ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0243.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: distance learning; intelligent services; literature review; virtual learning environments.
Online: 14 September 2021 (15:06:55 CEST)
Distance learning has assumed a relevant role in the Educational scenario. The use of Virtual Learning Environments contributes to obtain a substantial amount of educational data. In this sense, the analyzed data generate knowledge used by institutions to assist managers and professors in strategic planning and teaching. The discovery of students’ behaviors enables a wide variety of intelligent services for assisting in the learning process. This article presents a literature review in order to identify the intelligent services applied in distance learning. The research covers the period from January 2010 to May 2021. The initial search found 1,316 articles, among which 51 were selected for further studies. Considering the selected articles, 33% (17/51) focus on learning systems, 35% (18/51) propose recommendation systems, 26% (13/51) approach predictive systems or models, and 6% (3/51) use assessment tools. This review allowed to observe that the principal services offered are recommendation systems and learning systems. In these services, the analysis of student profiles stands out to identify patterns of behavior, detect low performance and identify probabilities of dropouts from courses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0203.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Internet of Things; greement; Intelligent Transportation Systems
Online: 22 January 2018 (13:53:58 CET)
The era of Internet of Things (IoT) has begun to evolve and with this the devices around us are getting more and more connected. Vehicular Ad-hoc NETworks (VANETs) is one of the applications of IoT. VANET allow vehicles within these networks to communicate effectively with each another. VANETs can provide an extensive range of applications that support and enhance passenger safety and comfort. It is important that VANETs are applied within a safe and reliable network topology; however, the challenging nature of reaching reliable and trustworthy agreement in such distributed systems is one of the most important issues in designing a fault-tolerant system. Therefore, protocols are required so that systems can still be correctly executed, reaching agreement on the same values in a distributed system, even if certain components in the system fail. In this study, the agreement problem is revisited in a VANET with multiple damages. The proposed protocol allows all fault-free nodes (vehicles) to reach agreement with minimal rounds of message exchanges, and tolerates the maximal number of allowable faulty components in the VANET.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0104.v3
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: neuro-fuzzy modelling; intelligent monitoring; manufacturing processes
Online: 28 September 2017 (15:02:05 CEST)
Monitoring complex electro-mechanical processes is not straightforward despite the arsenal of techniques nowadays availanle. This paper presents a method based on Adaptive-Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) to estimate eccentricity of its spinning axis. The method is experimentally tested on an ultra-precision rotating device commonly used for micro-scale turning. The developed model has three inputs, two obtained from a frequency domain analysis of a vibration signal and the third, which is the device rotation frequency. A comparative study demonstrates that an adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system model provides better error-based performance indices for detecting imbalance than a non-linear regression model. This simple, fast, and non-intrusive imbalance detection strategy is proposed to counteract eventual deterioration in the performance of ultra-high precision rotating machines due to vibrations.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Energy consumption monitoring system; Building energy conservation management; Insect Intelligent Building technology; Computing process node; Insect intelligent algorithm
Online: 4 September 2019 (14:27:48 CEST)
In this paper, the methodology using Insect Intelligent Building (I^2B) technology for establishing energy consumption monitoring system of public buildings is prevailed. The computing process node and distributed algorithm are utilized to implement the energy consumption collection and data transmission and data pre-processing. Taking a commercial building as a case study, CPNs are applied to set up the building energy consumption monitoring system, with the Spanning Tree Algorithm for generating network topology，and BPNN method for solving abnormal data and recovering missing data. The research results demonstrate the proposed method can effectively improve the performance of plug-and-play and self-identified and self-configuration of energy consumption monitoring system.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: DQN Algorithm; Policy Modeling; Prior Knowledge; Intelligent Decision
Online: 31 August 2020 (04:08:04 CEST)
The reinforcement learning problem of complex action control in the Multi-player wargame is a hot research topic in recent years. In this paper , a game system based on turn-based confrontation is designed and implemented with the state-of-the-art deep reinforcement learning models. Specifically, we first design a Q-learning algorithm to achieve intelligent decision-making, which is based the DQN(Deep Q Network) to model the complex game behaviors. Then, a priori- knowledge based algorithm PK-DQN(Prior Knowledge- Deep Q Network) is introduced to improve the DQN algorithm, which accelerates the convergence speed and stability of the algorithm. The experiments demonstrate, the correctness of the PK-DQN algorithm is validated and its performance surpass the conventional DQN algorithm. Furthermore, the PK-DQN algorithm shows effectiveness in defeating the high level of rule-based opponents, which provides promising results for the exploration of the field of smart chess and intelligent game deduction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0554.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: intelligent service robot; robotic context query; context ontology
Online: 31 August 2018 (16:12:54 CEST)
Service robots operating in indoor environments should recognize dynamic changes from sensors, such as RGB-D camera, and recall the past context. Therefore, we propose a context query-processing framework, comprising spatio-temporal robotic context query language (ST-RCQL) and spatio-temporal robotic context query-processing system (ST-RCQP), for service robots. We designed them based on the spatio-temporal context ontology. ST-RCQL can query not only the current context knowledge but also the past. In addition, ST-RCQL includes a variety of time operators and time constants, and thus queries can be written very efficiently. The ST-RCQP is a query-processing system equipped with a perception handler, working memory, and backward reasoner for real-time query-processing. Moreover, ST-RCQP accelerates query-processing speed by building a spatio-temporal index in the working memory, where percepts are stored. Through various qualitative and quantitative experiments, we demonstrate the high efficiency and performance of the proposed context query-processing framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0447.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: intelligent radio networks; spectrum sharing; coexistence; experimental evaluation
Online: 27 August 2018 (10:17:38 CEST)
The explosive emergence of wireless technologies and standards, covering licensed and unlicensed spectrum bands has triggered the appearance of a huge amount of wireless technologies, with many of them coexisting in the same band. Unfortunately, the wireless spectrum is a scarce resource, and the available frequency bands will not scale with the foreseen demand for new capacity. Certain parts of the spectrum, in particular the license-free ISM bands, are overcrowded, while other parts, mostly licensed bands, may be significantly underutilized. As such, there is a need to introduce more advanced techniques to access and share the wireless medium, either to improve the coordination within a given band, or to explore the possibilities of intelligently using unused spectrum in underutilized (licensed) bands. Therefore, in this paper, we present a SDR based framework that can be employed to devise disruptive techniques to optimize the sub-optimal use of radio spectrum that exists today. Additionally, we describe two use cases for the proposed framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0097.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Carnot cycle; causality; distinguishability; entropy; intelligent processes; questions
Online: 22 January 2017 (05:23:08 CET)
This paper proposes that intelligent processes can be completely explained by thermodynamic principles. They can equally be described by information-theoretic principles that, from the standpoint of the required optimizations, are functionally equivalent. The underlying theory arises from two axioms regarding distinguishability and causality. Their consequence is a theory of computation that applies to the only two kinds of physical processes possible—those that reconstruct the past and those that control the future. Dissipative physical processes fall into the first class, whereas intelligent ones comprise the second. The first kind of process is exothermic and the latter is endothermic. Similarly, the first process dumps entropy and energy to its environment, whereas the second reduces entropy while requiring energy to operate. It is shown that high intelligence efficiency and high energy efficiency are synonymous. The theory suggests the usefulness of developing a new computing paradigm called Thermodynamic Computing to engineer intelligent processes. The described engineering formalism for the design of thermodynamic computers is a hybrid combination of information theory and thermodynamics. Elements of the engineering formalism are introduced in the reverse-engineer of a cortical neuron. The cortical neuron provides perhaps the simplest and most insightful example of a thermodynamic computer possible. It can be seen as a basic building block for constructing more intelligent thermodynamic circuits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0038.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Face Recognition; Intelligent Coupling Algorithm; Robustnes; Accuracy; Speed
Online: 11 October 2016 (14:42:02 CEST)
The key links of face recognition are digital image preprocessing, facial feature extraction and pattern recognition, this article aimed at the current problem of slow speed and low recognition accuracy of face recognition , from the above three key links, on the basic of analyzing the therories of Fractional Differential Masks Operator (FDMO), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), design a kind of FDMO+PVA+SVM coupling algorithm that applies to face recognition to improve the speed and accuracy of it. To realize FDMO+PCA+SVM coupling algorithm, first, we should apply FDMO to face image processing binary marginalization, the purpose is getting face contour; Then, we apply PCA to get the feature of face image which is disposed by binary marainalization. At last, we can apply One-Against All of the SVM classifier and LibSVM software package to realize face recognition. Beside, the article with nine different coupling algorithm design four groups of experimental reaults on the ORL face database verified by comparative analysic FDMO+PCA+SVM coupling algorithm in the superiority of face recognition accuracy and speed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0203.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: solar distillation; intelligent artificial approach; thermal analysis; water treatment
Online: 16 May 2022 (10:06:28 CEST)
The problem of water drinking supply is very important in the world, especially for developing countries, in particular Algeria. In this work we propose to study a distillation system based on solar energy process using an artificial intelligence approach in order to enhance the performance and the daily production. For this purpose, a conventional solar still and capillary film solar still was used. The operating parameters of the two distilleries are analyzed and the neural network approach was used to predict the performance through the amount of distillate, solar radiation and ambient temperature. The sensitivity between the operating parameters of the solar still for two case have been studied through the artificial neuron network model. The obtained results are promising, analyzed and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0101.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: intelligent city; smart city; smart ecosystem; ontology; city smartness
Online: 4 August 2021 (08:38:31 CEST)
