ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0497.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: sensor fusion; fusion error; feedback compensation; closed-loop fusion
Online: 20 November 2018 (09:55:17 CET)
Sensor fusion technology is one of extensive used methods in the field of robot, aerospace and target tracking control. In this paper, the generalized sensor fusion framework, named the closed-loop fusion (CLF) is analyzed and the optimal design principle of filter is proposed in detail. Fusion error optimization problem, which is the core issue of fusion design, is also solved better through the feedback compensation law of CLF framework. Differently from conventional methods, the fusion filter of CLF can be optimally designed and the determination of superposition of fusion information is avoided. To show the validity, simulation and experimental results are to be submitted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0276.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Sensor fusion; Camera and LiDAR fusion; Odometry; Explainable AI
Online: 19 September 2022 (10:27:42 CEST)
Recent deep learning frameworks draw a strong research interest in the application of ego-motion estimation as they demonstrate a superior result compared to geometric approaches. However, due to the lack of multimodal datasets, most of these studies primarily focused on a single sensor-based estimation. To overcome this challenge, we collect a unique multimodal dataset named LboroAV2, using multiple sensors including camera, Light Detecting And Ranging (LiDAR), ultrasound, e-compass and rotary encoder. We also propose an end-to-end deep learning architecture for fusion of RGB images and LiDAR laser scan data for odometry application. The proposed method contains a convolutional encoder, a compressed representation and a recurrent neural network. Besides feature extraction and outlier rejection, the convolutional encoder produces a compressed representation which is used to visualise the network's learning process and to pass useful sequential information. The recurrent neural network uses this compressed sequential data to learn the relation between consecutive time steps. We use the LboroAV2 and KITTI VO datasets to experiment and evaluate our results. In addition to visualising the network's learning process, our approach gives superior results compared to other similar methods. The code for the proposed architecture is released in GitHub and accessible publicly.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1464.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: nuclear fusion; female gametogenesis; fertilization; membrane fusion; flowering plants; budding yeast
Online: 21 September 2023 (10:57:58 CEST)
Nuclear fusion is essential for the sexual reproduction of various organisms, including plants, animals, and fungi. During the life cycle of flowering plants, nuclear fusion occurs three times: once during female gametogenesis and twice during double fertilization, when two sperm cells fertilize the egg and the central cell. Haploid nuclei migrate in an actin filament-dependent manner to become in close contact, then two nuclei fuse. The nuclear fusion process in plant reproduction is achieved by the sequential nuclear membrane fusion events. Recent molecular genetic analyses using Arabidopsis thaliana showed the conservation of nuclear membrane fusion machinery between plants and the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These include the heat shock protein 70 in the endoplasmic reticulum and conserved nuclear membrane proteins. Analyses of A. thaliana mutants of these components show that completion of the sperm nuclear fusion at fertilization is essential for proper embryo and endosperm development.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0038.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Membrane fusion; gp120; gp41; bnAb; CD4; virus-cell fusion; syncytium formation
Online: 2 September 2021 (12:13:53 CEST)
PG9, PG16, PGT121, and PGT145 antibodies were identified from culture media of activated memory B-cells of an infected donor and shown to neutralize many HIV-1 strains. Since HIV-1 spreads via both free virions and cell-cell fusion, we examined the effect of the antibodies on HIV-1 Env-mediated cell-cell fusion. Clone69TRevEnv cells that express Env in the absence of tetracycline were labeled with Calcein-AM Green, and incubated with CD4+ SupT1 cells labeled with CellTrace™ Calcein Red-Orange, with or without antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies PG9, PG16, 2G12, PGT121, and PGT145 (at up to 50 µg/mL) had little or no inhibitory effect on fusion between HIV-Env and SupT1 cells. By contrast, Hippeastrum hybrid agglutinin completely inhibited fusion. Our results indicate that transmission of the virus or viral genetic material would not be inhibited by these broadly neutralizing antibodies. Thus, antibodies generated by HIV-1 vaccines should be screened for their inhibitory effect on Env-mediated cell-cell fusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0206.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: signal processing; feature selection; feature fusion; data fusion; gender recognition; sensor fusion; heart rate variability (HRV), electromyography (EMG); stepper
Online: 28 March 2017 (02:38:01 CEST)
Gender recognition is trivial for physiotherapist, but it is considered a challenge for computers. The electromyography (EMG) and heart rate variability (HRV) were utilized in this work for gender recognition during the stepping exercise using a stepper. The relevant features were extracted and selected. The selected features were then fused to automatically predict gender recognition. However, the feature selection for gender classification became a challenge to ensure better accuracy. Thus, in this paper, a feature selection approach based on both the performance and the diversity between the two features from the rank-score characteristic (RSC) function in a combinatorial fusion approach (CFA) was employed. Then, the features from the selected feature sets were fused using a CFA. The results were then compared with other fusion techniques such as naive bayes (NB), decision tree (J48), k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and support vector machine (SMO). Besides, the results were also compared with previous researches in gender recognition. The experimental results showed that the CFA was efficient for feature selection. The fusion method was also able to improve the accuracy of the gender recognition rate. The CFA provides much better gender classification results which is 94.51% compared to Nazarloo's work (90.34%) and other classifiers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0153.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: Composite; Fusion; Materials; Tungsten
Online: 11 October 2022 (10:41:08 CEST)
Tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composites (Wf/W) have been in development to overcome the inherent brittleness of tungsten as one of the most promising candidate for the first wall and divertor armour material in a future fusion power plant. As the development of Wf/W continues, the fracture toughness of the composite is one of the main design drivers. In this contribution the efforts on size upscaling of Wf/W based on Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) is shown together with fracture mechanical tests of two different size samples of Wf/W produced by CVD. Three-point bending tests according to ASTM E399 for brittle materials were used to get a first estimation of the toughness. A provisional fracture toughness value of up to 346MPam1/2 was calculated for the as-fabricated material. As the material does not show a brittle fracture in the as-fabricated state, the J-Integral approach based on the ASTM E1820 was additionally applied for this state. A maximum value of the J-integral of 41kJ/m2 (134,8MPam1/2) was determined for the largest samples. Post mortem investigations were employed to detail the active mechanisms and crack propagation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0036.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: digital elevation models; multi-source fusion; multi-scale fusion; global evaluation; accuracy validation.
Online: 5 June 2019 (10:26:30 CEST)
The quality of digital elevation models (DEMs) is inevitably affected by the limitations of the imaging modes and the generation methods. One effective way to solve this problem is to merge the available datasets through data fusion. In this paper, a fusion-based global DEM dataset (82°S-82°N) is introduced, which we refer to as GSDEM-30. This is a 30-m DEM mainly reconstructed from the unfilled SRTM1, AW3D30, and ASTER GDEM v2 datasets combining the multi-source and multi-scale fusion techniques. A comprehensive evaluation of the GSDEM-30 data, as well as the 30-m ASTER GDEM v2 and AW3D30 DEM, was presented. Global ICESat GLAS data and the local National Elevation Dataset (NED) were used as the reference for the vertical accuracy validation, while GlobeLand30 was introduced for the landscape analysis. Furthermore, we employed the maximum slope approach to detect the potential artefacts in the DEMs. The results show that the GDEM data are seriously affected by noise and artefacts. With the advantage of the multiple datasets and the refined post-processing, the GSDEM-30 are contaminated with fewer anomalies than both ASTER GDEM and AW3D30. The fusion techniques used can also be applied to the reconstruction of other fused DEM datasets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1462.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Sign Language Recognition; sensor fusion
Online: 21 September 2023 (08:33:08 CEST)
Sign language recognition is essential in hearing-impaired people’s communication. Sign language recognition is an important concern in computer vision and has been developed with rapid progress in image recognition technology. However, sign language recognition using a general monocular camera has problems with occlusion and recognition accuracy in sign language recognition. In this research, we aim to improve accuracy by using a 2-axis bending sensor as an aid in addition to image recognition. We aim to achieve higher recognition accuracy by acquiring hand keypoint information of sign language actions captured by a monocular RGB camera and adding sensor assist. To improve sign language recognition, we need to propose new AI models. In addition, the amount of dataset is small because it uses the original data set of our laboratory. To learn using sensor data and image data, we used MediaPipe, CNN, and BiLSTM to perform sign language recognition. MediaPipe is a method for estimating the skeleton of the hand and face provided by Google. In addition, CNN is a method that can learn spatial information, and BiLSTM can learn time series data. Combining the CNN and BiLSTM methods yields higher recognition accuracy. We will use these techniques to learn hand skeletal information and sensor data. Additionally, the 2-axis Bending sensor glove data support training AI model. Using these methods, we aim to improve the recognition accuracy of sign language recognition by combining sensor data and hand skeleton data. Our method performed better than using skeletal information, achieving 96.5% accuracy in Top-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0058.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: convolutional neural networks; ensembles; fusion
Online: 4 September 2023 (03:51:24 CEST)
In computer vision and image analysis, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and other deep learning models are at the forefront of research and development. These advanced models have proven to be highly effective in tasks related to computer vision. One technique that has gained prominence in recent years is the construction of ensembles using Deep CNNs. These ensembles typically involve combining multiple pre-trained CNNs to create a more powerful and robust network. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of building CNN ensembles by combining several advanced techniques. Tested here are CNN ensembles constructed by replacing ReLU layers with different activation functions, employing various data augmentation techniques, and utilizing several algorithms, including some novel ones, that perturb network weights. Experimental results performed across many data sets representing different tasks demonstrate that our proposed methods for building deep ensembles produces superior results. All the resources required to replicate our experiments are available at https://github.com/LorisNanni.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1151.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: fusion proteins; inhibitor; therapeutic; cancer
Online: 16 May 2023 (10:32:09 CEST)
Oncogenic fusion proteins, arising from chromosomal rearrangements, have emerged as prominent drivers of tumorigenesis and crucial therapeutic targets in cancer research. In recent years, the potential of small molecular inhibitors in selectively targeting fusion proteins has exhibited significant prospects, offering a novel approach to combat malignancies harboring these aberrant molecular entities. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of small molecular inhibitors as therapeutic agents for oncogenic fusion proteins. We discuss the rationale for targeting fusion proteins, elucidate the mechanism of action of inhibitors, assess the challenges associated with their utilization, and provide a summary of the clinical progress achieved thus far. The objective is to provide the medicinal community with current and pertinent information and to expedite the drug discovery programs in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0156.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: CBIR; , Late Fusion; SVM; BOVW
Online: 21 March 2017 (03:49:41 CET)
One of the challenges in Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) is to reduce the semantic gaps between low-level features and high-level semantic concepts. In CBIR, the images are represented in the feature space and the performance of CBIR depends on the type of selected feature representation. Late fusion also known as visual words integration is applied to enhance the performance of image retrieval. The recent advances in image retrieval diverted the focus of research towards the use of binary descriptors as they are reported computationally efficient. In this paper, we aim to investigate the late fusion of Fast Retina Keypoint (FREAK) and Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT). The late fusion of binary and local descriptor is selected because among binary descriptors, FREAK has shown good results in classification-based problems while SIFT is robust to translation, scaling, rotation and small distortions. The late fusion of FREAK and SIFT integrates the performance of both feature descriptors for an effective image retrieval. Experimental results and comparisons show that the proposed late fusion enhances the performances of image retrieval.
INTERESTING IMAGES | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1048.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Cervical fusion; Atlantoaxial fusion; Athletic Injury; Athlete Safety; Computed Tomography; Di-agnostic Imaging; Odontoid Fracture.
