ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0095.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: polymeric composite; surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization; photo-induced; living radical polymerization; metal-free atom transfer radical polymerization
Online: 22 January 2017 (04:56:44 CET)
Surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) is one of the most versatile technique to modify the surface properties of material. Recent developed metal free SI-ATRP makes such technique more widely applicable. Herein photo-induced metal-free SI-ATRP of methacrylates, such as methyl methacrylate, N-isopropanyl acrylamide, and N,N- dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate, on the surface of SBA-15 was reported to fabricate organic-inorganic hybrid materials. SBA-15 based polymeric composite with adjustable graft ratio was obtained. The structure evolution during the SI-ATRP modification of SBA-15 was monitored and verified by FT-IR, XPS, TGA, BET, and TEM. The obtained polymeric composite showed enhanced adsorption ability for the model compound toluene in aqueous. This procedure provides a low cost, ready availability, and facile modification way to synthesize the polymeric composites without the contamination of metal.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0661.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: life definition; living being definition; robot definition; living viruses; extraterrestrial life
Online: 30 August 2020 (11:33:48 CEST)
What is life, what is the difference between something that is alive and something that is not, are viruses living beings, or what would life be like elsewhere in the universe, are questions that still do not have clear-cut answers fully accepted by the scientific community. Based on the fundamental attributes of all living things, I define life as a process that takes place in very ordered organic structures and is characterized by being automatic, interactive and evolutionary. I also define a living being as an organic, highly ordered, automatic, interacting and evolutionary system, and a robot as an ordered automatic and interacting system. Based on this definition and what we know about the biology of viruses, I maintain that they should be considered as living entities. Finally, I explain why if there were life elsewhere in the universe, it would be very similar to what we know on our planet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0863.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: urban living labs; success criteria; Turkiye; in-depth interview; measurement; living lab
Online: 10 August 2023 (13:20:12 CEST)
The article attempts to place the research within the broader context of urban living labs (ULLs) and highlights the significance of understanding success criteria by gathering data from key stakeholders associated with Basaksehir Living Lab, Bodrum Living Lab and Mezopotamya Living Lab via the in-depth interview method. However, there is a literature gap in terms of a comprehensive understanding of the success criteria specific to ULLs, which hinders the effective utilization of ULLs as platforms for addressing urban challenges. The conclusions drawn from the article emphasize the need for further examination of these labs' openness, user empowerment, and transferability criteria. Nevertheless, the article contributes to understanding the success criteria of ULLs and provides insights for future research and practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0006.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Smart City Services; Sustainability; Living Lab
Online: 2 September 2018 (12:15:05 CEST)
In terms of sustainability, cities become smart when they provide intelligent services to the inhabitants using information and communication technologies without threatening the future of the environment, economy or the society. However, the process of developing such sustainable smart services has certain challenges, especially in understanding the real needs of the people living in the city. Inhabitants of the city or the citizens are the key stakeholders in case of smart services in a city. Active involvement of the people throughout the process is a way to design such services. On the other hand, integrating sustainability, for example including environmental data to the smart city services has been found challenging. Therefore, this research discusses an approach on combining environmental data with regular smart city services and to engage city inhabitants in the process, the approach that is adapted from the concept of living lab methodology. Finally, an application has been developed to represent a smart city service following this method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0110.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Information; matter-related information; micro/macro structuration/destructuration; non-living/living structures; Informational Model of the Human Body and Living Structures; Infor-mational Model of Consciousness
Online: 7 April 2023 (03:56:25 CEST)
This paper is referred to a top frontline research in life science, showing that in spite of the large variation of the physiological architecture and behavioral forms of the living systems, the fundamental structure of their informational system is basically the same, allowing the body growth/development by micro to macro-structuration processes, maintaining the same informational configuration and functions like the basic unit of life – the eukaryotic cell. Starting and based on the determination of the special/specific info-operability in living structures and the role of information in structuration and their functionality, there are discussed the informational functions of the eukaryotic/prokaryotic cells, the simplest units of life and is elaborated and presented the Informational Model of the Living Structures, showing that these structures operate on the basis of two main informational systems: one of them defined as the Programmed Informational System, composed by three components, assuring respectively the info-generation, maintenance and the proliferation/reproduction, and another one defined as the Operative Informational System, necessary for the continuous communication with the environment for adaptation, consisting in four main components referred to memory, decision, sentience and info-connection/info-selection. The revealed properties are compared with the Informational System of the Human Body, as a prototype of a living system on the top of the evolutionary scale, showing/demonstrating the compatibility of structuration and functions on the entire scale, from prokaryotic/eukaryotic unit cells to multicellular organisms – plants, animals and human, by means of a continuous adaptation process, which always follows the same line of micro to macro-structuration process based on the same Info-organization and functionality. These models are new and revolutionary in the information and life sciences
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1764.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: finger vein living detection; MSTmap; light-ViT
Online: 27 October 2023 (09:31:25 CEST)
Prosthetic attack is a problem that must be prevented in the current finger vein recognition application. To solve this problem, a finger vein living detection system was established in this article. The system first captures short-term static finger vein video by uniform near-infrared lighting, segments the veins by Gabor filters with current removing, calculates the multi-Scale spatial-Temporal maps(MSTmap) from the selected vein blocks, and trains the MSTmaps in the proposed Light-ViT network for the liveness detection. The MS maps are used to extract the coarse feature and Light-ViT is used to refine the liveness feature and predict the liveness result. Light-ViT, featuring an enhanced L-ViT backbone as its core, is constructed by interleaving multiple MN blocks and L-ViT blocks. This architecture effectively balances the learning of local image features, controls network parameter complexity, and substantially improves the accuracy of liveness detection. The accuracy of the Light-ViT network is verified to be 99.63% on the self-made living / prosthetic finger vein video dataset. This proposed system can also be directly applied to the finger vein recognition terminal after the model lightweighting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0125.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Amoeba; Meningitis; Meningoencephalitis; free-living amoeba; Peru
Online: 7 March 2023 (03:44:06 CET)
Background: Free-living amoebas (FLA), also amebas, are eukaryotic and mitochondrial microorganisms that are capable of growing in any environment, aquatic or terrestrial. These free-living amoebas are mostly non-pathogenic to humans. However, there exist some highly pathogenic species, such as Acanthamoeba — mainly T-4 genotype —, Naegleria fowleri (known as brain-eating amoeba), and Balamuthia mandrillaris. They can be called "brain-eating amoebas” because of their ability to cause substantial destruction of brain tissue. There is no standard treatment; immunological processes which predispose humans to acquire and infection and, then, a disease are unknown. In addition, there are other species of free-living amoebas such as, Sappinea pedata, Vermamoeba vermiformes, Vanellas sp,Vahlkampfia sp., and, more recently, Paravahlkampfia francinae, which is less virulent and aggressive than the first three mentioned above. Methods: All CSF samples were evaluated in our laboratory under the microscope. Monoxenic and axenic cultures were negative as well as the presence of cysts or exponential growth. PCR was negative using the FLA primers. Results: Under close observation of sterile CSF, we can see mobile forms of non-human cells. None of the observed forms has the morphotype of Acanthamoeba, Naegleria sp. or Balamuthia mandrillaris. Conclusions: Due to these findings, we know these structures can be observed in the CSF and many of them do not form cysts as others do. In addition, these microorganisms are uncultivable in conventional medium culture to FLA and impossible to detect even when using molecular tools such as PCR, using the primers for EUK A/B or 18s RNAr gene as a target.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0500.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: INGOs; democratization; funding; developing-countries; better-living
Online: 22 July 2020 (05:49:17 CEST)
The paper examines the impact of INGOs on the democratization of developing countries. Following the ‘end of history,’ the INGOs multiplied globally, and the number of aids to developing countries was given through them in billions of dollars in the past three decades. It is envisaged that with the increase in their population, the developing countries will be better off with a standard form of living that is attributable to standard democratization. However, despite the billions of dollars spent, the citizens of the developing countries are still worse in poverty, poor leadership, and corruption. On the contrary, some countries, including Nigeria, are threatening legislation that will curtail the INGOs, sighting their opacity and lack of tangible results as reasons. The research used Nigeria as a case study to analyze the methods, approaches, and the capacity of these INGOs and how they affect the democratization of their host countries. Through a review of existing records, non-participatory observations, and reviews of conference proceedings. The paper analyzed the parallel gaps that exist by arguing that, taking a broad, multi-disciplinary method from the various works of literature studied will provide essential conceptual and practical insights that can inform current debates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0372.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: delta project; university living lab; ecological corridor
Online: 25 June 2018 (07:59:08 CEST)
The University of Guayaquil, which shares the same name as the city where it is located, faces the challenge of transforming its image for the XXI century. It was deemed necessary to identify details about the urban evolution of the historic link with the city, in relation to the changes produced by the project’s siting and its direct area of influence. The goal is to integrate the main university campus within a framework which guarantees sustainability and allows innovation in the living lab. To achieve this, the action research method was applied, focused on participation and the logic framework. For the diagnosis, proposal, and management model, integrated working groups were organized with internal users such as professors, students, and university authorities, and external actors such as residents, the local business community, Guayaquil city council, and the Governorate of Guayas. As result of the diagnosis, six different analysis dimensions were established which correspond to the new urban agenda for the future campus: compactness, inclusiveness, resilience, sustainability, safety and participation. As a proposal, the urban design integrates the analysis dimensions whose financing and execution are given by the Town Hall, at the same time the Governorate integrates the campus with its network of community police headquarters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0089.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: religion; atheist; standard of living; financial situation
Online: 14 November 2017 (06:51:22 CET)
Considering the impact of religiosity on the perceptions regarding life quality, in this paper we focus on the effects of the appurtenance to a religion on the standard of living in several economically developing countries (Turkey, Ukraine, Senegal and Morocco). The data have been collected using a survey carried out in 2012 and the empirical analysis was based on non-parametric tests and multinomial logistic regression. The results indicate there are differences between religious persons and atheists regarding gender, marital status, perceptions of daily life and standards of living. Females and officially married people or single people tend to be more religious. A person claiming to belong to a religion has 2-4-fold more chances to achieve a considerable improvement in the standards of living as compared to an atheist. Moreover, religious people from the analyzed countries are more optimistic about their life overall. Taking into account the sample’s characteristics and the countries chosen, we can claim that the results obtained are truly cross-cultural in nature. Moreover, most of the conclusions reached would be to some extent relevant to other developing economies of Eastern Europe, North Africa and Middle East.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0299.v3
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: elderly; aging population; ambient intelligence; fall detection; indoor localization; real-world implementation; sensors; activities of daily living; assisted living
Online: 21 July 2022 (10:46:08 CEST)
Falls, highly common in the constantly increasing global aging population, can have a variety of negative effects on their health, well-being, and quality of life, including restricting their capabilities to conduct Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), which are crucial for one’s sustenance. Timely assistance during falls is highly necessary, which involves tracking the indoor location of the elderly during their diverse navigational patterns associated with ADLs to detect the precise location of a fall. With the decreasing caregiver population on a global scale, it is important that the future of intelligent living environments can detect falls during ADL.s while being able to track the indoor location of the elderly in the real world. Prior works in these fields have several limitations, such as – the lack of functionalities to detect both falls and indoor locations, high cost of implementation, complicated design, the requirement of multiple hardware components for deployment, and the necessity to develop new hardware for implementation, which make the wide-scale deployment of such technologies challenging. To address these challenges, this work proposes a cost-effective and simplistic design paradigm for an Ambient Assisted Living system that can capture multimodal components of user behaviors during ADLs that are necessary for performing fall detection and indoor localization in a simultaneous manner in the real world. Proof of concept results from real-world experiments are presented to uphold the effective working of the system. The findings from two comparison studies with prior works in this field are also presented to uphold the novelty of this work. The first comparison study shows how the proposed system outperforms prior works in the areas of indoor localization and fall detection in terms of the effectiveness of its software design and hardware design. The second comparison study shows that the cost for the development of this system is the least as compared to prior works in these fields, which involved real-world development of the underlining systems, thereby upholding its cost-effective nature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0962.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: uterus transplantation; recipient; living donor; hysterectomy; infertility; parity
Online: 12 May 2023 (14:41:29 CEST)