The paper is a follow-up of a previous investigation and effort to develop the ontology of the smart city (Komninos, N., Bratsas, C., Kakderi, C., and Tsarchopoulos, P. "Smart city ontologies: Improving the effectiveness of smart city applications". Journal of Smart Cities, vol. 1(1), 1-17. https://www.komninos.eu/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/2015-Smart-City-Ontologies-Published.pdf). Since the publication of this article in 2015, research and literature on smart cities have evolved significantly, as have the technologies for digital spaces and applications that support city functions. These developments are reflected in the present form of the smart city ontology 2.0 we propose. It depicts the building blocks of the smart city ontology (technologies, structure, function, planning), and the object properties and data properties that connect structural blocks and classes. The aim of the SCO 2.0 is to provide a better understanding and description of the smart/intelligent city landscape; identify the main components and processes, the terms used to describe them, their definition and meaning; clarify key processes related to the integration of the different dimensions of the smart city, mainly the physical, social, and digital dimensions. The paper is accompanied by an owl file, developing the ontology through the editor Protégé.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0756.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Intelligent Procurement; Supply Chain; Procurement Ecosystem; Energy Business Procurement
Online: 28 April 2021 (15:36:26 CEST)
With the development of big data analysis, blockchain and other technologies, the supply chain of enterprises is transforming to lean and intelligent. As an important link in the enterprise supply chain, the intelligent transformation of procurement plays an important role in the improvement of the supply chain efficiency, therefore, the construction of a common method supporting the intelligent upgrade of the enterprise procurement business has become a key concern for enterprise managers. Based on the balanced scorecard theory and the supply chain maturity model, this study combines the actual situation of procurement management in Chinese energy enterprises and constructs a procurement benchmarking system that balances the development direction of the industry and the actual needs of enterprises. Meanwhile, based on the grounded theory, three major themes of the intelligent procurement system (digital business module, procurement synergy mechanism and procurement ecosystem) are extracted to provide a methodological reference for the construction of intelligent procurement systems of energy enterprises. The study concludes with a case study of China National Energy Group Materials Company to demonstrate the application of the intelligent procurement system built in this paper, with a view to providing methodological reference for the intelligent procurement management in energy enterprises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0237.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Intelligent transport systems; SCOOT; traffic control; traffic light; UOCT
Online: 10 August 2020 (05:35:19 CEST)
Today, transit control systems go beyond simple controllers located at the intersections of our streets, involving large companies in the field, which with the implementation and use of sophisticated equipment encompass endless new and advanced technologies that manage to give control to the massive automotive park, thus ensuring fluidity and road safety. Many of these systems are used in the big world capitals, which is why the model used in Santiago, Chile is a system applied and brought directly by the SIEMENS Company of England (specifically the system used in the City of London). It is capable of transmitting the different control signals in a similar and digital way from the different interconnected devices in and out of the road infrastructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0414.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: auto-alignment; intelligent stereo camera; stereo film; three-dimensional
Online: 28 May 2018 (15:57:25 CEST)
This study presents an instant preview and analysis system implementation of intelligent stereo cameras (ISCs). A parameter optimization prototype adopted the instant preview and analysis system of the ISCs has been achieved the automatic alignment function, and obtained optimal stereo films with the automatic alignment function by adjusting gap and angle between dual cameras. The instant preview and analysis system of the ISCs with parameter optimization can enhance the quality of stereo films effectively and reduce filmed errors and save retouched cost and time in harsh filmed environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0015.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: modeling; intelligent systems; imbalance detection; ultra-high precision rotating machine
Online: 3 October 2017 (13:39:35 CEST)
A novel method based on a hybrid incremental modeling approach has been designed and applied to imbalance detection in ultra-high precision rotating machines. The model is obtained by a two-step iterative process that combines an overall model (least-squares fitting) with a local model (fuzzy k-nearest-neighbour) to take advantage of their complementary capacities. Three normalization strategies of evaluating the effect on accuracy are analyzed. A comparative study demonstrates that the hybrid incremental model provides better error-based performance indices for detecting imbalance than a nonlinear regression model and an adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system model. The suitability of Mahanolobis normalization for hybrid incremental modeling is also demonstrated in this case study. The proposed strategy for imbalance detection is simple, fast, and non-intrusive, reducing the deterioration in the performance of ultra-high precision rotating machines due to vibrations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0132.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: intelligent fault diagnosis; convolutional neural networks; domain adaptation; anti-noise
Online: 30 January 2017 (12:15:03 CET)
Intelligent fault diagnosis techniques have replaced the time-consuming and unreliable human analysis, increasing the efficiency of fault diagnosis. Deep learning model can improve the accuracy of intelligent fault diagnosis with the help of its multilayer nonlinear mapping ability. This paper has proposed a novel method named Deep Convolutional Neural Networks with Wide First-layer Kernels (WDCNN). The proposed method uses raw vibration signals as input (data augmentation is used to generate more inputs), and uses the wide kernels in first convolutional layer for extracting feature and suppressing high frequency noise. Small convolutional kernels in the preceding layers are used for multilayer nonlinear mapping. AdaBN is implemented to improve the domain adaptation ability of the model. The proposed model addresses the problem that currently, the accuracy of CNN applied to fault diagnosis is not very high. WDCNN can not only achieve 100% classification accuracy on normal signals, but also outperform state of the art DNN model which is based on frequency features under different working load and noisy environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0164.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: intelligent fault diagnosis; bearing; anti-noise; one-dimensional convolution neural network
Online: 6 August 2020 (11:42:44 CEST)
In recent years, intelligent fault diagnosis algorithms using deep learning method have achieved much success. However, the signals collected by sensors contain a lot of noise, which will have a great impact on the accuracy of the diagnostic model. To address this problem, we propose a one-dimensional convolutional neural network with multi-scale kernels (MSK-1DCNN) and apply this method to bearing fault diagnosis. We use a multi-scale convolution structure to extract different fault features in the original signal, and use the ELU activation function instead of the ReLU function in the multi-scale convolution structure to improve the anti-noise ability of MSK-1DCNN; then we use the training set with pepper noise to train the network to suppress overfitting. We use the Western Reserve University bearing data to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm and compare it with other fault diagnosis algorithms. Experimental results show that the improvements we proposed have effectively improved the diagnosis performers of MSK-1DCNN under strong noise and the diagnosis accuracy is higher than other comparison algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0274.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: big data; deep learning; intelligent systems; medical imaging; multi-data processing
Online: 16 May 2020 (17:43:42 CEST)
Big Data in medicine includes possibly fast processing of large data sets, both current and historical in purpose supporting the diagnosis and therapy of patients' diseases. Support systems for these activities may include pre-programmed rules based on data obtained from the interview medical and automatic analysis of test results diagnostic results will lead to classification of observations to a specific disease entity. The current revolution using Big Data significantly expands the role of computer science in achieving these goals, which is why we propose a Big Data computer data processing system using artificial intelligence to analyze and process medical images.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0115.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: cognitive radios; Collaborative Intelligent Radio Networks; spectrum sharing; coexistence; experimental evaluation
Online: 10 October 2019 (09:37:08 CEST)
DARPA, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency from the United States, has started the Spectrum Collaboration Challenge with the aim to encourage research and development of coexistence and collaboration techniques of heterogeneous networks in the same wireless spectrum bands. Team SCATTER has been participating in the challenge since its beginning, back in 2016. SCATTER’s open-source software-defined physical layer (SCATTER PHY) has been developed as a standalone application, with the ability to communicate with higher layers of SCATTER’s system via ZeroMQ, and uses USRP X310 software-defined radio devices to send and receive wireless signals. SCATTER PHY relies on USRP’s ability to schedule timed commands, uses both physical interfaces of the radio devices, utilizes the radio’s internal FPGA board to implement custom high-performance filtering blocks in order to increase its spectral efficiency as well as enable reliable usage of neighboring spectrum bands. This paper describes the design and main features of SCATTER PHY and showcases the experiments performed to verify the achieved benefits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0218.v2
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: driverless buses, autonomous vehicles, intelligent transportation, legal issues of autonomous driving
Online: 1 August 2018 (13:45:25 CEST)
Urban transportation in the next few decades will shift worldwide towards electrification and automation, with the final aim of increasing energy efficiency and safety for passengers. Such a big change requires strong collaboration and efforts among public administration, research and stakeholders in developing, testing and promoting these technologies in the public transportation. Working in this direction, in the present work the impact of the introduction of driverless electric minibuses, for the first and last mile transportation, in the public service is studied. More specifically, this paper covers a state of the art in terms of technological background for automation, energy efficiency via electrification, and the current state of the legal framework in Europe with focus on the Baltic Sea Region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0130.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: intelligent robotics; flexibility; reusability; multisensor; state machine; software architecture; computer vision
Online: 20 April 2017 (04:14:33 CEST)
This paper presents a state machine based architecture which enhances flexibility and reusability of industrial robots, more concretely dual-arm multisensor robots. The proposed architecture, in addition to allowing absolute control of the execution, eases the programming of new applications by increasing the reusability of the developed modules. Through an easy-to-use graphical user interface, operators are able to create, modify, reuse and maintain industrial processes increasing the flexibility of the cell. Moreover, the proposed approach is applied in a real use case in order to demonstrate its capabilities and feasibility in industrial environments. A comparative analysis is presented for evaluating presented approach versus traditional robot programming techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0134.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: deep neural networks; artificial intelligence; intelligent computation; orthogonal transformation; entropy; Carnot cycle
Online: 10 May 2022 (10:05:26 CEST)
Deep neural networks (DNNs), founded on the brain's neuronal organization, can extract higher-level features from raw input. However, complex intellect via autonomous decision-making is way beyond current AI design. Here we propose an autonomous AI inspired by the thermodynamic cycle of sensory perception, operating between two information density reservoirs. Stimulus unbalances the high entropy resting state and triggers a thermodynamic cycle. By recovering the initial conditions, self-regulation generates a response while accumulating an orthogonal, holographic potential. The resulting high-density manifold is a stable memory and experience field, which increases future freedom of action via intelligent decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0241.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: deep learning; ensemble learning; intelligent detection and diagnosis; multi-classification; preventive measures