Online: 18 October 2023 (03:09:57 CEST)
Cervical injuries from athletic activities are rare; they can have severe consequences if not diagnosed and managed promptly. The choice of diagnostic imaging modality is pivotal in ensuring timely and accurate diagnosis. We detail the case of a 19-year-old female athlete who sustained a C2 Durel Type II Subclass C fracture during a short-track speed skating championship. Initial evaluation using X-ray imaging at the athletic center medical facility did not detect the injury, allowing her to continue competing. Persistent pain led to further evaluation at our institution, where MRI and CT scans confirmed the fracture. Approximately 45 days post-injury, the patient underwent a successful surgical intervention utilizing O-arm CBCT navigation for C1-C2 dorsal fusion. Post-surgery, she embarked on a comprehensive rehabilitation program and fully recovered within 12 weeks. This case underscores the limitations of relying solely on X-ray imaging for diagnosing cervical fractures post-trauma. Our findings advocate prioritizing CT scans as a primary diagnostic tool in such scenarios, emphasizing the need for a robust diagnostic approach to ensure athlete safety and well.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0863.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: augmented reality; information fusion; transparent display
Online: 13 June 2023 (02:56:50 CEST)
This research uses ARM-based FPGA to implement the computation of a virtual-real fusion hardware system. It also evaluates the acceleration effect of virtual-real fusion execution speed after connecting related hardware acceleration and provides a reference for real-time information fusion system design. The hardware uses Xilinx Zynq UltraScale+ MPSoC ZCU102 Evaluation Kit. It also obtains color and depth images with Intel® RealsenseTM D435i depth cameras. This system receives image data through the Linux system built on the ARM and fed to the FPGA for object detection using CNN models. In addition, it develops a module for rapidly performing registration between the color images and the depth images. It can calculate the size and position of the display information on the transparent display according to the pixel coordinates and depth values of the human eye and the object. The fusion took about 47ms on a personal computer with a GPU RTX2060 and 25ms on the ZCU102. The acceleration is nearly 168%. Finally, the results were successfully transplanted into the retail display system for demonstration.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0789.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: sacroiliac; fusion; intra-articular; minimally invasive
Online: 23 April 2023 (08:03:17 CEST)
Abstract: (1) Background: Minimally-invasive sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fusion is the preferred surgical intervention to treat chronically severe pain associated with SIJ degeneration and dysfunction. (2) Methods: This paper details the ten-step surgical procedure associated with the postero-inferior approach using the PsiF™DNA Sacroiliac Joint Fusion System. (3) Results: The posterior surgical approach with an inferior operative trajectory (postero-inferior) utilizes easily identifiable landmarks to provide the safest, most direct access to the articular joint space for transfixing device placement. Implanting the device through the subchondral bone, provides maximum fixation and stabilization of the joint by utilizing an optimal amount of cortical bone-implant interface. Approaching the joint from the inferior trajectory also places the implant perpendicular to the S1 endplate at a “pivot point” near the sacral axis of rotation, which addresses the most significant motion of the joint. (4) Conclusions: Further observational data from real-world clinical use are encouraged to further validate this procedure as the surgical preference for minimally-invasive SIJ fusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0214.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Machine learning; Dementia; Data-level fusion
Online: 15 March 2022 (12:31:40 CET)
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), dementia is the seventh leading reason of death among all illnesses and one of the leading causes of disability among the world’s elderly people. Day by day the number of Alzheimer’s patients is raising. Considering the increasing rate and the dangers, Alzheimer’s disease should be diagnosed carefully. Machine learning is a potential technique for Alzheimer’s diagnosis but general users do not trust machine learning models due to the black-box nature. Even, some of those models do not provide the best performance because of using only neuroimaging data. To solve these issues, this paper proposes a novel explainable Alzheimer’s disease prediction model using a multimodal dataset. This approach performs a data-level fusion using clinical data, Freesurfer MRI segmentation data, and psychological data. For Alzheimer’s disease vs cognitively normal prediction, the random forest classifier provides 100% accuracy. Furthermore, Alzheimer’s disease and non-Alzheimer’s dementia should be classified properly because their symptoms are similar. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to present a three-class classification on Alzheimer’s disease vs cognitively normal vs non-Alzheimer’s dementia and achieved 99.86% accuracy using an ensemble model. Besides, a novel Alzheimer’s patient management architecture is also proposed in this work..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0560.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Renaturation; Denaturation; Phage; Fusion protein; Podoviruses
Online: 30 November 2021 (11:35:53 CET)
In antimicrobial-peptide/protein engineering, understanding the peptide/protein’s adaptability to harsh environmental conditions such as urea, proteases, fluctuating temperatures, high salts provide enormous insight into the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the engineered peptide/protein and its ability to survive the harsh internal environment of the human body such as the gut or the harsh external environment to which they are applied. A previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that our cloned Eɛ34 TSP showed potent antimicrobial activity against Salmonella newington, and more so, could prevent biofilm formation on decellularized tissue. In this work, the effects of urea-acid on the Eɛ34 stability is studied, and the results demonstrates that at lower pHs of 3 and 4 with urea the protein was denatured into monomeric species. However, the protein withstood urea denaturation above pH of 5 and thus remained as trimeric protein. The mechanism of denaturation of Eɛ34 TSP seems to show that urea denatures proteins by depleting hydrophobic core of the protein by directly binding to the amide units via hydrogen bonds. The results of our in-silico investigation determined that urea binds with Eɛ34 TSP with relative free energies range of -3.4 to -2.9 kcal/mol at the putative globular head binding domain of the protein. The urea molecules interacts with with the protein’s predicted hydrophobic core, thus, disrupting and exposing the shielded hydrophobic moieties of Eɛ34 TSP to the solvent. We further showed that after the unfolding of Eɛ34 TSP via urea-acid, renaturation of the protein to its native conformation was possible within few hours. This unique characteristic of refolding of Eɛ34 TSP which is similar to that of the P22 phage tailspike protein is of special interest to protein scientists and can also be exploited in antimicrobial-protein engineering.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0369.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Action Recognition; Deep Learning; Data Fusion
Online: 19 January 2021 (09:14:30 CET)
Classification of human actions from uni-modal and multi-modal datasets is an ongoing research problem in computer vision. This review is aimed to scope current literature on data-fusion and action-recognition techniques and to identify gaps and future research direction. Success in producing cost-effective and portable vision-based sensors has dramatically increased the number and size of datasets. The rise in number of action recognition datasets intersects with advances in deep-learning architectures and computational support, both of which offer significant research opportunities. Naturally, each action-data modality - such as RGB, depth, skeleton, and infrared - has distinct characteristics; therefore, it is important to exploit the value of each modality for better action recognition. In this article we will focus solely on areas such as data fusion and recognition techniques in the context of vision with a uni-modal and multi-modal perspective. We conclude by discussing research challenges, emerging trends, and possible future research directions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0322.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: cell fusion; cortexillin; cytokinesis; Dictyostelium; myosin
Online: 23 February 2020 (12:48:24 CET)
Multinucleate cells can be produced in Dictyostelium by electric-pulse induced fusion. In these cells unilateral cleavage furrows are formed at spaces between areas that are controlled by aster microtubules. A peculiarity of unilateral cleavage furrows is their propensity to join laterally with other furrows into rings to form constrictions. This means, cytokinesis is biphasic in multinucleate cells, the final abscission of daughter cells being independent of the initial direction of furrow progression. Myosin-II and the actin-filament cross-linking protein cortexillin accumulate in the unilateral furrows, as they do in the normal cleavage furrows of mononucleate cells. Myosin-II is not essential for cytokinesis, but stabilizes and confines the position of the cleavage furrows.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0299.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: fusion; purinergic; HIV-1; P2X1; P2X7
Online: 26 January 2020 (01:28:26 CET)
Purinergic receptors are inflammatory mediators activated by extracellular nucleotides released by dying or injured cells. Several studies have described an important role for these receptors in HIV-1 entry, particularly regarding their activity on HIV-1 viral membrane fusion. Several reports identify purinergic receptor antagonists that inhibit HIV-1 membrane fusion; these drugs are suspected to act through antagonizing Env-chemokine receptor interactions. They also appear to abrogate activity of downstream mediators that potentiate activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway. Here we review the literature on purinergic receptors, the drugs that inhibit their function, and the evidence implicating these receptors in HIV-1 entry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0059.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Oxidative stress, MFN2, mitochondria, fusion/fission
Online: 9 September 2019 (11:46:36 CEST)
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is a hereditary polyneuropathy caused by mutations in Mitofusin-2 (MFN2), a GTPase in the outer mitochondrial membrane involved in the regulation of mitochondrial fusion and bioenergetics. Autosomal-dominant inheritance of a R94Q mutation in MFN2 causes the axonal subtype 2A2A which is characterized by early onset and progressive atrophy of distal muscles caused by motoneuronal degeneration. Here, we studied mitochondrial shape, respiration, cytosolic and mitochondrial ATP content as well as mitochondrial quality control in MFN2-deficient fibroblasts stably expressing wildtype or R94Q MFN2. Under normal culture conditions, R94Q cells had slightly more fragmented mitochondria but a similar mitochondrial oxygen consumption, membrane potential and ATP production as wildtype cells. However, when inducing mild oxidative stress 24 h before analysis using 100 µM hydrogen peroxide, R94Q cells exhibited significantly increased respiration but decreased mitochondrial ATP production. This was accompanied by increased glucose uptake and an upregulation of hexokinase 1 and pyruvate kinase M2 suggesting increased pyruvate shuttling into mitochondria. As these changes coincided with decreased levels of PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in R94Q cells, we conclude that the disease-causing R94Q mutation in MFN2 causes uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration from ATP production by a less efficient mitochondrial quality control triggered by oxidative stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0105.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: fusion; point clouds; images; object detection
Online: 12 February 2019 (16:53:19 CET)
This paper aims at tackling with the task of fusion feature from images and its corresponding point clouds for 3D object detection in autonomous driving scenarios basing on AVOD, an Aggregate View Object Detection network. The proposed fusion algorithms fuse features targeted from Bird’s Eye View (BEV) LIDAR point clouds and its corresponding RGB images. Differs in existing fusion methods, which are simply the adoptions of concatenation module, element-wise sum module or element-wise mean module, our proposed fusion algorithms enhance the interaction between BEV feature maps and its corresponding images feature maps by designing a novel structure, where single level feature maps and another utilizes multilevel feature maps. Experiments show that our proposed fusion algorithm produces better results on 3D mAP and AHS with less speed loss comparing to existing fusion method used on the KITTI 3D object detection benchmark.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0134.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: multi-sensor fusion; satellite; radar; precipitation
Online: 27 September 2017 (04:09:22 CEST)
This paper presents a new and enhanced fusion module for the Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) that would objectively blend real-time satellite quantitative precipitation estimates (SQPE) with radar and gauge estimates. This module consists of a preprocessor that mitigates systematic bias in SQPE, and a two-way blending routine that statistically fuses adjusted SQPE with radar estimates. The preprocessor not only corrects systematic bias in SQPE, but also improves the spatial distribution of precipitation based on SQPE and makes it closely resemble that of radar-based observations. It uses a more sophisticated radar-satellite merging technique to blend preprocessed datasets, and provides a better overall QPE product. The performance of the new satellite-radar-gauge blending module is assessed using independent rain gauge data over a 5-year period between 2003-2007, and the assessment evaluates the accuracy of newly developed satellite-radar-gauge (SRG) blended products versus that of radar-gauge products (which represents MPE algorithm currently used in the NWS operations) over two regions: I) inside radar effective coverage and II) immediately outside radar coverage. The outcomes of the evaluation indicate a) ingest of SQPE over areas within effective radar coverage improve the quality of QPE by mitigating the errors in radar estimates in region I; and b) blending of radar, gauge, and satellite estimates over region II leads to reduction of errors relative to bias-corrected SQPE. In addition, the new module alleviates the discontinuities along the boundaries of radar effective coverage otherwise seen when SQPE is used directly to fill the areas outside of effective radar coverage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1391.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: DQN; reinforcement learning; autonomous navigation; sensor fusion
Online: 23 October 2023 (08:57:23 CEST)
In this work, we propose an approach for the autonomous navigation of mobile robots using fusion of sensor data by a Double Deep Q-Network with collision avoidance by detecting moving people via computer vision techniques. We evaluate two data fusion methods for the proposed autonomous navigation approach: Interactive and Late fusion strategy. Both are used to integrate mobile robot sensors through the following sensors: GPS, IMU and, an RGB-D camera. The proposed collision avoidance module is implemented along with the sensor fusion architecture in order to prevent the autonomous mobile robot from colliding with moving people. The simulation results indicate a significant impact on the success of completing the proposed mission by the mobile robot with the fusion of sensors, indicating a performance increase (success rate) of 27% in relation to navigation without sensor fusion. With the addition of moving people in the environment, deploying the people detection and collision avoidance security module has improved about 14% the success rate when compared to that of the autonomous navigation approach without the security module. Video was developed with robot navigation using the DDQN-Late Fusion https://www.loom.com/share/684afa6a5b0148afadc9a200ab9f3483.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0663.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: depression detection; fusion; feature extraction; deep learning
