BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0402.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Very preterm infants; Z-score on weight; neonatal nutrition; appropriate intrauterine neonatal growth
Online: 30 July 2021 (15:00:25 CEST)
Introduction: In general, everyone believes that the smallest preterm infants should achieve normal intrauterine growth rates, but many thinks that this is not possible with current nutrition guidelines. There is resistance to giving enough nutrition for fear of "toxicity". The difference in weight Z-score between birth and a corrected gestational age (CGA) at discharge is assess in postnatal growth in our unit. Material and methods: An observational study was done between January 2018 and December 2020 where all cases that had ≤ 29 weeks of GA at birth and survived to 36 weeks corrected GA or that were discharged home. An aggressive nutrition protocol including parenteral as well as enteral nutrition was followed. Patients and their weight trajectory was plotted on the Fenton 2013 growth curve. The patients who had had a smaller WZP difference were also plotted. Results: A total of 32 cases were found. The median change in Z-score between birth and discharge of the whole group was -0.52 (IQR 0.53). Six of 32 (19%) had a more than one WZP, all of whom had severe pathologies. The median decline in Z score for this group with poor growth was 1.24 (IQR 0.22). There were 26 cases with a < 1 WZP (81%) and a median Z score fall of 0.39 (IQR 0.55). No important complications secondary to the ingested volumes or parenteral nutrition were reported. Conclusion: The group of cases with a > 1 WZP drop had severe pathologies. All the other cases had adequate growth parallel to normal weight growth charts and a few cases had some catch-up growth. The study showed that it is possible for many preterm infants to achieve normal intrauterine growth rates if they are given enough nutrition, but bigger multicenter studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Online: 23 December 2020 (09:28:02 CET)
Permanent neonatal diabetes may occur either in isolation or associated with multi-organ syndromes. It is caused by mutations in the genes responsible for pancreatic β cell mass or function. We report new cases of consanguineous parents from Saudi Arabia with a homozygous deletion of exons 1and 2, and exon 5-9 of the GLIS3 gene, who presented with permanent neonatal diabetes associated with intrauterine growth retardation, severe congenital hypothyroidism without other manifestation in the liver, renal or eyes in the 1st one and cystic renal changes in the 2nd patient. Mutations in the GLI-similar 3 (GLIS3) gene encoding the transcription factor GLIS3 are a rare cause of neonatal diabetes and congenital hypothyroidism with only 15 reported patients worldwide to date.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0263.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: neonatal palliative care; Doctrine of Double Effect; perinatal palliative care; neonatal end-of-life care
Online: 10 February 2021 (15:38:55 CET)
Neonatal palliative care (NPC) is an integrated and holistic approach that is an integral part of the contemporary neonatal treatment delivery paradigm. It is the highest fulfillment of the notion of beneficence (doing or creating 'good') that has otherwise been neglected/underestimated by the focus of modern medicine on technology and instrumental treatments by its commitment to alleviating patient pain and quality of life. For decades, the Double-Effect Doctrine (DDE) has been used to consider and address a range of ethically questionable circumstances, often at the end of life, including euthanasia, termination of pregnancy to save maternal life, and morally justified warfare. The theory has continued to be mired in controversy as ethicists, legal scholars, theologians, and philosophers discuss the abstract concepts of moral reasoning, purpose, foresight, and other underlying moral theories. In this paper, the moral theory of DDE is discussed in its clinical application to the ethical decision-making process in neonatal palliative and end-of-life treatment, specifically 1) the administration of opioids as required for symptom control and 2) the use of palliative sedation for intractable symptom care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0537.v1
Online: 20 April 2021 (11:50:24 CEST)
