confidence interval 4.0–27.0; p<0.001). Among pregnant women with suspected ZIKV infection, the occurrence of symptoms in the first trimester is associated with an especially high risk of severe adverse pregnancy outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0410.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: twin pregnancy; nuchal translucency; chorionicity; anomaly; twin complications
Online: 16 December 2020 (13:22:36 CET)
Objectives: To assess clinical implications of increased nuchal translucency (INT) in twin pregnancies based on the chorionicity. Methods: This was a retrospective review of the twin pregnancies who underwent first trimester ultrasound with nuchal translucency (NT) measurement at 11-13 weeks of gestation from January 2006 to December 2014. Data were collected using the OB database and the chart review. Pregnancy outcomes including gestational weeks at the delivery, abnormal fetal karyotypes, fetal structural anomalies, twin specific complications were analyzed. Results: A total of 1,622 twin pregnancies with INT≥95th percentile in one or both fetuses were identified. In all twin pregnancies with INT, abnormal fetal karyotypes were identified in 17 (8.6%) patients (odds ratio=13.28, CI=5.990-29.447, P=0.000) and twin-specific complications were identified in 23 (11.6%) patients (odds ratio=2.398, CI=1.463-3.928, P=0.001) compared to those with normal NT. Among the INT group, when the groups were subdivided into monochorionic (MC) and dichorionic (DC) pregnancies, 14.8% and 29.6% of the MC pregnancies had structural anomalies in one or both fetuses (odds ratio=5.774, 95% CI=1.445-23.071, P=0.01) and twin-specific complications (odds ratio=4.379, 95% CI=1.641-11.684, P=0.03), respectively, compared to DC pregnancies. The prevalence of abnormal fetal karyotypes was not statistically different in patients with INT when compared between MC and DC pregnancies (P=0.329). Conclusions: INT was associated with a higher rate of twin-specific complications and fetal structural anomalies in MC twin pregnancies rather than abnormal fetal karyotype. Therefore, NT measurement in MC twin pregnancies can be a useful tool for prediction of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Appropriate counseling and surveillance based on the chorionicity is imperative in prenatal care of twin pregnancies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0025.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: hepatitis E virus; proteomic comparative analysis; pregnancy serum
Online: 6 March 2017 (04:59:30 CET)
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute hepatitis worldwide, accounting for approximately 25% of deaths among pregnant women. We previously reported that pregnancy serum facilitates HEV replication in vitro. However, the differences in host cells with HEV infection induced by pregnancy serum and fetal bovine serum (FBS) are unclear. In this study, differentially expressed proteins were identified in HEV-infected hepatoma cells (HepG2) supplemented with different sera by using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation. Proteomic analysis indicated that HEV infection significantly induced 1014 differentially expressed proteins in HEV-infected HepG2 cells when supplemented with FBS compared with pregnancy serum. Further validation by Western blot confirmed that filamin A, heat-shock proteins 70 and 90, Cytochrome c, and Thioredoxin were associated with HEV infection. This comparative analysis provides an important basis to further investigate HEV pathogenesis in pregnant women and HEV replication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0430.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: COVID-19 vaccines; menstruation; pregnancy outcomes; Influenza vaccines; VAERS; stillbirth; miscarriage
Online: 30 December 2022 (09:39:28 CET)
Objectives Assess rates of adverse events (AE) after COVID-19 vaccines experienced by women of reproductive age, focusing on pregnancy and menstruation, using data collected by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) database. Design Population-based retrospective cohort study. Setting US and global entries in US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS). Participants CDC VAERS entries from January 1, 1998 to June 30, 2022. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures A proportional reporting ratio analysis is performed using data in the VAERS system comparing adverse events (AE) reported post-COVID-19 vaccines with that of post-Influenza vaccines. Results COVID-19 vaccines, when compared to the Influenza vaccines, are associated with a significant increase in AE with all proportional reporting ratios of > 2.0: menstrual abnormalities, miscarriage, fetal chromosomal abnormalities, fetal malformation, fetal cystic hygroma, fetal cardiac disorders, fetal arrhythmias, fetal cardiac arrest, fetal vascular malperfusion, fetal growth abnormalities, fetal abnormal surveillance, fetal placental thrombosis, low amniotic fluid, preeclampsia, premature delivery, preterm premature rupture of membrane, fetal death/stillbirth, and premature baby death (all p values were much smaller than 0.05). When normalized by time-available, doses-given, or persons-received, all COVID-19 vaccine AE far exceed the safety signal on all recognized thresholds. Conclusions Pregnancy complications and menstrual abnormalities are significantly more frequent following COVID-19 vaccinations than Influenza vaccinations. A worldwide moratorium on the use of COVID-19 vaccines in pregnancy is advised until randomized prospective trials document safety in pregnancy and long-term follow-up in offspring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0305.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: gestational diabetes; pregnancy; polygenic risk score; gwas; machine learning
Online: 20 July 2022 (12:09:41 CEST)
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common complication of pregnancy that adversely affects maternal and offspring health. A variety of risk factors, such as BMI and age, have been associated with increased risks of gestational diabetes. However, in many cases gestational diabetes occurs in healthy nulliparous women with no obvious risk factors. Emerging data suggest that the tendency to develop gestational diabetes has genetic and environmental components. Here we develop a polygenic risk score for gestational diabetes. We further investigate relationships between the genetic architecture of GDM and genetically constructed risk factors and biomarkers. Our results show that genetics can be used as an early screening tool that identifies at-risk at higher risk of GDM before its onset to propose comprehensive monitoring and preventative programs to mitigate the risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0561.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: leptin; cord leptin; pregnancy; intrauterine growth restriction; birth weight
Online: 23 November 2020 (08:39:13 CET)
Introduction: Leptin is a polypeptide hormone and in pregnancy it is secreted by the placenta and maternal and fetal adipose tissues. The expression of leptin and its specific receptors is observed in the uterine endometrium which indicates leptin involvement in the implantation process and embryonic/fetal development. Normal leptin production is a factor responsible for uncomplicated gestation, embryo development and fetal growth. Objective: To compare at delivery maternal serum and cord blood leptin concentrations in normal pregnancies and in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Material and methods: The study was performed in 25 pregnant women with isolated IUGR diagnosed by ultrasonography (study subjects) and in 194 pregnant women without any comorbid health conditions (controls). Leptin concentrations in maternal serum and in cord blood samples collected at delivery were measured by ELISA and subsequently analyzed by maternal Body Mass Index (BMI), mode of delivery, and infant gender and birth weight. For comparative analyses of normally distributed variables, parametric tests were used, i.e. the Student-t to test the assumption of homogeneity or non-homogeneity of variance and a One-Way ANOVA when more than two groups were compared. The non-parametric Mann-Whitney test was used when the distribution was not normal. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the correlation between normally distributed variables (p<0.05). Results: In pregnancies complicated by IUGR, the mean maternal serum leptin concentration at delivery was significantly higher (52.73 ± 30.49 ng/mL) than in normal pregnancies (37.17 ± 28.07 ng/mL) (p=0.01). The mean cord blood leptin concentration in pregnancies complicated by IUGR was 7.97 ± 4.46 ng/mL and significantly lower than in normal pregnancies (14.78 ± 15.97 ng/mL) (p=0.04). In normal pregnancies, but not in pregnancies complicated by IUGR, a statistically significant correlation was established between maternal serum leptin concentrations and maternal BMI at delivery (r=0,22; p=0.00). No statistically significant correlation was found between cord blood leptin concentrations and maternal BMI in either study subjects or controls. In normal pregnancies, but not in pregnancies complicated by IUGR, a strong correlation was observed between cord blood leptin concentrations and birth weight (r=0,23; p=0.00). In both study subjects and controls, there were no correlations between leptin concentrations in maternal serum and cord blood and infant gender and mode of delivery. Conclusions: Elevated maternal blood leptin concentrations in pregnancies complicated by IUGR may indicate a significant adverse effect of elevated leptin on fetal growth. Enhanced leptin production by the placenta suggests leptin as a candidate marker of placental insufficiency. The differences in leptin concentrations, measured in maternal serum and in cord blood, between the study subjects and controls suggest that deregulated leptin levels may increase the risk of obstetric complications associated with placental insufficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0473.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Pregnancy; Iodine; Dietary habits; Iodine supplement, Urinary iodine concentration
Online: 21 July 2020 (03:42:20 CEST)