This study describes the characteristics of women who contacted an active program performing uterus transplantation (UTx) in the US expressing interest in becoming a uterus transplant recipient or a living donor. Basic demographic and self-reported clinical information was collected from women who contacted any of the three US UTx programs from 2015 to July 2022. The three centers received 5194 inquiries about becoming a UTx recipient during the study timeframe. Among those reporting a cause of infertility, almost all (4066/4331, 94%) were absence of a uterus, either congenitally (794/4066, 20%) or secondary to hysterectomy (3272/4066, 80%). The mean age was 34 years, and 49% (2545/5194) had at least one child at the time of application. The two centers using living donors received 2217 inquiries about becoming living donors. The mean age was 34 years, and 60% (1330/2217) had given birth to ≥1 child. While most of the UTx clinical trial evidence has focused on young women with congenital absence of the uterus, these results show interest from a much broader patient population in terms of age, cause of infertility, and parity. These results raise questions about whether and to what extent the indications and eligibility criteria for UTx should be expanded as the procedure transitions from the experimental phase to being offered as a clinical treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1132.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: disability; children, extra costs; standard of living; Philippines
Online: 28 April 2023 (07:18:27 CEST)
The assessment of disability related costs among children remains a largely under-researched subject with related questions rarely included in surveys. This paper addresses this issue through a unique mixed methods study conducted in the Philippines combining a nationally representative survey and in-depth interviews with families and health professionals. To quantify the extra costs associated with disability the research used the standard of living approach, whereby expenditure levels of families with children with and without disabilities are compared in relation to different measures of living standards. The results find consistent evidence of high extra costs among households that have children with disabilities and point to health expenses as the leading source. Using an asset index as the indicator of living standards, a child with disability is estimated to require between 40 and 80% extra expenditure to reach the same living standard of other children. However, the size of extra costs is substantially higher when the measure of standard of living relies on a broader set of deprivations. In such cases, higher estimates of extra costs are likely to be the result of the lack of an inclusive environment. Critically, this points to the need not only to provide financial support, but also inclusive services, especially in health and education.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0202.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: ecosystem concept; ecosystem hallmarks; ecosystem representation; living worlds
Online: 17 February 2022 (06:45:22 CET)
The ecosystem is an essential biological concept linking the living and the inanimate and represents the main structural and functional unit of nature. The biodiversity that exists on our planet can be organized into closely interconnected living worlds: acellular (viruses and capsidless genetic elements), prokaryotic (bacteria and archaea), and eukaryotic (all nucleated organisms). I want to highlight the presence of viruses as components of biodiversity because they are often overlooked in many studies despite their essential ecological and evolutionary role. Furthermore, I propose seven distinctive hallmarks that are inherent to any ecosystem: biodiversity, physical environment, hierarchy, interactivity, openness, “homecostasis”, and evolutionary. From the interaction and coupling of these living worlds with the environment (the environmental world), I define the ecosystem as a specific and dynamic ensemble of living and non-living worlds that functions as an open, hierarchical, and evolving system. This complex web of interactions that we call ecosystem can be graphically represented as a triangle reflecting the dynamic equilibrium between all the worlds. Finally, I propose a new way of graphically relating the ecosystem to biodiversity by taking the ecosystem as the nucleus from which all living worlds emerge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0551.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: nudges; diet; healthy living; instant messaging; digital interventions
Online: 29 November 2021 (18:30:30 CET)
With roots beyond behavioural economics to psychology, nudges can be applied for influencing healthy behaviours such as food choice and portions to decrease obesity for better public health outcomes. However, the effectiveness of the type of nudges are contentious with conflicting literature. In this pilot study, we conducted a 23-day study surveying the food choices that included portion, locus of control, demographic data, and psychological measures of personality, perceived stress, narcissism, regulatory focus, food choice motive and dietary restraint, with the participants given four intervention conditions of 12 instant messaging sent every two days through WhatsApp. The messages were either factual (control), focused on consequences, through social comparison, or persuasive. Running over the COVID19 pandemic, 17 participants completed the full surveys showing significant effects between the experimental conditions with the psychological parameters except for diet confidence and extraversion and conscientiousness, as well as cognitive restraint. We found BMI and waistline measurements to be suitable measurements, with promising results from the fear and social comparison nudges for food-related behaviours and exercise. Our pilot findings have implications to the use of nudges upon which future studies investigating psychological factors can build on.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: SWG; SWGRG; SWM; WDNs; Living lab; YeongJong Island
Online: 13 April 2021 (10:31:47 CEST)
In South Korea, in line with the increasing need for a reliable water supply following the continuous increase in water demand, the Smart Water Grid Research Group (SWGRG) was officially launched in 2012. With the vision of providing water welfare at a national level, SWGRG incorporated information and communications technology in its water resource management, aiming at the development of core technologies for a Smart Water Grid consisting of intelligent microgrids and a demonstration and tests of the developed technologies through a field operation in a living lab. The living lab was built in Block 112 of YeongJong Island, Incheon, South Korea (area of 17.4 km2, population of 8,000), where Incheon International Airport, a hub of Northeast Asia, is located. In this location, water is supplied through a single submarine pipeline, making the place optimal for responses to water crises and the construction of a water supply system during emergencies. From 2017 to 2019, ultrasonic wave type smart water meters and IEEE 802.15.4g advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) networks were installed at 527 sites of 958 consumer areas in the living lab, and core element technologies (intelligent water source management and distribution system, smart water distribution network planning/control/operation strategy establishment, AMI network and device development, integrated management of bi-directional smart water information), and operation solutions (smart water statistics information, real-time demand-supply analysis, decision support system, real-time hydraulic pipeline network analysis, smart DB management, and water information mobile application) were developed through a field operation and testing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2075.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Continuous Glucose Monitor; People not living with diabetes; Regulations
Online: 29 September 2023 (10:22:43 CEST)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a prevalent metabolic disorder that poses a significant public health challenge. Prioritising its prevention is essential for enhancing health at both individual and community levels. With the burgeoning interest in wearable health technologies and individualised nutrition, continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMs) have expanded their scope, transitioning from exclusive use in diabetes management to lifestyle enhancement for individuals without diabetes (PNLD). While CGMs primarily target glycaemic stabilization, their potential role in mitigating noncommunicable conditions, including T2DM, warrants exploration. This review examines the regulation of CGMs and critically assesses the purported benefits of CGMs for PNLD, as presented in the 'health and wellness' sector: (1) early dysglycaemia detection through glucose variability observation; (2) refining glycaemic control by tailoring nutrition according to postprandial glucose response; and (3) promoting and fine-tuning physical activity based on instantaneous data feedback. The current literature inadequately supports the clinical relevance and lasting impact of these interventions. Moreover, a glaring paucity of research exists on the potential negative consequences of CGM usage, such as obsessive symptom tracking and potential onset of disordered eating behaviours, like orthorexia. This highlights a pressing need to refine CGM regulation in the UK, especially concerning its 'off-label use'. Addressing these research gaps and regulatory issues may enhance the role of CGMs in T2DM prevention strategies and non-communicable diseases among PNLD, ensuring a more unified and effective approach. Current evidence suggests caution in endorsing CGMs as a holistic instrument for T2DM prevention through lifestyle refinement is warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0595.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: the Indochina Peninsula; the production-living-ecological spaces; GTWR
Online: 8 August 2023 (04:10:43 CEST)
Influenced by historical background, regional economic development, and the frequent occurrence of armed conflict, the human–earth relationship in the Central and Southern Peninsula, which is located in a "fragmented zone", is characteristic of the region. The Indochina Peninsula has now become an area of interest for the study of spatial changes in production–living–ecological spaces (PLES). Taking the Indochina Peninsula as the study area, this paper explores the evolution of the spatio-temporal patterns of PLES and its driving mechanism in the Central and Southern Peninsula, from 2010 to 2020, based on the grid scale. Methods such as the land-use transition matrix, land-use dynamics index, and Geographically and Temporally Weighted Regression (GTWR) were used in our model. Our results show that, from 2010 to 2020, ecological space dominated the PLES pattern on the Indochina Peninsula but its area gradually decreased, accompanied by a sharp increase in the areas of productive and living spaces. The area of PLES interconversion on the Indochina Peninsula in 2010–2020 was 212818.70 km2, and it is characterized by the conversion of ecological space into productive space, as well as the interconversion of woodland ecological and grassland ecological spaces. In addition, the intertransfer of production and ecological spaces was distributed in a network-like manner throughout the Indochina Peninsula, while the transfer of living space was distributed in a point-like manner. The migration path of the center of gravity of PLES on the In-dochina Peninsula demonstrates a significant directional difference. The PLES’s pattern evolution was affected by the degree of multiple factors, with a significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity. The positive and negative feedback effects of the factors were distributed in different areas and in different transfer directions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0377.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: diet; living environment; dietary patterns; characteristics of regions; Russia
Online: 21 December 2022 (02:50:22 CET)
The goal of our study was to examine the effect of regional characteristics of living environment on individual a priori and a posteriori dietary patterns of the Russian population. For the analysis, we used cross-sectional data from the Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases in the Regions of the Russian Federation study of 2013-2014. The sample included 18,054 men and women 25-64 years of age from 12 regions. Based on the frequency of consumption of basic foods, four a posteriori empirical dietary patterns (EDPs), along with an a priori cardioprotective dietary pattern (CPDP) were identified. To describe the regional living environment, 5 regional indices were used. The adherence to the meat-based EDP was directly associated with deterioration of social living conditions and the more northerly location of the region of residence. The probability of CPDP increased with deterioration of social living conditions, an aggravation of demographic crisis, higher industrial development of the region, as well as with a decline in the economic development of the region, income and economic inequality of the population. We detected some gender-dependent differences in associations. The revealed patterns reflect the national dietary preferences of Russians, and regional indices characterize the effect of living environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0309.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: Living structure; pattern language; life; wholeness; coherence; structural beauty
Online: 20 December 2021 (11:51:12 CET)
As Christopher Alexander discovered, all space or matter – either organic or inorganic – has some degree of order in it according to its structure and arrangement. The order refers to a kind of structural character, called living structure, which is defined as a mathematical structure that consists of numerous substructures with an inherent hierarchy. Across the hierarchy, there are far more small substructures than large ones, while on each level of the hierarchy the substructures are more or less similar in size. In this paper we develop a new approach to representing geographic space as a hierarchy of recursively defined subspaces for computing the degree of order. A geographic space is first represented as a hierarchy of recursively defined subspaces, and all the subspaces are then topologically represented as a network for computing the degree of order of the geographic space, as well as that of its subspaces. Unlike conventional geographic representations, which are mechanical in nature, this new geographic representation is organic, conceived, and developed under the third view of space; that is, space is neither lifeless nor neutral, but a living structure capable of being more living or less living. Thus, the order can also be referred to as life, beauty, coherence, or harmony. We applied the new representation to three urban environments, 253 patterns, and 35 black-white strips to verify it and to demonstrate advantages of the new approach and the new kind of order. We further discuss the implications of the approach and the order on geographic information science and sustainable urban planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0612.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Activities of daily living; Barthel index; SARS-COV-2
Online: 25 May 2021 (14:05:25 CEST)
Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the activities of daily living using the Barthel Index, before and after the infection by SARS-COV-2 and to see if the results vary according to sex. Methods: The activities of daily living of 68 cohabiting geriatric patients, 34 men and 34 women, in 2 nursing homes were measured before and after SARS-COV-2 infection using the Barthel index. Results: The Covid 19 infection affects the performance of daily life activities in institutionalized elderly in nursing homes, and it does so especially the older the subject, regardless of sex. Conclusions: The Covid 19 pandemic, in addition to having claimed some victims, especially in the elderly population, has reduced the ability of these people to carry out their activities of daily life, considerably worsening their quality of life despite have been able to overcome the disease.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0397.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: phosphazenes; cyclization; controlled cycle size; living cationic polymerization; hexamethyldisilazane
Online: 17 May 2021 (17:02:38 CEST)
Despite a significant number of investigations in the field of phosphazene chemistry, the mechanism of this class cyclic compounds formation is still poorly studied. At the same time, a thorough understanding of this process is necessary both for the direct production of phosphazene rings with a given size, and for the controlled cyclization reaction when it is secondary and undesirable. Here we have synthesized a series of short linear phosphazene oligomers with the general formula Cl[PCl2=N]n–PCl3+PCl6– and studied their tendency to form cyclic structures under the influence of elevated temperature or in the presence of nitrogen-containing agents, such as hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) or ammonium chloride. It was established that linear oligophosphazenes are inert when heated in the absence of the mentioned cyclization agents, and the formation of cyclic products occurs only when these agents are involved in the process. It is for the first time shown the ability to obtain the desired size phosphazene cycle from corresponding linear chain. Known obstacles like side interaction with the PCl6– counterion and a tendency of longer chains to undergo crosslinking elongation instead of cyclization are still relevant and ways to overcome them are being discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0272.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Thermodynamics Keywords: out of Equilibrium Thermodynamics; Finite Time Thermodynamics; Living Systems