Background: The rising prevalence of obesity has a significant impact on obstetrics practice regarding maternal and perinatal complications includes recurrent miscarriage, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and prolonged labor. Objective: To assess the impact of obesity on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes among Saudi women. Methods: The study was conducted at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, Jeddah. Design: A cross-sectional retrospective design. A total number of 186 participants were recruited from July to Dec.2018 according to eligibility criteria. The data were collected retrospectively by a review of the chart records of the labor and delivery department. Results: The mean (SD) age of participants was 31.94(5.67) years old; two-thirds were in obesity class1. There was a significant association between obesity and pre-existing thyroid disease and induced hypertension class3. However, episiotomy showed that obesity class3 was significantly different from obesity class2. Conclusion: This study concludes obesity affects the outcomes of pregnant Saudi associations between obesity and preeclampsia, perineal tears, and episiotomy variables, and other variables reflect no associations. Recommendations: Further studies are needed to generalize the results. This study endorses the pregnant women start the antenatal follow-up from 1st trimester so, the data will be available on the system for research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0475.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Obesity; BMI; maternal outcomes; neonatal outcomes
Online: 22 February 2021 (13:27:06 CET)
The rising prevalence of obesity has a significant impact on obstetrics practice regarding maternal and perinatal complications includes recurrent miscarriage, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and prolonged labor. Objective: To assess the impact of obesity on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes among Saudi women. Methods: The study was conducted at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, Jeddah. Design: A quantitative research, cross-sectional retrospective design. A total number of 186 participants were recruited from July to Dec.2018 according to eligibility criteria. The data were collected retrospectively by a review of the chart records of the labor and delivery department. Results: The mean (SD) age of participants was 31.94(5.67) years old; two-thirds were in obesity class1. There was a significant association between obesity and pre-existing thyroid disease and induced hypertension class3. However, Episiotomy showed that obesity class3 was significantly different from obesity class2. Conclusion: This study concludes obesity affects the outcomes of pregnant Saudi associations between obesity and preeclampsia, perineal tears, and episiotomy variables, and other variables reflect no associations. Recommendations: Further studies are needed to generalize the results. This study endorses the pregnant women start the antenatal follow-up from 1st trimester so, the data will be available on the system for research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0182.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: candida; bloodstream infection; pediatric; neonatal; antifungal
Online: 8 December 2020 (07:47:24 CET)
Background. Candida bloodstream infections (CBSIs) have decreased among pediatric populations in the United States, but remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Species distributions and susceptibility patterns of CBSI isolates diverge widely between children and adults. Awareness of these patterns can inform clinical decision-making for empiric or pre-emptive therapy of children at risk for candidemia. Methods. CBSIs occurring from 2006-2016 among patients in a large children’s hospital were analyzed for age specific trends in incidence rate, risk factors for breakthrough-CBSI and death, as well as underlying conditions. Candida species distributions and susceptibility patterns were evaluated in addition to antifungal agent use. Results. The overall incidence rate of CBSI among this complex patient population was 1.97/1,000 patient-days. About half of CBSI episodes occurred in immunocompetent children and 14% in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) patients. Antifungal resistance was minimal: 96.7% of isolates were fluconazole-, 99% were micafungin-, and all were amphotericin susceptible. Liposomal amphotericin was the most commonly prescribed antifungal agent including for NICU patients. Overall CBSI-associated mortality was 13.7%; there were no deaths associated with CBSI among NICU patients after 2011. Conclusions. Pediatric CBSI characteristics differ substantially from those in adults. Improved management of underlying diseases and antimicrobial stewardship may further decrease morbidity and mortality from CBSI while continuing to maintain low resistance rates among Candida isolates.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0187.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Antibiotic use, Neonatal Units, EpicLatino, Latin America.