Background: The nutritional status of women during pregnancy can have a considerable effect on maternal and fetal health, and on perinatal outcome. The aim was to assess the changes occurring in dietary iodine intake, KI supplementation, and smoking habit, and the impact of these changes on the urinary iodine concentration (UIC) during pregnancy in a population of women in Catalonia (Spain). Methods: Between 2009-2011 an observational study including a cohort of women whose pregnancy was monitored in the publically-funded health system in a central region of Catalonia. Women received individual educational counseling imparted, a dietary questionnaire was completed, and a urine sample collected for iodine determination at each trimester visit. Results: 633 (67.9%) women answered the questionnaire at all 3 visits. The percentage of women with a desirable UIC (≥150μg/L) increased from the first to the second trimester and remained stable in the third (p<0.001). Analysis of the relationship between UIC≥150 μg/L and the women’s dietary habits showed that the percentage with UIC≥150 μg/L increased with greater consumption of milk, fresh vegetables, and fruit in the first trimester, and the same was true for iodized salt use in all three trimesters and iodine supplementation in all three. Conclusion: During pregnancy increased intake of milk, iodized salt, and iodine supplements was associated with an increase in the UIC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0345.v1
Subject: Keywords: congenital hypothyroidism; transient; iodine deficiency; iodine excess; pregnancy; supplementation
Online: 28 June 2020 (19:51:04 CEST)
The iodine intake in a pregnant woman has been closely correlated with development of transient congenital hypothyroidism which leads to decline in neurocognitive abilities of the child later in life as the effects are very subtle at birth. Both low and excess ingestion of iodine has been found to contribute to this cause, although iodine deficiency is more commonly observed in women of underdeveloped nations. It poses risks not only to the foetus but also to the mother leading to obstetric complications such as still birth and spontaneous abortions. It can be prevented using WHO recommended daily iodine supplementation in deficient regions or decreasing the excess load in groups exposed to high iodine. Programmes designed to screen the new-born at birth can also help in improving the quality of life of the child. The deficient iodine condition is managed by administration of levothyroxine in dosage range of 10-15 mcg/kg/day. Generally, the prognosis of infants starting treatment early in life have a better neurocognitive outcome as compared to the treated infants late age at a later age. Avoidance of agents causing iodine exposure has resulted in decrease in the abnormal thyroid function levels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0357.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: NLRP3; inflammation; preeclampsia; pregnancy induced hypertension; HELLP syndrome; immunothrombosis
Online: 23 May 2020 (05:15:54 CEST)
Pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia are associated with significant maternal and fetal mortality. A better understanding of those diseases, delineation of molecular pathomechanism, and efficient treatment development are some of the most urgent tasks in obstetrics and gynecology. Recent findings indicate a crucial role of inflammation in the development of hypertension and preeclampsia. Although the mechanism is very complex and needs further explanation, it appears that high levels of cholesterol, urate, and glucose activates NLRP3 inflammasome, which produces IL-1β, IL-18 and gasdermin D. Production of these proinflammatory chemokines is a beginning of local and general inflammation, what results in sympathetic outflow, angiotensin II production, proteinuria, hemolysis, liver damage, immunothrombosis, and coagulopathy. NLRP3 inflammasome is a critical complex in the mediation of inflammatory response, which makes it crucial for the development of pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia, as well as its complications, such as placental abruption and HELLP syndrome. Herein presented the article delineate molecular mechanisms of those processes, indicating directions of future advance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0333.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; pregnancy; trophoblasts; interactome; placenta
Online: 21 May 2020 (03:38:05 CEST)
COVID-19 is a rapidly evolving medical emergency that has drawn global attention, unprecedented in any disease of its kind in recent times. The magnitude of the health crisis emerging from this pandemic has overwhelmed health care workers worldwide and called in for extraordinary measures to contain this virus. A simple Pubmed query on “COVID-19” returned with 12214 articles (as on May 17th, 2020), published just within a few months. A detailed survey revealed around 250 clinical reports, 8 clinical trials, 9 meta-analyses, and 906 reviews that were published during this time span. Combining the strings “COVID-19 and Pregnancy” yielded a total of 132 reports while querying “COVID-19 and Placenta” returned with just 11 articles Even taking into considerations that few materials are in the PrePrint Server, we still have a gross under-representation of studies addressing the effect of this disease on pregnancy outcome and maternal & child health. An essential aspect of a successful pregnancy is proper placentation, where transiently invasive placental trophoblast cells invade the maternal endometrium to establish a functional feto-maternal communication. Based on the elegant study by David. E. Gordon, et al. published in Nature (April 30, 2020), which identified 332 human host proteins interacting with SARS-nCoV2 using an affinity-based purification, we interrogated several gene expression data sets available at NCBI-GEO related to trophoblast invasion and differentiation. Both of these processes are indispensable for placentation and fetal survival. Our analysis showed several overlaps with the interactome proteins implying that SARS-CoV-2 infection can affect several proteins, which are crucial for trophoblasts function. GeneMANIA and STRING based functional analysis further revealed that several of that SARS-CoV-2 interacting trophoblast proteins as a hub for the protein-protein interaction network. Our study thus elucidates the possible effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on placenta formation and pregnancy outcome.
Online: 25 February 2020 (11:38:47 CET)
Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new viral respiratory disease and whether pregnant women are at increased risk of infection is unknown. Viral pneumonia is an important indirect cause of maternal death. Little is known about the effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during pregnancy. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in pregnancy and their newborn infant, and we sought to explored whether the SARS-CoV-2 can be intrauterine vertically transmitted. Study Design: The study was a case series study conducted in the obstetric ward of Tongji Hospital affiliated to Huazhong University of science and technology, Wuhan, China. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological profiles of the SARS-CoV-2 infection case series. A systematic testing procedure for SARS-CoV-2 infection using oropharyngeal swab, placenta tissue, vaginal mucus, and breast milk of mothers. and oropharyngeal swab, umbilical cord blood, and serum of newborns was conducted. Results: We have conducted the most thorough virological assessment to date, and we include a longer clinical observation in mother-infant dyads during hospitalization. The clinical course and outcomes of three pregnant women who acquired SARS-CoV-2 infection late pregnancy are described in mother-infant dyads. Two had caesarean delivery in their third trimester. All patients showed an uneventful perinatal course, and a successful outcome. No infants became infected by vertical transmission or during delivery. Conclusion: No evidence to suggest the potential risk of intrauterine vertical transmission in the case series and further in-depth study is needed. Both the pregnancy woman and infant showed fewer adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0210.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: post-marketing surveillance; vaccine safety; pertussis; Tdap; pregnancy; infant
Online: 18 July 2019 (09:26:02 CEST)
We aimed to evaluate the safety of maternal Tdap we assessed health events by examining the difference in birth and hospital-related outcomes of infants with and without fetal exposure to Tdap. This was a retrospective cohort study using linked administrative datasets. The study population were all live-born infants in New Zealand (NZ) weighing at least 400 grams at delivery and born to women who were eligible for the government funded, national-level vaccination program in 2013. Infants were followed from birth up to one year of age. There were a total of 69,389 eligible infants in the cohort. Of these, 8,299 infants were born to 8,178 mothers exposed to Tdap (12%), primarily between 28-38 weeks gestation as per the national schedule. Among the outcomes, we found a reduced risk for moderate to late preterm birth, low birth weight, small for gestational age, large for gestational age, respiratory distress syndrome, transient tachypnea of newborn, tachycardia or bradycardia, haemolytic diseases, other neonatal jaundice, anaemia, syndrome of infant of mother with gestational diabetes, and hypoglycemia in infants born to vaccinated mothers. There was no association between maternal Tdap and stillbirth, infant Apgar score at 5 minutes after birth, microcephaly, asphyxia, sepsis or infection, or hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Infant exposure to Tdap during pregnancy was associated with a higher mean birthweight (not clinically significant) and higher odds for ankyloglossia and neonatal erythema toxicum diagnoses. There were insufficient observations to allow examination of the effect of Tdap on extreme preterm and very preterm birth, and infant death. Overall, we found no outcomes of concern associated with the administration of Tdap during pregnancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: autism; autistic spectrum disorder; children; behavior; ultrasonography; prenatal; pregnancy
Online: 4 June 2019 (12:56:37 CEST)