Online: 4 May 2022 (12:50:40 CEST)
An electrocardiograph (ECG) reflects the health of the human heart and is used to help diagnose arrhythmia and myocardial infarction(MI) in clinical practice. Early diagnosis of arrhythmia helps implement preventive measures and plays a crucial role in saving a patient's life. With the increasing demand of clinicians for ECG analysis technology, intelligent detection and diagnosis of ECG signals has become a more efficient means to assist physicians in diagnosing cardiovascular diseases. This paper introduces an ECG diagnosis approach based on an ensemble deep learning combination of CNN(convolutional neural network) and SLAP(stacked-long short term memory architecture for prediction) architecture. ECG data is denoised and further divided into single heartbeats to achieve data standardization and sample diversity. Adam optimizer and BCEwithlogitsloss multi-classification loss function were used to enhance the model effect, and the system achieved the classification effect of 99.3% average accuracy, 99.0% F1-value, and 99.2% sensitivity in MIT-BIH standard database classification. It also shows good generalization ability on the Tianchi data set.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0251.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Large intelligent surfaces; 6G; bit error probability; Nakagami fading; Von Mises distribution
Online: 11 August 2021 (10:52:46 CEST)
In this work, we derive the spectral efficiency, secrecy outage probability, and bit error rate of a communication system assisted by a large intelligent surface (LIS). We consider a single-antenna user and an array of antennas at the transmitter side and the possibility of a direct link between transmitter and receiver. Additionally, there is a single-antenna eavesdropper with a direct link to the transmitter, which is modeled as a Nakagami-m distributed fading coefficient. The channels from transmitter to the LIS and from the LIS to the user may or may not have the line-of-sight (LoS) and are modeled by the Nakagami- m distribution. Moreover, we assume that the LIS elements perform non-ideal phase cancellation leading to a residual phase error that assumes a Von Mises distribution. We show that the resulting channel can be accurately approximated by a Gamma distribution whose parameters are analytically estimated using the moments of the equivalent signal-to-noise ratio. We also provide an upper bound for the error probability for M-QAM modulations. With the derived formulas, we analyze the effect of the strength of the LoS link by varying the Nakagami parameter, m.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0080.v1
Subject: Keywords: intelligent city; smart city; ecosystem; city planning; urban project; city smartness; innovation
Online: 3 August 2021 (13:12:25 CEST)
Intelligent cities or smart cities evolve bottom-up along with the digitisation and the creation of digital entities linked to human activities, physical space, and institutional settings of cities; but also, they progress top-down through smart city strategies and projects designed and implemented by public authorities. Yet, thirty-five years since the first use of the term “smart city” or “intelligent city” in the second half of the 1980s, and more than ten years of intense publications in this field, since 2009, there is still a great deal of fuzziness about the projects that make cities intelligent or smart. There is low awareness about the big differences between large, complex urban projects, such as ‘Zero Energy Districts’ or “Mobility-as-a-Service” and projects for automation of city infrastructures, such as smart city lighting, smart metering or finding a parking place. There is a widespread misconception that city intelligence or smartness, the core attribute of smart cities, can be achieved through automation of the city infrastructure. This paper focuses on projects that make cities intelligent or smart. Our intention is to show the complexity and effort needed to achieve this objective. It is an inquiry on projects and data from a large number of smart cities around the world. We analyse core properties of smart city projects, such as (a) interventions on the physical, social, and digital space of cities, (b) the relation to city sectors and ecosystems, (c) engagement of users and stakeholders in decision-making, and (c) impact through optimisation and innovation of city processes and routines. We discuss also projects we have designed and implemented in the framework of URENIO Research and ITI-CERTH. Our conclusions are two-fold. First, we propose a typology of smart city projects along 3 axes and 9 properties. Second, we argue that success and failure to achieve city smartness are mainly institutional. Most barriers to implementation are organisational, legal, and institutional. This can be explained by the social and institutional inertia of the urban system against new solutions, especially when innovation and radical change of existing routines take place. Change management should be a permanent companion of smart city projects implementation, and the modification of routines should be clearly defined and considered already at the design phase of projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0392.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: power converter; fault diagnosis; intelligent algorithm; variational mode decomposition; deep belief network
Online: 26 February 2020 (11:25:27 CET)
The power converter is the significant device in a wind power system. Wind turbine will be shut down and off grid immediately with the occurrence of the IGBT module open-circuit fault of power converter, which will seriously impact the stability of grid and even threaten personal safety. However, in the existing diagnosis strategies of power converter, there are few single and double IGBT modules open-circuit fault diagnosis methods producing negative results including erroneous judgment, omissive judgment and low accuracy. In this paper, a novel method to diagnose the single and double IGBT modules open-circuit faults of the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind turbine grid-side converter (GSC) is proposed. Above all, collecting the three-phase current varying with wind speed of 22 failure states including a normal state of PMSG wind turbine GSC as the original signal data. Afterward, the original signal data are decomposed by using variational mode decomposition (VMD) to obtain the mode coefficient series, which are analyzed by the proposed method base on fault trend feature for extracting the trend feature vectors. Finally, the trend feature vectors are used as the input of deep belief network (DBN) for decision-making and obtaining the classification results. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can diagnose the single and double IGBT modules open-circuit faults of GSC, and the accuracy is higher than the benchmark models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0282.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: intelligent tractor; vision navigation; improved anti-noise morphology; boundary line; Guided Filtering
Online: 27 August 2019 (10:37:59 CEST)
An improved anti-noise morphology vision navigation algorithm is proposed for intelligent tractor tillage in a complex agricultural field environment. At first the two key steps, Guided Filtering and improved anti-noise morphology navigation line extraction were addressed in detail. Then the experiments were carried out in order to verify the effectiveness and advancement of the presented algorithm. Finally, the optimal template and it’s application condition were studied for improving the image processing speed. The comparison experiment results show that the YCbCr color space has minimum time consumption of 0.094 s in comparison with HSV, HIS and 2R-G-B color spaces. The Guided Filtering method can effectively distinguish the boundary between the new and old soil than other competing vanilla methods such as Tarel, Multi-scale Retinex, Wavelet-based Retinex and Homomorphic Filtering inspite of having the fastest processing speed of 0.113 s. The extracted soil boundary line of the improved anti-noise morphology algorithm has best precision and speed compared with other operators such as Sobel, Roberts, Prewitt and Log. After comparing different size of image template, the optimal template with the size of 140×260 pixels can meet high precision vision navigation while the course deviation angle is not more than 7.5°. The maximum tractor speed of the optimal template and global template are 51.41 km/h and 27.47 km/h respectively which can meet real-time vision navigation requirement of the smart tractor tillage operation in the field. The experimental vision navigation results demonstrated the feasibility of the autonomous vision navigation for tractor tillage operation in the field using the new and old soil boundary line extracted by the proposed improved anti-noise morphology algorithm which has broad application prospect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0248.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: intelligent tractor; vision navigation; improved anti-noise morphology; boundary line; Guided Filtering
Online: 23 July 2019 (04:27:44 CEST)
An improved anti-noise morphology vision navigation algorithm is proposed for intelligent tractor tillage in a complex agricultural field environment. Firstly, the two key steps, Guided Filtering and improved anti-noise morphology navigation line extraction, were addressed in detail. Then the experiments were carried out in order to verify the effectiveness and advancement of the presented algorithm. Finally, the optimal template and its application condition were studied for improving the image processing speed. The comparison experiment results show that the YCbCr color space has minimum time consumption, 0.094 s, compared with HSV, HIS and 2R-G-B color spaces. The Guided Filtering method can enhance the new & old soil boundary effectively than any other methods such as Tarel, Multi-scale Retinex, Wavelet-based Retinex and Homomorphic Filtering, meanwhile, has the fastest processing speed of 0.113 s. The extracted soil boundary line of the improved anti-noise morphology algorithm has best precision and speed compared with other operators such as Sobel, Roberts, Prewitt and Log. After comparing different size of image template, the optimal template with the size of 140×260 pixels can meet high precision vision navigation while the course deviation angle is not more than 7.5°. The maximum tractor speed of the optimal template and global template are 51.41 km/h and 27.47 km/h respectively which can meet real-time vision navigation requirement of the smart tractor tillage operation in the field. The experimental vision navigation results demonstrated the feasibility of the autonomous vision navigation for tractor tillage operation in the field using the new & old soil boundary line extracted by the proposed improved anti-noise morphology algorithm which has broad application prospect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0130.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: SHM; Electromechanical Impedance; Piezoelectricity; Intelligent Fault Diagnosis; Machine Learning; CNN; Deep Learning
Online: 6 August 2018 (21:51:53 CEST)
Preliminaries Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) applications have recently emerged in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems focusing mostly on vibration analysis. However, the SHM literature shows clearly that there is a lack of application regarding the combination of PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate) based method and CNN. Likewise, applications using CNN along with the Electromechanical Impedance (EMI) technique applied to SHM systems are rare. To encourage this combination, an innovative SHM solution through the combination of the EMI-PZT and CNN is presented here. To accomplish this, the EMI signature is split into several parts followed by computing the Euclidean distances among them to form a RGB (red, green and blue) frame. As a result, we introduce a dataset formed from the EMI-PZT signals of 720 frames, encompassing a total of 4 types of structural conditions for each PZT. In a case study, the CNN-based method was experimentally evaluated using three PZTs glued onto an aluminum plate. The results reveal an effective pattern classification; yielding a 100% hit rate which outperforms other SHM approaches. Furthermore, the method needs only a small dataset for training the CNN, providing several advantages for industrial applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0452.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: intelligent reflecting surface; low Earth orbit satellite; graph attention networks; unsupervised learning; beamforming
Online: 31 January 2022 (11:47:07 CET)