Online: 20 December 2019 (07:50:34 CET)
Adaptable or adapted? Whether it is a question of physical, biological or even economic systems, this problem arises when all these systems are the location of matter and energy conversion. To this interdisciplinary question we propose a theoretical framework based on the two principles of thermodynamics. Considering a finite time linear thermodynamic approach, we show that non-equilibrium systems operating in quasi-static regime are quite deterministic as long as boundary conditions are correctly defined. The Novikov-Curzon-Ahlborn approach [1,2] applied to non-endoreversible systems then makes it possible to precisely determine the conditions for obtaining characteristic operating points. As a result, power maximization principle (MPP), entropy minimization principle(mEP), efficiency maximization, or waste minimization states are only specific modalities of system operation. We show that boundary conditions play a major role in defining operating points because they define the intensity of the feedback that ultimately characterizes the operation. Armed with these thermodynamic foundations, we show that the intrinsically most efficient systems are also the most constrained in terms of controlling the entropy and dissipation production. In particular, we show that the best figure of merit necessarily leads to a vanishing production of power. On the other hand, a class of systems emerges which, although they do not offer extreme efficiency or power, have a wide range of use and therefore marked robustness. It therefore appears that the number of degrees of freedom of the system leads to an optimization of the allocation of entropy production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0038.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Naegleria spp.; free-living amoeba; PCR; Monjolinho River; Brazil
Online: 4 December 2019 (04:27:21 CET)
The genus Naegleria, of free-living amoeba (FLA) group, has been investigated mainly due to its human health impact resulting in deadly infections and their worldwide distribution on freshwater systems. Naegleria fowleri, colloquially known as the “brain-eating amoeba”, is the most studied Naegleria species because it causes Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM) of high lethality. The assessment of FLA biodiversity is fundamental to evaluate the presence of pathogenic species and the possibility of human contamination. However, the knowledge of FLA distribution in Brazil is unknown, and to rectify this situation we present a research on identifying Naegleria spp. in the Monjolinho River, as a model study. The river is a public Brazilian freshwater source that crosses the city of São Carlos. Five distinct sampling sites were examined through limnological features, trophozoites culturing and PCR against internal transcribed spacers (ITS) regions and 5.8S rRNA sequence. The results identified N. philippinensis, N. canariensisi, N. australiensis, N.gruberi, N. dobsoni sequences, as well as a Vahlkampfia sequence. The methodology delineated here represents the first Brazilian Naegleria spp. study on a freshwater system. Our result stresses the urgency of a large scale evaluation of the presence of free-living amoebas in Brazil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0251.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Addis Ababa; living place; market place; packaged water; perception
Online: 28 February 2019 (12:21:38 CET)
Descriptive research design was used to select 200 respondents (i.e., 100 from each study places) following purposive sampling technique on two study areas (Market; Living). Personal observation and interview with retailers were done to triangulate the collected data from the formal survey. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 software program. Descriptive statistical measurements, Index and multinomial regression model was calculated to assess the relationship between customers point of emphasis during packaged water buying and respondents demographic variables. Majority of the respondent who frequently purchase packaged water generated a monthly income between 5000 and 10000 Birr. Television and radio was ranked first compare to other Media. Living place customers were more health concerned as compared to market place customers. Market place customer’s primarily give emphasis to price of packaged water. Almost all (97%) customers did not have the awareness towards packaged water standards. Only 86(43%) of the total respondents checked the chemical composition, of which 74(85%) of the respondents did not understand it. Customers sex, educational level and health status showed significant relationship with choice of packaged water quality -1.42(p<0.05), price -2.45(P<0.01) and health status -1.80(P<0.05) in market place and living places, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0457.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: disadvantages; living conditions; longitudinal; resilience; self-rated health; youth
Online: 28 June 2018 (05:10:36 CEST)
Disadvantaged circumstances in youth tend to translate into poor health development. Yet, the fact that this is not always the case has been seen as indicative of differential resilience. The current study highlights factors outside the context of the family with the potential to counteract the long-term negative influences of social and material adversity in adolescence on general health status. This study was based on two waves of questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort. From the wave in 1981 (age 16), indicators of social and material conditions as well as factors related to school, peers, and spare time, were derived. From the wave in 2008 (age 43), information about self-rated health was used. Ordinal logistic regression models (n=908) showed that adversity in youth was associated with poorer self-rated health in midlife among men and women alike, net of health status at baseline. However, having an advantaged situation with regard to school, peers, or spare time appeared to protect against the detrimental influences of disadvantaged circumstances in the family context on subsequent health. This suggests that health-promoting interventions may benefit from focusing on contexts outside the family in their effort to strengthen processes of resilience among disadvantaged youths.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0075.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: living alone; depressive symptoms; widows; socioeconomic status; social ties
Online: 18 September 2017 (09:02:55 CEST)
We examined the relationship between living alone and the prevalence of depressive symptoms in older Korean widows and assessed the individual contributions of health, social ties, and socioeconomic factors to the development of depressive symptoms. The study was a secondary analysis using data from widows 65 years of age and older who participated in the Living Profiles of Older People Survey (LPOPS). A logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the contributions of health, social ties, and socioeconomic factors to the development of depressive symptoms. Working status and equivalent household income were significantly associated with depressive symptoms in both those living with others and those living alone. Adjustment for health status and social ties did not change the impact of living alone on the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, adjustment for equivalent household income eliminated the negative association between living alone and depressive symptoms. Our findings indicate that economic resources are more important than health and social ties for alleviating the negative impact of living alone on the development of depressive symptoms in older widows.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0002.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: controlled/”living” radical polymerization (CRP); polymer brush; poly(acrylonitrile)
Online: 1 May 2017 (07:32:56 CEST)
A new approach for the preparation of polymer brush was developed via the union of controlled/“living” radical polymerization and click chemistry. The application of the approach realized the more quickly and accurate design and synthesis of the polymer brushes. A novel functional polymer brush of poly(acrylonitrile-g-glycidyl methacrylate) with tremendous application potential in the field of biology has been successfully synthesized via the new approach. The reaction conditions of click chemistry were optimized with the reaction time and the reactant ratio and judged from UV-vis spectra. Under the optimum of click chemistry, the novel functional polymer brushes were prepared. The GPC, FTIR analyses, 1H NMR spectrum and TGA were employed to ensure the successful synthesis of poly(acrylonitrile-g-glycidyl methacrylate) polymer brushes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1511.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Instrumental activities of daily living; immersive virtual reality; Occupational performance
Online: 22 September 2023 (09:56:49 CEST)
Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) training is critical in clinical practice of occupational therapy (OT) for stroke patients. In the conventional approaches, the therapists simulate various occupational tasks in their healthcare settings or reach their nearby real circumstances for the training. As an alternative technology, immersive virtual reality (IVR) has been used widely in stroke rehabilitation for years; however, limited research has compared occupational performances between virtual and real environments. Our team has established a novel IVR shopping training system for stroke rehabilitation. We recruited 10 stroke patients from our department to test the system. All patients attempted to implement shopping tasks in the virtual and real environments respectively. The Wilcoxon test showed no significant differences between virtual and real environments in memory capacity and time-consuming for implementing tasks, and memory capacities in virtual and real environments presented excellent correlations with the IADL assessment. This study suggests that IVR shopping tasks can be used as an alternative approach in rehabilitation when there is limited resource for implementing shopping training in a real environment, while the psychometric property, clinical effect and the effect transferred to the real environment induced by virtual training require further study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0098.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Transplantation Keywords: COVID-19; pediatric liver transplantation; immunosuppression; living donor liver transplantation
Online: 9 May 2022 (03:59:57 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 infection has received the attention of the scientific community due its respiratory manifestations and association with evolution to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2). There are few studies characterizing SARS-CoV-2 in pediatric immunocompromised patients, such as liver transplanted (LT) patients.The aim of this study was to analyze the outcomes of the larger cohort of pediatric liver transplant recipients (PLTR) from a single center in Brazil who where contaminated with COVID-19 during the pandemic. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Primary outcomes: COVID-19 severity. The Cox regression method was used to determine independent predictors associated with the outcomes. Results: 74 PLTR were included. Patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of COVID-19 disease: moderate-severe COVID and asymptomatic-mild COVID. Patients categorized as moderate-severe COVID were younger (12.6 months vs. 82.1 months, p 0.03), higher prevalence of transplantation with deceased donor (50% vs. 4.3%, p 0.02) and with a higher prevalence of COVID-infected patients before 6 months after LT (75% vs. 5.7%, p 0.002). The independent predictor of COVID-19 severity identified in the multivariate analysis was COVID-19 infection < 6 months after LT (HR=0.001, 95% CI=0.001-0.67, p 0.03). Conclusion: The time interval of less than 6 months between COVID-19 infection and LT was the only predictor of disease severity in pediatric patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0137.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: Environmental diseases; Air pollution; Fine dust; Living environment; Satisfaction; Policy
Online: 8 September 2021 (10:11:40 CEST)
Background: Particulate matter and urban air pollution affect the human body and can lead to death. Epidemiological studies should consider the exposure to pollutants and the diverse responses of individuals depending on their sensitivity to the pollutants. Methods: In this study, air pollution measurements were obtained hourly at measuring stations operated by the national and local governments to increase the reliability of the measured values. A β-ray absorption method was used to analyze the measurements of fine dust and determine the particulate matter content. Results: The air pollution data were log-converted to enable the comparison of data from different time periods. The comparison was made, focusing on the period of Seoul's fine dust policy. As a result, the cancer incidence rate also decreased after the policy. The data on individual characteristics were obtained from a survey of Seoul citizens conducted from 2015 to 2016 and using indicators such as the quality of life and social trust of Seoul citizens. Concludions: The survey on the living environment and residence indicated that 80% of the heads of households were men. Women had a greater dissatisfaction than men with the residential, economic, and social environments. The survey questions on well-being were related to the internal and external environment such as air pollution, noise, and fine dust.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0301.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: Quantum Information Processing; Living Systems; Non-algorithmic Information; Complexity Theory
Online: 21 February 2020 (02:58:01 CET)
It is impossible to fully grasp reality and the universe without a sound understanding of quantum science, i.e. theory. The aim of this paper is twofold, namely first presenting what quantum information processing consists of, and then consequently discussing the implications of quantum science to the understanding of reality. I shall claim that the world is fully quantum, and the classical world is but a limit case of the quantum world. The crux of the argument is that quantum information can be taken as a living phenomenon. Quantum information processing (QIP) has been mainly the subject of computational approaches (Cooper and Hodges, 2016). Here we take it as the way in which information allows for a non-dualistic explanation of the world. In this sense, quantum information processing consists in understanding how entanglement stands as the ground for a coherent reality yet highly dynamical, vibrant and vivid. Information, I argue, is a living phenomenon that creates itself out of nothing. Quantum information is a relational view of entities, systems, phenomena, and events (Auletta, 2005).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0217.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Creating Shared Value; university-business contamination; living lab; sustainability science
Online: 16 December 2019 (11:38:20 CET)
This paper presents and discusses the pedagogical implication of teaching Shared Value, presenting a case study about a contamination lab namely the case of the Shared Value Living Lab (SVLL) which took place at the University of Torino (UniTO) in Italy. The paper analyzes the pedagogical side of CSV (arguments, topics, learning methodologies, etc.) in the framework of recent theories and approaches of teaching sustainability in business school and in the cooperation between industry and academia, as well. Our research methodology relies on the analysis and comparison of one case study under an intrinsic as it enables researchers to find “interactivity” and connectedness between the individuals participating. The SVLL case is an interesting example of co-creation of social value between academia and its stakeholders. First, it represents an inclusive project linking society and business; second, SVLL acted as a hub putting in contact different interlocutors; third, SVLL training stimulated the acquisition of soft skill in students (interviews, managing relations, represents the project outside university, explaining the project to people, research curiosity) through contamination activities. With our study, we demonstrate the change in students participating in the SVLL may not only be cognitive but also affective, making students feel hopeful, empowered and liberated, and ready to contribute to a more profound change towards the vast array of pro-sustainability behaviors.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0250.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: diazotroph; rhizosphere; nitrogen-fixation; free-living non-symbiotic diazotrophs; Betaproteobacteria