For the past several decades, abdominal prenatal ultrasonography has been the most significant technology in obstetrics with a long-established application. However, the frequency, exposure time, thermal and cavitation exposure indices, and increased acoustic output of the ultrasonic waves may be harmful to the embryo/fetus and might increase susceptibility to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The increase in the prevalence of ASD is associated with an affluent ethnicity, high socioeconomic status, and high parental education where prenatal ultrasonography is readily available and affordable. Enhanced biophysical adverse effects may link the analogous increase in prenatal ultrasonography and autism, and prenatal ultrasonography may emerge as a risk factor for autism. Radiography usage provides historical evidence for this fact: the predominant past opinion was that exposure to X-rays during pregnancy caused no significant risk to a fetus. However, the association between X-ray exposure and childhood leukemia was only established 40 years after X-ray use began. This review focuses on excessive PUS usage and ASD development. Public Abstract Advancements in medical technology over the past several decades have made prenatal ultrasound more frequently accessible to expecting mothers during their pregnancy, especially for the affluent. A parallel development in health care is the increase in autism diagnoses (Autism Spectrum Disorder, or ASD) in children of affluent families. There is a general lack of studies of the impact of prenatal ultrasound on fetuses, especially around varying attributes such as frequency, duration of exposure, and thermal and cavitation indices. There is also a historical precedent set, where exposing fetuses to X-rays was not found to be harmful until it was linked to the development of childhood leukemia decades later. This paper seeks to establish a need to further study these attributes of prenatal ultrasound overuse and their possible impact on a developing fetus, with a special focus on the occurrence of Autism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0089.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: Fook intake; pizza; pasta; vegetables; pregnancy; adverse perinatal outcome
Online: 8 April 2019 (11:35:16 CEST)
Growing body of evidence endorse the hypothesis of a protective role played by the in-utero environment on a suitable fetal programming, mainly sustained by fitting maternal diet. Our purpose was to assess the linkage between maternal food intake and poor obstetric results, with a special focus on typical Italian food. A cross sectional study including delivering women was designed. A self-reported questionnaire about socio-demographic data, obstetric history, and food frequency intake during pregnancy was administrated. A composite of adverse perinatal outcomes (APO) was constructed. Statistically significant differences were found between APO and control group in smoking habit (9.7 vs. 3.2%, p=0.045) and BMI at delivery (27.9±4.9 vs. 26.9±3.9, p=0.003). Women complicated by any or more APOs reported increased rates of pasta (5.3± 3.6 vs.4.4±1.9 times per week, p<0.001) and pizza (1.9±3.4 vs. 1.1±0.6, p<0.001) intake, with lower consumption of vegetables (5.4±3.9 vs. 7.1±2.9, p<0.001). By logistic regression analysis and after adjustments for maternal age, ethnicity, SES, maternal BMI at delivery, excessive ingestion of pizza (aOR 1.676, 95%CI 1.199-2.343, p=0.033), but not pasta (aOR 1.077, 95%CI 0.950-1.211, p=0.244), was found associated with APO. Vegetable consumption showed a protective role in reducing APOs (aOR 0.897, 95%CI 0.818-0.985, p=0.022). Nutrition in pregnancy should minimalize pizza intakes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: mHealth; pregnancy; app; first 1000 days; co-design; expectant parents
Online: 5 December 2022 (14:43:03 CET)
Background. To improve maternal and child health, it is essential to adhere to health-promoting and preventive measures. However, reliable information as well as effective tools are not easy to identify in this field. Our cross-sectional study investigated the needs and expectations of expectant and new mothers and fathers -primary users of an app supporting the first 1000 days of life. Methods. Between May and August 2022, we recruited expectant and new parents by administering a 71-item 5-point Likert scale questionnaire related to content, functionalities, and technical features of a hypothetical app. We stratified responses by sociodemographic characteristics and then performed ward hierarchical clustering. Results. The 94 women and 69 men involved in our study generally agreed with the proposed content, but expressed low interest in certain app functionalities, especially those related to interaction mechanism and interactivity. Women were generally more demanding than men, and family income declined as the needs and expectations increased. Conclusions. Our findings, resulting from the engagement of end-users, may be useful for designers and technology providers to implement mHealth solutions that, in addition to conveying reliable information, are tailored to the needs and preferences of end-users in the first 1000 days of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0266.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: pregnancy; newborn; obstetric outcome; birth weight; foetal growth restriction; thinness
Online: 15 November 2022 (01:39:35 CET)
The pre-pregnancy BMI and the gestational weight gain are two important determinants of pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine obstetric outcomes associated with insufficient gestational weight gain in women with a pre-pregnancy BMI < 18.5 kg/m2. This study was based on observational routinely-collected data from a University Hospital Maternity. The participants were allocated to the group sufficient or insufficient gestational weight gain: ≥ 12.5 kg and < 12.5 kg respectively. Primary outcomes were the adjusted birth weight in percentiles (%) and the proportion of SGA newborns. Secondary outcomes were obstetric and perinatal outcomes. A total of 135 participants with a median age of 28±8 years were included. The adjusted birth weight in percentiles was significantly lower in the insufficient gestational weight gain group (27.2±45.4 vs 42.6±48.8 %; P<0.001). Moreover, the insufficient gestational weight gain is associated with a higher risk of SGA (28.1% vs 11.3%; P=0.017). Our study also showed increased risks of premature rupture of membranes, anaemia and intrauterine growth restriction in women with an insufficient weight gain. Future studies should explore the risk factors associated with insufficient weight gain, in order to develop specific care for underweight pregnant women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0505.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: affect; pregnancy; food intake; body mass index; ecological momentary assessment
Online: 30 August 2022 (04:33:53 CEST)
Background: Affective states play a role in dietary behaviors. Yet, little research has studied within-subjects associations between affect and diet during pregnancy. We examined the acute bidirectional relationships between affect and food intake and moderation by pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) in low-income, Hispanic pregnant women using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Methods: Women (N=57) completed four days of EMA during their first trimester. Women responded to five random prompts per day about their current affect and past two-hour food intake. Results: Higher positive affect (PA) or lower negative affect (NA) predicted greater likelihood of fruit/vegetable consumption in the next two hours in women with lower pre-pregnancy BMI and lower likelihood in women with higher pre-pregnancy BMI. Higher PA predicted less likelihood of fast food consumption in the next two hours in women with lower pre-pregnancy BMI and slightly higher likelihood in women with higher pre-pregnancy BMI. Women with lower pre-pregnancy BMI had higher PA when they reported consuming chips/fries in the past two hours, and women with higher pre-pregnancy BMI had lower PA when they reported consumption of chips/fries in the past two hours. Conclusions: Results showed differential relationships between affect and food intake as a function of pre-pregnancy BMI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0193.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Tolerana®; Pregnancy; Fetal-Maternal Recognition; Reproduction; Reproductive Safety Toxicology
Online: 13 May 2022 (15:14:42 CEST)
As recommended in the ICH Guidelines (S5-R2 and S6-R1), and based on bioethical concerns, we chose bovine embryos (BE) to check the in vitro embryo development considering the use of different amounts of rHGAL-1 as supplementations of in vitro embryo culture (IVP) mediums. Based on procedures for commercial BE in vitro production, using oocytes aspirated from slaughterhouse ovaries, the rHGAL-1 supplementation performed in two experiments (#01 on the oocyte maturation - IVM medium supplemented and experiment #2 on culture step IVC, supplemented SOF medium). There were IVP commercial procedures done, with 3 IVP batches per experiment and distributed the oocytes in four groups of treatment (one control group and three different dosages of rHGAL-1 to supplement both IVM and SOF mediums, using (2, 20 and 40µg.mL-1 respectively). A total of 962 (experiment 1) and 1,213 (experiment 2) oocytes were aspirated and submitted to IVP procedure. There was no damage to in vitro bovine embryos growth, considering cleavage percentage (%CLE), blastocysts development on day 7 (BlD7, BxD7, BhD7), or hatching blastocysts maturation on day 8 (BhD8%), regardless of rHGAL-1 supplementation. The immunohistochemistry assay with D8 embryos cultivated with rHGAL-1 supplementation on the culture medium (SOF medium) could demonstrate the presence of exogenous GAL-1, distributed in mass cell and trophoblastic cells, and the profile observed is dependent of exogenous supplementation and it was more evident in hatched embryos. The findings reassure the use of a reasonable amount of rHGAL-1 for in vitro embryonic development and make using rHGAL-1 in assisted reproduction in humans more reliable and safer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0506.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: endometrial cancer; fertility-sparing management; molecular classification; reproductive age; pregnancy
Online: 26 November 2021 (12:42:15 CET)
Conclusions: Molecular classification could provide reliable supplementary information for evaluating prognostic and contribute to treatment option decision-making in EEC patients. Fertility-sparing treatment is not recommended for EEC patients with CNH and MSI-H. Furthermore, fertility-sparing treatment can be attempted in EEC patients with CHL, but regular follow-up should be carried out to early detection of EC relapse and prevention of disease progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0482.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Dietary pattern; Mediterranean diet; healthy diet; pregnancy; lifestyle; sociodemographic factors.