Satellite communication is expected to play a vital role in realizing Internet of Remote Things (IoRT) applications. This article considers an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS)-assisted downlink low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite communication network, where IRS provides additional reflective links to enhance the intended signal power. We aim to maximize the sum-rate of all the terrestrial users by jointly optimizing the satellite’s precoding matrix and IRS’s phase shifts. However, it is difficult to directly acquire the instantaneous channel state information (CSI) and optimal phase shifts of IRS due to the high mobility of LEO and the passive nature of reflective elements. Moreover, most conventional solution algorithms suffer from high computational complexity and are not applicable to these dynamic scenarios. A robust beamforming design based on graph attention networks (RBF-GAT) is proposed to establish a direct mapping from the received pilots and dynamic network topology to the satellite and IRS’s beamforming, which is trained offline using the unsupervised learning approach. The simulation results corroborate that the proposed RBF-GAT can achieve approximate performance compared to the upper bound with low complexity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0725.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: traffic monitoring; intelligent transportation systems; traffic queues; vehicle counts; artificial intelligence; deep learning
Online: 30 September 2020 (08:08:38 CEST)
Manual traffic surveillance can be a daunting task as Traffic Management Centers operate a myriad of cameras installed over a network. Injecting some level of automation could help lighten the workload of human operators performing manual surveillance and facilitate making proactive decisions which would reduce the impact of incidents and recurring congestion on roadways. This article presents a novel approach to automatically monitor real time traffic footage using deep convolutional neural networks and a stand-alone graphical user interface. The authors describe the results of research received in the process of developing models that serve as an integrated framework for an artificial intelligence enabled traffic monitoring system. The proposed system deploys several state-of-the-art deep learning algorithms to automate different traffic monitoring needs. Taking advantage of a large database of annotated video surveillance data, deep learning-based models are trained to detect queues, track stationary vehicles, and tabulate vehicle counts. A pixel-level segmentation approach is applied to detect traffic queues and predict severity. Real-time object detection algorithms coupled with different tracking systems are deployed to automatically detect stranded vehicles as well as perform vehicular counts. At each stages of development, interesting experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system. Overall, the results demonstrate that the proposed framework performs satisfactorily under varied conditions without being immensely impacted by environmental hazards such as blurry camera views, low illumination, rain, or snow.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: cognitive internet of vehicles; automotive; transportation; industrial revolution 4.0; security; intelligent transportation system
Online: 29 November 2019 (06:50:28 CET)
Over the past few years, we have experienced great technological advancements in the information and communication field, which has significantly contributed to reshaping the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) concept. Evolving from the platform of a collection of sensors aiming to collect data, the data exchanged paradigm among vehicles is shifted from the local network to the cloud. With the introduction of cloud and edge computing along with ubiquitous 5G mobile network, it is expected to see the role of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in data processing and smart decision imminent. So as to fully understand the future automobile scenario in this verge of industrial revolution 4.0, it is necessary first of all to get a clear understanding of the cutting-edge technologies that going to take place in the automotive ecosystem so that the cyber-physical impact on transportation system can be measured. CIoV, which is abbreviated from Cognitive Internet of Vehicle, is one of the recently proposed architectures of the technological evolution in transportation, and it has amassed great attention. It introduces cloud-based artificial intelligence and machine learning into transportation system. What are the future expectations of CIoV? To fully contemplate this architecture’s future potentials, and milestones set to achieve, it is crucial to understand all the technologies that leaned into it. Also, the security issues to meet the security requirements of its practical implementation. Aiming to that, this paper presents the evolution of CIoV along with the layer abstractions to outline the distinctive functional parts of the proposed architecture. It also gives an investigation of the prime security and privacy issues associated with technological evolution to take measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0049.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: intelligent driving vehicle; trajectory planning; end-to-end; deep reinforcement learning; model transfer
Online: 2 August 2018 (13:06:39 CEST)
Aiming at the problem of model error and tracking dependence in the process of intelligent vehicle motion planning, an intelligent vehicle model transfer trajectory planning method based on deep reinforcement learning is proposed, which obtain an effective control action sequence directly. Firstly, an abstract model of the real environment is extracted. On this basis, Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (DDPG) and vehicle dynamic model are adopted to jointly train a reinforcement learning model, and to decide the optimal intelligent driving maneuver. Secondly, the actual scene is transferred to equivalent virtual abstract scene by transfer model, furthermore, the control action and trajectory sequences are calculated according to trained deep reinforcement learning model. Thirdly, the optimal trajectory sequence is selected according to evaluation function in the real environment. Finally, the results demonstrate that the proposed method can deal with the problem of intelligent vehicle trajectory planning for continuous input and continuous output. The model transfer method improves the model generalization performance. Compared with the traditional trajectory planning, the proposed method output continuous rotation angle control sequence, meanwhile, the lateral control error is also reduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0042.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: ambient intelligence; ACL; bluetooth; delay, empirical model; intelligent environment; latency; multi-hop; scatternet
Online: 7 April 2017 (04:32:44 CEST)
Intelligent systems are driven by the latest technological advances in so different areas as sensing, embedded systems, wireless communications or context recognition. This paper focuses on some of those areas. Concretely, the paper deals with wireless communications issues on embedded systems. More precisely, the paper combines the multi-hop networking with Bluetooth technology and a quality of service (QoS) metric, the latency. Bluetooth is a radio license free worldwide communication standard that makes low power multi-hop wireless networking available. It establishes piconets (point-to-point and point-to-multipoint links) and scatternets (multi-hop networks). As a result, many Bluetooth nodes can be interconnected to set up ambient intelligent networks. Then, this paper presents the results of the investigation on multi-hop latency with park and sniff Bluetooth low power modes conducted over the hardware test bench previously implemented. In addition, the empirical models to estimate the latency of multi-hop communications over Bluetooth Asynchronous Connectionless Links (ACL) in park and sniff mode are given. The designers of devices and networks for intelligent systems will benefit from the estimation of the latency in Bluetooth multi-hop communications that the models provide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0112.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Road-network matching; matching precision; matching recall; network Voronoi area diagram; intelligent transportation systems.
Online: 7 December 2021 (23:44:09 CET)
A road network represents road objects in a given geographic area and their interconnections, and is an essential component of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) enabling emerging new applications such as dynamic route guidance, driving assistance systems, and autonomous driving. As the digitization of geospatial information becomes prevalent, a number of road networks with a wide variety of characteristics coexist. In this paper, we present an area partitioning approach to the conflation of two road networks with a large difference in level of details. Our approach first partitions the geographic area by the Network Voronoi Area Diagram (NVAD) of low-detailed road network. Next, a subgraph of high-detailed road network corresponding to a complex intersection is extracted and then aggregated into a supernode so that a high matching precision can be achieved via 1:1 node matching. To improve the matching recall, we also present a few schemes that address the problem of missing corresponding object and representation dissimilarity between these road networks. Numerical results at Yeouido, Korea's autonomous vehicle testing site, show that our area partitioning approach can significantly improve the performance of road network matching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0143.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: field of professional activity; parsing; educational content; professional requirements; ontology; content markup; intelligent analysis
Online: 8 October 2021 (13:24:14 CEST)
The article explores the task of making higher education more profession-oriented. In this context, we consider the technology of structuring and matching professional activities and content of professional education curricula with the help of ontology. This technology employs intelligent analysis of labor market and educational content matching with the aim to organize educational programs and verify professional competences based on their ontological properties. The article also considers development of a professional training cognitive map that can help design the student’s personalized educational trajectory factoring in the given parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0276.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Artificial Intelligent algorithms; Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP); Prediction methods; unsupervised learning; Biological neural networks
Online: 10 March 2021 (11:07:15 CET)
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a versatile term that is a conclusive remedy to solve the problem using past rational data after deep contemplation using these terms i-e basic statistics, carving data, familiarity with common AI algorithms. Seafood especially tiger prawn export as a busi-ness will provide enormous foreign exchange to any country if the farmers overcome the corre-lated vulnerabilities in prawn farming. This research is elucidating lacking in Tiger prawn (TP) farming like curbing of Oxygen, pH, water temperature, and nutrients, etc. Moreover, hatchery statistics in terms of juveniles will depict this study's clear picture of curbed aquaculture. For normative decisions, the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) is used. The problem which has been faced by local prawn farmers that there is a stagnant TP growth in ponds, the reason is the predominant sensitivity factor in TP. For this reason, they need indemnification of thirteen fac-tors with natural resources to get the plausible results to get calmness in their lives. This study will solely focus on the TP growth model, and the monitoring effect will be established by the Artificial Intelligence algorithm. This study will employ the AHP, 0-1 scaling method, data cura-tion techniques, and ecological statistics. The life of Tiger Prawn (TP) depends upon these factors mainly, a) Physical and b) Chemical parameters. Physical parameters contain environment (E) provided to TP like season (S) and temperature (T) etc. whereas the quality of Ammonia NH3 (N) from fish waste, Oxygen level (O), and water quality hard & soft (W) lies in chemicals do-main. This research will Elucidate the factors which cause conceptual muddles in the aquamarine life of TP, for this reason, Statistical tools will assess the current result, forecast the gap. AHP will analyze the domain inputs, circumspect ramification which will depict visceral factors, later results depict which pond suits the TP. In curtail, these factors will be curbed to improve the growth of TP in a control conditioned environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0318.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Large intelligent surfaces; massive MIMO systems; maximum ratio transmission; Von Mises distribution; Rayleigh fading
Online: 15 October 2020 (11:29:14 CEST)