Online: 22 October 2019 (04:18:16 CEST)
Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the type strain of Ideonella azotifigens DSMZ21438T (formally 1a22T = JCM15503T). Ideonella azotifigens DSMZ21438T a novel betaproteobacterial non-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing grass rhizosphere dwelling microbe. The 891,561 paired-end shotgun reads were quality filtered and decontaminated with the ATLAS pipeline, then assembled with Unicycler. The genome size is 6,257,981 bp, an N50 size of 7,849 bp, with a G+C content of 66.71%, and with 5,882 predicted protein-coding genes. I. azotifigens DSMZ21438T represents the first member of the genus isolated from rhizosphere soil, providing a framework for further study into non-alphaproteobacterial nitrogen fixation and synthetic biology applications.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: scaling law; head/tail breaks; living structure; beauty; streets; cities
Online: 26 July 2019 (04:19:25 CEST)
Conceived and developed by Christopher Alexander through his life’s work: The Nature of Order, wholeness is defined as a mathematical structure of physical space in our surroundings. Yet, there was no mathematics, as Alexander admitted then, that was powerful enough to capture his notion of wholeness. Recently, a mathematical model of wholeness, together with its topological representation, has been developed that is capable of addressing not only why a space is good, but also how much goodness the space has. This paper develops a structural perspective on goodness of space – both large- and small-scale – in order to bridge two basic concepts of space and place through the very concept of wholeness. The wholeness provides a de facto recursive definition of goodness of space from a holistic and organic point of view. A space is good, genuinely and objectively, if its adjacent spaces are good, the larger space to which it belongs is good, and what is contained in the space is also good. Eventually, goodness of space – sustainability of space – is considered a matter of fact rather than of opinion under the new view of space: space is neither lifeless nor neutral, but a living structure capable of being more living or less living, or more sustainable or less sustainable. Under the new view of space, geography or architecture will become part of complexity science, not only for understanding complexity, but also for making and remaking complex or living structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0147.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: activities of daily living; activity recognition; accelerometers; machine learning; sensors
Online: 19 March 2018 (08:42:39 CET)
This paper serves a survey and empirical evaluation of the state-of-the-art in activity recognition methods using accelerometers. We examine research that has focused on the selection of activities, the features that are extracted from the accelerometer data, the segmentation of the time-series data, the locations of accelerometers, the selection and configuration trade-offs, the test/retest reliability, and the generalisation performance. Furthermore, we study these questions from an experimental platform and show, somewhat surprisingly, that many disparate experimental configurations yield comparable predictive performance on testing data. Our understanding of these results is that the experimental setup directly and indirectly defines a pathway for context to be delivered to the classifier, and that, in some settings, certain configurations are more optimal than alternatives. We conclude by identifying how the main results of this work can be used in practice, specifically in experimental configurations in challenging experimental conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0007.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: natural mineral water; free living protozoa; Nontuberculous mycobacteria; Legionella; qPCR
Online: 3 August 2017 (09:11:03 CEST)
Italian Directives recommends the good quality of natural mineral waters but literature data assert a potential risk from several microorganisms colonizing wellsprings and mineral water bottling plants. Aim of study is the identification of microorganisms from spring waters (SW) and bottled mineral waters (BMW) samples. Methods: Routine microbiological indicators, Legionella spp., Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), protozoa (FLA) and physical-chemical parameters were assessed in 24 SW and 10 BMW samples performing culture methods and molecular tests as PCR and qPCR. Results: In 33 out of 34 samples no cultivable bacteria were isolated with the exception of 83 CFU/L of Mycobacterium gilvum, detected in one warm rich-mineralized SW. qPCR showed the presence of Legionella genomic units in 24% of samples (mean 2,9x102±1,7x102 GU/L) and NTM genomic units in 18% of samples (mean 5,7x103±4,1x103 GU/L). Vermamoeba vermiformis and Acanthamoeba polyphaga were recovered respectively in 70% of BMW samples (counts from 1,3x103 to 1,2x105) and 42% of SW samples (counts from 1,1x103 to 1,3x104). Vahlkampfia spp. was detected in 42% of SW and 70% of BMW samples (mean 1,3x104 ±2,9x103 GU/L). Conclusion: The study highlights a low rate of microbial risk and the importance of risk assessment in natural mineral waters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0382.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: living conditions; crime prevention; crime-exposed areas; strategic mapping; GIS; Police
Online: 18 August 2021 (14:04:19 CEST)
This paper presents a theoretically and methodologically grounded GIS-based model for the measurement and mapping of an index of living conditions in urban residential areas across Sweden. Further, the model is compared and evaluated using the Swedish Police’s assessment of crime-exposed areas. The results indicate that geographically measured vulnerable living conditions overlap to a large extent with the areas assessed to be crime-exposed by the Swedish Police. Over 61% of the police-defined crime-exposed areas are characterized by vulnerable living conditions. The results also show that the overlap is not perfect and that there are vulnerable areas that are not included in the police’s assessment of crime-exposed areas, but which are nonetheless characterized by vulnerable living conditions that could negatively affect the development of crime. It is also proposed that the model and the mapped index of living conditions provide a more well-grounded scientific basis for the police's assessment work. As a first step, the Swedish police have implemented the model and the mapped index in the work process employed in their annual identification of crime-exposed or at-risk areas. In addition to assisting the police, the model and the mapped index could also be used to support other societal actors working with vulnerable areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0536.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: dementia; depression; loneliness; activities of daily living; social support; life satisfaction
Online: 27 October 2020 (07:55:52 CET)
As the number of older adults with dementia increases, early diagnosis and intervention are crucially important. The purpose of this study was to conduct dementia screening on older adults to determine whether there are differences in daily activities of living, depression, loneliness, social support, and life satisfaction between older adults at high-risk for dementia compared with low-risk older adults. We hypothesized a negative relationship between high-risk older adults and these factors. This study also hypothesized a moderating effect for social support on the relationship between daily living activities and life satisfaction. This study used a cross-sectional design with survey data. Participants were recruited at 15 public community health centers in South Korea. A total of 609 older adults (male 208, female 401) living in the community were screened for early dementia, and 113 participants (18.9 %) were assigned to the high-risk group. As hypothesized, participants in the high-risk group showed significantly more negative results in terms of activities of daily living, depression, loneliness, social support, and life satisfaction compared with participants in the low-risk group. The findings of this study provide a theoretical basis for the importance of early screening for dementia and policies for effective dementia prevention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0153.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: vehicle park violations; POI; urban safety; urban healthy living; parking prediction
Online: 15 September 2019 (15:52:05 CEST)
Car parking is a challenging part of urban transportation and the traffic violations around it cause many problems for citizens. In recent years, due to the fast growth and development of urbanization, temporary and unauthorized stopping of cars along the streets, especially in large cities, has led to an increased traffic, urban disorders, dangers for citizens, and violation of rules. Studies have shown that there is a direct relationship between vehicle parking violations and urban places. GIScience capabilities and tools play an important role in analysing the spatial distribution of these violations. In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution of vehicle violations in a region of Tehran, Iran that is suffering from a heavy traffic load and heavily polluted air. Although two dissimilar urban segregations exist in the north and south of the study area, our analysis indicates a similar pattern of car parking violations. In both of the areas, about 70% of all curb parks are legal, while the remaining are illegal. Also, spatial analysis reveals a direct relationship between some POIs and the occurrence of car park violations so that the density of legal curb parks is high near some POIs, and less near some others and vice versa. For example, the number of vehicle park violation around the hospitals is more than the average of the study area. However, the number of park violations around the universities is less than the average. Our findings reveal that co-location of certain POIs, for instance a hotel and a supermarket will lead to an increase in the number of park violations. In other words, there is a strong correlation between the type of POIs and curb-parks violations. Our results also show that POIs have an impact radius that leads to violations occurring in that area. For example, the area of the impact of a hospital on the creation of car park violations was estimated at 125 meters. Our presented approach along with the discussed findings along with conclusions can be useful to a large range of stakeholders including urban planner, traffic police departments, local municipalities, law enforcement agencies, and environmentalists to have a better perspective of infrastructure planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0570.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Einstein; manifold; Hilbert space; Abelian; living cell; Borsuk-Ulam theorem; topology
Online: 28 September 2018 (13:32:05 CEST)
The unexploited unification of quantum physics, general relativity and biology is a keystone that paves the way towards a better understanding of the whole of Nature. Here we propose a mathematical approach that introduces the problem in terms of group theory. We build a cyclic groupoid (a nonempty set with a binary operation defined on it) that encompasses the three frameworks as subsets, representing two of their most dissimilar experimental results, i.e., 1) the commutativity detectable both in our macroscopic relativistic world and in biology; 2) and the noncommutativity detectable both in the microscopic quantum world and in biology. This approach leads to a mathematical framework useful in the investigation of the three apparently irreconcilable realms. Also, we show how cyclic groupoids encompassing quantum mechanics, relativity theory and biology might be equipped with dynamics that can be described by paths on the twisted cylinder of a Möbius strip.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1789.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: young adults; housing; living at home; spatial autoregressive panel data model; Sweden
Online: 27 October 2023 (11:13:43 CEST)
This study investigates why young adults live with their parents in Sweden. As young adults’ living arrangements affect decisions about marriage, education, childbirth, and participation in the workforce, more knowledge for policy makers is crucial to implementing effective policies to support young adults and promote financial independence and well-being. Using a data set from 1998 to 2021 at the municipal level in Sweden, we used a spatial autoregressive panel data model to examine the proportion of young adults living at home and regional disparities. The study uncovers intraregional variations, illustrating how different municipalities within Sweden exhibit different patterns of young adults living at home. Our findings reveal that economic factors, such as unemployment, significantly impact this pattern. The dynamics of the housing market, demographic factors, cultural differences, and location-specific characteristics also play an essential role in explaining this pattern. The findings suggest that the key drivers are the lack of rental housing, high unemployment rates, a high degree of urbanisation, interregional migration, and lack of social capital.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2118.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Behaviour analysis; domestic environments; activities of daily living; knowledge discovery in databases
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:30:42 CEST)
The concept of collecting data of people using a domestic space is not novel. However, the methods and processes used to decipher this raw data and transform it into useful and appropriate information (i.e., sequence, duration, and timing derived from domestic activities) have been challenging and the focus of many research groups. But how are the results of the decoded transposition received, interpreted and used by the various professionals (e.g., occupational therapists and architects) who consume the information? This paper describes the inclusive evaluation process undertaken, which involved architects, engineers and end-users (not the occupant, but the care team managing the occupant). Finally, our study evidence the importance of making accessible to a multidisciplinary audience spatial, temporal and sequential aspects derived from people's domestic routines. Shedding light on how a systematic approach to collecting, processing and mapping low-level sensor data into higher forms and representations can be a valuable source of knowledge for improving the domestic living experience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2003.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Feature extraction; housing prices prediction; living SOC facilities; subway proximity; machine learning
Online: 30 August 2023 (10:16:25 CEST)
In South Korea, the residential real estate market is influenced not just by traditional supply and demand dynamics, but also by external factors such as housing policies and macroeconomic conditions. Given the significant role of housing assets in individual wealth, market fluctuations can have profound implications. While prior research has utilized variables like GDP growth rate, patent issuance, and birth rates, and employed models like LSTM and ARIMA for housing price predictions, many overlook key localized factors. Notably, the impact of subway stations and living SOC facilities on housing prices, especially in metropolitan areas, remains underexplored. This study addresses these gaps by analyzing usage trends across subway stations, assessing the influence of living SOC facilities on housing values, and identifying the optimal machine learning model for price predictions near transport hubs. Through a comparative analysis of machine learning techniques, we aim to provide insights for more informed housing price determinations, promoting a more stable real estate market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2142.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: telecommuting; SDGs; organizational behavior; sustainable behaviors; living & working environment; leadership 4.0; digitalization
Online: 29 June 2023 (13:27:16 CEST)