Online: 18 March 2021 (12:34:28 CET)
The Mediterranean diet represents one of the most studied dietary patterns, however, there is no single tool for measuring the grade of adherence and no single criteria to adapting these indices to pregnant women. We characterized the adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MDA) of pregnant women participating in the NELA cohort and identified the sociodemographic determinants and lifestyle habits associated with a higher risk of a low MDA. Maternal diet during gestation was assessed by a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) (n=665). We estimated Relative Mediterranean Diet score (rMED), Alternative Mediterranean Diet score (aMED) and Alternate Healthy Index-2010 (AHEI-2010). Multivariate regression models were performed to identify the sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated to each index. Mothers with lower age and more previous deliveries had a greater probability of low MDA (P <0.05). Only, for aMED index, mothers with university education and / or who practiced 2 or more hours per week sport activities had a lower probability of a low MDA (P <0.01). These results may be useful in order to design intervention strategies and dietary recommendation for pregnant women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0479.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Pygmy hog; Porcula salvania; Progesterone; Testosterone; Faecal hormone; Pregnancy detection
Online: 18 March 2021 (12:22:10 CET)
The Pygmy hog (Porcula Salvania), till recently, classified as a critically endangered suid, is facing the threat of extinction globally due to habitat degradation. Efforts are being made to protect the pygmy hogs from extinction and breed them in captivity under Pygmy Hog Conservation Pro-gramme (PHCP). However, very little information is available on the reproductive physiology of pygmy hogs. Therefore, the present study aimed to standardize enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for monitoring pregnancy and reproductive status using progesterone and testosterone metabolites. A total of 785 faecal samples were collected from five females and two males over a period of one year from PHCP Research and Breeding Centre, Guwahati, Assam. High-pressure liquid chro-matography (HPLC) analysis revealed the presence of immunoreactive progesterone and testos-terone metabolites in faeces. Mating was observed in all the five females and four of them gave birth successfully. We were able to detect pregnancy using faecal progesterone metabolites. Based on mating and parturition, the mean gestation period was estimated to be 153.25 days from four females. The breeding centre recorded 172 births between 1996 and 2000 and found strong sea-sonality in births and most of the births were between May and June. Faecal testosterone metabo-lites were significantly higher in the breeding season than the non-breeding season. This is the first study and will help in future breeding programs in other captive breeding centres and reproduc-tive monitoring of reintroduced populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0220.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: feasibility; acceptability; adherence; attrition rate; periodontal therapy; milk fortification; pregnancy
Online: 10 September 2020 (04:44:05 CEST)
This study aims to assess the acceptability, adherence, and retention of a feasibility trial on milk fortification with calcium and vitamin D (Ca+VitD) and periodontal therapy (PT) among low income Brazilian pregnant women with periodontitis (IMPROVE trial). This 2x2 factorial feasibility trial used a mixed-methods evaluation. 69 pregnant women were randomly allocated to four groups: 1.fortified sachet with Ca+VitD and milk plus early PT (throughout gestation); 2.placebo and milk plus early PT; 3.fortified sachet with Ca+VitD and milk plus late PT after childbirth; 4.placebo and milk plus late PT. Data were collected via questionnaires, field notes, participant flow logs, treatment diary, and focal group discussions. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed using appropriate descriptive statistics and content analysis, respectively. Eligibility rate (12%) was below the target of 15%, but participation (76.1%) and recruitment rate (2 women/week) exceeded the targets. Retention rate (78.6%) was slightly below the target (80%). Adherence to the PT was significantly higher in the early treatment groups (98.8%) compared to the late treatment groups (29%). All women accepted the random allocation and baseline groups were balanced. There was no report of adverse events. This multi-component intervention is acceptable, well-tolerated, and feasible among low-risk pregnant women in Brazil.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0331.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: allergic reaction; CD158d; IgE receptor; KIR2DL4; KIT; mast cell; pregnancy
Online: 29 October 2019 (10:26:12 CET)
Killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) 2DL4 (CD158d) was previously thought to be a human NK-cell-specific protein but its expression has also been demonstrated in human mast cells. Mast cells are involved in allergic reactions via their KIT-mediated and IgE receptor-mediated responses. We recently detected the expression of KIR2DL4 in human cultured mast cells established from peripheral blood derived from healthy volunteers (PB-mast), a human mast cell line (LAD2), and non-neoplastic mast cells, including pathological specimens. An agonistic antibody against KIR2DL4 negatively regulates the KIT- and IgE-receptor-mediated responses of PB-mast and LAD2 cells. In addition, agonistic antibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G, a natural ligand for KIR2DL4, induce the secretion from these cells of leukemia inhibitory factor and serine proteases, which have been implicated in pregnancy establishment and cancer metastasis. Therefore, KIR2DL4 stimulation with agonistic antibodies and recombinant HLA-G protein may enhance both processes, in addition to suppressing mast-cell-mediated allergic reactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: pregnancy; medicines; drug information; drug safety; pharmacovigilance; pharmacoepidemiology; pharmaceutical industry; stakeholders
Online: 25 February 2022 (08:54:01 CET)
Although marketing authorization holders (MAHs) are involved in monitoring medication safety, it was unclear how they experience their role and current monitoring activities in pregnancy. Therefore, a qualitative study using online focus groups with MAHs and the Belgian umbrella organisation of MAHs was conducted in June-July 2021. In total, 38 representatives of nine organisations participated. Overall, participants reported multiple difficulties with data collection, including underreporting, collection of incomplete information and loss to follow-up. The limited number of high-quality data collected, the unknown denominator and the lack of comparator data complicate MAHs’ data processing activities, preventing them to timely provide evidence in the pregnancy label. Three ‘conflicts’ inherent to the specific position of MAHs were identified explaining the difficulties they experience, i.e., 1) mistrust from patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs); 2) MAHs’ legal obligations and regulatory framework; 3) MAHs’ position outside the healthcare context. To overcome these barriers, MAHs suggested that data registration should occur in close collaboration with patients and HCPs, organized within the healthcare context and performed by using a user-friendly system. In conclusion, the reported difficulties and underlying conflicts of MAHs highlight the need for more effective, collaborative data collection strategies to generate new evidence on this topic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0406.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: DHA; Brain; MFSD2a; SPM; Fetus; Placenta; infacnts; Neurogenesis; Pregnancy; Pre-term
Online: 20 October 2020 (08:37:41 CEST)
Dietary components are important for the structural and functional development of the brain. Among these, docosahexaenoic acid,22:6n-3 (DHA) is critically required for the structure and development of the growing fetal brain in utero. DHA is the major n-3 long-chain fatty acid in brain gray matter representing about 15% of all fatty acids in the human frontal cortex. DHA affects neurogenesis, neurotransmitter, synaptic plasticity & transmission, and signal transduction in the brain. Studies in animals and humans show that adequate levels of DHA in neural membranes are important for cortical astrocyte maturation and vascular coupling, and helps cortical glucose uptake and metabolism. In addition, specific metabolites of DHA are bioactive molecules that protect tissues from oxidative injury and stress in the brain. A low DHA level in the brain results in behavior changes and is associated with learning problems and memory deficits. In humans, the third trimester-placental supply of maternal DHA to the growing fetus is critically important as the growing brain obligatory requires DHA during this window period. Besides, DHA is also involved in the early placentation process, essential for placental development. This underscores the critical importance of maternal DHA intake for the structural and functional development of the brain. This review describes DHA's multiple roles during gestation, lactation, and the consequences of its lower intake during pregnancy and postnatally on the children's brain development and function.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0370.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: alcohol; drugs of abuse; pregnancy; maternal nutrition; fetal nutrition; FASD; IUGR
Online: 25 June 2018 (05:57:21 CEST)
The consumption of alcohol and drugs of abuse among pregnant women has experienced a significant increase in the last decades. Optimal maternal nutritional status is of great importance for proper fetal development, yet is often altered with alcohol or drugs consumption. There is a lack of information on the effects of alcohol and drugs on maternal nutritional status, so the focus of this review was to provide an overview on nutrional status of mother and fetus in abusers pregnant women. Alcohol and drugs consumption can adversely affect the quality and quantity of proper nutrient supply and energy intake, resulting in malnutrition especially of micronutrients (vitamins, omega-3, folic acid, zinc, choline, iron, copper, selenium). When maternal nutritional status is compromised by alcohol and drugs essential nutrients are not available for the fetus, this can result in suboptimal outcomes like Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) or Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). It is critical to determine a means to resolve and reduce the physical and neurological malformations that develop in the fetus as a result of prenatal alcohol and drugs exposure combined with poor maternal nutrition. Prenatal nutrition interventions are required that may prevent or alleviate the development of such abnormalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: metformin; pregnancy; gestational diabetes; polycystic ovarian syndrome; type 2 diabetes; obesity
Online: 6 June 2018 (12:09:00 CEST)
Metformin use in pregnancy is increasing worldwide as randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence is emerging demonstrating its safety and efficacy. The Metformin in Gestational Diabetes (MiG) RCT changed practice in many countries demonstrating that metformin had similar pregnancy outcomes to insulin therapy with less maternal weight gain and a high degree of patient acceptability. A multicentre RCT is currently assessing the addition of metformin to insulin in pregnant women with type 2 diabetes. RCT evidence is also available for the use of metformin for women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and for non-diabetic women with obesity. No evidence of an increase in congenital malformations or miscarriages has been observed even when metformin is started before pregnancy and continued to term. Body composition and metabolic outcomes at two, seven and nine years have now been reported for the offspring of mothers treated in the MiG study. In this review, we will briefly discuss the action of metformin and then consider the evidence from the key clinical trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0318.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: antenatal depression; Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; COVID-19; women; mental health; pregnancy