Large intelligent surfaces (LIS) promises not only to improve the signal to noise ratio, and spectral efficiency but also to reduce the energy consumption during the transmission. We consider a base station equipped with an antenna array using the maximum ratio transmission (MRT), and a large reflector array sending signals to a single user. Each subchannel is affected by the Rayleigh flat fading, and the reflecting elements perform non-perfect phase correction which introduces a Von Mises distributed phase error. Based on the central limit theorem (CLT), we conclude that the overall channel has an equivalent Gamma fading whose parameters are derived from the moments of the channel fading between the antenna array and LIS, and also from the LIS to the single user. Assuming that the equivalent channel can be modeled as a Gamma distribution, we propose very accurate closed-form expressions for the bit error probability and a very tight upper bound. For the case where the LIS is not able to perform perfect phase cancellation, that is, under phase errors, it is possible to analyze the system performance considering the analytical approximations and the simulated results obtained using the well known Monte Carlo method. The analytical expressions for the parameters of the Gamma distribution are very difficult to be obtained due to the complexity of the nonlinear transformations of random variables with non-zero mean and correlated terms. Even with perfect phase cancellation, all the fading coefficients are complex due to the link between the user and the base station that is not neglected in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0212.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: online learning; machine prognostics; sensor systems; signal processing; damage propagation; predictive maintenance; intelligent sensing
Online: 18 October 2019 (11:29:49 CEST)
We analyze damage propagation modeling of turbo-engines in a data-driven approach. We investigate subspace tracking assuming a low dimensional manifold structure and a static behavior during the healthy state of the machines. Our damage propagation model is based on the deviation of the data from the static behavior and uses the notion of health index as a measure of the condition. Hence, we incorporate condition-based maintenance and estimate the remaining useful life based on the current and previous health indexes. This paper proposes an algorithm that adapts well to the dynamics of the data and underlying system, and reduces the computational complexity by utilizing the low dimensional manifold structure of the data. A significant performance improvement is demonstrated over existing methods by using the proposed algorithm on CMAPSS Turbo-engine datasets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0052.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: sensor; intelligent logistics; subliminal channel; BAN logic; mutual authentication; anti-switch package; package tracing
Online: 7 January 2019 (10:15:51 CET)
As e-commerce services and Internet technology have rapidly developed in recent years, many services and applications integrating these technologies can now be completed online. These commercial activities include online auctions, online ticketing and online payments. The client shops from the store online, andthe store delivers the goods to the client. The goods can be divided into digital products without entities, as well as actual entities. If it is a physical product, the store will deliver the package to the client through itslogistics. However, there have been many cases of switched goods purchased by clients in recent years. Earlier, some scholars proposed a security mechanism with a subliminal channel for E-cash and digital content. Only the sender and the receiver would know that the secret information was hidden in the signature. So the privacy of this subliminal message couldbe ensured. We apply this concept to the logistics environment to design secure logistics architecture with subliminal messages. The client can check the subliminal message of the received package, and know whether the package has been switched by malicious people. In addition, the proposed scheme also applies sensor technology;the client can check the GPS location, the temperature and humidity at any time during the delivery process. So intelligent logisticswouldthereby be achieved. This paper proposes an intelligent and secure package sensoring logistics system based on a subliminal channel. The proposed architecture uses the related mechanisms tosolve the problems of a logistics system, including how to achieve mutual authentication, data integrity, anti-switch package, package location and status tracing, resisting replay attacks, forward and backward secrecy, and non-repudiation issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0601.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: support vector machine; travelling time; intelligent transportation system; artificial fish swarm algorithm; big data
Online: 25 October 2018 (10:48:45 CEST)
Freeway travelling time is affected by many factors including traffic volume, adverse weather, accident, traffic control and so on. We employ the multiple source data-mining method to analyze freeway travelling time. We collected toll data, weather data, traffic accident disposal logs and other historical data of freeway G5513 in Hunan province, China. Using Support Vector Machine (SVM), we proposed the travelling time model based on these databases. The new SVM model can simulate the nonlinear relationship between travelling time and those factors. In order to improve the precision of the SVM model, we applied Artificial Fish Swarm algorithm to optimize the SVM model parameters, which include the kernel parameter σ, non-sensitive loss function parameter ε, and penalty parameter C. We compared the new optimized SVM model with Back Propagation (BP) neural network and common SVM model, using the historical data collected from freeway G5513. The results show that the accuracy of the optimized SVM model is 17.27% and 16.44% higher than those of the BP neural network model and the common SVM model respectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0441.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Artificial & Biological Intelligence; Complex Coevolutionary Systems Engineering; Sustainability; Multi-Objective Optimization; Sustainable Universal Intelligent Agents
Online: 23 August 2021 (13:23:42 CEST)
The strong couplings among ecological, economic, social and technological processes explains the complexification of human-made systems, and phenomena such as globalization, climate change, the increased urbanization and inequality of human societies, the power of information, and the COVID-19 syndemics. Among complexification’s essential features are non-decomposability, asynchronous behavior, components with many degrees of freedom, increased likelihood of catastrophic events, irreversibility, nonlinear phase spaces with immense combinatorial sizes, and the impossibility of long-term, detailed prediction. Sustainability for complex systems implies enough efficiency to explore and exploit their dynamic phase spaces and enough flexibility to coevolve with their environments. This in turn means solving intractable nonlinear semi-structured dynamic multi-objective optimization problems, with conflicting, incommensurable, non-cooperative objectives and purposes, under dynamic uncertainty, restricted access to materials, energy and information, and a given time horizon, aiming at enhancing the co-evolutionary power of the Biosphere and its human subsystems. Giving the high-stakes, the need for effective, efficient, diverse solutions, their local-global, present-future effects, and their unforeseen short, medium and long-term impacts, achieving sustainable complex systems implies the need for Sustainability-designed Universal Intelligent Agents, harnessing the strong functional coupling between human, artificial and nonhuman biological intelligence in a no-zero-sum game to achieve sustainability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0060.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: deep learning; artificial neural network; artificial intelligence; discriminative learning; generative learning; hybrid learning; intelligent systems;
Online: 2 August 2021 (17:33:48 CEST)
Deep learning (DL), a branch of machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) is nowadays considered as a core technology of today's Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR or Industry 4.0). Due to its learning capabilities from data, DL technology originated from artificial neural network (ANN), has become a hot topic in the context of computing, and is widely applied in various application areas like healthcare, visual recognition, cybersecurity, and many more. However, building an appropriate DL model is a challenging task, due to the dynamic nature and variations in real-world problems and data. Moreover, the lack of core understanding turns DL methods into black-box machines that hamper development at the standard level. This article presents a structured and comprehensive view on DL techniques including a taxonomy considering various types of real-world tasks like supervised or unsupervised. In our taxonomy, we take into account deep networks for supervised or discriminative learning, unsupervised or generative learning as well as hybrid learning and relevant others. We also summarize real-world application areas where deep learning techniques can be used. Finally, we point out ten potential aspects for future generation DL modeling with research directions. Overall, this article aims to draw a big picture on DL modeling that can be used as a reference guide for both academia and industry professionals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0518.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: smart cities; health crisis; COVID-19; pandemics; intelligent ecosystems; connected intelligence; environmental sustainability; climate change
Online: 23 February 2021 (14:18:15 CET)
Fundamental principles of modern cities and urban planning are challenged during the COVID-19 pandemic, such as the advantages of large city size, high density, mass transport, free use of public space, unrestricted individual mobility in cities. These principles shaped the development of cities and metropolitan areas for more than a century, but currently, there are signs that they have turned from advantage to liability. Cities Public authorities and private organisations responded to the COVID-19 crisis with a variety of policies and business practices. These countermeasures codify a valuable experience and can offer lessons about how cities can tackle another grand challenge, this of climate change. Do the measures taken during the COVID-19 crisis represent a temporal adjustment to the current health crisis? Or do they open new ways towards a new type of urban development more effective in times of environmental and health crises? We address these questions through literature review and three case studies that review policies and practices for the transformation of city ecosystems mostly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic: (a) the central business district, (b) the transport ecosystem, and (c) the tourism-hospitality ecosystem. We assess whether the measures implemented in these ecosystems shape new policy and planning models for higher readiness of cities towards grand challenges. And how, based on this experience, cities should be organized to tackle the grand challenge of environmental sustainability and climate change.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0217.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Intelligent Load Forecasting; Demand-Side Management; Pattern Similarity; Hierarchical Forecasting; Feature Selection; Weather Station Selection
Online: 18 December 2018 (10:38:10 CET)
Electricity demand forecasting has been a real challenge for power system scheduling in the different levels of the energy sectors. Various computational intelligence techniques and methodologies have been employed in the electricity market for load forecasting; although, scant evidence is available about the feasibility of each of these methods considering the type of data and other potential factors. This work introduces several scientific, technical rationale behind intelligent forecasting methods, based on the work of previous researchers in the field of energy. The fundamental benefits and main drawbacks of the aforementioned methods are discussed in order to depict the efficiency of each approach in various situations. In the end, a proposed hybrid strategy is represented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0017.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Next Generation Wireless Networks; Cognitive Radios; Collaborative Intelligent Radio Networks; Spectrum Sharing; Coexistence; Experimental Evaluation
Online: 15 October 2018 (12:15:23 CEST)
The explosive emergence of wireless technologies and standards, covering licensed and unlicensed spectrum bands has triggered the appearance of a huge amount of wireless technologies, with many of them coexisting in the same band. Unfortunately, the wireless spectrum is a scarce resource, and the available frequency bands will not scale with the foreseen demand for new capacity. Certain parts of the spectrum, in particular the license-free ISM bands, are overcrowded, while other parts, mostly licensed bands, may be significantly underutilized. As such, there is a need to introduce more advanced techniques to access and share the wireless medium, either to improve the coordination within a given band, or to explore the possibilities of intelligently using unused spectrum in underutilized (e.g., licensed) bands. Therefore, in this paper, we present an open source SDR-based framework that can be employed to devise disruptive techniques to optimize the sub-optimal use of radio spectrum that exists today. Additionally, we describe three use cases where the proposed framework can be employed along with intelligent algorithms to achieve improved spectrum utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0227.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: real-time intelligent monitoring; zigbee protocol; Internet of Things (IoT); office security system; security-threats
Online: 13 July 2018 (05:25:50 CEST)