Online: 9 April 2021 (13:24:43 CEST)
Background: Recent years have seen chaos in the neonatology use of antibiotics with diverse opinions and recommendations in international guidelines and societies. This has created great uncertainty in which cases to use, for how long, and which tests apply to make these decisions. We conducted a retrospective cohort study about the use of antibiotics in the EpicLatino neonatal units and a Latin American network database, after noting these variations in the 2019 report. Methods: For the year 2019 using the EpicLatino database, we included cases (only first admission) ≤32 weeks gestational age at birth, excluding one unit that did not accept to participate. The number of cases and days receiving antibiotics were recorded as well as the progression for each unit. Inappropriate use of antibiotics was defined as greater than 3 days in patients with negative cultures (blood/CSF cultures) excluding: major malformations, urinary tract infections, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and cases with suspected chorioamnionitis in the mother (the latter two only during the course of diagnosis of NEC or chorioamnionitis). This study was approved by the EpicLatino board of directors and by the participating units. Results: A total of 6,543 days of antibiotics were observed, 49.5% of cases had at least one positive blood/CSF culture. A total of595 days of antibiotics without justification were found in 72 courses in 61 cases; 14/72(19.4%) had no diagnosis of infection in the database, 7/72(9.7%) did not document any culture throughout their stay, and 37/72(51,4%) obtained only one blood/CSF culture during their entire stay. Most diagnosis were clinical sepsis and in 24/58(41%) curses, a diagnosis of pneumonia with a poor positive culture correlation was found. Furthermore, 74% of the units didn´t use pneumonia as a justification to use antibiotics. Other diagnosis found: Conjunctivitis, NEC 1A and rotavirus NEC. Conclusions: Although the method of reviewing the use of antibiotics in a database has a number of limitations, especially the cause that motivated the use of antibiotics and other tools used for diagnosis of infections, the notable differences between units is striking. Although it is difficult to make recommendations to all units, it is important to control infections in some units and in others to reduce the excessive use of antibiotics, especially with diagnosis of pneumonia in neonates and negative blood/CSF cultures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0060.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: neonatal MRI; brain structure segmentation; volume extraction
Online: 10 December 2016 (08:44:55 CET)
1) Introduction: Brain parcellation is an important processing step in the analysis of structural brain MRI. Existing software implementations are optimized for fully developed adult brains, and provide inadequate results when applied to neonatal brain imaging. 2) Methods: We developed a semi-automated pipeline, NeBSS, for extracting 50 discrete brain structures from neonatal brain MRI, using an atlas registration method that leverages the existing ALBERT neonatal atlas 3) Results: We demonstrate a simple linear workflow for neonatal brain parcellation. NeBSS is robust to variation in imaging acquisition protocol and magnet field strength. 4) Conclusion: NeBSS is a robust pipeline capable of parcellating neonatal brain MRIs using a simple processing workflow. NeBSS fills a need in clinical translational research in neonatal imaging, where existing automated or semi-automated implementations are too rigid to be successfully applied to multi-center neuroprotection studies and clinically heterogeneous cohorts. The software is open source and freely available.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0103.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Neonatal hearing screening; Otoacoustic emissions; Deafness; Newborn screening.
Online: 6 September 2021 (13:57:57 CEST)
Congenital deafness is a major pediatric problem, affecting about 1.5-3 per 1000 newborns. The early treatment through cochlear implantation and auditory rehabilitation has been a historic milestone. Early diagnosis of congenital deafness is an essential requirement to obtain the best results, which is achieved through neonatal screening, a diagnostic practice that we began systematically at the Hospital Clínico in Valencia (Spain) 30 years ago.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Infants, Newborn, Neonatal Resuscitation, Chest compressions, Delivery room
Online: 2 October 2018 (14:58:58 CEST)
Annually, an estimated 13-26 million newborns need respiratory support and 2-3 million newborns need extensive resuscitation, defined as chest compression and 100% oxygen with or without epinephrine in the delivery room. Despite such care, there is a high incidence of mortality and short-term neurologic morbidity. The poor prognosis associated with receiving chest compression alone or with medications in the delivery room raises questions as to whether improved cardiopulmonary resuscitation methods specifically tailored to the newborn could improve outcomes. This review discusses the current recommendations, mode of action, different compression to ventilation ratio, continuous chest compression with asynchronous ventilations, chest compression and sustained inflation optimal depth, and oxygen concentration during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0512.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: parenteral nutrition, neonatal solution; calcium; phosphate; organic; inorganic; precipitation;