Online: 9 May 2023 (13:20:58 CEST)
This study compares the performance of existing studies on multimodal emotion recognition, and proposes a model that fuses two modalities with the speaker's text and voice signals as input values and detects depression. Based on the DAIC-WOZ dataset, voice features were extracted using CNN, text features were extracted using Transformers, and two modalities were fused through a tensor fusion network. We also build a model to detect whether the speaker is depressed or not using LSTM in the final layer. This study suggests the possibility of increasing access to mental illness diagnosis by enabling patients to detect depression on their own in daily conversations. If the model proposed in this study is developed and the voice conversation system is connected, it will be easier for patients who cannot visit the hospital periodically or who are reluctant to visit the hospital to check their condition and seek recovery. Furthermore, it can be expanded to multi-label classification for various mental diseases and used as a simple self-mental disease diagnosis tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0328.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Fusion; DCLL; Breeding Blanket; HELIAS; TBR; neutronic
Online: 20 March 2023 (01:08:40 CET)
The Stellarator Power Plant Studies Prospective R&D Work Package among the Eurofusion Programme was settled to bring the stellarator engineering to maturity, so that stellarators and particularly the HELIAS (HELical-axis Advanced Stellarator) configuration could be a possible alternative to tokamaks. However, its complex geometry makes designing a Breeding Blanket (BB) that fully satisfies the requirements for such an HELIAS configuration a difficult task. Taking advantage of the acquired experience in BB design for DEMO tokamak, CIEMAT is leading the development of a Dual Coolant Lithium Lead (DCLL) BB for a HELIAS configuration. To answer the specific HELIAS challenges new and advanced solutions have been proposed, as the use of fully detached First Wall (FW) based on liquid metal Capillary Porous Systems (CPS). These proposed solutions have been studied in a simplified 1D model that can help to estimate the relative variations in Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) and displacement per atom (dpa) to verify their effectiveness to simplify the BB integration, improve the machine availability while keeping the main BB nuclear functions (i.e. tritium breeding, heat extraction and shielding). This preliminary study demonstrates that the use of FW CPS would reduce the radiation damage received by the blanket without compromising its tritium breeding performance.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0284.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Fusion; energy; focus; release; shock wave; ignition
Online: 16 January 2023 (01:57:00 CET)
Fusion device and its structure may be designed by various means. Two of most popular are; weight basis (described in previous study by author) and energy basis. In present research, later method is explored and described. Energy basis is based on amount of energy released from device upon detonation followed by explosion. Its beneficial in a sense that device size can be kept as independent variable as compared to dependent in former case. Further, it shortens the design procedure. For example, heat transfer pattern in such approach directly helps in quantifying wall thickness which dictates material, fabrication, and manufacturing route. It may also eliminate anisotropy as wall thickness is direct function of amount of heat at which it will rupture and can be much thinner. Device geometry can also be flexibility controlled as it is no longer dependent on pay load bay capacity. This allows more freedom in designing subsystems (compartments, their locations, focusing, switches, and mixers). Such devices can be more compact and simpler. Few such design configurations are proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0477.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: 3D printing; surface roughness; powder bed fusion
Online: 24 August 2021 (21:43:29 CEST)
The initial stability after implantology is paramount to the survival of the dental implant and the surface roughness of the implant plays a vital role in this regard. The characterisation of surface topography is a complicated branch of metrology, with a huge range of parameters available. Each parameter contributes significantly towards the survival and mechanical properties of 3D-printed specimens. The purpose of this paper is to experimentally investigate the effect of surface roughness of 3D-printed dental implants and 3D-printed dogbone tensile samples under areal height (Ra) parameters, amplitude parameters (average of ordinates), skewness (Rsk) parameters and mechanical properties. During the experiment, roughness values were analysed and the results showed that the skewness parameter demonstrated a minimum value of 0.596%. The 3D-printed dental implant recorded Ra with a 3.4 mm diameter at 43.23% and the 3D-printed dental implant with a 4.3 mm diameter at 26.18%. Samples with a complex geometry exhibited a higher roughness surface, which was the greatest difficulty of additive manufacturing when evaluating surface finish. The results show that when the ultimate tensile stress (UTS) decreases from 968.35 MPa to 955.25 MPa, Ra increases by 1.4% and when UTS increases to 961.18 MPa, Ra increases by 0.6%. When the cycle decreases from 262142 to 137433, Ra shows that less than a 90.74% increase in cycle is obtained. For 3D-printed dental implants, the higher the surface roughness, the lower the mechanical properties, ultimately leading to decreased implant life and poor performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0343.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: infrared sensors; cameras; indoor positioning; sensor fusion
Online: 29 May 2019 (04:45:00 CEST)
A method for infrared and cameras sensor fusion, applied to indoor positioning in intelligent spaces, is proposed in this work. The fused position is obtained with a maximum likelihood estimator from infrared and camera independent observations. Specific models are proposed for variance propagation from infrared and camera observations (phase shifts and image respectively) to their respective position estimates and to the final fused estimation. Model simulations are compared with real measurements in a setup designed to validate the system. The difference between theoretical prediction and real measurements is between 0.4 cm (fusion) and 2.5 cm (camera), within a 95% confidence margin. The positioning precision is in the cm level (sub-cm level can be achieved at most tested positions) in a 4x3 m locating cell with 5 infrared detectors on the ceiling and one single camera, at distances from target up to 5 m and 7 m respectively. Due to the low cost system design and the results observed, the system is expected to be feasible and scalable to large real spaces.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0024.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: mitochondria; mitochondrial dynamics; fusion; fission; pluripotency; differentiation
Online: 2 November 2018 (06:05:44 CET)
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that continuously change their shape. Their main function is ATP production; however, they are additionally involved in a variety of cellular phenomena, such as apoptosis, cell cycle, proliferation, differentiation, reprogramming, and aging. The change in mitochondrial morphology is closely related to the functionality of mitochondria. Normal mitochondrial dynamics are critical for cellular function, embryonic development, and tissue formation. Thus, defect in proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics that control mitochondrial fusion and fission can affect cellular differentiation, proliferation, cellular reprogramming, and aging. Here we review the processes and proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics and its various associated cellular phenomena.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0174.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Hierarchical search; Image retrieval; Multi-feature fusion
Online: 26 April 2017 (18:51:42 CEST)
Aiming at the problems that are poor generalization performance, low retrieval accuracy and large time consumption of existing content-based image retrieval system, the hierarchical image retrieval method based on multi feature fusion is proposed in this paper. The retrieval accuracy rates on Corel5K, UKbeach and Holidays are 68.23(Top 1), 3.73(N-S) and 88.20(mAp), respectively. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper can effectively improve the deficiency of single feature retrieval and save time significantly in the premise of a small amount of loss of accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2022.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: smart fusion approach; enriched semantic segmentation; LiDAR point clouds; images data; data fusion; prior knowledge; deep learning; urban environment
Online: 29 June 2023 (05:41:26 CEST)
Digital Twin Cities (DTCs) play a fundamental role in city planning and management. They allow three-dimensional modeling and simulation of cities. 3D semantic segmentation is the foundation for automatically creating enriched DTCs, as well as their updates. Past studies indicate that prior level fusion approaches demonstrate more promising precisions in 3D semantic segmentation compared to point level fusion, features level fusion, and decision level fusion families. In order to improve point cloud enriched semantic segmentation outcomes, this article proposes a new approach for 3D point cloud semantic segmentation through developing and benchmarking three prior level fusion scenarios. A reference approach based on point clouds and aerial images was proposed to compare it with the different developed scenarios. In each scenario, we inject a specific prior knowledge (geometric features,classified images ,etc) and aerial images as attributes of point clouds into the neural network’s learning pipeline. The objective is to find the one that integrates the most significant prior knowledge and enhances neural network knowledge more profoundly, which we have named the "smart fusion approach". The advanced Deep Learning algorithm "RandLaNet" was adopted to implement the different proposed scenarios and the reference approach, due to its excellent performance demonstrated in the literature. The introduction of some significant features associated with the label classes facilitated the learning process and improved the semantic segmentation results that can be achievable with the same neural network alone. Overall, our contribution provides a promising solution for addressing some challenges, in particular more accurate extraction of semantically rich objects from the urban fabric. An assessment of the semantic segmentation results obtained by the different scenarios is performed based on metrics computation and visual investigations. Finally,the smart fusion approach was derived based on the obtained qualitative and quantitative results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: spinal fusion; mechanical failure; risk factor; spine arthrodesis
Online: 22 November 2023 (15:17:49 CET)
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify the incidence of early mechanical failure in the first post-surgical year in patients who had undergone spinal surgery, and to assess the related risk factors. METHODS: Retrospective observational study of a prognostic cohort was conducted at an orthopaedic hospital, examining all patients with spine degenerative disease who consecutively underwent arthrodesis surgery between March 2018 and March 2019. The incidence of postoperative mechanical failure during the first year was calculated as primary outcome; the time between the date of the implant surgery and diagnosis of the mechanical failure was calculated as secondary outcome. RESULTS: A total of 237 patients were identified for statistical analysis. The median age of the group of patients was 47 years (IQR of 44), and 66.6% were female. The incidence of mechanical failure in the first postoperative year was 5.1% overall with 12 events and the median time between surgery and the need for revision surgery was 5 months (IQR=7.75). ASA score (OR= 2,39; p=0.134), duration of the surgical procedure (OR=1,27; p=0,006) and inability to walk at discharge (OR=7,86; p=0,072) were independent risk of factor associated with the mechanical failure. CONCLUSION: Higher ASA score and longer duration of surgery are risk factors for mechanical failure in the first year in patients who had undergone spinal surgery and must be carefully considered when planning spinal surgery. During hospitalization, recovery of ambulation must be encouraged to prevent mechanical failure. All these factors are useful in identifying patients with a closer follow-up is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1833.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: single image deraining; residual channel prior; interactive fusion
Online: 27 September 2023 (05:38:23 CEST)
Single image deraining (SID) has shown its importance in many advanced computer vision tasks. Though many CNN based image deraining methods have been proposed, how to effectively remove raindrops while maintaining background structure remains a challenge that needs to be overcome. Most of the deraining work focuses on removing rain streaks, but in heavy rain images, the dense accumulation of rainwater or the rain curtain effect significantly interferes with the effective removal of rain streaks, and often introduces some artifacts that make the scene more blurry. In this paper, we propose a new network structure R-PReNet for single image deraining with good background structure maintaining. This framework fully utilizes the cyclic recursive structure of PReNet. Moreover, we introduce residual channel prior (RCP) and feature fusion modules for better deraining performance by focusing on background feature information. Compared with the previous methods, our method has significantly improvement effect on the rainstorm image with the artifacts removing and good visual detail restoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1808.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Occupancy prediction; Deep learning; Multi-sensor fusion; Transformer
Online: 26 June 2023 (11:50:04 CEST)
Buildings are responsible for approximately 40% of the world’s energy consumption and 36% of the total carbon dioxide emissions. Building occupancy is essential, enabling Occupant-Centric Control for zero emissions and decarbonization. Although existing machine learning and deep learning methods for building occupancy prediction have achieved remarked progress, their analyses remain limited when applied to complex real-world scenarios. Besides, there is a high expectation for Transformer algorithms to predict building occupancy accurately. Therefore, this paper presents an Occupancy Prediction Transformer network (OPTnet). We fuse and feed multi-sensor data (building occupancy, indoor environmental conditions, HVAC operations) into a Transformer model to forecast the future occupancy presence in multiple zones. We perform experimental analysis and compare it to different occupancy prediction methods (e.g., Decision Tree, Long Short-Term Memory networks, Multi-layer perceptron) and diverse time horizons (1,2,3,5,10,20,30mins). The performance metrics (e.g., Accuracy and Mean Squared Error) are employed to evaluate the effectiveness of prediction algorithms. Our OPTnet method achieves superior performance on our experimental two-week data compared to existing methods. The improved performance signifies its potential to enhance HVAC control systems and energy optimization strategies. We will make the code publicly available at https://github.com/kailaisun/occupancy-prediction-binary to promote transparency and reproducibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0124.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: YOLOv8; small size targets; target detection; feature fusion