Since the outbreak of the Covid-19, working from home has become the norm for millions of workers worldwide. The current research focuses on the benefits and challenges of teleworking in the administrative sectors of greek healthcare units, with a view to harnessing the knowledge gained through experience, in order to create the frame for sustainable behaviors. Anyways, the implementation of teleworking requires complex and dynamic changes in technical and behavioral aspects. Therefore, a systematic review was also conducted to identify the relationships between telecommuting and organizational behavior, with the aim of achieving sustainable development in businesses. Moreover, an important positive aspect of telework that emerged from this literature review appears to create opportunities for potential direct or indirect linkages between telework and many SDGs areas, based on the fact that telework appears to be a community-friendly form of work. In summary, this research strongly suggests that leaders facilitate telecommuters to adopt green practices and volunteerism that can consequently contribute to the SDGs. However, in order to meet the challenges arising from unprecedented times, the leaders of the organizations will have to redesign their policies, while the states will have to focus on guaranteeing the rights and freedoms of the workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1489.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: CO2 concentration; living walls; fresh air energy consumption; Energyplus; indoor air quality
Online: 21 June 2023 (07:13:19 CEST)
Elevated indoor CO2 levels might have adverse effects on human health. However, the introduction of outdoor air to lower indoor CO2 concentrations results in significant HVAC energy consumption. Aligning with office hours and the natural light cycle, the utilization of photosynthesis in living walls offers an energy-efficient and sustainable solution for the mitigation of high CO2 levels in office spaces. This study experimentally investigates the impacts of the carbon fixation pathways, light intensity, and substrate moisture content on the CO2 removal rate of living walls at the room scale. Furthermore, the fresh air energy-saving effects of living walls under different scenarios are accurately simulated in EnergyPlus. The results demonstrate that choosing C3 plants over CAM plants in living walls yields higher CO2 removal efficiency. In a 30-m2 office room accommodating 2-3 occupants, living walls can reduce the demand for fresh air by 12.3%-27.8% and decrease fresh air energy consumption by 11.2%-28.2%. The city with the highest energy savings has energy savings that are 4.5 times greater than those of the city with the lowest energy savings. The findings of this research promote the application and development of living walls, thus providing a viable solution for improving indoor air quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0012.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Budd-Chiari syndrome; Living donor; Liver transplantation; Propensity score-Matched Analysis; Outcomes
Online: 1 October 2021 (11:52:48 CEST)
Introduction: There are unique technical and management challenges associated with living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for Budd-Chiari Syndrome (BCS). The outcomes of LDLT for BCS in comparison to other indications remains unclear and warrants elucidation. Methods: Data of 24 BCS patients who underwent LDLT between January 2012 and June 2019 were analyzed. There were 20 adults and 4 children. The early and long-term outcomes of adult LDLT BCS patients were compared to a control group of LDLT patients for other indications and matched using propensity scoring methodology. Results: Primary BCS was observed in 22(91.7%) patients. Caval replacement was performed in 7(29.1%) patients. Early and late hepatic venous outflow tract (HVOT) complications were seen in 1(5.5%) and 3(16.7%) patients. Preoperative acute kidney injury was identified as a risk factor for mortality in the BCS cohort (p =0.013). On comparison, BCS recipients were younger with fewer comorbidities, more large volume ascites and higher rates of PVT. They also had longer cold ischemia time, increased blood loss and transfusion requirements, increased hospital stay, and higher late outflow complications. The 1-year and 3-year survivals were similar to non-BCS cohort (84.2% vs 94% and 70% vs 91.9%, respectively, log rank test p=0.09). Conclusion: LDLT is remains a good option for symptomatic BCS who have failed non-transplant interventions. The clinical and risk factor profile of BCS recipients is distinct from non-BCS recipients. By following an algorithmic management protocol, we show on propensity-score matched analysis that outcomes of LDLT for BCS are similar to non-BCS indications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0504.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Water-soluble MoS2 quantum dots; , Fluorescent probe; Fe3+ ion sensor; Living cells
Online: 21 September 2020 (14:49:23 CEST)
Uniform water soluble MoS2 quantum dots (WS-MSQDs) are synthesized via a sequential combination of sintering/etching/exfoliation method and solvothermal route. The obtained WS-MSQDs with average size of approximately 3.4 nm exhibit sufficient water solubility and remarkable fluorescence properties. The WS-MSQDs have been utilized as a probe for detection of Fe3+ ions with high selectivity and specificity. Furthermore, the WS-MSQDs exhibit high fluorescence stability under different conditions. Finally, the WS-MSQDs are successfully applied for the fluorescence imaging of Fe3+ in living cells, which exhibited practical potential for biomedical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0266.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; mild patients; quarantine facility; video-consultation; living and treatment support center
Online: 16 April 2020 (08:23:06 CEST)
With the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there is a need for efficient management of patients with mild or no symptoms, which account for the majority. The aim of this study is to introduce the structure and operation protocol of a living and treatment support centre (LTSC) operated by Seoul National University Hospital in South Korea. The existing accommodation facility was converted into a 'patient centre' where patients was isolated. A few Medical staff here performed medical tests and responded to emergencies. Another part of the LTSC was 'remote monitoring centre'. In this center, patients’ self-measured vital signs and symptoms were monitored twice a day, and the medical staff staying here provided video-consultation via a smartphone. During the 3 weeks from March 5 to March 26, 2020, 113 patients were admitted and treated. LTSC could be an efficient alternative to hospital admission in pandemic situation like COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1030058
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: origin of life; prebiotic system; living cell; oscillation; organic molecule; experiment; hydrothermal system
Online: 6 October 2019 (00:00:00 CEST)
It is proposed that the primary living cells (“probionts”) cannot emerge of organic substance simply by continuous chemical complication of prebiotic macromolecules and microsystems. The complication must be accompanied by the radical thermodynamic transformation (“jump”) of prebiotic microsystems that resulted in the acquired ability to extract free energy from the environment and export entropy. This transformation is called “the thermodynamic inversion” The inversion may occur by means of the efficient (intensified) response of the microsystems on the oscillations of physic-chemical parameters in hydrothermal environment. In this case the surplus available free energy within a microsystem, when combined with the informational modality, facilitates its conversion into a new microsystem—a living probiont. It is shown the schematic representation of an oscillating prebiotic microsystem that is transforming into a living probiont. A new kind of laboratory and computational experiments on prebiotic chemistry under oscillating conditions is offered to verify the inversion concept.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0665.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: university and higher education; sustainability; change and transformation; sustainable development goals; living labs
Online: 29 October 2018 (09:43:58 CET)
Universities can do more to deliver against the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), working with faculty, staff and students as well as their wider stakeholder community and alumni body. They play a critical role in helping shape new ways for the world, educating global citizens and delivering knowledge and innovation into society – universities can be engines of societal transformation. Here, using a case study approach, different ways of strategizing sustainability in a university setting are explored with an example from the UK, Europe and USA. The first case is a public UK university that adopted enterprise and sustainability as its academic mission to secure differentiation in a disrupted and increasingly marketized global higher education sector which then became a source of inspiration for change in regional businesses and the local community. The second case study is a business sector-led sustainability-driven transformation working with a private university in Bulgaria to catalyze economic regeneration and social innovation. Finally, the case of Harvard’s Office for Sustainability engagement program is given to show how this approach connects faculty and students with institutional sustainability plans and external partners. Each case is a living lab, positioning sustainability as an intentional strategy. Leadership at all levels, and by students, was key to success in acting with purpose. Partnerships within and with universities can help accelerate delivery of the SDGs, with higher education making a fuller contribution to sustaining the economic, cultural and intellectual well-being of our global communities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0268.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: HPV self-sampling; cervical cancer; women living with HIV; low- and middle-income coutries
Online: 20 May 2022 (03:40:58 CEST)
Introduction. Self-sampling has the potential to increase cervical cancer screening (CCS) among women living with HIV (WLWH) in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, our understanding of how HPV self-collection studies have been conducted in WLWH is limited. The purpose of this scoping review was to examine the extent to which the HPV self-sampling has been applied among WLWH in LMICs. Method: We conducted multiple searches in several databases for articles published between 2000 and January 2022. With the combination of keywords relating to HPV self-sampling, LMICs, and WLWH, we retrieved over 9,000 articles. We used pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria to select relevant studies for this review. Once a study met the inclusion criteria, we created a table to extract each study’s characteristics and classified them under common themes. We used a qualitative descriptive approach to summarize the scoping results. Results: A total of 12 articles were included in the final review. Overall, 3,178 women were enrolled in those studies and 2,105 (66%) of them were WLWH. The self-sampling participation rate was 92.6%. The findings of our study show that 43% of the WLWH in 8 of the studies reviewed tested positive for high-risk HPV (hr-HPV) genotypes, indicating 4 out of 10 WLWH in the studies are at risk of cervical cancer. The prevalence of the hr-HPV in WLWH was 18% higher than that of HIV-negative women. Most women in the study found the self-sampling experience acceptable, easy to use, convenient, and comfortable. Self-sampling performance in detecting hr HPV genotypes is comparable to clinician-performed sampling. However, limited access (i.e., affordability, availability, transportation), limited knowledge about self-screening, doubts about the credibility of self-sampling results, and stigma remain barriers to wide acceptance and implementation of self-sampling. In conclusion, the findings of this review highlight that (a) cervical cancer is a threat to every sexually active woman but for WLWH the threat increases, (b) self-sampling laboratory performance is similar to clinician performed sampling, (c) self-sampling is associated with an increase in cervical cancer screening uptake and (d) WLWH reported a positive experience with self-sampling. However, personal, environmental, and structural barriers challenge the application of self-sampling in LMICs, and these need to be addressed. Keywords: keyword 1; keyword 2; keyword 3 (List three to ten pertinent keywords specific to the article yet reasonably common within the subject discipline.)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0420.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: absolute uterine factor infertility; uterus transplant; experimental; clinical practice; ethics; living donors; risk assessment
Online: 26 June 2018 (12:58:08 CEST)
Background: Absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI) is a kind of infertility that is completely attributable to uterine absence (surgical or congenital for women with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome: MRKH) or anatomic or functional abnormality that prevents embryo implantation or completion of pregnancy to term. Until recently, the only viable option to parenthood for couples with AUFI were adoption or surrogacy. Since a first attempt of uterus transplant (UTx) in 2000, nine babies were born from women with a transplanted uterus from 2014, eight of which in Sweden, and one in the United States. These promising results are raising immense hopes for the women with AUFI and there is optimism about the possibility for UTx to become part of clinical care even though, besides encouraging results, the procedure has also resulted in increased risks and harms for both the donors and recipients and increased risks of premature birth for the fetus. At present UTx is still considered as experimental and requiring more research and safety assessment before becoming a therapeutic option for AUFI. The transition from experimental procedure to therapeutic care would result in less strict ethical scrutiny for UTx and in the possibility for patients to get reimbursement for the procedure by the relevant healthcare insurance or public healthcare providers. In turn, an increase in the number of UTx performed yearly by specialized surgical teams would result in a general improvement of the “field strength”. However, at present it is difficult to establish the amount of evidence that we need in order to consider UTx as no longer experimental but routine clinical practice. The literature on UTx provides recommendations on the different outcomes that should be monitored in this experimental phase but no study is anticipating the number of subjects that should be followed and for how long. Conclusion: As for other transplants that have become routine practice, like renal transplant and heart transplant, it is likely that the decision on “routine practice readiness” will result from available cumulated evidences, from expert capacity to find a consensus on best practices and on political considerations as well, including pressures form patients and patient groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0065.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: nicotine products; tobacco harm reduction; people living with mental illness; qualitative research; consumer preferences
Online: 17 October 2016 (10:49:07 CEST)
Aims and Background: People living with mental disorders experience a disproportionately higher burden of tobacco-related disease than the general population. Long-term substitution with less harmful nicotine products could reduce the tobacco-related harm among this population. This study investigated the views and preferences of people with mental health disorders about different nicotine products and their use as long-term substitutes for cigarettes. Methods: Semi-structured focus group discussion followed by a brief questionnaire. The discussion transcripts were analysed for content and themes and quantitative data summarised with descriptive statistics. Results: Twenty-nine participants took part in four focus groups. Vaping devices were the most acceptable nicotine products discussed, however preferences for nicotine products were idiosyncratic and varied along aesthetic, pragmatic, sensory and symbolic dimensions. The concept of tobacco harm reduction was unfamiliar to participants, however they generally agreed with the logic of replacing cigarettes with less harmful nicotine products. Barriers to activating tobacco harm reduction included the symbolism of smoking and quitting; the importance placed on health; the consumer appeal of alternatives; and cost implications. Discussion and Conclusion: Engaging this population in tobacco harm reduction options will require communication that challenges black and white thinking (a conceptual framework in which smoking cigarettes or quitting all nicotine are the only legitimate options) as in practice this serves to support the continuance of smoking. Consumers should be encouraged to trial a range of nicotine products to find the most acceptable alternative to smoking that reduces health harms. Providing incentives to switch to nicotine products could help overcome barriers to using less harmful nicotine products among mental health consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0022.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Ambient Assisted Living; eHealth; Technology Acceptance, Smart Health, User Diversity, Serious Games for Healthcare
Online: 12 July 2016 (09:39:31 CEST)