Online: 19 December 2022 (03:56:31 CET)
Globally, the impact of COVID-19 on mental health has been significant. Pregnant women are known to be a vulnerable population in relation to mental health. In Australia, there was an unprecedented demand during the pandemic for mental health services, including services for pregnant women. Maternal mental health has unique and enduring features that can significantly shape a child’s overall development and poor maternal mental health can have considerable social and economic costs. This cross-sectional study evaluated antenatal depression and COVID-19 related distress in a sample of two hundred and sixty-nine pregnant women residing in Australia aged between 20 and 43 (M = 31.79, SD = 4.58), as part of a larger study. Social media advertising was used to recruit participants between September 2020 and November 2021. Prevalence rates for antenatal depression were found to be higher in this study (16.4%) compared with previous Australian prevalence rates (7%). COVID-19 distress in relation to having a baby during a COVID-19 outbreak significantly predicted antenatal depression, B = 1.46, p < .001. Results from this study suggest that mothers and families may have increased mental health vulnerabilities as a consequence of the pandemic for some time yet.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0301.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Hepatitis E virus; Genotype; Epidemic hepatitis; Sporadic hepatitis; Pregnancy; Foetus; Neonate; Vaccine
Online: 13 May 2021 (13:52:29 CEST)
The adverse relationship between viral hepatitis and pregnancy in developing countries was seen as a reflection of retrospective biased hospital-based data collection by the West. However, the discovery of HEV from an epidemic of non-A, non-B hepatitis in Kashmir and documenting increased incidence and severity of hepatitis E in pregnancy from a house-to-house survey unmasked the unholy alliance. Among the family of HEV’s, genotype (gt)-1, with a unique ORF4-encoded protein enhancing viral polymerase activity and viral replication, is the sole HEV that shows this adverse relationship. The epidemics caused by HEV-gt1 and not by HEV-gt2 show adverse relationship with pregnancy. The pathogenesis of the unholy alliance is complex and at present not well understood. Possibly multiple factors play a role in causing severe liver disease in the mother including: infection, replication and damage to the maternal-foetal interface by HEV-gt1; vertical transmission of HEV to foetus causing severe foetal/neonatal hepatitis; and combined viral and hormone related immune dysfunction of diverse nature in the mother promoting viral replication. Management is multidisciplinary and needs a close watch for the development and management of ALF. Preliminary data suggest beneficial maternal outcomes by early termination of pregnancy in patients with lower grades of encephalopathy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0489.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Velamentous cord insertion; Twin; Perinatal outcomes; Pregnancy outcomes; Chorionicity; Twin specific complications
Online: 21 December 2020 (10:14:02 CET)
Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of velamentous cord insertion (VCI) and the actual association between pathologically confirmed VCI and perinatal outcomes in twins based on the chorionicity. Methods All twin pregnancies who received prenatal care at a specialty clinic for multiple pregnancies, from less than 12weeks of gestation until delivery in a single institution between 2015 and 2018 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Results A total of the 941 twins were included in the study. The prevalence of VCI in dichorionic (DC) twins and monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twins was 5.8% and 7.8%, respectively (p=0.251). In all study population, the prevalence of vasa previa and placenta accreta were higher in VCI group compared to that of non-VCI group (p=0.008 and 0.022). In MCDA twins with VCI, birth weight, 1 and 5-minute Apgar score were lower compared to DC twins with VCI (p=0.010, 0.002 and 0.000). There was no significant association between VCI and selective fetal growth restriction (p=0.708), twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (p=0.400) and birth-weight discordance (>20% and >25%) (p= 0.378 and 0.161) in MCDA twins. Conclusion VCI in twins was not a risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes and twin-specific complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0653.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: misoprostol; induction of labor; high-risk pregnancy; obesity; diabetes; hypertension; perinatal outcome
Online: 25 November 2020 (16:41:16 CET)
Background and objectives: Induction of labor (IOL) is an event that occurs in up to one-quarter of pregnancies; less is known about the outcomes and safety of IOL in obese pregnant woman; no data is available on misoprostol vaginal insert (MVI) IOL in high-risk pregnancy obese women. Objectives: (1) to evaluate the rate of successful IOL with 200 μg MVI in obese (Body Mass Index - BMI over 30 kg/m2) high-risk pregnant women: late-term pregnancy, hypertension or diabetes, compared to obese non-high-risk ones; (2) to evaluate the safety profile of MVI in high-risk pregnancy obese patients. Study design: We conducted a cross-sectional study in "Filantropia" Clinical Hospital, Bucharest, Romania, from June 2017 to September 2019 (28 months). From a total of 11,096 registered live births, IOL was performed in 206 obese patients; 74 obese high-risk pregnant patients matched the inclusion criteria; of these, 33.8% pregnancies (n=25) were late-term (41 – 41+6 weeks), 43.2% (n=32) had associated pathologies (hypertension and diabetes); labor induction was guided using a standardized protocol. We evaluated the maternal and gestational age, parity, fetal tachysystole, hyper-stimulation, initial cervical status, time from induction to delivery, drug side effects, mode of delivery, and neonatal outcomes. Results: (a) The overall successful labor induction rate, evaluated by the vaginal delivery rate, was 71.6% (n=53), spontaneously or instrumentally assisted; 28.4% (n=21) births were unsuccessful MVI IOL, converted into caesareans. (b) No significant differences were found regarding the maternal outcomes; in terms of perinatal outcomes of safety, four cases of high-risk pregnancies vaginally delivered were associated with neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions and a one-minute Apgar score under seven (5.4%). Most cases with adverse effects of misoprostol have been managed conservatively, except for three emergency C-section cases. Conclusions: Misoprostol vaginal insert is a safe choice in IOL in obese high-risk pregnancies with good maternal and perinatal outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0724.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: clozapine; schizophrenia; early-onset; pregnancy; bipolar affective disorder; agranulocytosis; COVID-19; pharmacogenetic
Online: 9 November 2020 (11:48:29 CET)
Background: Clozapine (CLZ) use is precarious due to its neurological, cardiovascular, and hematological side effects; however, it is the gold standard in therapy-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) in adults and is underused. Objective: to examine the most recent CLZ data on (a) side effects concerning (b) recent pharmacological mechanisms, (c) therapy benefits, and (d) the particularities of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data sources: a search was performed in two databases (PubMed and Web of Science) using the specific keywords "clozapine" and "schizophrenia," "side effects," "agranulocytosis," "TRS," or "bipolar affective disorder (BAF)" for the last ten years. Study eligibility criteria: clinical trials on adults with acute symptoms of schizophrenia or related disorders. Results: We selected 37 studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and clinical case series (CCS), centered on six main topics in the search area: (a) CLZ in schizophrenia, (b) CLZ in bipolar disorder, (c) side effects during the clozapine therapy, (d) CLZ in pregnancy, (e) CLZ in early-onset schizophrenia, and (f) CLZ therapy and COVID-19 infection. Limitations: We considered RCTs and CCS from two databases, limited to the search topics. Conclusions and implications of key findings: (a) Clozapine doses should be personalized for each patient based on pharmacogenetics testing when available; the genetic vulnerability postulates predictors of adverse reactions' severity; patients with a lower genetic risk could have less frequent hematological monitoring; (b) CLZ-associated risk of pulmonary embolism imposes prophylactic measures for venous thromboembolism; (c) convulsive episodes are not an indication for stopping treatment; the plasma concentration of clozapine is a better side effect predictor than the dosage; (d) COVID-19 infection may enhance clozapine toxicity, generating an increased risk of pneumonia. Therapy must be continued with proper monitoring of the white blood count, and the clozapine dose decreased by half until three days after the fever breaks; psychiatrists and healthcare providers must act together. Background: Clozapine (CLZ) use is precarious due to its neurological, cardiovascular, and hematological side effects; however, it is the gold standard in therapy-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) in adults and is underused. Objective: to examine the most recent CLZ data on (a) side effects concerning (b) recent pharmacological mechanisms, (c) therapy benefits, and (d) the particularities of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data sources: a search was performed in two databases (PubMed and Web of Science) using the specific keywords "clozapine" and "schizophrenia," "side effects," "agranulocytosis," "TRS," or "bipolar affective disorder (BAF)" for the last ten years. Study eligibility criteria: clinical trials on adults with acute symptoms of schizophrenia or related disorders. Results: We selected 37 studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and clinical case series (CCS), centered on six main topics in the search area: (a) CLZ in schizophrenia, (b) CLZ in bipolar disorder, (c) side effects during the clozapine therapy, (d) CLZ in pregnancy, (e) CLZ in early-onset schizophrenia, and (f) CLZ therapy and COVID-19 infection. Limitations: We considered RCTs and CCS from two databases, limited to the search topics. Conclusions and implications of key findings: (a) Clozapine doses should be personalized for each patient based on pharmacogenetics testing when available; the genetic vulnerability postulates predictors of adverse reactions' severity; patients with a lower genetic risk could have less frequent hematological monitoring; (b) CLZ-associated risk of pulmonary embolism imposes prophylactic measures for venous thromboembolism; (c) convulsive episodes are not an indication for stopping treatment; the plasma concentration of clozapine is a better side effect predictor than the dosage; (d) COVID-19 infection may enhance clozapine toxicity, generating an increased risk of pneumonia. Therapy must be continued with proper monitoring of the white blood count, and the clozapine dose decreased by half until three days after the fever breaks; psychiatrists and healthcare providers must act together.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: retrospective hospital-based study, overweight, obesity, pregnancy pathologies, caesarean section, weight gain
Online: 10 April 2019 (12:34:37 CEST)