Online: 7 April 2023 (11:35:23 CEST)
Traditional camera sensors rely on human eyes for observation. However, the human eye 1 is prone to fatigue when observing targets of different sizes for a long time in complex scenes, and 2 human cognition is limited, which often leads to judgment errors and greatly reduces the efficiency. 3 Target recognition technology is an important technology to judge the target category in camera 4 sensor. In order to solve this problem, a small size target detection algorithm for special scenarios was 5 proposed by this paper. Its advantage is that this algorithm not only has higher precision for small 6 size target detection, but also can ensure that the detection accuracy of each size is not lower than the 7 existing algorithm. In this paper, a new down-sampling method was proposed, which could better 8 preserve the context feature information. The feature fusion network was improved to effectively 9 combine shallow information and deep information. A new network structure was proposed to 10 effectively improve the detection accuracy of the model. In terms of accuracy, it is better than: YOLOX, 11 YOLOXR, YOLOv3, scaled YOLOv5, YOLOv7-Tiny and YOLOv8.Three authoritative public data sets 12 were used in this experiment: a) On Visdron data sets (small size targets), DC-YOLOv8 is 2.5% more 13 accurate than YOLOv8. b) On Tinyperson data sets (minimal size targets), DC-YOLOv8 is 1% more 14 accurate than YOLOv8. c) On PASCAL VOC2007 data sets (Normal size target), DC-YOLOv8 is 0.5% 15 more accurate than YOLOv8.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0401.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: robot grasp detection; cross-modality fusion; channel interaction
Online: 23 February 2023 (06:53:53 CET)
In the field of vision-based robot grasping, effectively leveraging RGB and depth information to accurately determine the position and pose of a target is a critical issue. To address this challenge, we propose a tri-stream cross-modal fusion architecture for 2-DoF visual grasp detection. This architecture facilitates the interaction of RGB and depth bilateral information and is designed to efficiently aggregate multiscale information. Our novel modal interaction module (MIM) with spatial-wise cross-attention algorithm adaptively captures cross-modal feature information. Meanwhile, the channel interaction modules (CIM) further enhance the aggregation of different modal streams. In addition, we efficiently aggregate global multiscale information through a hierarchical structure with skipping connections. To evaluate the performance of our proposed method, we conduct validation experiments on standard public datasets and real robot grasping experiments. We achieve the image-wise detection accuracy of 99.4% and 96.7% on Cornell and Jacquard datasets respectively. The object-wise detection accuracy reaches 97.8% and 94.6% on the same datasets. Furthermore, physical experiments using the 6-DoF Elite robot demonstrate a success rate of 94.5%. These experiments highlight the superior accuracy of our proposed method.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0446.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: bands; anisotropy; cold rolling; texture; pole figures; fusion
Online: 17 January 2023 (03:11:52 CET)
With recent developments in fusion engineering, interest has sparked in development of fusion devices for deterrent. Enormous amount of energy generated by combining two light nuclei could be contained and manipulated at will to trigger and accelerate micro explosions (from shock wave, x-rays or ion beam focusing) which finally result in full scale blast. Materials required to make such device are critical. They must possess high strength, high hardness, ductility, formability, drawability, and anisotropic properties. High entropy alloys (HEA) are new class of materials which nicely fulfils this requirement. Essentially, they are solid solutions of multi principal elements (usually > 5) eliminating the need of base metal as in conventional alloys. This gives them many unique properties which may be tailored at will (heat treatment, cold rolling, precipitation, irradiation). They also exhibit excellent directional properties with formation of distinct bands along certain preferred crystallographic planes even in hexagonal close packed structures. These anisotropic properties are strong function of rolling, working, or forging (swaging) direction and can be utilized to benefit. This study encompasses making outer shell of a typical fusion device selected on the basis of the weight, which is a function of area of pay load bay of carrier aircraft.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0347.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Multi Modal Fusion; Channel Attention; Land Cover Mapping
Online: 25 July 2022 (04:51:46 CEST)
Land cover mapping provides spatial information on the physical properties of the Earth’s surface, for various classes of wetlands, artificial surface and constructions, vineyards, water bodies, etc. Having reliable information on land cover is crucial to developing solutions to a variety of environmental problems such as destruction of important wetlands/forests, and loss of fish and wildlife habitats. This has made land cover mapping one of the most widespread application areas in remote sensing computational imaging. However, due to the differences between modalities in terms of resolutions, content, and sensors, integrating complementary information that multi-modal remote sensing imagery exhibits into a robust and accurate system still remains challenging, and classical segmentation approaches generally do not give satisfactory results for land cover mapping. In this paper, we propose a novel dynamic deep network architecture, AMM-FuseNet, that promotes the use of multi-modal remote sensing images for the purpose of land cover mapping. The proposed network exploits the hybrid approach of the Channel Attention mechanism and Densely Connected Atrous Spatial Pyramid Pooling (DenseASPP). In the experimental analysis, in order to to verify the validity of the proposed method, we test AMM-FuseNet applied to four datasets whilst comparing it to the 6 state-of-the-art models of DeepLabV3+, PSPNet, UNet, SegNet, DenseASPP, and DANet. In addition, we also demonstrate the capability of AMM-FuseNet under minimal training supervision (reduced number of training samples) compared to the state-of-the-art, achieving less accuracy loss even for the case with 1/20 of the training samples.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0141.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cigarette smoking; e-cigarette smoking; mitochondria; fusion; fission
Online: 10 May 2022 (12:54:42 CEST)
Toxins present in cigarette and e-cigarette smoke constitute a significant cause of illnesses and are known to have fatal health impacts. Specific mechanisms by which toxins present in smoke impair cell repair are still being researched and are of prime interest for developing more effective treatments. Current literature suggests toxins present in cigarette smoke and aerosolized e-vapor trigger abnormal intercellular responses, damage mitochondrial function, and consequently disrupt the homeostasis of the organelle’s biochemical processes by increasing reactive oxidative species. Increased oxidative stress sets off a cascade of molecular events, disrupting optimal mitochondrial morphology and homeostasis. Furthermore, smoking-induced oxidative stress may also amalgamate with other health factors to contribute to various pathophysiological processes. An increasing number of studies show that toxins may affect mitochondria even though exposure to secondhand or thirdhand smoke. This review assesses the impact of toxins present in tobacco smoke and e-vapor on mitochondrial health, networking, and critical structural processes including mitochondria fission, fusion, hyperfusion, fragmentation, and mitophagy. The efforts are focused on discussing current evidence linking toxins present in first, second, and thirdhand smoke to mitochondrial dysfunction
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0250.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cell fusion; tumor hybrid cell; metastasis; drug resistance
Online: 15 November 2021 (11:07:48 CET)
Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer death and can be realized through the phenomenon of tumor cell fusion. The fusion of tumor cells with other tumor or normal cells leads to the appearance of tumor hybrid cells (THCs) exhibiting novel properties such as increased proliferation and migration, drug resistance, decreased apoptosis rate and avoiding immune surveillance. Experimental studies showed the association of THCs with a high frequency of cancer metastasis; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Many other questions also remain to be answered: the role of genetic alterations in tumor cell fusion, the molecular landscape of cells after fusion, the lifetime and fate of different THCs, and the specific markers of THCs, and their correlation with various cancers and clinicopathological parameters. In this review, we discuss the factors and potential mechanisms involved in the occurrence of THCs, the types of THCs, and their role in cancer drug resistance and metastasis, as well as potential therapeutic approaches for the prevention and targeting of tumor cell fusion. In conclusion, we emphasize the current knowledge gaps in the biology of THCs that should be addressed to develop highly effective therapeutics and strategies for metastasis suppression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0130.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: fusion protein; extracellular vesicles; target delivery; RNA sorting
Online: 8 October 2021 (09:21:36 CEST)
The advancement of precision medicine critically depends on the robustness and specificity of the carriers used for the targeted delivery of effector molecules in the human body. Numerous nanocarriers have been explored in vivo, to ensure the precise delivery of molecular cargos via tissue-specific targeting, including the endocrine part of the pancreas, thyroid, and adrenal glands. However, even after reaching the target organ, the cargo-carrying vehicle needs to enter the cell and then escape from lysosomal destruction. Most of artificial nanocarriers suffer from intrinsic limitations that either prevent them from completing the specific delivery of the cargo. In this respect, extracellular vesicles (EVs) seem to be the natural tool for payload delivery due to their versatility and low toxicity. However, EV-mediated delivery is not selective and usually short-ranged. By inserting the viral membrane fusion proteins into exosomes, it is possible to increase the efficiency of membrane recognition and also ease the process of membrane fusion. This review describes the molecular details of the viral-assisted interaction between the target cell and extracellular vesicles. We also discuss the question of the usability of viral fusion proteins in developing extracellular vesicle-based nanocarriers with higher efficacy of payload delivery. Finally, this review specifically highlights the role of Gag and RNA binding proteins in RNA sorting into extracellular vesicles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0314.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: powder bed fusion; additive manufacturing; ss316l; interface strength
Online: 12 April 2021 (14:12:58 CEST)
Metal powder bed fusion (PBF) additive manufacturing (AM) builds metal parts layer by layer upon a substrate material. The strength of this interface between substrate and printed material is important to characterize, especially in applications where the substrate is retained and included in the finished part. This paper studied the tensile and torsional strengths of wrought and additively manufactured (through PBF) SS316L and compared them to specimens composed of half wrought material and half PBF material. The PBF specimens consistently exhibited higher strength and lower ductility than the wrought specimens. The hybrid PBF/wrought specimens performed similarly to the wrought material. In no specimens did any failure appear to occur at or near the interface between wrought substrate and PBF material. In addition, most of the deformation in the PBF/wrought specimens appeared to be limited to the wrought portion of the specimens. These results are consistent with microscopy showing smaller grain size in the PBF material, which often leads to increased strength in SS316L due to the Hall-Petch relationship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0685.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: fusion; pansharpening; image quality; Worldview-3; quality index
Online: 28 September 2020 (11:05:51 CEST)
Image fusion is a useful tool for producing a high-resolution multispectral image to be used for land use and land cover mapping. In this study, we use nine pansharpening algorithms namely Color Normalized (CN), Gram-Schmidt (GS), Hyperspherical Color Space (HCS), High Pass Filter (HPF), Nearest-Neighbor Diffusion (NND), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Resolution Merge (RM), Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT), and Wavelet Resolution Merge (WRM) to fusion Worldview-3 multispectral Bands and panchromatic band. In spectral and spatial fidelity, several image quality metrics are used to evaluate the performance of pansharpening algorithms. The SWT and PCA algorithms showed better results compared to other pansharpening algorithms while GS and CN algorithms showed the worst results for the original image fusion. The effect of fusion on each band was separately investigated and according to the calculations, we found that the CoastalBlue band and the Blue band showed the best result and the NIR-1 band and NIR-2 band show the worst result for the original image fusion. In the end, we conclude that the choice of fusion method depends on the requirement of remote sensing application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0058.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: indoor navigation; wayfinding; visually impaired navigation; sensor fusion
Online: 27 December 2018 (11:37:53 CET)
Indoor navigation systems must deal with absence of GPS signals, since they are only available in outdoor environments. Therefore, indoor systems have to rely upon other techniques for positioning users. Recently various indoor navigation systems have been designed and developed to help visually impaired people. In this paper an overview of some existing indoor navigation systems for visually impaired people are presented and they are compared from different perspectives. The evaluated techniques are ultrasonic systems, RFID-based solutions, computer vision aided navigation systems, ans smartphone-based applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0509.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: visual-inertial odometry; UAV navigation; sensor fusion; optimization
Online: 26 September 2018 (13:23:48 CEST)
Visual inertial odometry (VIO) has recently received much attention for efficient and accurate ego-motion estimation of unmanned aerial vehicle systems (UAVs). Recent studies have shown that optimization-based algorithms achieve typically high accuracy when given enough amount of information, but occasionally suffer from divergence when solving highly non-linear problems. Further, their performance significantly depends on the accuracy of the initialization of inertial measurement unit (IMU) parameters. In this paper, we propose a novel VIO algorithm of estimating the motional state of UAVs with high accuracy. The main technical contributions are the fusion of visual information and pre-integrated inertial measurements in a joint optimization framework, and the stable initialization of scale and gravity using relative pose constraints. To count for ambiguity and uncertainty of VIO initialization, a local scale parameter is adopted in the online optimization. Quantitative comparisons with the state-of-the-art algorithms on the EuRoC dataset verify the efficacy and accuracy of the proposed method.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2000.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cluster of differentiation 74 (CD74); oncogenic fusion protein; fusion gene; CD74-ROS1; CD74-NTRK1; CD74-NRG1; CD74-NRG2a; CD74-PDGFRB; cancer.