Based on the demographic shift and the related challenges resulting from the growing number of elderly and persons with chronic diseases, the idea of smart home that supports its inhabitants in the daily life, gains importance. The purpose of this paper was to examine in a prototypic Ambient Assisted Living environment if users after interaction with different health-supporting applications intend to use such in the future. Two experimental studies exemplary show possible applications of home-integrated technology that can support, assist and accompany the target group in different contexts, and examine to what extent participants are willing to future use such sophisticated technology at home. The results show that people in general, but especially the old and chronically ill ones are quite fascinated of health-supporting ambient technology and the majority intends to use such ambient assistance in the future (study I). Moreover, serious games for healthcare are shown as a hedonic use of technology in smart homes that have a great potential to retain or improve the physical health, mobility and the overall well-being of the inhabitants (study II). The article provides two examples of ambient technology to leverage the demographic change and presents important user factors for facilitating high user acceptance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0672.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Review; Human action recognition; Smart living; Services; Applications; Context Awareness; Data Availability; Personalization; Privacy; Sensing technology; Machine learning; Deep learning; Signal processing; Smart home; Smart environment; Smart city; Smart Community; Ambient Assisted Living
Online: 9 June 2023 (05:34:18 CEST)
Smart Living, an increasingly prominent concept, entails incorporating sophisticated technologies in homes and urban environments to elevate the quality of life for citizens. A critical success factor for Smart Living services and applications, from energy management to healthcare and transportation, is the efficacy of human action recognition (HAR). HAR, rooted in computer vision, seeks to identify human actions and activities using visual data and various sensor modalities. This paper extensively reviews the literature on HAR in Smart Living services and applications, amalgamating key contributions and challenges while providing insights into future research directions. The review delves into the essential aspects of Smart Living, the state of the art in HAR, and the potential societal implications of this technology. Moreover, the paper meticulously examines the primary application sectors in Smart Living that stand to gain from HAR, such as smart homes, smart healthcare, and smart cities. By underscoring the significance of the four dimensions of Context Awareness, Data Availability, Personalization, and Privacy in HAR, this paper serves as a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners striving to advance Smart Living services and applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0105.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Review; Human action recognition; Smart living; Multimodality; Real-time processing; Interoperability; Resource-constrained processing; Sensing technology; Machine learning; Deep learning; Signal processing; Smart home; Smart environment; Smart city; Smart Community; Ambient Assisted Living
Online: 3 May 2023 (06:54:40 CEST)
Smart living, a concept that has gained increasing attention in recent years, revolves around integrating advanced technologies in homes and cities to enhance the quality of life for citizens. Sensing and human action recognition are crucial aspects of this concept. Smart living applications span various domains, such as energy consumption, healthcare, transportation, and education, which greatly benefit from effective human action recognition. This field, originating from computer vision, seeks to recognize human actions and activities using not only visual data but also many other sensor modalities. This paper comprehensively reviews the literature on human action recognition in smart living environments, synthesizing the main contributions, challenges, and future research directions. This review selects five key domains: Sensing Technology, Multimodality, Real-time Processing, Interoperability, and Resource-Constrained Processing, as they encompass the critical aspects required for successfully deploying human action recognition in smart living. These domains highlight the essential role that sensing and human action recognition play in successfully developing and implementing smart living solutions. This paper serves as a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners seeking to explore further and advance the field of human action recognition in smart living.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1571.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: Land-use spatial conflict; Productional-living-ecological space; Multiscenario simulation; Grey multiobjective optimization; Yimengshan Geopark
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:49:47 CEST)
The foundation for accurately understanding regional land-use structures and pursuing the coordination of human–land relations is the scientific identification and simulation of temporal and spatial evolution patterns of land-use spatial conflict (LUSC). Taking the Yimengshan Geopark (YG) as an example, based on the productional–living–ecological space (PLES) perspective, which constructs a land-use spatial conflict identification and intensity diagnosis model (LUCSII) using the landscape ecology index. We apply geographic information system (GIS) and other methods to achieve the spatial pattern of LUSC over the last 20 years, and we use the GMOP–Markov–PLUS model to simulate the evolution of LUSC in the future under various scenarios. From 2000 to 2020, the LUSC values in the YG were mainly stable and controllable, with mild conflict, while the areas of severe conflict were mainly concentrated in the central urban area of Mengyin County and in low and flat terrain areas such as southern Bailin Town. The LUSC in the YG showed a significant positive spatial correlation, and spatial agglomeration is gradually strengthening. The high–high clusters are found in contiguous areas at the junction of Changlu Town, Gaodu Town, and Mengyin Street, as well as in the southern hilly areas. The low–low clusters were concentrated in Yedian Town, Daigu Town inarea north of the study, and areas surrounding Yunmeng Lake Wetland Park. In the next ten years, the ecological priority scenario (EPD) and sustainable development scenario (ESD) will both be reasonable options for easing and controlling LUSC in YG. Local governments and park management bureaus should determine the three lines and three zones based on the needs of social and economic development, particularly the boundary red line for construction land growth, and plan production and living spaces to alleviate land-use conflicts and stabilize the land-use system. Regional ecological security can be maintained, and future deterioration of the park’s ecological environment avoided, by performing well in terms of ecological isolation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0309.v9
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: obesity; body weight regulation; macronutrients; energy balance theory; mass balance model; paradigm shift; living review
Online: 16 September 2022 (03:18:08 CEST)
According to known laws of physics, chronic positive mass balance is the actual etiology of obesity, not positive energy balance. The relevant physical law in terms of body mass regulation is the Law of Conservation of Mass, not the Law of Conservation of Energy. A recently proposed mass balance model (MBM) describes the temporal evolution of body weight and body composition under a wide variety of feeding experiments, and it seems to provide a highly accurate description of the very best experimental human feeding data. By shifting to a mass balance paradigm of obesity, a deeper understanding of this disease may follow in the near future. The purpose of this living review is to present the core issues of the upcoming paradigm shift as well as some practical applications related to the topic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0282.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: demographic change; barrier-free design; living space; quality of life; specific needs; modular home design
Online: 16 July 2018 (11:51:08 CEST)
In Europe we can see a change in the social structure in the last period. Average life expectancy has increased dramatically over the last 50 years. Because of the improved life situation and advanced level of health care, older people are slower. With advancing age, the likelihood of experiencing a variety of constraints such as visual impairment, reduced hearing or physical ability increases. In such a life stage tenants are often forced to leave their long-term living space because these homes can not serve "new" individual needs and the resulting personal protection goal. This transition from the privacy of their home to the new environment often appears to be a painful change. They will take their familiar and well-known surroundings, because their homes can not be adapted to serve new needs. It must be the policy’s role to create a new inclusive social space and the requirement for architects and designers to create new goals for the design of an adaptable environment. This is a comprehensive approach to the design of the outer and inner space that could serve people even if there is an unexpected situation and changes in movement and physiological limitations of older people. The contribution shows the results of the survey conducted in Germany and Slovakia. In the survey respondents expressed their opinion on what they considered important in creating an adaptive environment. Results are processed graphically with explanation. The results were mainly for designers and developers of the indoor environment. Based on the results of the questionnaire survey, studies of possible modifications in the interior of the flats were then prepared. The contribution yielded these results in three age groups of respondents; i. people aged 35, 50 and over 50.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0806.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: nutrition disorders; risk factors; body composition; physical functional performance; independent living; and aged; 80 and over
Online: 13 September 2023 (09:38:11 CEST)
Background and aims: Only one cohort study exists on the incidence of the risk of malnutrition (RM) in older adults, though numerous cross-sectional –and that cohort research– have reported several risk factors associated with the prevalence and incidence of this condition. However, alterations of body composition and impaired physical performance as exposition variables of RM have not been explored. This study assessed the incidence of RM and determined its association with excess fat mass, low total lean tissue, gait speed, and handgrip strength as exposition variables for RM in community-dwelling older adults. Methods: This is a secondary analysis in older adults (≥60 years old) derived from the study “Frailty, dynapenia, and sarcopenia in Mexican adults (FraDySMex)” a prospective cohort project conducted from 2014 to 2019 in Mexico City. At baseline, volunteers underwent body composition analysis and physical performance tests. Several covariates were identified through comprehensive geriatric assessment. At baseline and follow-up, RM was assessed using the long form of the mini nutritional assessment (MNA-LF) scale. Associations between the exposition variables and RM were assessed by multiple logistic regression. Results: The cohort included 241 subjects. Average age was 75.6±7.8 years; 83.4% were women. The mean follow-up period was 4.1 years, during which 28.6% of subjects developed RM. This condition was less likely to occur in subjects with excess fat mass index, even after adjusting for several covariates. RM was also more likely to occur in subjects with low total lean tissue index, according to both an unadjusted model and after adjusting for the corresponding variables. Regarding the association between RM and gait speed, RM was also more likely to occur in subjects with low gait speed according to both the unadjusted and adjusted models. Similar results were found for RM in relation to low handgrip strength; however, after adjusting for the associated covariates, models 1 and 2 no longer reached the level of significance. Conclusion: The risk of malnutrition diagnosed by MNA-LF was significantly less likely to occur among subjects with excess fat mass, but possibility was significantly higher in those with low total lean tissue and low gait speed after 4.1 years of follow-up in community-dwelling older adults. These results highlight that excess fat mass, low total lean tissue, and low gait speed are first than risk of malnutrition and not vice versa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1958.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Biographical disruption; biographical reinvention; additive strategy; subtractive strategy; hope, optimism, resilience; men living with HIV, Indonesia
Online: 28 June 2023 (07:42:26 CEST)
HIV diagnosis and management have often caused disruptions to the everyday life and imagined futures of people living with HIV, both at individual and social levels. This has been conceptualised, in a rather dystopian way, as ‘biographical disruption’. This paper attempts to re-cast data from interviews with 40 men living with HIV (MLHIV) in Yogyakarta and Belu, Indonesia, in a slightly more positive light. Our analysis uses the concepts of additive and subtractive resilience strategies and we show how, rather than having a purely disrupted biography, participants talked about their experiences of ‘biographical reinvention'. Study participants were recruited using the snowball sampling technique, starting from two HIV clinics in the settings. Data were collected using one-on-one in-depth interviews, and a qualitative framework analysis was used to guide step-by-step data analysis. The findings showed that despite the disruptions in their everyday life (i.e., mental health condition, work, activities, social relationships, etc.) following the HIV diagnosis and management, MLHIV in our study managed to utilise their internal assets or traits (i.e., hope, optimism, resilience) and mobilised external resources (i.e., support from families, friends and healthcare professionals) to cope with the disruptions. An interweaving of these internal assets and external resources enabled them to take on new activities and roles (additive resilience strategies) and give up health compromising behaviours (subtractive resilience strategies). These were effective for most MLHIV in our study not only to cope with the HIV repercussions and improve their physical and mental health conditions, but to think or work on a ‘reinvented’ biography which encompassed resilience, hope and optimism for better health, life and future. The findings indicate the need for HIV interventions and healthcare systems that provide appropriate support for the development and maintenance of internal assets of PLHIV to enable them to cope with the repercussions of HIV and work on a ‘reinvented’ biography.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: stroke; occupational therapy; activities of daily living; goal setting; transcranial magnetic stimulation: upper extremity; motor paralysis
Online: 1 November 2022 (04:46:18 CET)
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with intensive occupational therapy improves upper limb motor paralysis and activities of daily living after stroke; however, amount of improvement according to paralysis severity remains unverified. Target activities for daily living using patients’ upper limb functions can be established by predicting the amount of change after treatment for each severity level of upper limb motor paralysis and further aid practice planning. This study estimated post-treatment score changes for each severity level of motor paralysis (no, poor, limited, notable, and full) stratified according to Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) scores before combined rTMS and intensive occupational therapy. Severity of motor paralysis was the fixed factor for analysis of covariance, delta (post-pre) of the scores was the dependent variable. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to compare changes in ARAT subscores in patients, divided according to paralysis severity before treatment. A multicenter retrospective cohort dataset analyzed 907 patients with stroke hemiplegia. Largest treatment-related changes in scores were observed in the Limited recovery group for upper limb motor paralysis and Full recovery group for quality-of-life activities using paralyzed upper limb. These results will help predict treatment effects and determine exercises and goal movements for occupational therapy after rTMS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0783.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cancer, cancer survivor, exercise, athletes, competition, long-term effects, late effects, living with and beyond cancer
Online: 31 May 2021 (14:02:13 CEST)