Online: 26 September 2018 (13:57:18 CEST)
The aim of the study was to determine the maximum safe concentration of calcium and phosphate in neonatal parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions when various combinations of inorganic and organic salts are applied. Twelve PN solutions for neonatal use were aseptically prepared. Increasing concentration of inorganic and organic calcium and phosphate were added to the standard formulas. Each admixture was separately tested according to following conditions; after mixing, 37°C for 24 h, and maximum safe combination of calcium and phosphate were stored at 4°C for 30 days and followed by 24 h at 37°C. Visual inspections against a black and white contrast background, microscopic observation of undiluted PN solutions as well as the membrane filter after filtration of the PN solution, pH evaluation, and spectrophotometry at 600 nm were examined in triplicate. Safe maximum concentration of organic and inorganic calcium and phosphate was proposed individually for each composition of parenteral nutrition solutions. Surprisingly organic calcium with organic phosphate showed precipitation but over the therapeutic range. The protective effect of amino acid was observed and higher concentrations of calcium and phosphate were free of precipitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0233.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Opioid; CELF-P; Language; Early Childhood; Methadone; Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome
Online: 8 March 2021 (15:58:21 CET)
Increasing evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to opioids can adversely influence brain development, yet, limited data exists on the effects of opioid-exposure on preschool language development. Our study aimed to characterize the nature and prevalence of language problems in children prenatally exposed to opioids, and the factors that support or hinder language acquisition. A sample of 100 children born to pregnant women in methadone maintenance treatment and 110 randomly identified non-exposed children were studied from birth to age 4.5 years. At 4.5 years, 89 opioid-exposed and 103 non-exposed children completed the preschool version of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF-P) as part of a comprehensive neurodevelopmental assessment. Children prenatally exposed to opioid had poorer receptive and expressive language outcomes at age 4.5 years compared to non-exposed children. After adjustment for child sex, maternal education, other pregnancy substance use, maternal pregnancy nutrition and prenatal depression, opioid exposure remained a significant independent predictor of children’s total CELF-P language score. Examination of a range of potential intervening factors showed that a composite measure of the quality of parenting and home environment at 18 months and early childhood education participation at 4.5 years were important positive mediators.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0189.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: hepcidin, iron deficiency anemia, iron dextran, neonatal period, pig, supplementation
Online: 9 October 2018 (15:34:13 CEST)
In pigs, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most prevalent deficiency disorder during the early postnatal period frequently developing into a critical illness. Meanwhile, in humans, only low-birth-weight infants, including premature infants are especially susceptible to developing IDA. In both human and pig neonates, the initial cause of IDA is low birth iron stores. In piglets this shortage of stored iron results mainly from genetic selection over the past few decades for large litter size and high birth weight. In consequence, pregnant sows cannot provide sufficient amount of iron to the increasing number of developing fetuses. Supplementation with iron is a common practice for the treatment of IDA in piglets. For decades, the preferred procedure for delivering iron supplements during early life stages has been through the intramuscular injection of large amount of iron dextran. However, this relatively simple therapy, which in general, efficiently corrects IDA, may generate toxic effects, and by inducing hepcidin expression, may decrease bioavailability of supplemental iron. New iron supplements are considered now with the aim to combine improvement of hematological status, blunting hepcidin expression, and minimizing toxicity of the administered iron. We propose that iron-deficient piglets constitute a convenient animal model for performing pre-clinical studies with iron supplements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0017.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: evodiamine; primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes; zebrafish; cardiotoxicity; oxidative stress
Online: 2 June 2017 (08:07:04 CEST)