Online: 29 September 2023 (04:35:12 CEST)
CD74 is a type II cell surface receptor found to be highly expressed in several hematological and solid cancers, due to its ability to activate pathways associated with tumor cell survival and proliferation. Over the past 16 years, CD74 is emerging as a commonly detected fusion partner in multiple oncogenic fusion proteins. Studies have found CD74 fusion proteins in a range of cancers including lung adenocarcinoma, inflammatory breast cancer, and pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. To date, there are five known CD74 fusion proteins, CD74-ROS1, CD74-NTRK1, CD74-NRG1, CD74-NRG2a, and CD74-PDGFRB, with a total of 16 different variants, each with unique genetic signatures. Importantly, the occurrence of CD74 in the formation of fusion proteins has not been well explored despite the fact that ROS1 and NRG1 families utilize CD74 as the primary partner for the formation of oncogenic fusions. Fusion proteins known to be oncogenic drivers, including those of CD74, are typically detected, and targeted after standard chemotherapeutic plans fail and the disease relapses. The analysis reported herein provides insights into early intervention of CD74 fusions and highlight the need for improved routine assessment methods so that targeted therapies can be applied while they are most effective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0343.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: hyperspectral imaging super-resolution; image fusion; transformer; remote sensing
Online: 6 November 2023 (11:30:19 CET)
Multispectral image (MSI) and hyperspectral image (HSI) fusion (MHIF) aims to address the challenge of acquiring high-resolution (HR) HSI images. This field combines a low-resolution (LR) HSI with an HR-MSI to reconstruct HR-HSI. Existing methods directly utilize transformers to perform feature extraction and fusion. Despite the demonstrated success, there exist two limitations: 1) Employing the entire transformer model for feature extraction and fusion fails to fully harness the transformer’s potential in integrating the spectral of the HSI and spatial information of the MSI. 2) HSI has a strong spectral correlation and exhibits sparsity in the spatial domain. Existing transformer-based models do not optimize this physical property, which makes their methods prone to spectral distortion. To accomplish these issues, this paper introduces a novel framework for MHIF called Sparse Mix-Attention Transformer (SAMformer). Specifically, to fully harness the advantages of the Transformer architecture, we propose a Spectral Mix Attention Block (SMAB), which concatenates the keys and values extracted from LR-HSI and HR-MSI to create a new multi-head attention module. This design facilitates the extraction of detailed long-range information across spatial and spectral dimensions. Besides, to address the spatial sparsity inherent in HSI, we incorporated a sparse mechanism within the core of SMAB called Sparse Spectral Mix Attention Block (SSMAB). In the SSMAB, we compute attention maps from queries and keys and select the K highly correlated values as the sparse attention map. This approach enables us to achieve a sparse representation of spatial information while eliminating spatially disruptive noise. Extensive experiments conducted on three benchmark datasets, namely Cave, Harvard, and Pavia Center, demonstrate the SMAformer method outperforms state-of-the-art methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2074.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: RAF1 aberration; amplification; fusion; single nucleotide variants; RAF inhibitor
Online: 29 September 2023 (10:33:00 CEST)
Purpose: Therapeutic targeting of RAF1 is promising, but it requires further investigation for the relation between clinical features and RAF1 aberrations regarding the MAPK signaling pathway in various solid tumors to realize the precision medicine. Methods: Between October 2019 and June 2023, Samsung Medical Center, 3,895 patients with metastatic cancer patients received a next-generation sequencing (NGS) using TruSight Oncology 500 (TSO500) assay as a routine clinical practice. We surveyed the incidence of RAF1 aberration including mutation (single-nucleotide variant [SNV]), amplification (copy-number variation), and fusion. Results: In 3,895 metastatic cancer patients, 77 (2.0%) had RAF1 aberrations in their tumor specimen. Of 77 patients, 44 (1.1%) had RAF1 mutations (SNV), 25 (0.6%) had RAF1 amplification and 10 (0.3%) had RAF1 fusions. Among 10 patients with RAF1 fusion, concurrent RAF1 amplification and RAF1 mutation were detected in one patient each. The most common tumor types were bladder cancer (11.5%), followed by ampulla of Vater (AoV) cancer (5.3%), melanoma (3.0%), gallbladder (GB) cancer (2.6%), and gastric cancer (2.3%). Microsatellite instability high (MSI-H) tumors were found in 5 out of 76 patients (6.6%) with RAF1 aberration, while MSI-H tumors were found only in 2.1% of patients with wild-type RAF1 cancer (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: We showed that when patients with metastatic solid cancer receive NGS test, approximately 2.0% have RAF1 aberrations in their tumor specimen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0699.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: wireless sensor networks; energy harvesting; neighbor discovery; data fusion
Online: 12 September 2023 (04:10:25 CEST)
Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are widely used in various fields such as military, industrial and transportation for real-time monitoring, sensing and data collection of different environments or objects. However, the development of WSN is hindered by several limitations, including energy, storage space, computing power and data transmission rate. Among these, the availability of power energy plays a crucial role as it directly determines the lifespan of WSN. To extend the life cycle of WSN, two key approaches are power supply improvement and energy conservation. Therefor, we proposed an energy harvesting system and a low energy consumption mechanism for WSN. Firstly, we delved into the energy harvesting technology of WSN, explored the utilization of solar energy and mechanical vibration energy to ensure a continuous and dependable power supply to the sensor nodes, and analyzed the voltage output characteristics of bistable piezoelectric cantilever. Secondly, we proposed a neighbor discovery mechanism that utilizes a separation beacon, is based on reply to ACK, and can facilitate the identification of neighboring nodes. This mechanism operates at a certain duty cycle ratio, significantly reduces idle listening time and results in substantial energy savings. In comparison to the Disco and U-connect protocols, our proposed mechanism achieves a remarkable reduction of 66.67% and 75% in the worst discovery delay, respectively. Furthermore, we introduced a data fusion mechanism based on integer wavelet transform. This mechanism effectively eliminates data redundancy caused by spatio-temporal correlation, results in a data compression rate of 5.42. Additionally, it significantly reduces energy consumption associated with data transmission by the nodes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1956.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Multimodal fusion; Attention mechanism; 3D target detection; Deep learning
Online: 28 July 2023 (12:49:30 CEST)
This paper proposes a multimodal fusion 3D target detection algorithm based on the attention mechanism to improve the performance of 3D target detection. The algorithm utilizes point cloud data and information from camera. For image feature extraction, the ResNet50+FPN architecture extracts features at four levels. Point cloud feature extraction employs the voxel method and FCN to extract point and voxel features. The fusion of image and point cloud features is achieved through regional point fusion and regional voxel fusion methods. After information fusion, the Coordinate attention mechanism and SimAM attention mechanism extract fusion features at a deep level. The algorithm's performance is evaluated using the DAIR-V2X dataset. The results show that compared to the Part-A2 algorithm, the proposed algorithm improves the mAP value by 7.9% in BEV view and 7.8% in 3D view at IOU=0.5 (cars) and IOU=0.25 (pedestrians and cyclist). At IOU=0.7 (cars) and IOU=0.5 (pedestrians and cyclist), the mAP value of the SECOND algorithm is improved by 5.4% in the BEV view and 4.3% in the 3D view, compared to other comparison algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0654.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: neuromuscular diseases; scoliosis; posterior spinal fusion surgery; Cobb angle
Online: 9 May 2023 (12:35:41 CEST)
Patients with neuromuscular diseases usually have progressive neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS), requiring invasive surgery. Some patients present with severe scoliosis at the time of consultation and are difficult to treat. Posterior spinal fusion (PSF) surgery combined with anterior release and pre or intraoperative traction would be effective for severe spinal deformity, but invasive. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of PSF only surgery for patients with severe NMS with Cobb angle >100 °. Thirty NMS patients (13 boys and 17 girls; mean age 13.8 years) who underwent PSF only surgery for scoliosis with Cobb angle >100 ° were included. We reviewed the lower instrumented vertebra (LIV), duration of surgery, blood loss, perioperative complications, preoperative clinical findings, and radiographic findings including Cobb angle and pelvic obliquity (PO) in the sitting position pre and postoperatively. The correction rate and correction loss of the Cobb angle and PO were also calculated. The mean duration of surgery was 338 min, intraoperative blood loss was 1,440 mL, preoperative %VC was 34.1%, FEV1.0 (%) was 91.5%, and EF was 66.1%. There were eight cases of perioperative complications. The Cobb angle and PO correction rates were 48.5% and 42.0%, respectively. We divided the patients into two groups: the L5 group, in which the LIV was L5, and the pelvis group, in which the LIV was the pelvis. The duration of surgery and PO correction rate in the pelvis group was significantly higher than that of the L5 group. Patients with severe NMS demonstrated severe preoperative restrictive ventilatory impairments. PSF only surgery for severe NMS showed satisfactory outcomes, although highly invasive. Instrumentation and fusion to the pelvis for severe scoliosis in patients with NMS showed good PO correction and low correction loss of Cobb angle and PO, but a longer duration of surgery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0100.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Infrared small targets; Counter-drones; Progressive fusion; Lightweight network
Online: 3 May 2023 (05:49:13 CEST)
The rampant misuse of drones poses a serious threat to national security and human life. Currently, the CNN method has been widely used in drone detection. However, there is a challenge that traditional CNN cannot cope with, which is small drone targets often have reduced amplitude or even lost features in infrared images. This paper proposes a Progressive Feature Fusion Network (PFFNet) that gradually increases the response amplitude of the target in the deep network. The Feature Selection Model (FSM) is designed to improve the utilisation of the output coding graph and enhance the feature representation of the target in the network. A lightweight segmentation head is also designed to achieve progressive feature fusion with multi-layer outputs. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve low duration and high accuracy in drone target detection. On the public dataset, the IoU is improved by 2.53% and the detection time is reduced by 81.03%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0912.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: tungsten, metal matrix composites, CVD, yarns, preforms, textiles, fusion
Online: 25 April 2023 (09:48:25 CEST)
The use of tungsten fiber-reinforced tungsten composites (Wf/W) has been demonstrated to significantly enhance the mechanical properties of tungsten (W) by incorporating W-fibers into the W-matrix. However, prior research has been restricted by the usage of single fiber-based textile fabrics, consisting of 150 µm warp and 50 µm weft filaments, with limited homogeneity, reproducibility, and mechanical properties in bulk structures due to the rigidity of the 150 µm fibers. To overcome this limitation, two novel textile preforms were developed utilizing radial braided yarns with 7 core- and 16 sleeve filaments (R.B. 16+7) as the warp material. In this study, bulk composites of two different fabric types were produced via a layer-by-layer CVD-process, utilizing single 50 µm filaments (type 1) and R.B. 16+7 yarns (type 2) as weft materials. The produced composites were sectioned into KLST-type specimen based on DIN EN ISO 179-1:2000 using electrical discharge machining (EDM), and subjected to three-point bending tests. Both composites demonstrated enhanced mechanical properties with pseudo-ductile behavior at room temperature and endured over 10,000 load cycles between 50-90 % of their respective maximum load without sample fracture. Composites based on fabric type 1 demonstrated superior manufacturing performance and mechanical properties, a high relative average density (>97 %), and high fiber volume fraction (14-17 %). Furthermore, a novel approach to predict the fatigue behavior of the material under cyclic loading was developed based on the high reproducibility of the mechanical properties of type 1, providing a new benchmark for upscaling endeavors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0151.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Forecast splashing; suppression splashing; AOD; signal fusion; fuzzy control
Online: 10 June 2022 (07:51:53 CEST)