Athletes living with and beyond cancer can continue to train and, in some cases, compete during treatment. Following cancer treatment, athletes can return to competitive sport but need to learn to adapt their physical strength and training to lingering effects of cancer. It is critical for oncology healthcare providers to use the principles of assess, refer and advise to exercise oncology programs that are appropriate for the individual. Managing side effects of treatment is key to being able to train during and immediately following cancer treatment. Keen attention to fatigue is important at any point in the cancer spectrum to avoid overtraining and optimize the effects of training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0207.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: flower-like micelle; triblock copolymer; amphiphilic copolymer; single-electron transfer-living radical polymerization; poly(ethylene oxide)
Online: 8 March 2021 (09:05:19 CET)
Poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) have protein-antifouling properties and blood compatibility. ABA triblock copolymers (PMEAn-PEO11340-PMEAn (MEOMn)) were prepared using single-electron transfer-living radical polymerization (SET-LRP) using a bi-functional PEO macroinitiator. Two types of MEOMn composed of PMEA blocks with a degree of polymerization (DP = n) of 85 and 777 were prepared using the same PEO macroinitiator. MEOMn formed flower micelles with a hydrophobic PMEA (A) core and hydrophilic PEO (B) loop shells in diluted water with a similar appearance to petals. The hydrodynamic radii of MEOM85 and MEOM777 were 151 and 108 nm, respectively. The PMEA block with a large DP formed a tightly packed core. The aggregation number (Nagg) of the PMEA block in a single flower micelle for MEOM85 and MEOM777 was 156 and 164, respectively, which were estimated using a light scat-tering technique. The critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) for MEOM85 and MEOM777 were 0.01 and 0.002 g/L, respectively, as determined by the light scattering intensity and fluorescence probe techniques. The size, Nagg, and CMC for MEOM85 and MEOM777 were almost the same inde-pendent of hydrophobic DP of the PMEA block.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0081.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: Active and Assisted Living; smart speakers; information support system; health care system; sufferer monitoring system; dementia
Online: 6 March 2019 (12:21:55 CET)
Age-in-place can reduce the progress of dementia syndrome and improve the quality of life of the sufferers and their families. This work proposes an innovative information home support system to be established at the houses of people suffering from dementia. The main innovation of the system are its transparent character that overcomes the need for training of the sufferer, as well as the exploitation of a well-known technique for dementia, namely music therapy. It addresses the need of people suffering from dementia as well as their familiars to be recognized by them and have better interaction and collaboration. The system offers a ubiquitous recognition system, just by using smart devices like smart-phones or smart-wristbands. When a familiar person is detected in the house, then a sound file is reproduced on smart speakers placed in the house, in order to trigger the memory, based on the principles of music therapy. The system reproduced the appropriate time at 100% of the cases and the benefits of music therapy are evident daily. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first system of its kind ever reported in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0173.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: third definition of fractal; fractal or living geometry; wholeness; head/tail breaks (ht-index); scaling law
Online: 17 January 2019 (03:30:08 CET)
As noted in the introductory quotation, an ideal map was long ago seen as the map of the map, the map of the map, of the map, and so on endlessly. This recursive perspective on maps, however, has received little attention in cartography. Cartography, as a scientific discipline, is essentially founded on Euclidean geometry and Gaussian statistics, which deal with respectively regular shapes, and more or less similar things. It is commonly accepted that geographic features – such as rivers, cities, streets and building – are not regular and that the Earth’s surface is full of fractal or scaling or living phenomena with far more small things than large ones at different levels of scale. This paper argues for a new paradigm in mapping, based on fractal or living geometry and Paretian statistics, and – more critically – on the new conception of space, conceived and developed by Christopher Alexander, that space is neither lifeless nor neutral, but a living structure capable of being more living or less living. The fractal geometry is not limited to Benoit Mandelbrot’s framework, but is extended towards Christopher Alexander’s living geometry and based upon the third definition of fractal: A set or pattern is fractal if the scaling of far more small things than large ones recurs multiple times. Paretian statistics deals with far more small things than large ones, so it differs fundamentally from Gaussian statistics, which deals with more or less similar things. Under the new paradigm, I make several claims about maps and mapping: (1) Topology of geometrically coherent things – in addition to that of geometric primitives – enables us to see a scaling or fractal or living structure; (2) Under the third definition, all geographic features are fractal or living, given the right perspective and scope; (3) Exactitude is not truth – to paraphrase Henri Matisse – but the living structure is; and (4) Töpfer’s law is not universal, but scaling law is. All these assertions are supported by evidence, drawn from a series of previous studies. This paper demands a monumental shift in perspective and thinking from what we are used to on the legacy of cartography and GIS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0305.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: replant disease; Malus; free-living nematodes; bacteria; fungi; rhizosphere; nematode-microbe association; disease complex; metabarcoding; nematode community
Online: 20 December 2021 (10:34:03 CET)
Apple replant disease is a severe problem in orchards and tree nurseries. Evidence for the involvement of a nematode-microbe disease complex was reported. To search for this complex, plots with a history of apple replanting, and control plots cultivated for the first time with apple were sampled in two fields in two years. Shoot weight drastically decreased with each replanting. Nematodes were extracted from soil samples by floatation-centrifugation, washed on a 20 µm-sieve, and used for DNA extraction. Nematode communities and co-extracted fungi and bacteria were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing of amplified ribosomal fragments. The nematode community and co-extracted fungal and bacterial communities significantly differed between replanted and control plots. Free-living nematodes of the genera Aphelenchus, Cephalenchus, and an unidentified Dorylaimida were associated with replanted plots, as indicated by linear discriminant analysis effect size. Among the co-extracted fungi and bacteria, Mortierella was most indicative of replanting. Some genera, mostly Rhabditis, indicated healthy control plots. Isolating and investigating the putative disease complexes will help to understand and alleviate stress-induced root damage of apple in replanted soil.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0026.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: wearable devices; ethics; children; privacy; large data; right to an open future; living in the spot-light
Online: 25 June 2021 (11:00:42 CEST)
Wearable and mobile technology has advanced in leaps and bounds in the last decade with technological advances creating a role from enhancing healthy living to monitoring and treating disease. However, the discussion about the ethical use of such commercial technology in the community, especially in minors, is lacking behind. In this paper, we first summarize the major ethical concerns that arise from the usage of commercially available wearable technology in children, with a focus on smart watches, highlighting issues around the consent process, mitigation of risk and potential confidentiality and privacy issues, as well as the potential for therapeutic misconceptions when used without medical advice. Then through a relevant thought experiment we move on to outline some further ethical concerns that are connected to the use of wearables by minors, to wit the issue of informed consent in the case of minors, forcing them to live in the spotlight, and compromising their right to an open future. We conclude with the view that mitigating potential pitfalls and enhancing the benefits of wearable technology especially for minors requires brave and comprehensive moral debates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0677.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: conservation agriculture; compost; soil quality; bio-test; macro- and micronutrients; free-living nematodes; microbial respiration; microbial biomass
Online: 28 July 2020 (10:31:47 CEST)
Reduced nutrient mineralization rates under minimum tillage are usually compensated by mineral fertilizer application. These cannot be applied in organic farming systems, however. We hypothesized that organic minimum tillage based on frequent cover cropping and application of dead mulch will improve soil fertility and can compensate for the potential negative effects of minimum tillage. Two long-term field experiments were set up in 2010 and 2011 comparing plough versus minimum tillage including application of transferred mulch. As second factor, the application of compost versus mineral potassium and phosphorus was compared. In 2019, soils were analyzed for soil pH, organic carbon, macro-, micronutrients, microbial biomass, microbial activity and total nematode abundance. In addition, performance of pea in the same soils was determined under greenhouse conditions. Across both experiments, macronutrients (+52%), micronutrients (+11%), microbial biomass (+51%), microbial activity (+86%), and bacterivorous nematodes (+112%) increased in minimum tillage compared with the plough-based system. In the greenhouse, pea biomass was 45% higher in the soil that had been subjected to minimum tillage compared to the plough. In conclusion, soil fertility can be improved in organic minimum tillage systems by intensive cover cropping and application of dead mulch to levels higher than in a plough-based system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0279.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: recovery; mental illness; mental health; psychiatry; social inclusion; occupational therapy; occupations; time use; activities of daily living; work.
Online: 21 March 2022 (08:56:09 CET)
Research has consistently found that people with mental illness (known as consumers) experience lower levels of participation in meaningful activities, which can limit their opportunities for recovery support. The aim of this study was to describe the outcomes of participation in a group program designed to address all stages of activity participation, known as Pathways to Participation (P2P). A descriptive longitudinal design was utilized, collecting data at three time points. Outcomes were measured by the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal (CANSAS), Recovery Assessment Scale – Domains and Stages (RAS-DS), Behaviour and Symptom Identification Scale (BASIS-24), Living in the Community Questionnaire (LCQ) and time use diaries. All data was analysed using descriptive statistics, and Chi square analyses. Seventeen consumers completed baseline data, eleven contributed post program data and eight provided follow up data. Most were female (63.64%) and had been living with mental illness for 11.50 (± 7.74) years on average. Reductions in unmet needs and improvements in self-rated recovery scores were re-ported, but no changes were identified in either time use or psychosocial health. The findings indicate the P2P program may enable consumers to achieve positive activity and participation out-comes as part of their personal recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0227.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: responsive materials; smart materials; bioinspired materials; non-living plant tissues; anisotropy; thermal fatigue; microstructure; 4D printing; additive manufacturing
Online: 14 June 2018 (09:01:53 CEST)
In Nature, it is common for living plants and non-living plant tissues to consist of materials with anisotropic multilayer and non-homogenous structure. The structure of tissues determines their self-shaping and self-folding capabilities in response to a stimulus in order to activate different functionalities. Predetermined movements are realized according to changes in environmental conditions, which trigger the fibrous anisotropic structure of the plants’ material. In this study, we present the fabrication process of low-cost anisotropic multilayer materials that are capable of realizing complex movements caused by small temperature changes (<40 oC). The mismatch in the thermo-mechanical properties between three or more anisotropic thin layers creates responsive materials that alter their shape owing to the developed internal stresses. Isotropic layers can perform only bending movements, whereas anisotropic multilayer materials can perform bending, twisting or complex combined modes. The movements of the material can be controlled by forming anisotropic homogenous metallic strips over an anisotropic polymer. As a result, inexpensive responsive materials can be developed to passively react to a very broad range of thermal requirements. We studied the major parameters that affect the sensitivity of the developed materials, as well as their failure modes and crack formation under thermal fatigue conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0238.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Free-living amoebas; FLA; genotypes; molecular epidemiology; Genomic epidemiology; Balamuthia mandrillaris; Naegleria fowleri; Acanthamoeba spp.; Vermamoeba vermiformis; Sappinia pedata
Online: 16 September 2022 (07:09:01 CEST)
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are protozoa widely distributed in the environment, found in a great diversity of terrestrial biomes. However, few genera of FLA are linked to human infections. Within these genera, Acanthamoeba spp., classified by genotypes (T1-T23), being T1, T2, T4, T5, T10, T12, and T18 as capable of causing granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) in immunocompromised patients mostly and Acanthamoeba keratitis related to genotypes T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T10, T11, T12 and T15 in apparently healthy patients. Meanwhile, Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of an acute infection called primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), while Balamuthia mandrillaris, like some Acanthamoeba genotypes, causes GAE, differing from the latter in the description of numerous cases in patients immunocompetent. Finally, other FLA related to the pathologies mentioned above have been reported; Sappinia pedata is responsible for one case of amoebic encephalitis; Vermamoeba vermiformis has been found in cases of ocular damage, and its extraordinary capacity as endo-cytobiont for microorganisms of public health importance such as Legionella pneumophila, Bacillus anthracis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, among others. In this review, issues related to the epidemiology of each one are addressed, updating their geographic distribution and cases reported in recent years for pathogenic FLA.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0263.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Paenibacillus; rhizosphere; non-rhizobial endophyte (NRE); Trifolium; clover; Bodega Bay; diazotroph; plant-growth promoting bacteria; free-living nitrogen fixer
Online: 23 October 2019 (03:52:41 CEST)
Paenibacillus sp. tmac-D7 was isolated from coastline growing Trifolium macraei (double-head clover) root nodules from Bodega Bay, California. The draft genome is 5,567,337 bp with a G+C% of 52.4%, an N50 of 114,261 bp, and 5,282 predicted protein-coding genes. Paenibacillus, while found in many other environments, is frequently isolated from root nodules, with many acting as plant pathogen antagonists. Paenibacillus sp. tmac-D7 is the first genome of a non-rhizobial endophyte isolate from wild Trifolium macraei (double-head clover).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0073.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: optimization schedule; transactive energy; DC residential distributed system; living homes, DC droop control; Centralized energy management system, electrical price
Online: 16 June 2017 (04:33:36 CEST)
DC residential distribution system (RDS) consisted by DC living home will be a significant integral part in the future green transmission. Meanwhile, the increasing number of distributed resources and intelligent devices will change the power flow between main grid and demand sides. The utilization of distributed generations (DGs) requires an economic operation, stability, environmentally friendly in the whole DC system. This paper not only presents an optimization schedule and transactive energy (TE) approach through centralized energy management system (CEMS), but a control approach to implement and ensure DG output voltages to various DC buses in DC RDS. Based on data collection, prediction and a certain objection, the expert system in CEMS can work out the optimization schedule, after this, the voltage droop control for steady voltage is aligned with the command of unit power schedule. In this work, a DC RDS is as a case study to demonstrate the process, the RDS is associated with unit economic models, cost minimization objective is proposed to achieve based on real-time electrical price. The results show that the proposed framework and methods will help the targeted DC residential system to reduce the total cost and reach stability and efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0856.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: plants; living wall; cooling effect; temperature; microclimate; vertical greenery systems; urban green infrastructure; climate change adaption; temperature sensor; thermal imaging