Evodiamine is a bioactive alkaloid that is specified as a biomarker for the quality assessment of Evodia rutaecarpa and for traditional Chinese medicines containing this plant. We previously reported that quantitative structure-activity modeling indicated that evodiamine may cause cardiotoxicity. However, previous investigations have indicated that evodiamine has beneficial effects in patients with cardiovascular diseases and there are no previous in vitro or in vivo reports of evodiamine-induced cardiotoxicity. The present study investigated the effects of evodiamine on primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes in vitro, and on zebrafish in vivo. Cell viability was reduced in vitro, where evodiamine had a 24-h 50% inhibitory concentration of 28.44 µg/mL. Cells exposed to evodiamine also showed increased lactate dehydrogenase release and maleic dialdehyde levels, and reduced superoxide dismutase activity. In vivo, evodiamine had a 10% lethal concentration of 354 ng/mL and induced cardiac malfunction, as evidenced by changes in heart rate and circulation, and pericardial malformations. This study indicated that evodiamine could cause cardiovascular side effects involving oxidative stress. These findings suggest that cardiac function should be monitored in patients receiving preparations containing evodiamine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0025.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: congenital hypothyroidism; incidence; neonatal screening; thyroid-stimulating hormone; cutoff level
Online: 8 February 2017 (10:54:10 CET)
Lower cutoff levels in screening programs have led to an increase in the proportion of detected cases with transient hypothyroidism, leading to increase of the overall incidence of primary congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in several countries. We have performed retrospective evaluation on the data from 251,008 (96.72%) neonates screened for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level in dried blood spot specimens taken 48 hours after birth, between 2002 and 2015, using DELFIA method. A TSH value of 15 mIU/L was used as the cutoff point until 2010 and 10 mIU/L thereafter. Primary CH was detected in 127 newborns (1/1976) of which 81.1% had permanent and 18.9% had transient CH. The incidence of primary CH was increased from 1/2489 until to 2010 to 1/1585 thereafter (p=0.131). However, the incidence of permanent CH was slightly increased (p=0.922), while the transient CH incidence had 8-fold increasing after lowering the TSH cutoff level (p<0.001). In cases with permanent CH, we observed lower frequency for thyroid dysgenesis (82.7 vs. 66.7%) and higher frequency for normal in-situ thyroid gland (17.3 vs. 33.3%), for the period with reduced TSH cutoff value. Our findings support the impact of lower TSH cutoff on the increasing incidence of congenital hypothyroidism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Rotavirus; off-target effects; neonatal; live attenuated; RV3-BB; epigenetic modulation
Online: 1 February 2022 (12:34:07 CET)
Following the introduction of live-attenuated rotavirus vaccines in many countries, a notable reduction in deaths and hospitalizations associated with diarrhoea in children <5 years of age has been reported. There is growing evidence to suggest that live-attenuated vaccines also provide protection against other infections beyond the vaccine-targeted pathogens. These so called off-target effects of vaccination have been associated with the tuberculosis vaccine Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG), measles, oral polio and recently salmonella vaccines, and are thought to be mediated by modified innate and possibly adaptive immunity. Indeed, rotavirus vaccines have been reported to provide greater than expected reductions in acute gastroenteritis caused by other enteropathogens, that have mostly been attributed to herd protection and prior underestimation of rotavirus disease. Whether rotavirus vaccines also alter the immune system to reduce non targeted gastrointestinal infections has not been studied directly. Here we review the current understanding of the mechanisms underlying off-target effects of vaccines and propose a mechanism by which the live-attenuated neonatal rotavirus vaccine, RV3-BB, could promote protection beyond the targeted pathogen. Finally, we consider how vaccine developers may leverage these properties to improve health outcomes in children, particularly those in low-income countries where disease burden and mortality is disproportionately high relative to developed countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0523.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Keratinocytes; epidermis; Pemphigus vulgaris; autoimmune disease; autoantibodies, Fc receptor neonatal; efgartigimod
Online: 29 November 2021 (11:46:04 CET)
Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune blistering disease of the epidermis, caused by autoantibodies against desmosomal proteins, mainly desmogleins 1 and 3, which induce an impairment of desmosomal adhesion and blister formation. Recent findings have shown that inhibition of immunoglobulin G binding on the neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn, results in reduced autoantibody recycling and shortens their half-life, providing a valid treatment option for PV. We have here analyzed the role of FcRn in human keratinocytes treated with novel, recombinant anti-desmoglein-3 antibodies that induce pathogenic changes in desmosomes, such as loss of monolayer integrity, aberrant desmoglein-3 localization and degradation of desmoglein-3. We show that blocking IgG binding on FcRn by efgartigimod, a recombinant Fc fragment that is undergoing clinical studies for pemphigus, stabilizes the keratinocyte monolayer, whereas the loss of desmoglein-3 is not prevented by efgartigimod. Our data show for the first time that FcRn may play a direct role in the pathogenesis of pemphigus at the level of the autoantibody target cells, the epidermal keratinocytes. Our data also imply that in keratinocytes, FcRn may have functions different from its known function in IgG recycling. Therefore, stabilization of keratinocyte adhesion by FcRn blocking entities may provide a novel treatment paradigm for pemphigus.