During the smelting process of AOD furnace, the unbalanced reaction of material will lead to the occurrence of splashing. It will not only damage the smelting equipment, but also seriously injure the personnel. In this study, first, the information of liquid level, audio information, and vibration information are detected by multiple sensors respectively. Then, the fused information is used to forecast the splashing. Finally, the multitasking fuzzy controller is used to suppress splashing. The results show that the method of forecasting and suppressing splashing can accurately forecast and achieve rapid suppression. Thus, the efficiency of smelting can be improved.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0401.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: SNAP25; linker; protein lipid interaction; acceptor complex; exocytosis; fusion
Online: 27 March 2020 (02:56:59 CET)
A recent paper demonstrates the importance of the linker region joining the two SNARE motifs of the neuronal t-SNARE SNAP25 for maintaining rates of secretion with roles for distinct segments in speeding fusion pore expansion (Shaaban et al., 2019, Elife. 8). Remarkably, lipid perturbing agents rescue a palmitoylation-deficient phenotype that includes slow fusion pore expansion, suggesting that protein-protein interactions have a role not only in bringing together the granule or vesicle membrane with the plasma membrane but also in orchestrating protein-lipid interactions leading to the fusion reaction. Furthermore, biochemical investigations demonstrate the importance of the C-terminal domain of the linker in the formation of the plasma membrane t-SNARE acceptor complex for synaptobrevin2 (Jiang, et al., 2019, FASEB J. 33:7985-7994;Shaaban et al., 2019, Elife. 8). This insight, together with biophysical and optical studies from other laboratories (Wang, et al., 2008, Molecular Biology of the Cell. 19:3944-3955; Zhao, et al., 2013, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110:14249-14254) suggests that the plasma membrane SNARE acceptor complex between SNAP25 and syntaxin and the resulting trans SNARE complex with the v-SNARE synaptobrevin form just milliseconds before fusion.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: magnetic fusion devices; ir interferometry; fpga; phase detection; dsp
Online: 20 September 2019 (10:32:16 CEST)
Interferometry is used in magnetic fusion devices to measure the line-1 averaged electron density. It is based on detecting changes in the refractive index of electromagnetic waves traveling through a plasma. The adequate frequency of these electromagnetic waves depends on several limitations. First the maximum expected peak electronic density must be lower than the cutoff density for that frequency. This means that the waves can still propagate through the plasma when the maximum density is reached. In this sense, IR interferometers operating in the infrared región are themost suitable. With such low wavelengths, mechanical vibrations become an important issue and a complementary interferometer to cancel these vibrations must be used. These arrangements are called two color interferometers. In this paper some measurements that were obtained from the TJ-II double color IR FPGA-based processing system that were never published before are shown and analyzed. The line-averaged electron density is computed in real time (100 μs).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: DNM1L; Drp1; mitochondrial disease; mitochondrial fission-fusion; Bezafibrate; fibroblast
Online: 8 August 2019 (11:01:59 CEST)
Mitochondria are involved in many cellular processes and their main role is cellular energy production. They constantly undergo fission and fusion, and these counteracting processes are under strict balance. The cytosolic dynamin-related protein 1, Drp1 or dynamin-1-like protein (DNM1L) mediates mitochondrial and peroxisomal division. Defects in the DNM1L gene results in a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with heterogeneous symptoms affecting multiple organ systems. Currently there is no curative treatment available for this condition. We have previously described a patient with a de novo heterozygous c.1084G>A (p.G362S) DNM1L mutation and studied the effects of a small molecule, Bezafibrate, on mitochondrial functions in this patient’s fibroblasts compared to controls. Bezafibrate normalized growth on glucose-free medium, ATP production, oxygen consumption and s improved mitochondrial morphology in patient’s fibroblasts, albeit concomitantly causing a mild increase ROS production. Further studies would be needed to show the consistency of the response to Bezafibrate, possibly using fibroblasts from patients with different mutations in DNM1L, and this treatment should be confirmed in clinical trials. However, taking into account the favorable effects in our study, we suggest that Bezafibrate could be a possible treatment option for patients with certain DNM1L mutations.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: laser powder bed fusion; process monitoring; defect detection; coaxial
Online: 19 April 2019 (11:18:13 CEST)
This paper describes a multi-channel in-situ monitoring system developed to better understand defect formation signatures in metal additive manufacturing. Three high-speed imaging modes coupled with an image computer capable of processing and storing these data streams allowed an examination of defect formations signatures and mechanisms. It was found that defects later detected in X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans were related to regions with anomalous heat signatures and powder bed morphology. Automated defect detection algorithms based on these defect signatures captured 80% of defects greater than 300 µm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0635.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: DEM fusion; multi-scale analysis; WT; BEMD; N-AMD
Online: 26 October 2018 (15:26:12 CEST)
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are widely used in geographic and environmental studies. In the current work, the fusion of multi-source DEMs is investigated to improve the overall accuracy of public domain DEMs. Multi-scale decomposition is an important analytical method in data fusion. Three multi-scale decomposition methods – the wavelet transform (WT), bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) and nonlinear adaptive multi-scale decomposition (N-AMD) - are applied to the 1-arc-second Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Global digital elevation model (SRTM-1 DEM) and the Advanced Land Observing Satellite World 3D – 30 m digital surface model (AW3D30 DSM) in China. Of these, the WT and BEMD are popular image fusion methods. A new approach for DEM fusion is developed using N-AMD (which is originally invented to remove the cycle from sunspots). Subsequently, a window-based rule is proposed for the fusion of corresponding frequency components obtained by these methods. Quantitative results show that N-AMD is more suitable for multi-scale fusion of multi-source DEMs, taking the ice cloud and land elevation satellite (ICESat) global land surface altimetry data as a reference. The vertical accuracy of the fused DEM shows significant improvements of 29.6% and 19.3% in a mountainous region and 27.4% and 15.5% in a low-relief region, compared to the SRTM-1 and AW3D30 respectively. Furthermore, a slope position-based linear regression method is developed to calibrate the fused DEM for different slope position classes, by investigating the distribution of the fused DEM error with topography. The results indicate that the accuracy of the DEM calibrated by this method is improved by 16% and 13.6%, compared to the fused DEM in the mountainous region and low-relief region respectively, proving that it is a practical and simple means of further increasing the accuracy of the fused DEM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0225.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: 3D thermal model; image fusion; smart phone; thermal IR
Online: 16 May 2018 (08:26:39 CEST)
Thermal infrared imagery provides temperature information on target objects, and has been widely applied in non-destructive testing. However, thermal infrared imagery is not always able to display detailed textures of inspected objects, which hampers the understanding of geometric entities consisting of temperature information. Although some commercial software has been developed for 3D thermal model displays, the software requires the use of expensive specific thermal infrared sensors. This study proposes a cost-effective method for 3D thermal model reconstruction based on image-based modeling. Two smart phones and a low-cost thermal infrared camera are employed to acquire visible images and thermal images, respectively, that are fused for 3D thermal model reconstruction. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method is able to effectively reconstruct a 3D thermal model which extremely approximates its corresponding entity. The total computation time for the 3D thermal model reconstruction is intensive while generating dense points required for the creation of a geometric entity. Future work will improve the efficiency of the proposed method in order to expand its potential applications to in-time monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0077.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: UAVs sensor fusion; EKF; real data analysis; system design
Online: 9 January 2018 (07:47:45 CET)
This paper presents a methodology to design sensor fusion parameters using real performance indicators of navigation in UAVs based on PixHawk flight controller and peripherals. This methodology and the selected performance indicators allows to find the best parameters for the fusion system of a determined configuration of sensors and a predefined real mission. The selected real platform is described with stress on available sensors and data processing software, and the experimental methodology is proposed to characterize sensor data fusion output and determine the best choice of parameters using quality measurements of tracking output with performance metrics not requiring ground truth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: synthetic aperture radar; features extraction; saliency detection; image fusion
Online: 26 April 2017 (06:06:19 CEST)
Saliency detection in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image is a difficult problem. This paper proposed a multitask saliency detection (MSD) model for the saliency detection task of SAR image. Firstly, we extract four features of SAR image as the input of the MSD model, which include the intensity, orientation, uniqueness and global contrast. Then, the saliency map is generated by the multitask sparsity pursuit (MTSP) which integrates the multiple features collaboratively. Subjective and objective evaluation of the MSD model verifies its effectiveness. Based on the saliency maps of the source images, an image fusion method is proposed for the SAR and color optical image fusion. The experimental results of real data show the proposed image fusion method is superior to the presenting methods in terms of several universal quality evaluation indexes, as well as in the visual quality. The salient areas in the SAR image can be highlighted and the spatial and spectral details of color optical image can also be preserved in the fusion result.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0159.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: object detection; background subtraction; video surveillance; Kinect sensor fusion
Online: 20 March 2017 (10:21:40 CET)
Depth-sensing technology has led to broad applications of inexpensive depth cameras that can capture human motion and scenes in 3D space. Background subtraction algorithms can be improved by fusing color and depth cues, thereby allowing many issues encountered in classical color segmentation to be solved. In this paper, we propose a new fusion method that combines depth and color information for foreground segmentation based on an advanced color-based algorithm. First, a background model and a depth model are developed. Then, based on these models, we propose a new updating strategy that can eliminate ghosting and black shadows almost completely. Extensive experiments have been performed to compare the proposed algorithm with other, conventional RGB-D algorithms. The experimental results suggest that our method extracts foregrounds with higher effectiveness and efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0057.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: multi-focus image, image fusion, region mosaic, contrast pyramid
Online: 10 November 2016 (07:34:22 CET)
This paper proposes a new approach for multi-focus images fusion based on Region Mosaicing on Contrast Pyramids (REMCP). A density-based region growing method is developed to construct a focused region mask for multi-focus images. The segmented focused region mask is decomposed into a mask pyramid, which is then used for supervised region mosaicking on a contrast pyramid. In this way, the focus measurement and the continuity of focused regions are incorporated and the pixel level pyramid fusion is improved at the region level. Objective and subjective experiments show that the proposed REMCP is more robust to noise than compared algorithms and can fully preserves the focus information of the multi-focus images meanwhile reducing distortions of the fused images.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1733.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Respiratory syncytial virus; Retro-2.2; fusion protein; retrograde transport; antiviral
Online: 26 October 2023 (16:10:47 CEST)
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in new-borns, with all children being infected before the age of two. Reinfections are very common throughout life, and can cause severe respiratory infections in the elderly and immunocompromised adults. Although vaccines and preventive antibodies have recently been licensed for use in specific subpopulations of patients, there is still no therapeutic treatment commonly available for these infections. Here, we investigated the potential antiviral activity of Retro-2.2, a derivative of the cellular retrograde transport inhibitor Retro-2, against hRSV. We show that Retro-2.2 inhibits hRSV replication in cell culture, and impairs the ability of hRSV to form syncytia. Our results suggest that Retro-2.2 treatment affects virus spread by disrupting the trafficking of the viral de novo synthetized F and G glycoproteins to the plasma membrane, leading to a defect in virion morphogenesis. Taken together, our data show that targeting intracellular transport may be an effective strategy against hRSV infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1230.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: fatigue recognition; Air traffic controller; Feature fusion; Multi-mode; scheduling