This study aimed to evaluate the impact of selected pregnancy pathologies statistically depending on overweight/obesity and excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy on women who gave birth in the years 2013–2015 at the Second Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at the University Hospital in Bratislava, Slovakia. In a retrospective study, we analyzed data gathered from the sample, which consisted of 7,122 women. Our results indicate a positive statistical dependency of the groups of women with overweight and obesity and gestational hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=15.3; 95% CI 9.0−25.8 for obesity), preeclampsia (AOR=3.4; 95% CI 1.9−6.0 for overweight and AOR=13.2; 95% CI 7.7−22.5 for obesity), and gestational diabetes mellitus (AOR=1.9; 95% CI 1.2−2.9 for overweight and AOR=2.4; 95% CI 1.4−4.0 for obesity). A higher incidence of pregnancies terminated by cesarean section was observed in the group of obese women. Gestational weight gain above the IOM (the Institute of Medicine) recommendations was associated with a higher risk of pregnancy terminated by C-section (AOR=1.2; 95% CI 1.0−1.3), gestational hypertension (AOR=1.7; 95% CI 1.0−2.7), and infant macrosomia (AOR=1.7; 95% CI 1.3−2.1). Overweight and obesity during pregnancy significantly contribute to the development of pregnancy pathologies and increased incidence of cesarean section. Systematic efforts to reduce weight before pregnancy through pre-pregnancy dietary counseling, regular physical activity, and healthy lifestyle should be the primary goal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0020.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: expanded carrier screening; prenatal diagnosis; pregnancy management; clinical utility; at-risk couple
Online: 1 August 2018 (12:07:35 CEST)
Purpose: Expanded carrier screening (ECS) informs couples of their risk of having offspring affected by certain genetic conditions. Limited data exists assessing the actions and reproductive outcomes of at-risk couples (ARCs). We describe the impact of ECS on planned and actual pregnancy management in the largest sample of ARCs studied to date. Methods: Couples who elected ECS and were found to be at high risk of having a pregnancy affected by at least one of 176 genetic conditions were invited to complete a survey about their actions and pregnancy management. Results: Three hundred ninety-one ARCs completed the survey. Among those screened before becoming pregnant, 77% planned or pursued actions to avoid having affected offspring. Among those screened during pregnancy, 37% elected prenatal diagnostic testing (PNDx) for that pregnancy. In subsequent pregnancies that occurred in both the preconception and prenatal screening groups, PNDx was pursued in 29%. The decision to decline PNDx was most frequently based on the fear of procedure-related miscarriage, as well as the belief that termination would not be pursued in the event of a positive diagnosis. Conclusions: ECS results impacted couples’ reproductive decision-making and led to altered pregnancy management that effectively eliminates the risk of having affected offspring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0388.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: agricultural pesticides; residential proximity; adverse birth outcomes; preterm birth; low birthweight; pregnancy
Online: 25 June 2018 (12:44:14 CEST)
Findings from studies of prenatal exposure to pesticides and adverse birth outcomes have been equivocal so far. We examined prenatal exposure to agricultural pesticides in relation to preterm birth and term low birthweight, respectively, in children born between 1998 and 2010 randomly selected from California birth records. We estimated residential exposures to agriculturally applied pesticides within 2 km of residential addresses at birth by pregnancy trimester for 17 individual pesticides and 3 chemical classes (organophosphates, pyrethroids, and carbamates). Among maternal addresses located within 2 km of any agricultural pesticide application, we identified 24,693 preterm and 220,297 term births, and 4,412 term low birthweight and 194,732 term normal birthweight infants. First or second trimester exposures to individual pesticides (e.g., glyphosates, paraquat, imidacloprid) or exposures to 2+ pesticides in the three chemical classes were associated with small increases (3-7%) in risk for preterm birth; associations were stronger for female offspring. We did not find associations between term low birthweight and exposures to pesticides other than for myclobutanil (OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.04-1.20) and possibly pyrethroids as a class. Our improved exposure assessment revealed that first and second trimester exposures to pesticides were associated with preterm delivery but few affected term low birthweight.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0717.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: hyperthyroidism; thyrotoxicosis; Graves’ disease; pregnancy; antithyroid drug; drug withdrawal; postpartum recurrence; birth defects
Online: 30 June 2021 (00:09:17 CEST)
Overt hyperthyroidism during pregnancy is associated with risk of maternal-fetal complications. The antithyroid drugs (ATD) have a potential risk for teratogenic effects and fetal–neonatal hy-pothyroidism. This study evaluated ATD treatment and thyroid function control during preg-nancy, and pregnancy outcome in women with hyperthyroidism. Patients and methods: retro-spective analysis of 36 single fetus pregnancies in 29 consecutive women (median age 30.3 ± 4.7 years) with hyperthyroidism diagnosed before or during pregnancy; a control group of 39 healthy euthyroid pregnant women was used. Results: 26 women had Graves’ disease (GD, 33 pregnan-cies), 1 had a hyperfunctioning autonomous nodule, 2 had gestational transient thyrotoxicosis (GTT). Methimazole (MMI) was administered in 22 pregnancies (78.5%), Propylthiouracil (PTU) in 2 (7.1%), switch from MMI to PTU in 4 (14.2%), no treatment in 8 pregnancies (3 with subclinical hyperthyroidism, 5 euthyroid with previous GD remission before conception). One spontaneous abortion at 5 weeks (3.4% of pregnancies) and 1 premature delivery at 32 weeks with perinatal death in 24h (3.4%) were recorded in 2 of the 8 pregnancies of GD patients diagnosed shortly before (< 6 weeks) or during gestation. In women treated more than 6 months until conception (20 pregnancies): a) median ATD doses were lower than those in women diagnosed shortly before or during pregnancy; b) ATD was withdrawn in 40% of pregnancies in trimester (T) I, all on MMI < 10 mg/day (relapse in 14.2%), and in up to 55% in TIII; c) TSH level was below normal in 37%, 35% and 22% of pregnancies in T I, II and III respectively; FT4 was increased in 5.8% (T I) and sub-normal in 11.75% in TII and III; d) one fetal death due to a true umbilical cord knot was recorded. Hyperthyroidism relapsed postpartum in 83% of GD patients (at median 3 ± 2.6 months). One child had neonatal hyperthyroidism (3.3% of live children in GD women) and a small atrial sept defect (4% of live children in ATD treated women). Mean birth weight did not differ from that of the control group. Conclusion. In hyperthyroid women with long-term ATD control before con-ception, drugs could be withdrawn in TI in a third of them, and fetal complications were rare. Frequent serum TSH and FT4 monitoring is needed in order to maintain optimal thyroid function during pregnancy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0530.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: vaccine, pregnancy complication, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, maternal complications, pandemic, prevention, safety
Online: 20 April 2021 (11:22:31 CEST)
Introduction.Sars-CoV-2 infection poses particular problems in pregnancy, as the infection more frequently causes severe complications than in unaffected pregnant women, or non-pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Now that vaccination is available and rapidly getting implemented worldwide, the question arises whether pregnant women should be vaccinated, and if so, whether they should get priority. Methods. Available scientific data and available guidelines about vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 were collected by the Guideline Committee of the International Society of Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology (ISIDOG), and were analyzed, discussed and summarized as guidelines for health care workers caring for pregnant women. Concluding statements were graded according to the Oxford Evidence Based Medicine Grading System. Results. There is evidence to consider pregnancy as a risk factor for serious complications of COVID-19 infection, even in the absence of additional risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes and obesity which increase these risks even more in pregnancy. Currently available data slightly favor mRNA-based vaccines above vector-based vaccines during pregnancy and breastfeeding, until more safety data become available. Conclusion. ISIDOG advices policy makers and societies to prioritize pregnant women to receive vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, and favor the mRNA vaccines until further safety information becomes available.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0444.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Caesarean scar ectopic pregnancy; risk factors; clinical presentation; complication; management; outcome of CSEP
Online: 19 February 2021 (14:35:47 CET)
Caesarean scar ectopic pregnancy (CSEP) is an uncommon form of ectopic pregnancy. This review defines types of CSEP, discusses pathophysiology, clinical presentation and diagnosis and compares common treatment options and outcomes. The pathophysiology is not yet fully understood. One third of patient are asymptomatic. In symptomatic patients vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain which is usually misdiagnosed as threatened or missed abortion. The main principles of treatment for CSEP are early diagnose, quick management, and maintain reproductive function as much as possible. Up to date; no consensus or guidelines for the treatment and management of CSEP. Management of CSEP depends on the clinical presentation and gestational age. Significant controversy exists regarding management, for this reason, several factors should be considered including age of the patient, myometrial thickness, clinical symptoms, hemodynamic status, fertility preservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0050.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: positive deviance; dual-method use; contraception; unintended pregnancy; sexually transmitted infection; HIV/AIDS
Online: 5 July 2020 (07:04:27 CEST)
Dual-method use is the most reliable form of protection against unintended pregnancies and HIV/STIs. Although dual-method use remains uncommon among women in stable relationships, some women do practice it. In this study, we explored the barriers that make dual-method use rare and the behaviors of women who practice dual-method use using a positive deviance framework in Uganda. We screened 150 women using highly effective contraceptives at five health facilities. We identified nine women who practiced dual-method use and 141 women who did not. In a qualitative study, we conducted in-depth interviews with all nine women practicing dual-method use and 10 women randomly selected out of the 141 who did not. We performed a thematic analysis using the positive deviance framework. Regardless of practicing dual-method use or not, women faced perceived barriers against dual-method use, such as partner’s objection, distrust, shyness about introducing condoms into marital relationships, and limited access to condoms. However, women practicing dual-method use had higher levels of risk perception about unintended pregnancies and HIV/STIs. They also engaged in unique behaviors, such as influencing their partners’ condom use by initiating discussions, educating their partners on sexual risks and condom use, and obtaining condoms by themselves. These findings will be useful in developing effective community-led and peer-based interventions promoting dual-method use to reduce the dual burden of unintended pregnancies and HIV/STIs among women in Uganda.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0191.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: BDNF; CRP; C-peptide; leptin; pregnancy; skinfold thickness; thyroid hormones; type-1 diabetes mellitus
Online: 11 January 2023 (02:57:33 CET)