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0051.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: carnitine palmitoyltransferase deficiency; CPT1A; fatty acid oxidation disorders; transaminitis; Ashkenazi Jewish; neonatal screening
Online: 10 April 2017 (06:23:32 CEST)
An 18 month-old male was evaluated after presenting with disproportionate transaminitis in the setting of acute gastroenteritis. He had marked hepatomegaly on physical exam that was later confirmed with an abdominal ultrasound. Given this clinical picture, suspicion for a fatty acid oxidation disorder was raised. Further investigation revealed that his initial newborn screen was positive for carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) deficiency - a rare autosomal recessive disorder of long-chain fatty acid oxidation. Confirmatory biochemical testing in the newborn period showed carnitine levels to be unexpectedly low with a normal acylcarnitine profile. Thus, it was considered to be a false-positive newborn screen and metabolic follow up was not recommended. Repeat biochemical testing during this hospitalization revealed a normal acylcarnitine profile. The only abnormalities noted were a low proportion of acylcarnitine species from plasma, an elevated free-to-total carnitine ratio, and mild hypoketotic medium chain decarboxylic aciduria on urine organic acids. Gene sequencing of CPT1A revealed a novel homozygous splice site variant that confirmed his diagnosis. CPT1A deficiency has a population founder effect in the Inuit and other Arctic groups, but has not been previously reported in persons of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0433.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: music therapy; preterm infants; family-centered care; parents; self-care; wellbeing; Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)
Online: 19 November 2018 (08:49:11 CET)
Background: Parents of preterm infants face major mental health challenges in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Family-centered music therapy actively integrates and empowers parents in their infant’s care. With the aim to better understand and address parental needs separately from their babies’, a music therapy (MT) self-care group was implemented as part of clinical practice at the hospital Clínica de la Mujer in Bogotá, Colombia. Methods: The group is provided for both parents twice a week in the NICU. Music guided relaxations, breathing techniques, and self-expression are at the center of the MT group sessions. Parents complete a pre/post self-administered Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) including anxiety levels, stress levels, mood and motivation. Results: Parents highly value the MT self-care group at the NICU. On average there is a 37% improvement in anxiety levels, 28% in stress levels, and 12% in mood, restfulness and motivation. Being able to relax, to distract themselves from their worries and having time for themselves are amongst the most frequently mentioned benefits. Conclusions: Addressing parents’ needs separately form their babies’ treatment with culturally sensitive interventions aimed to improve parental mental health, is essential for continuing the development of family-centered music therapy interventions in the NICU.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0017.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: μ opioid receptor; receptor model; biased ligands; dependence; pain therapy; neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome; naltrexone; 6β-naltrexol; buprenorphine
Online: 2 August 2020 (11:27:40 CEST)
Opioid analgesics are effective pain therapeutics but cause various adverse effects and addiction. For safer pain therapy, biased opioid agonists selectively target distinct m opioid receptor (MOR) conformations, while the potential of biased opioid antagonists has been neglected. Agonists convert a dormant receptor form (MOR-m) to a ligand-free active form (MOR-m*), which mediates MOR signaling. Moreover, MOR-m converts spontaneously to MOR-m* (basal signaling). Persistent upregulation of MOR-m* has been invoked as a hallmark of opioid dependence. Contrasting interactions with both MOR-m and MOR-m* can account for distinct pharmacological characteristics of inverse agonists (naltrexone), neutral antagonists (6b-naltrexol), and mixed opioid agonist-antagonists (buprenorphine). Upon binding to MOR-m*, naltrexone but not 6b-naltrexol suppresses MOR-m*signaling. Naltrexone blocks opioid analgesia non-competitively at MOR-m*with high potency, whereas 6BN must compete with agonists at MOR-m, accounting for ~100-fold lower in vivo potency. Buprenorphine’s bell-shaped dose-response curve may also result from opposing effects on MOR-m and MOR-m*. In contrast, we find that 6b-naltrexol potently prevents dependence, below doses affecting analgesia or causing withdrawal, possibly binding to MOR conformations relevant to opioid dependence. We propose that 6b-naltrexol is a biased opioid antagonist modulating opioid dependence at low doses, opening novel avenues for opioid pain therapy and use management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0029.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: blood stream health care associated infections; neonates; risk factors, antibiotic use, antibiotic resistance; neonatal intensive care unit; India