Online: 12 June 2023 (16:03:23 CEST)
Living walls (LWs) are a climate change adaptation strategy for cities, as they have a cooling effect. Previous studies of the cooling effect of LWs were carried out in different climatic zones. These studies differed in their experimental design, or simulated data via models. Plants’ cooling capacity is explained by shading and transpiration, and depends on physical plant parameters, environmental factors, and system-related influences. A three-year-long trial was carried out between 2017 and 2019 at an experimental garden in Geisenheim, Germany. We chose a textile-based LW system with high water demand and plants from a wet/fresh habitat. We assumed that this would achieve high evaporative cooling. The experimental setup included four experimental walls which were exposed to the north, south, east, and west, respectively. The plant choice was divided into three plant mix variants (Cascade, Ground cover, and Meadow) and a Control with no vegetation. We measured the temperature with sensors and a thermal imaging (IR) camera in different setups. The main results were that the measured vegetation temperature (TV) depends on air temperature (TA), measurement position, plant mix variant, and plant species. We could detect the cooling effect only at a small distance from the LW (microclimatic). Our methodological approaches should be continued in further studies.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: living systems; the Fibonacci sequence; systems strategies; a human's information analysis; the two hemispheres of the brain; differential personality models
Online: 8 February 2021 (16:17:11 CET)
This theoretical article provides a brief description of the model of living systems' functioning by defining them as resource flows patterns. It reviews the living systems growth limitation between their development cycles by the Fibonacci sequence. Besides, there are presented systems resource base criteria, necessary for accumulating the resources and their investment. The article also considers the conditions for the formation of various systems strategies. Then we reviewed the principles of elemental analysis of information by a person as a living system according to the considered model. The study also shows the possibility of forming priorities in analyzing information for 16 combinations as maximum. At that, it remains crucial to divide a human's information analysis between the two hemispheres of the brain. The described combinations of priorities in a person's information analysis are compared with the existing differential personality models, such as the big five personality traits, the Myers-Briggs type indicator, temperaments model and Honey and Mumford Learning styles.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: physical activity; depression; elderly people living alone; Patient Health Questionnaire-10; flexibility exercise; muscular strength exercise; complex sample logistic regression
Online: 25 March 2019 (11:10:17 CET)
Background and objectives: Only a few studies analyzed the physical activity level of elderly people living alone in local communities and evaluated the relationship between it and mental health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical activity and depression in the elderly living alone and to provide basic data for the prevention of depression in the elderly. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 256 elderly people living alone aged 65 years or older who completed the 2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Depression was defined as a score of 10 or higher using Patient Health Questionnaire-10(PHQ-9). This study investigated walking per week, days of muscular strength exercise performance in the past one week, days of flexibility exercise in the past one week, mean hours in a sitting position per day, the numbers of days and hours conducting a high intensity physical activity in the past one week, and numbers of days and hours conducting a medium intensity physical activity in the past one week to define physical activity. Our study presented prevalence odds ratios (pOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by using complex sample logistic regression analysis in order to identify the relationship between physical activity and depression. Results: The results of complex sample logistic regression analysis showed that flexibility exercise was significantly related to depression (p <0.05). On the other hand, the mean hours in a sitting position per day, aerobic physical activity, walking, and muscular strength exercise were not significantly related to geriatric depression. Conclusions: The results of our study implied that persistent flexibility exercise might be more effective to maintain a healthy mental status than muscular strength exercise. A longitudinal study is required to prove the causal relationship between physical activity and depression in the old age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0248.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles; ion channels; viscoelastic effects and anomalous diffusion; non-exponential statistics; influence of weak magnetic fields on living systems
Online: 26 January 2018 (05:11:59 CET)
Magnetic nanoparticles are met across many biological species ranging from magnetosensitive bacteria, fishes, bees, bats, rats, birds, to humans. They can be both of biogenetic origin and due to environmental contamination, being either in paramagnetic or ferromagnetic state. The energy of such naturally occurring single-domain magnetic nanoparticles can reach up to 10-20 room kBT in the magnetic field of the Earth, which naturally led to supposition that they can serve as sensory elements in various animals. This work explores within a stochastic modeling framework a fascinating hypothesis of magnetosensitive ion channels with magnetic nanoparticles serving as sensory elements, especially, how realistic it is given a highly dissipative viscoelastic interior of living cells and typical sizes of nanoparticles possibly involved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0068.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Activities of Daily Living (ADL); environment; sensors; mobile devices, framework; data acquisition; data processing; data fusion; pattern recognition; machine learning
Online: 8 January 2018 (11:34:36 CET)
Sensors available on mobile devices allow the automatic identification of Activities of Daily Living (ADL). This paper describes an approach for the creation of a framework for the identification of ADL, taking in account several concepts, including data acquisition, data processing, data fusion, pattern recognition, and machine learning. These concepts can be mapped in a module of the framework, including the use and creation of several algorithms. For the development of a framework that works in several conditions, e.g., without Internet connection, these algorithms should take in account the hardware and software limitations of the mobile devices to run all main tasks locally. The main purpose of this paper is related to the presentation the sensors, algorithms, and architecture of the proposed approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1627.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Human Development Index; Education Index; Health Index; Standard of Living Index; Gross Domestic Product; Complex Adaptive Systems; Logarithmic Transformation; Sine Wave; Amplitude
Online: 23 May 2023 (08:40:39 CEST)
The complex adaptive systems (CAS) research study investigates into the theoretical link of a sustained economic growth as a critical pathway to lift people out of poverty and improve their quality of life. The results show a left-skewed global behavior of an economy-driven human development of 189 countries with 20% or 27 countries obtaining low human development; 80% or 162 countries obtaining medium to very high human development of which 21.16% or 39 countries with medium HDI, 53 or 28.04% or 53 countries with high HDI, and 31.22% or 59 countries with very high HDI. Using the Log (GDP) for visual transformation, closer investigation into the scatterplot diagram reveals that there are also bimodal patterns where countries in the high amplitude and low amplitude groups obtained different human development outcomes despite less or more on economic growth variances mirror on the government policy priorities resulting in four differentiating conditions. Very few countries experience virtuous cycles where both growth and human development are successful; few countries with vicious cycles where both are weak; and many countries with lopsided conditions where the economy is strong but human development is weak, or conversely ones where human development is strong but the economy is weak. The global pattern of economy and human development illustrated by an upward sinusoid or sine wave refutes the conventional linear approach. Uniquely and most importantly, the sinusoidal wave illustrates a decreasing amplitude and decreasing periods as countries manifest apparently complex behaviors that emerge as a result of often nonlinear spatio-temporal interactions among a large number of component systems at different levels of organizations and governments leading to an emergence of a behavior characterizing of a complex adaptive system.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Bibliometric Analysis; Scientometrics; Human Influence on Climate; Natural Control of Climate; Climatic and Non-climatic Effects on Living Organisms; Improving Climate Monitoring; Climate Variability; Climate Models; CO2
Online: 3 May 2021 (17:01:28 CEST)
This article presents and discusses analytical data on the scientific publication record from 1910 to 2020 on two topics: "climate" and "climate change/global warming/climate emergency". The goal is to visualize how the publication record on these two topics has evolved over time, from different classification perspectives (year, country, source and organization). Three hypotheses are tested using data collected from Web of Science and various graphical representations of the data. It is found that research output related to the Earth’s contemporary changing climate overtook that of general climate research in 2011, and the publication ratio has been expanding in the last decade. There are significant differences in the publication countries and sources between the two topics, and conversely less significant differences in terms of organizations publishing these works. Differentiation factors that affect the level of research output and engagement on the climate challenge include: island versus landlocked nations, specialized versus general scientific journals, academic versus institutional organizations. The future of the publication records is discussed, such as the emergence of new terms to refer to the climate challenge, such as “climate emergency”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: older adults; cognitive impairment; tango-therapy; quality of life; well-being; physical performance; walking performances; abilities of daily living; dance movement therapy; arts with therapeutic intent
Online: 16 January 2023 (01:11:39 CET)
Cognitive impairment in older adults is associated with poor gait performance, physical decline, falls and poor quality of life. This paper analyzes the feasibility and efficacy of a tango-based in-tervention in older people with cognitive impairment living in nursing homes. A multicenter study, with pre and post-test, was carried out. Intervention attendance, well-being, physical abilities (Short Physical Performance Battery), walking performance, functional capacities (Katz Index), and quality of life (Quality of Life in Alzheimer’s Disease) were assessed. Fifty-four participants (84.9 ± 6.7 years, Mini Mental State Examination 14.5 ± 7.4) completed the protocol. Intervention attendance was 92%, and the mean subjective well-being after each session was 4.5 ± 0.5 (on a five-point scale). Statistically significant improvement was found in the quality of life (p = 0.030). Non statistically significant changes were found in walking performance, physical abilities, or in functional capacities. The study shows feasibility and suggests evidence for the effects of Tango therapy on well-being and quality of life. Further studies are necessary to contrast these findings and to verify the role of Tango interventions as a holistic approach to prevent functional decline in older people with cognitive impairment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1540.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Built environment; Climate adaptation and mitigation; Carbon footprint; Eco-design; Nature-based solutions; Resilient living spaces; Solar energy technologies; Sustainable urban developments; Urban heat island; Urban planning
Online: 21 June 2023 (11:30:47 CEST)
The need to address climate change and establish sustainable urban environments has driven increased efforts in Europe to develop climate-neutral cities. This study highlights the importance of integrating solar energy technologies and nature-based solutions as key strategies to achieve climate neutrality. By examining current practices, emerging trends, and case examples, it explores the benefits, challenges, and prospects associated with the integration of solar energy and nature-based solutions in urban contexts. The study presents a pioneering approach to assess the urban heat and climate change mitigation benefits of combining building-integrated photovoltaics and nature-based solutions specifically within the European context. The results emphasize the synergistic relationship between nature-based components and solar conversion technology, identifying effective combinations for different climatic zones. In warmer regions of Southern Europe, strategies like rooftop photovoltaics on cool roofs, photovoltaics shadings, green walls, and urban trees have demonstrated effectiveness. Conversely, mid- and high-latitude European cities have seen positive impacts through the integration of rooftop photovoltaics and photovoltaics facades with green roofs and green spaces. As solar cell conversion efficiency improves, the environmental impact of photovoltaics is expected to decrease, facilitating their integration into urban environments. The study emphasizes the importance of incorporating water bodies, cool pavements, spaces with high sky-view factors, and effective planning in urban design to maximize resilience benefits. It also highlights the significance of prioritizing mitigation actions in low-income regions and engaging citizens in the development of social photovoltaics positive energy houses, resilient neighbourhoods, and green spaces. By adopting these recommendations, European cities can lead the way in creating climate-neutral urban environments that prioritize clean energy, nature-based solutions, and the overall well-being of residents. The findings underscore the need for a multidisciplinary approach that combines technological innovation, urban planning strategies, and policy frameworks to effectively achieve climate neutrality in European cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0009.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: smart home care (SHC); monitoring; prediction; trend detection; artificial neural network (ANN), Bayesian regulation method (BRM), wavelet transformation (WT), SPSS (statistical package for the social sciences) IBM; IoT (internet of things), activities of daily living (ADL)
Online: 3 December 2018 (07:05:04 CET)
This article describes the use of the PI ProcessBook software tool for visualization and indirect monitoring of occupancy of SHC rooms from the measured operational and technical quantities for monitoring of daily living activities for support of independent life of elderly persons. The proposed method for data processing (predicting the CO2 course using neural networks from the measured temperature indoor Ti (°C), temperature outdoor To (°C) and the relative humidity indoor rHi (%)) was implemented, verified and compared in MATLAB SW tool and IBM SPSS SW tool with IoT platform connectivity. Within the proposed method, the Stationary Wavelet Transform de noising algorithm was used to remove the noise of the resulting predicted course. In order to verify the method, two long-term experiments were performed, (specifically from February 8 to February 15, 2015, from June 8 to June 15, 2015) and two short-term experiments (from February 8, 2015 and from June 8, 2015). For the best results of the trained ANN BRM within the prediction of CO2, the correlation coefficient R for the proposed method was up to 90%. The verification of the proposed method confirmed the possibility to use the presence of persons of the monitored SHC premises for rooms ADL monitoring.