The study aimed to determine the relationship between glucose, C-peptide, BDNF, and leptin between mother and fetus and neonatal weight. Methods: In the prospective observational cohort study, we included 66 women with T1DM. According to the z-score for neonatal weight, patients were divided into Healthy weight neonates (n=42) and Overweight neonates (n=24). The maternal blood samples were taken during pregnancy and cesarean section when the umbilical vein blood sample was also withdrawn. The maternal vein sera were analyzed for fasting glucose, CRP, leptin, BDNF, TSH, FT3, and FT4. The umbilical vein sera were analyzed for glucose, C-peptide, leptin, TSH, FT3, FT4, and BDNF concentration. The neonatologist measured the skinfold thickness on the third day of neonatal life. Results: A strong correlation was confirmed between maternal and umbilical vein glucose concentration and maternal glucose and C-peptide in umbilical vein blood. A negative correlation was found between the concentration of BDNF in the umbilical vein and glucose in maternal blood. A strong correlation was seen between BMI and maternal blood leptin concentration, neonatal fat body mass, and umbilical vein blood leptin concentration. Increased odds for Overweight neonates were BMI, BDNF, and TSH in the first trimester of pregnancy. Maternal leptin concentration decreased the odds of Overweight neonates. Conclusions: Maternal glucose concentrations affect the fetus’s glucose, C-peptide, and BDNF concentrations. Leptin levels increase in maternal blood due to increased body mass index, and in the neonate, its fat body mass is responsible for increased leptin concentrations.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Dyalisis in pregnancy; End stage renal disease; haemodyalisis; peritoneal dyalisis; intensive dyalisis regimen; preeclampsia
Online: 30 December 2020 (16:55:39 CET)
Background. Pregnancy rates in women on dialysis have increased in the last decades, thus making it a topic of growing interest. The rarity of this event is predominantly due to fertility problems and to the high rates of pregnancy failure including stillbirth, fetal and neonatal deaths . Methods. We conducted a narrative review of existent literature in order to analyse the major issues about pregnancy on dialysis to give the reader a full updated prospective about this topic which, even if not common, is becoming more and more frequent. Results. Even if recently acquired knowledge has improved diagnosis and treatment of dialysis pregnancies focusing on several aspects, pregnancy on dialysis remains a great challenge for obstetricians and should be managed by a multidisciplinary expertise team. Conclusion. Dialysis in pregnancy may be necessary for women previously affected by end stage renal disease (ESRD) becoming pregnant, or in case of acute renal injury presenting for the first time during gestation or, again in case of existent renal pathology worsening during pregnancy and requiring dialysis. Although some evidence suggests that more intensive dialysis regimens are correlated with better obstetric outcomes, the optimal therapeutic protocol still remains to be established.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0611.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: Lysosomal Disorders; Glycogen storage disease Type II; Pompe disease; LOPD; Pregnancy; Enzyme Replacement Therapy
Online: 25 July 2020 (15:48:01 CEST)
There is limited data on pregnancy outcomes in Pompe Disease (PD) resulting from deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase. Late-onset PD is characterized by progressive proximal muscle weakness and decline of respiratory function secondary to the involvement of the respiratory muscles. In a cohort of twenty-five females, the effects of both PD on the course of pregnancy and the effects of pregnancy on PD were investigated. Reproductive history, course of pregnancy, use of Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), PD symptoms, and outcomes of each pregnancy were obtained through a questionnaire. Among 20 subjects that reported one or more pregnancies, one subject conceived while on ERT and continued therapy through two normal pregnancies with worsening of weakness during pregnancy and improvement postpartum. While fertility was not affected, pregnancy may worsen symptoms, or cause initial symptoms to arise. Complications with pregnancy or birth were not higher, except for an increase in the rate of stillbirths (3.8% compared to the national average of 0.2-0.7%). Given small sample size and possible bias of respondents being only women who have been pregnant, further data may be needed to better analyze the effects of pregnancy on PD, and the effects of ERT on pregnancy outcomes.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0140.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: Krukenberg Tumor; Neoplasm Metastasis; Ovarian Neoplasms; Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications; Case Report.
Online: 11 June 2020 (12:30:50 CEST)
BACKGROUND Krukenberg tumor is a rare metastatic tumor of the ovary with characteristic histopathological features known as signet-ring cells. It usually presents in women around 45 years of age, however, we present an uncommon case in a 38-year-old pregnant woman. We report this case because of the unusual findings, the uncommon presentation in this younger age bracket, its diagnostic challenge, and poor prognosis. CASE PRESENTATION We describe an unusual case of a young woman with a history of painful vaginal bleeding at 13 weeks of pregnancy and treated for abruptio placentae. In her routine prenatal visit at week 20 of pregnancy, she was found to have a uterine fundus greater than her gestational age and referred to the hospital to discard polyhydramnios. At her admission a pelvic ultrasound was performed with normal findings of a 25 weeks pregnancy, also showing bilateral enlarged ovaries with heterogeneous echogenicity. The MRI showed a left tumoral lesion with dimensions of 22.1 x 13.6 x 16.3 cm, with lobulated regular contours with displacement of peripheral structures and mild compression of the bladder, the left ureter, and the inferior vena cava. The lesion was heterogeneous with irregular borders. The patient was programmed for a cesarean section; during the operation, the abdominal cavity showed bilateral tumors compatible with MRI findings, the ovarian tumors were sent to pathology and the results showed poorly differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma (WHO III) with extensive signet-ring cells, an indicative of Krukenberg tumor. CONCLUSION: The case presented is rare due to its presentation in a pregnant woman without identifiable risk factors for gastric cancer. The incidental finding suggests the pregnancy masked the clinical presentation of gastric cancer, and the rapid deterioration of the patient is consistent with the aggressiveness described in the literature. The limited descriptions of this neoplasm in our country and the torpid evolution of this case highlight the importance of further studies of this cancer in Mexico.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0311.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Angiotensin converting enzyme 2; breast feeding; drug therapy; pregnancy; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
Online: 13 May 2021 (15:26:34 CEST)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become the chief concern of the international community in almost no time. As of May 9th, 2021, more than 150 million cases and 3.2 million deaths have been recorded. Considering the early struggle in treating COVID-19 patients, the researchers and clinicians have decided to try the previously available drugs according to their mechanisms of action. Hence, many antivirals, antibiotics, antiparasitics, and antipyretics have been proposed. Pregnant women, fetuses, and infants are known high-risk populations that are threatened during disease outbreaks. Therefore, this article reviews the safety of potential drugs for COVID-19 patients during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0341.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: malaria; indwelling malaria control; insecticide treated net (ITN); pregnancy; socio-economic; logistic regression; odds ratio
Online: 30 July 2019 (14:40:53 CEST)
Malaria is endemic in Nigeria and remains a major public health problem, taking its greatest toll on children under age 5 and pregnant women, although it is preventable, treatable, and curable. This study investigates the Impact of socio-economic factors and indoor mosquito control on malaria prevalent among pregnant women in Nigeria using logistic regression. To achieve this, secondary data obtained from 2015 Nigeria Malaria Indicator survey, executed by the National Malaria Elimination Programme (NMEP) and the National Population Commission (NPopC), with a nationally representative sample of more than 8,000 consisting of 7,745 households. The results from the logistic regression with odds ratio revealed that pregnant women are more like to be affected by malaria fever (though not significant) compared to women that are not pregnant. The income levels of the household does not significant reduce the incidence of malaria fever among pregnant women in Niger. Concerning the malaria presenting measure, only dwelling sprayed by private company significantly reduce the incidence of malaria fever among pregnant women (P-value=0.020<0.05) compared to dwelling sprayed by government and NGOs and also to Insecticide Treated Net. Also pregnant women in the urban centers are less likely to have malaria fever compared to pregnant women in rural communities in Nigeria. Also, pregnant women with atleast a secondary school level of education are less likely to be affected by malaria fever compared to pregnant women with no formal education. The fitted logistic model passed the goodness-of-test fit; the classification test for the logistic model was correctly classified at about 67.02%. Therefore, this study recommends that government and NGOs should intensify their efforts in the area of dwelling spraying, awareness campaign of the danger of malaria fever among pregnant women and infants, engaged in effective distribution of insecticide treated net in order to reduce the incidence of malaria fever among pregnant women living in rural communities in Nigeria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0709.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; covid 19; pregnancy; passive immunization; maternal immunization; influenza vaccines; diphtheria tetanus pertussis vaccine
Online: 28 December 2020 (16:54:31 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic has raised questions about the possible cross immunity resulting from common vaccination programs and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, the Spanish Obstetric Emergency group performed a multicenter prospective study on the vaccination status of Influenza and Tdap (diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine boost administered in adulthood) in consecutive cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a pregnancy cohort, in order to assess its possible association with the clinical presentation and severity of symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as to determine the factors that may affect vaccination adherence. 1,150 SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnant women from 78 Spanish hospitals were analyzed: 183 had not received either vaccine, 23 had been vaccinated for Influenza only, 529 for Tdap only and 415 received both vaccines. No association was observed between the vaccination status and the clinical presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or the severity of symptoms. However, a lower adherence to the administration of both vaccines was observed in the Latin-American subgroup. Based on the results above, we reinforce the importance of maternal vaccination programs in the actual pandemic. Health education campaigns should be specially targeted to groups less likely to participate in these programs, as well as for a future SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaign.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0649.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Infertile women; Hysteroscopy; Clinical pregnancy rate; Live birth rate; No Intrauterine pathology; endometrial stimulation; Systematic review
Online: 26 September 2020 (16:39:39 CEST)