Online: 30 January 2018 (08:03:04 CET)
Very little is known about laboratory confirmed blood stream infections (LCBIs) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in resource-limited settings. The aim of this cohort study was to determine the incidence, risk factors, and causative agents of LCBIs in a level-2 NICU in India. The diagnosis of LCBIs was established using the Centre for Disease Control, USA criteria. A predesigned questionnaire containing risk factors associated with LCBIs was filled-in. A total of 150 neonates (43% preterm) were included in the study. The overall incidence of LCBIs was 31%. The independent risk factors for LCBIs were: preterm neonates (relative risk (RR) 2.23), duration of NICU stay more than 14 days (RR 1.75), chorioamnionitis in the mother (RR 3.18), premature rupture of membrane in mothers (RR 2.32), neonate born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid (RR 2.32), malpresentation (RR 3.05), endotracheal intubation (RR 3.41), umbilical catheterization (RR 4.18), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (RR 3.17). The initiation of minimal enteral nutrition was protective from LCBIs (RR 0.22). The predominant causative organisms were gram-negative pathogens (58%). The results of the present study can be used to design antibiotic interventions to reduce LCBIs in resource-limited settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0659.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Neonatal mortality; husbandry practices; cage inspection; pup counting method; social environment; cannibalistic behaviour; asynchrony breeding; mouse welfare, 3Rs principle.
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:02:37 CEST)
Perinatal mortality is a major issue in laboratory mouse breeding. We compared a counting method using daily checks (DAILY_CHECK) with a method combining daily checks with detailed video analyses to detect cannibalisms (VIDEO_TRACK) for estimating the number of C57BL/6 pups born, died and weaned in 193 litters from trios with (TRIO-OVERLAP) or without (TRIO-NO_OVERLAP) the presence of another litter. Linear mixed models were used at litter level. To understand if cannibalism was associated with active killing (infanticide), we analysed VIDEO_TRACK recordings of 109 litters from TRIO-OVERLAP, TRIO-NO_OVERLAP or SOLO (single dams). We used Kaplan-Meier method and logistic regression at pup level. For DAILY_CHECK, the mean litter size was 35% smaller than for VIDEO_TRACK (P<0.0001) and the number of dead pups was twice lower (P<0.0001). The risk of pup loss was higher for TRIO-OVERLAP than TRIO-NO_OVERLAP (P<0.0001). A high number of pup losses occurred between birth and the first cage checking. Analyses of VIDEO_TRACK data indicated that pups were clearly dead at the start of most of the cannibalism events and infanticide was rare. As most pups die and disappear before the first cage check, many breeding facilities are likely to be unaware of their real rates of mouse pup mortality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0511.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Neonatal infection; hand hygiene; behaviour change; Cambodia; post-natal care; newborn care; formative research; intervention design; health facility; household
Online: 22 March 2021 (10:37:57 CET)
Background: Globally, infections are the third leading cause of neonatal mortality. Predominant risk factors for facility-born newborns are poor hygiene practices that span both the facility and home environments. Current improvement interventions focus on only one environment and tar-get limited caregivers, primarily birth attendants and mothers. To inform the design of a hand hygiene behaviour change intervention in rural Cambodia, a formative mixed-methods research study was conducted to investigate the context specific behaviours and determinants of hand-washing among healthcare workers, maternal and non-maternal caregivers along the early new-born care continuum. Methods: Direct observations of hygiene practices of all individuals providing care to 46 newborns across eight facilities and associated communities were completed and hand hygiene compliance assessed in analysis. Semi structured interactive interviews were subsequently conducted with 35 midwives and household members to explore the corresponding cognitive, emotional, and environmental factors influencing the observed key hand hygiene behaviours. Results: Hand hygiene opportunities during newborn care were frequent in both set-tings (n = 1319) and predominantly performed by mothers, fathers and non-parental caregivers. Compliance to hand hygiene protocol across all caregivers, including midwives, was inadequate (0%). Practices were influenced by the lack of accessible physical infrastructure, time, increased workload, low infection risk perception, nurture-related motives, norms and inadequate knowledge. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that an effective intervention in this context should be multi-modal to address the different key behaviour determinants and target a wide range of caregivers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0065.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: preeclampsia; neonatal outcome; vitamin D; 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D; diabetes; pregnancy complication; vitamin D deficiency; vitamin D supplementation