Online: 19 October 2023 (08:42:59 CEST)
An algorithm is proposed for discriminating the fatigue state of air traffic controllers based on ap-plying multispeech feature fusion using an FSVM to voice data, and for extracting eye-fatigue-state discrimination features based on PERCLOS eye data. For the speech algorithm and an eye-fatigue index, a new controller fatigue-state evaluation index based on the entropy weight method is proposed based on decision-level fusion of fatigue discrimination results for speech and the eyes. Experimental results show that the fatigue-state recognition accuracy rate was 84.81% for the fatigue state evaluation index, which was 3.36% and 1.86% higher than those for speech and eye assessments, respectively. The comprehensive fatigue evaluation index provides important reference values for controller scheduling and mental-state evaluations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0114.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: Forest soils; data fusion; topographic attributes; soil spectroscopy; external drift
Online: 3 July 2023 (14:45:46 CEST)
Soil texture is a key property influencing most soil physical, chemical, and biological processes and its catchment-scale spatial variation may yields insights for soil management. Texture data are generally available only at a few locations, since sampling and laboratory analyses are time consuming. Therefore, it is essential to predict soil size particles texture variability using appropriate methods. Moreover, soil texture distribution across a catchment is influenced by erosion and sedimentation processes controlled by hillslope morphology, which can be quantified through some topographic attributes. The study was aimed to evaluate the ability of a multivariate approach based on non-stationary geostatistics to merge remotely sensed high-resolution LiDAR-derived topographic attributes with Vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and laboratory analysis to produce high-resolution maps of soil sand content and estimation uncertainty in a forested catchment in southern Italy. Moreover, the proposed approach was compared with the commonly used univariate approach of ordinary kriging. Soil samples were collected at 135 locations within a 139 ha-forest catchment with granitic parent material and subordinately alluvial deposits, where soils classified as Typic Xerumbrepts and Ultic Haploxeralf crop out. A number of linear trend models coupled with different auxiliary variables were compared and the best one resulted the model using clay content as auxiliary variable. The improvement of estimation from using only LiDAR data (elevation) compared to the univariate (no trend) model was rather marginal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1098.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: European DEMO; Helium Cooled Pebble Bed; Tritium Breeding Blanket; Fusion
Online: 25 June 2023 (04:44:52 CEST)
Significant design efforts were undertaken during the Pre-Concept Design (PCD) phase of the European DEMO programme to optimize the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) breeding blanket. A gate review was conducted for the entire European DEMO programme at the conclusion of the PCD phase. This article presents a summary of the design evolution and the rationale behind the HCPB breeding blanket concept for the European DEMO. The main performance metrics, including nuclear, thermal hydraulics, thermal mechanical, and tritium permeation behaviors, are reported. These figures demonstrate that the HCPB breeding blanket is a highly effective tritium-breeding and robust driver blanket concept for the European DEMO. In addition, three alternative concepts of interest were explored. Furthermore, this article outlines the upcoming design and R&D activities for the HCPB breeding blanket during the Concept Design phase (2021-2027).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0705.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: MR synthesis, GAN, multi-modal fusion, tumor monitoring, contrast enhancement
Online: 10 May 2023 (08:10:11 CEST)
Purposes: To provide abdominal contrast-enhanced MR image synthesis, we developed an image gradient regularized multi-modal multi-discrimination sparse-attention fusion generative adversarial network (GRMM-GAN) to avoid repeated contrast injections to patients and facilitate adaptive monitoring. Methods: With IRB approval, 165 abdominal MR studies from 61 liver cancer patients were retrospectively solicited from our institutional database. Each study included T2, T1 pre-contrast (T1pre), and T1 contrast-enhanced (T1ce) images. The GRMM-GAN synthesis pipeline consists of a sparse attention fusion network, an image gradient regularizer (GR), and a generative adversarial network with multi-discrimination. The studies were randomly divided into 115 for training, 20 for validation, and 30 for testing. The two pre-contrast MR modalities, T2 and T1pre images, were adopted as inputs in the training phase. The T1ce image at the portal venous phase was used as an output. The synthesized T1ce images were compared with the ground truth T1ce images. The evaluation metrics include peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural-similarity-index (SSIM), and mean-squared-error (MSE). A Turing test and experts’ contours evaluated the image synthesis quality. Results: The proposed GRMM-GAN model achieved a PSNR of 28.56, an SSIM of 0.869, and an MSE of 83.27. The proposed model showed statistically significant improvements in all metrics tested with p-values <0.05 over the state-of-the-art model comparisons. The average Turing test score was 52.33%, close to random guessing, supporting the model's effectiveness for clinical application. In the tumor-specific region analysis, the average tumor contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the synthesized MR images was not statistically significant from the real MR images. The average DICE from real vs. synthetic images was 0.90, compared to the inter-operator DICE of 0.91. Conclusion: We demonstrated the function of a novel multi-modal MR image synthesis neural network, GRMM-GAN, for T1ce MR synthesis based on pre-contrast T1 and T2 MR images. GRMM-GAN shows promise for avoiding repeated contrast injections during radiation therapy treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0445.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: GDP; deep learning; time fusion transformers; multi-horizon forecasting; interpretability
Online: 8 May 2023 (04:47:10 CEST)
This paper applies a new artificial intelligence architecture, the Temporal Fusion Transformer (TFT), for the joint GDP forecasting of 25 OECD countries at different time horizons. This new attention-based architecture offers significant advantages over other deep learning methods. First, results are interpretable since the impact of each explanatory variable on each forecast can be calculated. Second, it allows to visualize persistent temporal patterns and to identify significant events and different regimes. Third, it provides quantile regressions and permits to train the model on multiple time series from different distributions. Results suggest that TFTs outperform regression models, especially in periods of turbulence such as the COVID-19 shock. Interesting economic interpretations are obtained depending on whether the country is domestic demand-led or export-led growth. In essence, TFT is revealed as a new tool that artificial intelligence provides to economists and policy makers, with enormous prospects for the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0319.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: hyperspectral images; convolutional neural networks; graph convolutional networks; feature fusion
Online: 5 May 2023 (07:40:07 CEST)
Convolutional neural networks (CNN) have attracted much attention as a commonly used method for hyperspectral image (HSI) classification in recent years, however, CNNs can only be applied to Euclidean data and have limitations in dealing with relationships due to the limitations of local feature extraction. However, each pixel of a hyperspectral image contains a set of spectral bands that are correlated and interact with each other, and the methods used to process Euclidean data cannot effectively obtain these correlations. In contrast, the graph convolutional network (GCN) can be used in non-Euclidean data, but usually leads to oversmoothing and ignoring local detail features due to the need for superpixel segmentation processing to reduce computational effort. To overcome the above problems, we constructed a network a fusion network based on GCN and CNN, which contains two branches: a graph convolutional network based on superpixel segmentation and a convolutional network with added attention mechanism. The graph convolu-tional branch can extract the structural features and capture the relationships between the nodes, and the convolutional branch can extract the detailed features in the local fine region. Owing to the fact that the features extracted from the two branches are different, the classification performance can be improved by fusing the complementary features extracted from the two branches. To vali-date the proposed algorithm, experiments were conducted on three widely used datasets, namely Indian Pines, Pavia University, and Salinas, and the overall accuracy of 98.78% was obtained in the Indian Pines dataset, and the overall accuracy of 98.99% and 98.69% was obtained in the other two datasets. The results showed that the proposed fusion network can obtain richer features and achieve high classification accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0312.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Electromagnetic propulsion; High power; Propellant free; General Relativity; nuclear fusion
Online: 16 November 2022 (13:10:17 CET)
In this paper a high-power and propellant-free electromagnetic propulsion is proposed based on the General Relativity and nuclear fusion technology. We find that Riemann curvature vanish and geodesic motion is free from gravitational field locally in a special space-time, which demonstrates the feasibility of propellant-free electromagnetic propulsion. To achieve high-power propulsion in Schwarzschild background, we choose current loop as axisymmetric field source and obtain exact solution of Einstein-Maxwell field equation using Killing symmetry and Ernst generation technique. An implementation with superconductor shield is given according to the Meissner effect, calculation implies that the device can be sufficiently free from gravitational field with the aid of existing nuclear fusion engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0242.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Colletotrichum graminicola; oval conidia; falcate conidia; germling fusion; conidiation; autophagy
Online: 17 March 2022 (03:34:08 CET)
Hyphal and germling fusion is a common phenomenon in ascomycetous fungi. Due to the formed hyphal network, this process enables coordinated development, interaction with plant hosts and efficient nutrient distribution. Recently, our lab showed a positive correlation of germling fusion with the formation of penetrating hyphopodia on maize leaves outgoing from Colletotrichum graminicola oval conidia. To investigate the probable interconnectivity of these processes, we have generated a deletion mutant in Cgso, which homologs are essential for cellular fusion in other fungal species. Indeed, plant infection studies combined with microscopy revealed a significant decrease in symptom development of the ∆Cgso mutant on maize leaves. However, hyphopodia development was not affected, indicating that both processes are not directly connected. Instead, we were able to link the decreased symptom development to a reduced formation of acervuli, asexual fruiting bodies of C. graminicola, which give rise to falcate conidia. Monitoring of a fluorescent labelled autophagy marker eGFP-CgAtg8 revealed a high autophagy activity in hyphae surrounding acervuli. Since the ∆Cgso mutant shows no hyphal fusions at these sites, we conclude that efficient nutrient transport of degraded cellular material by hyphal fusions enables proper acervuli maturation and symptom development on leaves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0244.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Attention mechanism; CHMM; LSTM; Multi-modal fusion; Human behavior recognition
Online: 14 December 2021 (15:09:15 CET)
The multi-modal data fusion method based on IA-net and CHMM technical proposed is designed to solve the problem that the incompleteness of target behavior information in complex family environment leads to the low accuracy of human behavior recognition.The two improved neural networks(STA-ResNet50、STA-GoogleNet)are combined with LSTM to form two IA-Nets respectively to extract RGB and skeleton modal behavior features in video. The two modal feature sequences are input CHMM to construct the probability fusion model of multi-modal behavior recognition.The experimental results show that the human behavior recognition model proposed in this paper has higher accuracy than the previous fusion methods on HMDB51 and UCF101 datasets. New contributions: attention mechanism is introduced to improve the efficiency of video target feature extraction and utilization. A skeleton based feature extraction framework is proposed, which can be used for human behavior recognition in complex environment. In the field of human behavior recognition, probability theory and neural network are cleverly combined and applied, which provides a new method for multi-modal information fusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0389.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Centralized fusion estimation, Random delay systems, Tessarine processing, Tk properness.