Internet of Things (IoT) opens new horizons by enabling automated procedures without human interaction using IP connectivity. IoT deals with devices, called things which are represented as any item from our daily life that is enhanced with computing or communication facilities. Among various mobile communications, Zigbee communication is broadly used in controlling or monitoring applications due to its low data rate and low power consumption. Securing IoT systems have been the main concern for the research community. In this paper, different security-threats of Zigbee networks in IoT platform have been addressed to predict the potential security threats of Zigbee protocol and a Security Improvement Framework (SIF) has been designed for intelligent monitoring in an office environment. Our proposed SIF can predict and protect various potential malicious attacks in the Zigbee network and respond accordingly through a notification to the system administrator. This framework (SIF) is designed to make automated decisions immediately based on real-time data which are defined by the system administrator. Finally, the designed SIF has been implemented in an office security system as a case study for real-time monitoring. This office security system is evaluated based on the capacity of detecting potential security attacks. The evaluation results show that the proposed SIF is capable of detecting and protecting several potential security attacks efficiently enabling more secure way of intelligent monitoring.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0160.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI); Distributed Energy Resources (DER); Distribution Management System (DMS); Graph Reduction In Parallel (GRIP); Intelligent Electronic Device (IED); Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI); Service Oriented Architecture (SOA); Ultra Large Scale System (ULSS)
Online: 19 March 2018 (11:42:42 CET)
Smart grid software interconnects multiple Engineering disciplines (power systems, communication, software and hardware technology, instrumentation, big data, etc.). The software architecture is an evolving concept in smart grid systems in which systematic architecture development is a challenging process. The architecture has to realize the complex legacy power grid systems and cope up with current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). The distributed generation in smart grid environment expects the software architecture to be distributed and to enable local control. Smart grid architecture should also be modular, flexible and adaptable to technology upgrades. In this paper, the authors have made a comprehensive review on architecture for smart grids. An in depth analysis of layered and agent based architectures is presented and compared under various domains.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0032.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: cybersecurity; machine learning; deep learning; artificial intelligence; data-driven decision making; automation; cyber analytics; intelligent systems;
Online: 2 September 2022 (03:32:48 CEST)
Due to the digitization and Internet of Things revolutions, the present electronic world has a wealth of cybersecurity data. Efficiently resolving cyber anomalies and attacks is becoming a growing concern in today's cyber security industry all over the world. Traditional security solutions are insufficient to address contemporary security issues due to the rapid proliferation of many sorts of cyber-attacks and threats. Utilizing artificial intelligence knowledge, especially machine learning technology, is essential to providing a dynamically enhanced, automated, and up-to-date security system through analyzing security data. In this paper, we provide an extensive view of machine learning algorithms, emphasizing how they can be employed for intelligent data analysis and automation in cybersecurity through their potential to extract valuable insights from cyber data. We also explore a number of potential real-world use cases where data-driven intelligence, automation, and decision-making enable next-generation cyber protection that is more proactive than traditional approaches. The future prospects of machine learning in cybersecurity are eventually emphasized based on our study, along with relevant research directions. Overall, our goal is to explore not only the current state of machine learning and relevant methodologies but also their applicability for future cybersecurity breakthroughs.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0044.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Smart cities; data science; machine learning; Internet of Things; data-driven decision making; intelligent services; cybersecurity
Online: 6 April 2022 (11:35:15 CEST)
Cities are undergoing huge shifts in technology and operations in recent days, and `data science' is driving the change in the current age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0 or 4IR). Extracting insights or actionable knowledge from city data and building a corresponding data-driven model is the key to making a city system automated and intelligent. Data science is typically the study and analysis of actual happenings with historical data using a variety of scientific methodology, machine learning techniques, processes, and systems. In this paper, we concentrate on and explore ``Smart City Data Science", where city data collected from various sources like sensors and Internet-connected devices, is being mined for insights and hidden correlations to enhance decision-making processes and deliver better and more intelligent services to citizens. To achieve this goal, various machine learning analytical modeling can be employed to provide deeper knowledge about city data, which makes the computing process more actionable and intelligent in various real-world services of today's cities. Finally, we identify and highlight ten open research issues for future development and research in the context of data-driven smart cities. Overall, we aim to provide an insight into smart city data science conceptualization on a broad scale, which can be used as a reference guide for the researchers, professionals, as well as policy-makers of a country, particularly, from the technological point of view.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0001.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Artificial intelligence; machine learning; data science; advanced analytics; intelligent computing; automation; smart systems; industry 4.0 applications
Online: 1 February 2022 (10:26:21 CET)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a leading technology of the current age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0 or 4IR), with the capability of incorporating human behavior and intelligence into machines or systems. Thus AI-based modeling is the key to building automated, intelligent, and smart systems according to today's needs. To solve real-world issues various types of AI such as analytical, functional, interactive, textual, and visual AI can be applied to enhance the intelligence and capabilities of an application. However, developing an effective AI model is a challenging task due to the dynamic nature and variation in real-world problems and data. In this paper, we present a comprehensive view on "AI-based Modeling" with the principles and capabilities of potential AI techniques that can play an important role in developing intelligent and smart systems in various real-world application areas including business, finance, healthcare, agriculture, smart cities, cybersecurity and many more. We also emphasize and highlight the research issues within the scope of our study. Overall, the goal of this paper is to provide a broad overview of AI-based modeling that can be used as a reference guide by academics and industry people as well as decision-makers in various real-world scenarios and application domains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0564.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Remote sensing data; variable rate irrigation; irrigation management; fuzzy systems; decision support tools; intelligent center pivot
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:03:08 CEST)
Growing agricultural demands for the global population are unlocking the path to developing innovative solutions for efficient water management. Herein, an intelligent variable rate irrigation system (fuzzy-VRI) is proposed for rapid decision-making to achieve optimized irrigation in various delimited zones. The proposed system automatically creates irrigation maps for a center pivot irrigation system for a variable-rate application of water. Primary inputs are spatial imagery on remotely sensed soil moisture (SSM), soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), canopy temperature (CT), and nitrogen content (NI). To eliminate localized issues with soil characteristics, we used the crop nitrogen content map to provide a focused insight on issues related to water shortage. The system relates these inputs to set reference values for the rotation speed controllers and individual openings of each central pivot sprinkler valve. The results showed that the system can detect and characterize the spatial variability of the crop and further, the fuzzy logic solved the uncertainties of an irrigation system and defined a control model for high-precision irrigation. The proposed approach is validated through the comparison between the recommended irrigation and actual irrigation at two field sites, and the results showed that the developed approach gives an accurate estimation of irrigation with a reduction in the volume of irrigated water of up to 27% in some cases. Future research should implement the fuzzy-VRI real-time during field trials in order to quantify its effect on irrigation use, yield, and water use efficiency.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0216.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: machine learning; deep learning; artificial intelligence; data science; data-driven decision making; predictive analytics; intelligent applications;
Online: 8 March 2021 (12:55:59 CET)
In the current age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution ($4IR$ or Industry $4.0$), the digital world has a wealth of data, such as Internet of Things (IoT) data, cybersecurity data, mobile data, business data, social media data, health data, etc. To intelligently analyze these data and develop the corresponding real-world applications, the knowledge of artificial intelligence (AI), particularly, machine learning (ML) is the key. Various types of machine learning algorithms such as supervised, unsupervised, semi-supervised, and reinforcement learning exist in the area. Besides, the deep learning, which is part of a broader family of machine learning methods, can intelligently analyze the data on a large scale. In this paper, we present a comprehensive view on these machine learning algorithms that can be applied to enhance the intelligence and the capabilities of an application. Thus, this study's key contribution is explaining the principles of different machine learning techniques and their applicability in various real-world applications areas, such as cybersecurity, smart cities, healthcare, business, agriculture, and many more. We also highlight the challenges and potential research directions based on our study. Overall, this paper aims to serve as a reference point for not only the application developers but also the decision-makers and researchers in various real-world application areas, particularly from the technical point of view.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0214.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: roundabouts; traffic engineering; rotary priority; spatio-temporal technique; synchronization; protocols; intelligent transport systems; connected vehicles; traffic safety
Online: 10 September 2020 (03:31:57 CEST)
Roundabouts need capacity and safety improvements compatible with manual-driven, not only with autonomous vehicles. The signaling and control of roundabouts must evolve and incorporate current technologies. For that, we approach roundabouts as synchronous switches of vehicles. This paper describes Synchronous Roundabouts with Rotating Priorities, a roundabout control system based on vehicle platoons arriving at the roundabout at speed identical to the roundabout and within the time slot assigned to their entry, avoiding conflicts and stops, thus increasing roundabout capacity and safety. Signaling is visual for human drivers and also wireless for connected and autonomous vehicles. We evaluate analytically and with simulations roundabouts of different radius for several values of the average distance between vehicles. Average delays are 28,7 % lower, with negligible dispersion. The capacity improvements depend on design parameters: in our set is moderate for small roundabouts but goes up to 70-100 % for short distances and medium and large roundabouts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0253.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Offshore Wind power; Operation and maintenance management; Intelligent operation and maintenance robot; Smart wind farm technology; 5g technology
Online: 27 April 2022 (08:57:55 CEST)