(1) Background: The aim of this work was to systematically review existing studies on whether hysteroscopy improves the reproductive outcomes of women with infertility even in the absence of intrauterine pathologies when compared to women who did not receive a hysteroscopy. (2) Methods: We established the Participant-Intervention-Comparison-Outcome strategy and used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement to conduct a systematic review of 11 studies which were retrieved from 3 electronic databases: Ovid-Medline, Ovid-Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Two independent investigators extracted the data from the included studies and used the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool to assess their quality. (3) Results: The primary outcome measures were the clinical pregnancy rates (CPRs) and live birth rates (LBRs) in the in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Hysteroscopy in infertile women without intrauterine pathologies showed higher CPRs and LBRs than those in the same population who did not receive hysteroscopy in cases of recurrent implantation failure and IVF (odds ratio: 1.79 and 1.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.46-2.30 and 1.08-1.97 for CPR and LBR, respectively); however, the degree of significance was not as high for LBR. (4) Conclusions: Hysteroscopy before IVF/ICSI in infertile women without intrauterine pathologies may potentially be effective in improving the CPRs and LBRs in patients with RIF. Robust and high-quality randomized trials are warranted to confirm this finding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0126.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: anemia; iron deficiency; pregnancy; serum ferritin; mean corpuscular volume (mcv); mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH); Northern Pakistan
Online: 27 January 2017 (03:46:07 CET)
Abstract: The aim of this study was to find out the incidence of anemia in pregnant women of Swat District; to analyze the iron variations and its dietary effects.Data were collected during the periods of January – September 2016. The study of samples comprised of 250 pregnant women in the different trimester. Blood sample from each woman was collected and full blood count (FBC) was conducted through Mindray BC-3000 plus hem analyzer for all pregnant individuals. Confirmed anemic cases were then examined for IDA with serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) through Randox kit and serum transferrin saturation was estimated by formula (serum ferritin saturation =serum iron ×100/TIBC). The total number of participants in the first trimester were 50, among them 26 women were suffer from iron deficiency anemia (IDA) with 52% weightage of prevalence rate, (mean Hb concentration 9.602 ± 0.87 g/dl). The rates of IDA were 63.3%; ( mean Hb concentration 8.48 ± 1.24 g/dl) and 54%; ( mean Hb concentration 9.18 ± 1.28 g/dl), among 150 and 50 participants in the second and third trimester, respectively. A significant correlation was found between serum ferritin and Hb, serum ferritin against MCV and serum ferritin against MCH. The high prevalence of anemia was found 78.2% in the age group from 26-30 followed by 78.2% in the age group 36-40 years compared to those of other age groups in the second trimester. In this study the prevalence of IDA in third trimester is lower compared to first and second trimester.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0708.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Adolescent’s Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (ASRHR); interventions; outcomes; ASRHR services; condom use; teenage pregnancy; contraception
Online: 29 June 2021 (13:20:50 CEST)
Adolescent’s access to quality Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights interventions has been a major issue in most of the low- to middle-income countries (LMICs) across the globe. This systematic review aims to identify the relevant community and school-based interventions that can be implemented in -LMICs to promote adolescent’s sexual and reproductive health and rights outcomes. We identified 54 studies and our review findings suggest that Adolescent’s Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (ASRHR) educational interventions, provision of financial incentives, and provision of comprehensive -post-abortion family planning services are effective in increasing adolescent’s knowledge on ASRHR, attitude towards ASRHR, uptake of ASRHR services, contraception and decreased unwanted pregnancy rates among young women. However, we found inconclusive and limited evidence on the effectiveness of the interventions to improve violence prevention and adolescent behaviors towards safe sexual practices. More rigorous studies with long-term follow-ups are needed to assess the effectiveness of such interventions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0065.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: preeclampsia; neonatal outcome; vitamin D; 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D; diabetes; pregnancy complication; vitamin D deficiency; vitamin D supplementation
Online: 6 October 2022 (12:16:11 CEST)
Vitamin D plays an essential role in embryogenesis and the course of intra- and postnatal periods and is crucially involved in the functioning of the mother-placenta-fetus system. Low quantity of Vitamin D during pregnancy can lead to the elevated risk for preeclampsia occurence. Despite the numerous studies on the association of Vitamin D deficiency and preeclampsia development, the current research on this theme is contradictory. In this review we summarize and analyze study data on the effects of vitamin D deficiency and supplementation on pregnancy, labor, fetal and neonatal outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0374.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Diabetes; Gestational; Diagnostic Techniques; Obstetrical and Gynecological; Fetal growth acceleration; Fetal Macrosomia; Large-for-gestational-age; Obstetrics; Pregnancy Complications; Stillbirth
Online: 19 January 2021 (11:42:09 CET)
Background: Fetal overgrowth is related to many perinatal complications including stillbirth, cesarean section, maternal and neonatal injuries, and shoulder dystocia. It is related to maternal diabetes, obesity, and gestational weight gain, but also happens in low-risk pregnancies. There is ongoing discussion regarding definitions, methods of detection, and classification. The method used for detection is of crucial importance as it draws a line between those at risk and low-risk populations. Methods: In this a narrative review of relevant evidence identified through PubMed search with one of the general terms (macrosomia, large-for-gestational-age) combined with the outcome of interest. Results: This revive summarizes evidence on the relation of fetal overgrowth with stillbirth, cesarean sections, shoulder dystocia, anal sphincter injury, and hemorrhage. Customized growth charts help to detect mothers and fetuses at risk of those complications. Relations between fetal overgrowth and diabetes, maternal weight, and gestational weight gain. Conclusions: a substantial proportion of complications are an effect of the fetus growing above its potential and should be recognized as a new dangerous condition of Fetal Growth Acceleration
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0186.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); long chain omega-3 fatty acids; maternal supplementation; pregnancy outcomes; anthropometry; birth weight; birth length; head circumference
Online: 11 January 2021 (11:38:57 CET)
Long-chain omega-3 fatty acid status during pregnancy may influence newborn anthropometry and duration of gestation. Evidence from high-quality trials from LMICs is limited. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial among 957 pregnant women (singleton gestation, 14-20 weeks’ gestation at enrollment) in India to test the effectiveness of 400 mg/d algal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) compared to placebo provided from enrollment through delivery. Among 3379 women who were screened, 1171 were found eligible; 957 enrolled and were randomized. The intervention was two microencapsulated algal DHA (200 X 2= 400 mg/d) or two microencapsulated soy and corn oil placebo tablets to be consumed daily from enrollment (20 weeks) through delivery. The primary outcome was newborn anthropometry (birth weight, length, head circumference). Secondary outcomes were gestational age and 1 and 5 min Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, and Respiration (APGAR) score. The groups (DHA; n=478 and placebo; n=479) were well balanced at baseline. There were 902 live births. Compliance with the intervention was similar across groups (DHA: 88.5%; placebo: 87.1%). There were no significant differences between DHA and placebo group for birth weight (2750.6 ± 421.5 vs. 2768.2 ± 436.6 g, p=0.54), length (47.3 ± 2.0 vs. 47.5 ±2.0 cm, p=0.13) or head circumference (33.7 ± 1.4 vs 33.8 ± 1.4 cm, p=0.15). The mean gestational age at delivery was similar between groups (DHA: 38.8 ± 1.7 placebo: 38.8 ± 1.7 wk, p= 0.54) as were APGAR scores at 1 and 5 min. Supplementing mothers through pregnancy with 400mg/d DHA did not impact the offspring birthweight, length or head circumference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0193.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: evolutionary innovation, cell type evolution, cellular stress response, evolution of gene regulation, gene regulatory network evolution, decidual cell, evolution of pregnancy
Online: 11 September 2018 (11:41:34 CEST)
Understanding the evolutionary role of environmentally-induced phenotypic variation (i.e., environmental plasticity) is an important issue in developmental evolution. One of the major physiological responses to environmental changes is cellular stress, which is counteracted by a generic stress reaction that detoxifies the cell, refolds proteins, and repairs DNA damage. In this paper, we elaborate on a previous finding suggesting that the cell differentiation cascade of human decidual stromal cells, a cell type critical for embryo implantation and the maintenance of pregnancy, evolved from a cellular stress reaction. We hypothesize that the stress reaction in these cells was elicited ancestrally through the inflammation caused by embryo attachment and invasion. We describe a model, Stress-Induced Evolutionary Innovation (SIEI), whereby ancestral stress reactions and their corresponding pathways can be transformed into novel structural components of body plans, such as new cell types. After reviewing similarities and differences between SIEI and the “plasticity first hypothesis” (PFH) of evolution, we argue that SIEI is a distinct form of plasticity-based evolutionary change because it leads to the origin of novel structures rather than the adaptive transformation of a pre-existing character.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0372.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Endometriosis; microchimerism; maternal microchimerism; reproduction; gynaecology; etiology; auto-immune; immune response; hormonal; vascular; genetic; hereditary; male; fetal; fetus; stem cells; pregnancy; Műllerianosis; embryology; ROS; apoptosis; disease; endometrium; basalis; menstruation; post-menopausal; neurogenesis
Online: 22 September 2021 (10:27:52 CEST)
Endometriosis is an oestrogen-dependant reproductive disease, with genetic, vascular, neural, inflammatory and auto-immune characteristics. There are many theories about the etiology of endometriosis, however, all of these theories have limitations and do not explain all the locations that endometriosis is found or types of patients with endometriosis. The objective of this paper is to postulate the hypothesis that endometriosis is caused by Maternal Microchimerism, the presence of maternal cells in the fetus. A literature review was conducted, analysing the characteristics, current etiological theories of endometriosis, theory limitations and relationship of maternal microchimerism and endometriosis. At time of writing, there was no literature on maternal microchimerism and endometriosis. These results suggest that Maternal Microchimerism could be a cause of endometriosis. This could account for the genetic and auto-immune characteristics seen in people with endometriosis, inducing a micro-environment for vascular, neural and epigenetic changes. This could also account for account for endometriosis seen in non-menstruating patients, such as men, fetuses and post-menopausal women and endometriosis found in non-peritoneal locations. If the hypothesis of Maternal Microchimerism is correct, endometriosis could be considered a pregnancy-related disease that could affect all humans, changing the accepted demographics of patients and potentially new diagnostic techniques and treatment options for patients with endometriosis. Further studies are needed to test this hypothesis.