Online: 6 October 2022 (12:16:11 CEST)
Vitamin D plays an essential role in embryogenesis and the course of intra- and postnatal periods and is crucially involved in the functioning of the mother-placenta-fetus system. Low quantity of Vitamin D during pregnancy can lead to the elevated risk for preeclampsia occurence. Despite the numerous studies on the association of Vitamin D deficiency and preeclampsia development, the current research on this theme is contradictory. In this review we summarize and analyze study data on the effects of vitamin D deficiency and supplementation on pregnancy, labor, fetal and neonatal outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0295.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: NICU; Physio-features; Neonatal imaging; Infrared thermography; Optical coherence tomography; Tissue optics; Near-infrared imaging; Short-wave infrared imaging; Visible light imaging
Online: 17 August 2018 (02:27:17 CEST)
The monitoring of sick newborns is a challenging task that health care providers in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) must contend with each day. Conventionally, newborns are monitored via probes that are affixed to their skin and attached to processing monitors (Fig.1). However, an alternative exists in contactless imaging to record such physiological signals (Physio-Markers), surface changes and internal structures which can be used independently of, or in conjunction with conventional monitors. Advantages of contactless monitoring methods include: i) quick data generation; ii) lack of contact with skin, which reduces skin breakdown and decreases risk of infection; and iii) minimizing the number of probes and monitors affixed to the skin, which allows greater body surface-area for other care. This paper is an attempt to build a foundation for and to provide a vision of the potential neonatal clinical applications of technologies that use non-contact modalities such as Visible Light Imaging (VLI), Near InfraRed Spectrum (NIRS), and Thermal Imaging (TI) using InfraRed Spectrum (IRS).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: family planning service and COVID-19; maternal; Neonatal and child health service and COVID-19; sexual behaviour and COVID-19; SARSCOVID-2 and family planning
Online: 6 June 2022 (03:39:05 CEST)
Introduction: Since its discovery in late 2019, the novel coronavirus (SARSCOVID-2) that causes COVID-19 has spread fast, prompting the World Health Organization (WHO) to designate the disease a worldwide pandemic on March 11, 2020.The epidemic has profoundly altered the preexisting global sexual and reproductive health landscape .The virus’s load has put ordinary services in jeopardy and harmed other health priorities. This encompasses both the provision and the supply of contraceptives, sexual health, new born and maternal health services. This Scoping review therefore mapped the availability evidence on the impact and effects of the COVID-19 disease outbreak on sexual and reproductive health. Methods: The methodological framework by Arksey and O’Malley guided this scoping review. A literature search was conducted from the following databases: Embase, PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, WOS, and AJOL. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) flow diagram and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist were used to document the review process. The Strobe critical review checklist was used to determine the quality of the included studies. Results:19 studies were reviewed, out of which 4 were cross sectional studies, 1 was an observational study, 1 was a descriptive analytical study and the rest were qualitative studies .Majority of the studies showed evidence on the impact of COVID-19 and family planning service, maternal and child services, and three studies reported on COVID-19 and sexual behaviour. Five of the nineteen included studies reported on the impact of COVID-19 and family planning service. Conclusion: This scoping review has granted the assessment of the impact of novel SARS-CoV-2 on Sexual and reproductive health services with regards to sexual behaviour, family planning and maternal, neonatal and child health. From the 18 articles identified and reviewed, the overall responses stipulated a significant reduction in client’s utilization of services due to challenges experiences in service implementation such as stock outs. In addition, low demand for reproductive health services by clients due to restrictions imposed on the movements of people to curb the spread of the virus. It is therefore important that Governments and relevant stakeholders in Maternal and Sexual Reproductive Health prioritize development of policies and practices that protect women from the impacts of the pandemic. Furthermore, regular audits to detect trends in MSRH are necessary to inform on going mitigation efforts.