With the rapid development of global offshore wind power, the demand for offshore wind power operation and maintenance is also increasing. Wisdomization of offshore wind farms is a practical need to improve the operation level and benefit of offshore wind farms. This paper first introduces the current development situation and characteristics of global offshore wind power, and expounds the current situation and main challenges of offshore wind power operation and maintenance market. Therefore, our paper discusses the innovation of offshore wind power operation and maintenance from the aspects of operation and maintenance management of offshore wind power, monitoring and analysis technology of units, far-reaching wind field monitoring and operation and maintenance risks. Then, combined with information technology and lean management concept, a smart operation and maintenance management platform for wind farms in far-reaching sea areas is built to explore centralized and intelligent operation and maintenance management mode, improve operation and maintenance efficiency of wind farms in far-reaching sea areas, and minimize operation and maintenance costs. Finally, through the research on the characteristics of 5G technology, combined with the practical experience of operation and maintenance, and in view of the characteristics of offshore wind farms, we analyze and propose several typical application scenarios of 5G technology in the intelligent operation and maintenance of offshore wind farms, which provides a new solution for the efficient operation and maintenance of offshore wind farms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0087.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Internet of Things; cyber-attacks; anomalies; machine learning; deep learning; IoT data analytics; intelligent decision-making; security intelligence
Online: 7 March 2022 (02:39:58 CET)
The Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the most widely used technologies today, and it has a significant effect on our lives in a variety of ways, including social, commercial, and economic aspects. In terms of automation, productivity, and comfort for consumers across a wide range of application areas, from education to smart cities, the present and future IoT technologies hold great promise for improving the overall quality of human life. However, cyber-attacks and threats greatly affect smart applications in the environment of IoT. The traditional IoT security techniques are insufficient with the recent security challenges considering the advanced booming of different kinds of attacks and threats. Utilizing artificial intelligence (AI) expertise, especially machine and deep learning solutions, is the key to delivering a dynamically enhanced and up-to-date security system for the next-generation IoT system. Throughout this article, we present a comprehensive picture on IoT security intelligence, which is built on machine and deep learning technologies that extract insights from raw data to intelligently protect IoT devices against a variety of cyber-attacks. Finally, based on our study, we highlight the associated research issues and future directions within the scope of our study. Overall, this article aspires to serve as a reference point and guide, particularly from a technical standpoint, for cybersecurity experts and researchers working in the context of IoT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0343.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: unmanned aircraft (UAV); sensing; intelligent transportation; image fusion; signal alignment; runway detection; image registration; wavelet transform; Hough transform
Online: 16 October 2018 (08:49:55 CEST)
UAV network operation enables gathering and fusion from disparate information sources for flight control in both manned and unmanned platforms. In this investigation, a novel procedure for detecting runways and horizons as well as enhancing surrounding terrain is introduced based on fusion of enhanced vision system (EVS) and synthetic vision system (SVS) images. EVS and SVS image fusion has yet to be implemented real-world situations due to signal misalignment. We address this through a registration step to align the EVS and SVS images. Four fusion rules combining discrete wavelet transform (DWT) sub-bands are formulated, implemented and evaluated. The resulting procedure is tested on real EVS-SVS image pairs and pairs containing simulated turbulence. Evaluations reveal that runways and horizons can be detected accurately even in poor visibility. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that different aspects of the EVS and SVS images can be emphasized by using different DWT fusion rules. The procedure is autonomous throughout landing, irrespective of weather. We believe the fusion architecture developed holds promise for incorporation into head-up displays (HUDs) and UAV remote displays to assist pilots landing aircraft in poor lighting and varying weather. The algorithm also provided a basis rule selection in other signal fusion applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0109.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: power transformer; fault diagnosis and decision; dissolved gas analysis; intelligent algorithms; reliability assessment; hybrid network; preventive electrical tests
Online: 11 April 2018 (08:58:29 CEST)
Compared with conventional methods of fault diagnosis for power transformers, which have defects such as imperfect encoding and too absolute encoding boundaries, this paper systematically discusses various intelligent approaches applied in fault diagnosis and decision making for large oil-immersed power transformers based on dissolved gas analysis (DGA), including expert system (EPS), artificial neural network (ANN), fuzzy theory, rough sets theory (RST), grey system theory (GST), swarm intelligence (SI) algorithms, data mining technology, machine learning (ML), and other intelligent diagnosis tools, and summarizes existing problems and solutions. From this survey, it is found that a single intelligent approach for fault diagnosis can only reflect operation status of the transformer in one particular aspect, causing various degrees of shortcomings that cannot be resolved effectively. Combined with the current research status in this field, the problems that must be addressed in DGA-based transformer fault diagnosis are identified, and the prospects for future development trends and research directions are outlined. This contribution presents a detailed and systematic survey on various intelligent approaches to faults diagnosing and decisions making of the power transformer, in which their merits and demerits are thoroughly investigated, as well as their improvement schemes and future development trends are proposed. Moreover, this paper concludes that a variety of intelligent algorithms should be combined for mutual complementation to form a hybrid fault diagnosis network, such that avoiding these algorithms falling into a local optimum. Moreover, it is necessary to improve the detection instruments so as to acquire reasonable characteristic gas data samples. The research summary, empirical generalization and analysis of predicament in this paper provide some thoughts and suggestions for the research of complex power grid in the new environment, as well as references and guidance for researchers to choose optimal approach to achieve DGA-based fault diagnosis and decision of the large oil-immersed power transformers in preventive electrical tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0546.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Autonomous Ship Robot; Autonomous System; Autonomous Vehicle; Control System; Differential Equations; Intelligent Systems; Mobile Systems; Nonholonomic Constraint; Optimal Control
Online: 31 August 2022 (13:33:10 CEST)
This paper develops a methodology to control the navigation of an autonomous ship robot from an initial state to a final. To solve the problem the following approach is used: The ship robot system is modelled as a control system of six ordinary differential equations involving six state variables and three control variables. After having computed the system Hamiltonian, the feasible controls for optimality are derived from the normal equations of optimality as functions of the state and costate variables. Such controls are substituted into the state and the costate equations and give a combined control-free state-costate system of ordinary differential equations which is solved numerically by using a developed Matlab computer program. Associated computational simulations are designed and provided to show the reliability of the approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: chatbot technology; ontology-based systems; expert systems; diagnosis; conversational agents; robotics; human-robot interaction; physician-patient relationship; intelligent agents
Online: 6 December 2016 (04:46:32 CET)
Access to medical care is a global issue. Technology-aided approaches have been applied in addressing this. Interventions have however not focused on medical diagnosis as a fully automated procedure and available applications employ mainly text-based inputs rather than conversation in natural language. We explored the utility of ontology-based chatbot technology for the design of intelligent agents for medical diagnosis through a systematic review of the most recent related literature. English articles published in 2011-2016 returned 233 hits which yielded 11 relevant articles after a 3-stage screening. Findings showed that the creation of expert systems had been the focus of many the studies which utilize the physician-system-patient framework with system training based mostly on expert knowledge for designing web- or mobile phone-based applications that serve assistive purposes. Findings further indicated gaps in the design and evaluation of more effective systems deployable as standalone applications, for example, on an embodied robotic system. The need for technology supporting the physical examination part of diagnosis, connection to data sources on patients’ vitals and medical history are also indicated in addition to the need for more qualitative work on natural language-based interaction. The system should be one that is continuously learning. Future works should also be directed towards the building of more robust knowledge base as well as evaluation of theory-based diagnostic methodological options
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0192.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; powder bed fusion; optimization framework; predictive models; neural network; intelligent parameters selection; energy density optimization; mechanical properties optimization
Online: 13 October 2021 (10:20:29 CEST)
Powder bed fusion (PBF) process is a metal additive manufacturing process which can build parts with any complexity from a wide range of metallic materials. PBF process research has predominantly focused on the impact of only a few parameters on product properties due to the lack of a systematic approach for optimizing a large set of process parameters simultaneously. The pivotal challenges regarding this process require a quantitative approach for mapping the material properties and process parameters onto the ultimate quality; this will then enable the optimization of those parameters. In this study, we propose a two-phase framework for optimizing the process parameters and developing a predictive model for 316L stainless steel material. We also discuss the correlation between process parameters -- i.e., laser specifications -- and mechanical properties and how to achieve parts with high density (> 98%) as well as better ultimate mechanical properties. In this paper, we introduce and test an innovative approach for developing AM predictive models, with a relatively low error percentage of 10.236% that are used to optimize process parameters in accordance with user or manufacturer requirements. These models use support vector regression, random forest regression, and neural network techniques. It is shown that the intelligent selection of process parameters using these models can achieve an optimized density of up to 99.31% with uniform microstructure, which improves hardness, impact strength, and other mechanical properties.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (CITS); Vehicle to Pedestrian (V2P); Vulnerable 15 Road Users (VRU); GPS; smartphones; Inertial Measurement Units sensors
Online: 6 February 2020 (03:44:08 CET)
The field of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems and more specifically Pedestrians to Vehicles could be characterized as quite challenging, since there is a broad research area to be studied, with direct positive results to society. Pedestrians to Vehicles is a type of Cooperative Intelligent Transport System, within the group of Early Warning Collision/Safety System. In this article, we examine the research and applications carried out so far within the field of Pedestrians to Vehicles Cooperative Transport Systems by leveraging the information coming from Vulnerable Road Users’, smartphones. Moreover, an extensive literature review has been carried out in the fields of Vulnerable Road Users Outdoor Localisation via smartphones and Vulnerable Road Users Next Step/Movement Prediction, which are closely related to Pedestrian to Vehicle applications and research. We identify gaps that exist in these fields that could be improved/extended/enhanced or newly developed, while we address future research objectives and methodologies that could support the improvement/development of those identified gaps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0362.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Cognitive Computing; Deep Learning; Intelligent Cognitive Assistants (ICA); Neuromorphic System-on-a-Chip (NeuSoC); NVRAM; RRAM; Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs).
Online: 6 September 2018 (10:53:42 CEST)
The ongoing revolution in Deep Learning is redefining the nature of computing that is driven by the increasing amount of pattern classification and cognitive tasks. Specialized digital hardware for deep learning still holds its predominance due to the flexibility offered by the software implementation and maturity of algorithms. However, it is being increasingly desired that cognitive computing occurs at the edge, i.e. on hand-held devices that are energy constrained, which is energy prohibitive when employing digital von Neumann architectures. Recent explorations in digital neuromorphic hardware have shown promise, but offer low neurosynaptic density needed for scaling to applications such as intelligent cognitive assistants (ICA). Large-scale integration of nanoscale emerging memory devices with Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) mixed-signal integrated circuits can herald a new generation of Neuromorphic computers that will transcend the von Neumann bottleneck for cognitive computing tasks. Such hybrid Neuromorphic System-on-a-chip (NeuSoC) architectures promise machine learning capability at chip-scale form factor, and several orders of magnitude improvement in energy efficiency. Practical demonstration of such architectures has been limited as performance of emerging memory devices falls short of the expected behavior from the idealized memristor-based analog synapses, or weights, and novel machine learning algorithms are needed to take advantage of the device behavior. In this work, we review the challenges involved and present a pathway to realize ultra-low-power mixed-signal NeuSoC, from device arrays and circuits to spike-based deep learning algorithms, with ‘brain-like’ energy-efficiency.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0134.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: smart factory; advanced manufacturing; intelligent manufacturing; Cyber Manufacturing; Cyber Physical Systems; Internet of Things; Industry 4.0; Artificial Intelligence; data driven manufacturing
Online: 9 June 2022 (04:05:14 CEST)
In a dynamic and rapidly changing world, customers’ often conflicting demands plus fluid economic requirements, often driven by geo-politics, have continued to evolve, out-striping the capability of existing production systems. With its inherent shortcomings, the traditional factory has proven to be incapable of addressing these modern-day manufacturing challenges. Recent advancements in Industry 4.0 have catalyzed the development of new manufacturing paradigms (or smart factory visions) under different monikers (e.g., Smart factory, Intelligent factory, Digital factory, Cloud-based factory etc.) would help fix these challenges. Due to a lack of consensus on a general nomenclature for these manufacturing paradigms, the term Future Factory (or Factory of the Future) is here used as a collective euphemism, without prejudice. The Future Factory constitutes a creative convergence of multiple technologies, techniques and capabilities that represent a significant change in current production capabilities, models, and practices. It is a data-driven manufacturing approach and system that harnesses intelligence from multiple information streams i.e., assets (including people), processes, and subsystems to help create new forms of production efficiency and flexibility. Serving both as a review monograph and reference companion, this paper details the meanings, characteristics, and technological underpinnings of the Future Factory. It also elucidates on the architectural models that guide the structured deployment of these modern factories with particular emphasis on three advanced communication technologies capable of speeding up advancements in the field. It not only highlights the relevance of communication between assets but also lays out mechanisms to achieve these interactions using the Administration shell. Finally, the paper also discusses the key enabling technologies that are typically embedded into bare bone factories to help improve their visibility, resilience, intelligence, and capacity, in addition to how these technologies are being deployed and to what effect. At the onset of the study, we were interested in developing a monograph which would serve as a comprehensive but concise review of general principles, fundamental concepts, major characteristics, key building blocks and implementation guidelines for the Future Factory within the overall context of the manufacturing ecosystem, in the age of Industry 4.0. Our hope is that this paper would enrich the extant literature on advanced manufacturing, help shape policy and research, and provide insights on how some of the identified pathways can be diffused into industry.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Mobile data science; artificial intelligence; machine learning; natural language processing; expert system; data-driven decision making; context-awareness; intelligent mobile apps
Online: 14 September 2020 (00:01:39 CEST)
Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques have grown rapidly in recent years in the context of computing with smart mobile phones that typically allows the devices to function in an intelligent manner. Popular AI techniques include machine learning and deep learning methods, natural language processing, as well as knowledge representation and expert systems, can be used to make the target mobile applications intelligent and more effective. In this paper, we present a comprehensive view on mobile data science and intelligent apps in terms of concepts and AI-based modeling that can be used to design and develop intelligent mobile applications for the betterment of human life in their diverse day-to-day situation. This study also includes the concepts and insights of various AI-powered intelligent apps in several application domains, ranging from personalized recommendation to healthcare services, including COVID-19 pandemic management in recent days. Finally, we highlight several research issues and future directions relevant to our analysis in the area of mobile data science and intelligent apps. Overall, this paper aims to serve as a reference point and guidelines for the mobile application developers as well as the researchers in this domain, particularly from the technical point of view.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0141.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: transportation engineering; flexible pavement; pavement condition index prediction; falling weight deflectometer; mlp neural network; rbf neural network; intelligent machine system committee
Online: 12 October 2019 (06:08:32 CEST)
The conventional method used for calculating pavement condition index (PCI) has two major drawbacks: safety problems during pavement inspection, and human error. This paper proposes a method for removing these problems. The proposed method uses surface deflection data in falling weight Deflectometer test to estimate PCI. The data used in this study were derived from 236 pavement segments taken from Tehran-Qom freeway in Iran. The data set was analyzed using multi layers perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks. These neural networks were optimized by levenberg-marquardt (MLP-LM), scaled conjugate gradient (MLP-SCG), imperialist competitive (RBF-ICA), and genetic (RBF-GA) algorithms. After initial modeling with four neural networks mentioned, the committee machine intelligent systems (CMIS) method was adopted to combine the results and improve the accuracy of the modeling. The results of analysis have been verified by the four criteria of average percent relative error (APRE), average absolute percent relative error (AAPRE), root mean square error (RMSE) and standard error (SD). The best reported results belonged to CMIS, including APRE=2.3303, AAPRE=11.6768, RMSE=12.0056, and SD=0.0210.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0235.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Intelligent Load Forecasting 1; Demand-Side Management 2; Pattern Similarity 3; Hierarchical Forecasting 4; Feature Selection 5; Weather Station Selection 6
Online: 19 December 2018 (12:19:14 CET)
Electricity demand forecasting has been a real challenge for power system scheduling in the different levels of the energy sectors. Various computational intelligence techniques and methodologies have been employed in the electricity market for load forecasting; although, scant evidence is available about the feasibility of each of these methods considering the type of data and other potential factors. This work introduces several scientific, technical rationale behind intelligent forecasting methods, based on the work of previous researchers in the field of energy. The fundamental benefits and main drawbacks of the aforementioned methods are discussed in order to depict the efficiency of each approach in various situations. In the end, a proposed hybrid strategy is represented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0460.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: education for sustainable development; confusion; intelligent tutoring system (ITS); ASSISTments; machine learning; computer-based homework; algebra mathematics technology education; sustainable development
Online: 19 November 2018 (11:46:56 CET)
Incorporating substantial sustainable development issues into teaching and learning is the ultimate task of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The purpose of our study is to identify the confused students who have failed to master the skill(s) given by the tutors as a homework using Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). We have focused ASSISTments, an ITS in this study and scrutinized the skill-builder data using machine learning techniques and methods. We used seven candidate models that include: Naïve Bayes (NB), Generalized Linear Model (GLM), Logistic Regression (LR), Deep Learning (DL), Decision Tree (DT), Random Forest (RF), and Gradient Boosted Trees (XGBoost). We trained, validated and tested learning algorithms, performed stratified cross-validation and measured the performance of the models through various performance metrics i.e., ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic), Accuracy, Precision, Recall, F-Measure, Sensitivity & Specificity. We found GLM, DT & RF are high accuracies achieving classifiers. However, other perceptions such as detection of unexplored features that might be related to the forecasting of outputs can also boost the accuracy of the prediction model. Through machine learning methods, we identified the group of students which were confused attempting the homework exercise and can help students foster their knowledge, and talent to play a vital role in environmental development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0007.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: Particle Swarm Optimization; Swarm Intelligence; Evolutionary Computation; Intelligent Agents; Optimization; Hybrid Algorithms; Heuristic Search; Approximate Algorithms; Robotics and Autonomous Systems; Applications of PSO
Online: 2 September 2018 (15:29:55 CEST)
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a metaheuristic global optimization paradigm that has gained prominence in the last two decades due to its ease of application in unsupervised, complex multidimensional problems which cannot be solved using traditional deterministic algorithms. The canonical particle swarm optimizer is based on the flocking behavior and social co-operation of birds and fish schools and draws heavily from the evolutionary behavior of these organisms. This paper serves to provide a thorough survey of the PSO algorithm with special emphasis on the development, deployment and improvements of its most basic as well as some of the very recent state–of-the-art implementations. Concepts and directions on choosing the inertia weight, constriction factor, cognition and social weights and perspectives on convergence, parallelization, elitism, niching and discrete optimization as well as neighborhood topologies are outlined. Hybridization attempts with other evolutionary and swarm paradigms in selected applications are covered and an up-to-date review is put forward for the interested reader.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0227.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: transportation; mobility; prediction model; pavement management; pavement condition index; falling weight deflectometer; multilayer perceptron; radial basis function; artificial neural network; intelligent machine system committee
Online: 20 January 2020 (11:08:32 CET)
Prediction models in mobility and transportation maintenance systems have been dramatically improved through using machine learning methods. This paper proposes novel machine learning models for an intelligent road inspection. The traditional road inspection systems based on the pavement condition index (PCI) are often associated with the critical safety, energy and cost issues. Alternatively, the proposed models utilize surface deflection data from falling weight deflectometer (FWD) tests to predict the PCI. Machine learning methods are the single multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks as well their hybrids, i.e., Levenberg-Marquardt (MLP-LM), scaled conjugate gradient (MLP-SCG), imperialist competitive (RBF-ICA), and genetic algorithms (RBF-GA). Furthermore, the committee machine intelligent systems (CMIS) method was adopted to combine the results and improve the accuracy of the modeling. The results of the analysis have been verified through using four criteria of average percent relative error (APRE), average absolute percent relative error (AAPRE), root mean square error (RMSE), and standard error (SD). The CMIS model outperforms other models with the promising results of APRE=2.3303, AAPRE=11.6768, RMSE=12.0056, and SD=0.0210.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0193.v1
Subject: Keywords: computational intelligence; quantum hybrid intelligent systems; quantum machine learning; medical image processing; disease diagnosis; Fuzzy k-NN; Quantum-behaved PSO; cervical smear images; cancer detection
Online: 30 November 2017 (07:21:00 CET)
A quantum hybrid (QH) intelligent approach that blends the adaptive search capability of the quantum-behaved particle swarm optimisation (QPSO) method with the intuitionistic rationality of traditional fuzzy k-nearest neighbours (Fuzzy k-NN) algorithm (known simply as the Q-Fuzzy approach) is proposed for efficient feature selection and classification of cells in cervical smeared (CS) images. From an initial multitude of seventeen (17) features describing the geometry, colour, and texture of the CS images, the QPSO stage of our proposed technique is used to select the best subset features (i.e. global best particles) that represent a pruned down collection of seven (7) features. Using a dataset of almost 1000 images, performance evaluation of our proposed Q-Fuzzy approach assesses the impact of our feature selection on classification accuracy by way of three experimental scenarios that are compared alongside two other approaches: The All-features (i.e. classification without prior feature selection) and another hybrid technique combining the standard PSO algorithm with the Fuzzy k-NN technique (P-Fuzzy approach). In the first and second scenarios, we further divided the assessment criteria in terms of classification accuracy based on the choice of best features and those in terms of the different categories of the cervical cells. In the third scenario, we introduced new QH hybrid techniques, i.e. QPSO combined with other supervised learning methods, and compared the classification accuracy alongside our proposed Q-Fuzzy approach. Furthermore, we employed statistical approaches to establish qualitative agreement with regards to the feature selection in scenarios 1 and 3. The synergy between the QPSO and Fuzzy k-NN in the proposed Q-Fuzzy approach marginally improves classification accuracy as manifest in the reduction in number cell features, which is crucial for effective cervical cancer detection and diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0033.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: PV/T collector; electrical efficiency; renewable energy; intelligent models; optimization; machine learning; multilayer perceptron (MLP), artificial neural network (ANN); adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS); least squares support vector machine (LSSVM); photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T)
Online: 6 May 2019 (08:10:59 CEST)
Solar energy is a renewable resources of energy which is broadly utilized and have the least pollution impact between the available alternatives of fossil fuels. In this investigation, machine leaening approaches of neural networks (NN), neuro-fuzzy and least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) are used to build the models for prediction of the thermal performance of a photovoltaic-thermal solar collector (PV/T) by estimating its efficiency as an output of the model while inlet temperature, flow rate, heat, solar radiation, and heat of sun are input of the designed model. Experimental measurements was prepared by designing a solar collector system and 100 data extracted. Different analyses are also performed to examine the credibility of the introduced approaches revealing great performance. The suggested LSSVM model represented the best performance regarding the mean squared error (MSE) of 0.003 and correlation coefficient (R2) value of 0.99, respectively.