Online: 16 July 2021 (16:30:57 CEST)
The centralized fusion estimation problem for discrete-time vectorial tessarine signals in multiple sensor stochastic systems with random one-step delays and correlated noises is analyzed under different T-properness conditions. Based on Tk, k=1,2, linear processing, new centralized fusion filtering, prediction, and fixed-point smoothing algorithms are devised. These algorithms have the advantage of providing optimal estimators with a significant reduction in computational cost compared to that obtained through a real or widely linear processing approach. Simulation examples illustrate the effectiveness and applicability of the algorithms proposed, in which the superiority of the Tk linear estimators over their counterparts in the quaternion domain is apparent.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0382.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: Microfluidics; surgery; single cell; multicellular systems; sectioning; ablation; biopsy; fusion
Online: 16 July 2021 (14:53:11 CEST)
Microscale surgery on single cells and small organisms have enabled major advances in fundamental biology and in engineering biological systems. Examples of applications range from wound healing and regeneration studies to the generation of hybridoma to produce monoclonal antibodies. Even today, these surgical operations are often performed manually, but they are labor-intensive and lack reproducibility. Microfluidics has emerged as a powerful technology to control and manipulate cells and multicellular systems at the micro- and nanoscale with high precision. Here, we review the physical and chemical mechanisms of microscale surgery, and the corresponding design principles, applications, and implementations in microfluidic systems. We consider four types of surgical operations: 1) Sectioning, which splits a biological entity into multiple parts, 2) ablation, which destroys part of an entity, 3) biopsy, which extracts materials from within a living cell, and 4) fusion, which joins multiple entities into one. For each type of surgery, we summarize the motivating applications and the microfluidic devices developed. Throughout the review, we highlight existing challenges and opportunities. We hope that this review will inspire scientists and engineers to continue to explore and improve microfluidic surgical methods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0320.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cell-cell fusion; henipavirus; pathogenesis; paramyxovirus; syncytium; within-host dynamics
Online: 14 July 2021 (11:09:08 CEST)
Syncytium formation, i.e., cell-cell fusion resulting in the formation of multinucleated cells, is a hallmark of infection by paramyxoviruses and other important viruses. This natural mechanism has historically been a diagnostic marker for paramyxovirus infection in vivo and is now widely studied for virus-induced membrane fusion in vitro. However, the role of syncytium formation in within-host dissemination and pathogenicity of viruses remains poorly understood. The diversity of henipaviruses and their wide host range and tissue tropism make them particularly appropriate models to characterize the drivers of syncytium formation and its implications for virus fitness and pathogenicity. Based on the henipavirus literature, we summarized current knowledge on the mechanisms driving syncytium formation, mostly acquired from in vitro studies, and on the in vivo distribution of syncytia. While these data suggest that syncytium formation widely occurs across henipaviruses, hosts and tissues, we identified important data gaps that undermined our understanding of the role of syncytium formation in virus pathogenesis. Based on these observations, we propose solutions of varying complexity to fill these data gaps, from better practices in data archiving and publication for in vivo studies, to experimental approaches in vitro.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: cold nuclear fusion; maximum binding energy per nucleon; nuclear experiment
Online: 11 March 2021 (14:15:22 CET)
Following the concept of strong interaction, theoretically, fusion of proton seems to increase the binding energy of final atom by 8.8 MeV. Due to Coulombic repulsion, asymmetry effect, pairing effect and other nuclear effects, final atom is forced to choose a little bit of binding energy less than 8.8 MeV and thus it is able to release left over binding energy in the form of internal kinetic energy or external thermal energy. Thus, in cold fusion, heat release to occur, binding energy difference of final atom and base atom seems to be less than 8.8 MeV. Qualitatively, energy released during cold fusion seems to be approximately equal to 8.8 MeV minus the difference of binding energy of final and base atoms. Based on this idea, under normal conditions, for the case of 2He4, fusion of four protons can liberate (35.2-28.3)=6.9 MeV and it is 3.5 times less than the current estimates. Point to be understood is that, lesser the binding energy of final atom, higher the liberated thermal energy and vice versa. With a suitable catalyst and sufficient hydrogen under suitable pressure, if reactor’s temperature is maintained at (1000 to 1500) 0C, there seems a lot of scope for a chain reaction of cold fusion in which light isotopes transform to their next stage with increased proton number or mass number and liberate safe and clean heat energy continuously. By arranging 4 to 6 reactors and charging them periodically in tandem, required thermal energy can be produced continuously. In this new direction, by carefully selecting the base isotope and its corresponding catalyst, experiments can be conducted and ground reality of cold fusion can be understood at various temperature and pressure conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0726.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Affective computing; Artificial intelligence; Quantum emotion; Emotion fusion; Social robots
Online: 29 December 2020 (09:59:28 CET)
This study presents a modest attempt to interpret, formulate, and manipulate emotion of robots within the precepts of quantum mechanics. Our proposed framework encodes the emotion information as a superposition state whilst unitary operators are used to manipulate the transition of the emotion states which are recovered via appropriate quantum measurement operations. The framework described provides essential steps towards exploiting the potency of quantum mechanics in a quantum affective computing paradigm. Further, the emotions of multi-robots in a specified communication scenario are fused using quantum entanglement thereby reducing the number of qubits required to capture the emotion states of all the robots in the environment, and fewer quantum gates are needed to transform the emotion of all or part of the robots from one state to another. In addition to the mathematical rigours expected of the proposed framework, we present a few simulation-based demonstrations to illustrate its feasibility and effectiveness. This exposition is an important step in the transition of formulations of emotional intelligence to the quantum era.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Lipidomics; ssRNA+ virus; membrane fusion; lipid metabolism; cholesterol; sphingolipids; phosphatidylinositol
Online: 17 July 2020 (14:01:21 CEST)
Recent COVID-19 outbreak has come into prominence the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the Biology and Biochemistry of viral infections. COVID-19 illness is brought about by infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 [1,2], an enveloped positive single stranded RNA virus (ssRNA+). From a lipidomics viewpoint, there is a variety of mechanisms involving virus infection that encompass virus entry, disturbance of host cell lipid metabolism, and the role played by diverse lipids in regard to the infection effectiveness. All these aspects have currently been tackled separately as independent issues and focusing on the function of proteins. Here we review the role of cholesterol and other lipids in in ssRNA+ and SARS-COV-2 infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0313.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: visual question answering; cross-modal multistep fusion network; attention mechanism
Online: 24 April 2018 (09:09:45 CEST)
Visual question answering (VQA) is receiving increasing attention from researchers in both the computer vision and natural language processing fields. There are two key components in the VQA task: feature extraction and multi-modal fusion. For feature extraction, we introduce a novel co-attention scheme by combining Sentence-guide Word Attention (SWA) and Question-guide Image Attention (QIA) in a unified framework. To be specific, the textual attention SWA relies on the semantics of the whole question sentence to calculate contributions of different question words for text representation. For the multi-modal fusion, we propose a “Cross-modal Multistep Fusion (CMF)” network to generate multistep features and achieve multiple interactions for two modalities, rather than focusing on modeling complex interactions between two modals like most current feature fusion methods. To avoid the linear increase of the computational cost, we share the parameters for each step in the CMF. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve competitive or better performance than the state-of-the-art.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0086.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: image enhancement; image fusion; color space; edge detector; underwater image
Online: 14 March 2017 (17:52:48 CET)
In order to improve contrast and restore color for underwater image captured by camera sensors without suffering from insufficient details and color cast, a fusion algorithm for image enhancement in different color spaces based on contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) is proposed in this article. The original color image is first converted from RGB color space to two different special color spaces: YIQ and HSI. The color space conversion from RGB to YIQ is a linear transformation, while the RGB to HSI conversion is nonlinear. Then, the algorithm separately operates CLAHE in YIQ and HSI color spaces to obtain two different enhancement images. The luminance component (Y) in the YIQ color space and the intensity component (I) in the HSI color space are enhanced with CLAHE algorithm. The CLAHE has two key parameters: Block Size and Clip Limit, which mainly control the quality of CLAHE enhancement image. After that, the YIQ and HSI enhancement images are respectively converted backward to RGB color. When the three components of red, green, and blue are not coherent in the YIQ-RGB or HSI-RGB images, the three components will have to be harmonized with the CLAHE algorithm in RGB space. Finally, with 4 direction Sobel edge detector in the bounded general logarithm ratio operation, a self-adaptive weight selection nonlinear image enhancement is carried out to fuse YIQ-RGB and HSI-RGB images together to achieve the final fused image. The enhancement fusion algorithm has two key factors: average of Sobel edge detector and fusion coefficient, and these two factors determine the effects of enhancement fusion algorithm. A series of evaluate metrics such as mean, contrast, entropy, colorfulness metric (CM), mean square error (MSE) and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) are used to assess the proposed enhancement algorithm. The experiments results showed that the proposed algorithm provides more detail enhancement and higher values of colorfulness restoration as compared to other existing image enhancement algorithms. The proposed algorithm can suppress effectively noise interference, improve the image quality for underwater image availably.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0010.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: millimeter-wavelength cloud radar; attenuation correction; dual-radar; data fusion
Online: 1 November 2016 (10:05:18 CET)
In order to correct attenuated millimeter-wavelength (Ka-band) radar data and address the problem of instability, an attenuation correction methodology (attenuation correction with variation trend constraint; VTC) was developed. Using synchronous observation conditions and multi-band radars, the VTC method adopts the variation trends of reflectivity in X-band radar data captured with wavelet transform as a constraint to adjust reflectivity factors of millimeter-wavelength radar. The correction was evaluated by comparing reflectivities obtained by millimeter-wavelength cloud radar and X-band weather radar. Experiments showed that attenuation was a major contributory factor in the different reflectivities of the two radars when relatively intense echoes exist, and the attenuation correction developed in this study significantly improved data quality for millimeter-wavelength radar. Reflectivity differences between the two radars were reduced and reflectivity correlations were enhanced. Errors caused by attenuation were eliminated, while variation details in the reflectivity factors were retained. The VTC method is superior to the bin-by-bin method in terms of correction amplitude and can be used for attenuation correction of shorter wavelength radar assisted by longer wavelength radar data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0447.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Hyperspectral; machine visualization properties; data fusion; tea plantation soils; organic matter
Online: 8 November 2023 (01:33:37 CET)
Soil organic matter is an important component that reflects soil fertility and promotes plant growth. The soil of typical Chinese tea plantations was used as the research object in this work, and by combining soil hyperspectral data and image texture characteristics, a quantitative prediction model of soil organic matter based on machine vision and hyperspectral imaging technology was built. Three methods, standard normalized variate (SNV), multisource scattering correction (MSC) and smoothing, were first used to preprocess the spectra. After that, random frog (RF), variable combination population analysis (VCPA) and variable combination population analysis and iterative retained information variable algorithm (VCPA-IRIV) algorithms were used to extract the characteristic bands. Finally, the quantitative prediction model of nonlinear support vector regression (SVR) and linear partial least squares regression (PLSR) for soil organic matter was established by combining nine color features and five texture features of hyperspectral images. The outcomes demonstrate that, in comparison to single spectral data, fusion data may greatly increase the performance of the prediction model, with MSC+VCPA-IRIV+SVR (R2C=0.995, R2P=0.986, RPD=8.155) being the optimal approach combination. This work offers excellent justification for more investigation into nondestructive methods for determining the amount of organic matter in soil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1631.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: small object detection; remote sensing images; context information; multiscale feature fusion
Online: 26 October 2023 (03:42:19 CEST)
Detecting rotational objects in remote sensing imagery is a significant challenge. These images typically encompass a broad field of view, featuring diverse and intricate backgrounds, with ground objects of various sizes densely scattered. As a result, identifying objects of interest within these images is a daunting task. While the integration of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and Transformer networks leads to some advancements in rotational object detection, there is still room for improvement, particularly in enhancing the extraction and utilization of information related to smaller objects. To address this, our paper presents a multi-scale feature fusion module and a global feature context aggregation module. Initially, we fuse original, shallow, and deep features to reduce the loss of shallow feature information, thereby improving the detection performance of small objects in complex backgrounds. Subsequently, we compute the correlation of contextual information within feature maps to extract valuable insights. We name the newly proposed model the "Multiscale Feature Context Aggregation Module" (MFCA). We evaluate our proposed methodology on three challenging remote sensing datasets: DIOR-R, HRSC, and MAR20. Comprehensive experimental results show that our approach surpasses baseline models by 2.07\% mAP, 1.02\% mAP, and 1.98\% mAP on the DIOR-R, HRSC2016, and MAR20 datasets, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0234.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Multi-Task Learning; Convolutional Neural Network; Automatic modulation recognition; Feature Fusion
Online: 6 September 2023 (15:08:47 CEST)
Recently, deep learning models have been widely applied to modulation recognition, which have become a hot topic due to their excellent end-to-end learning capabilities. However, current methods are mostly based on uni-modal inputs, which suffer from incomplete information and local optimization. To complement the advantages of different modalities, we focus on the multi-modal fusion method. Therefore, we introduce an iterative dual-scale attentional fusion (iDAF) method to integrate multimodal data. Firstly, two feature maps with different receptive field sizes are constructed using local and global embedding layers. Secondly, the feature inputs are iterated into the Iterative Dual Scale Attention Module (iDCAM), where the two branches capture the details of high-level features and the global weights of each modal channel, respectively. The iDAF not only extracts the recognition characteristics of each specific domains, but also complements the strengths of different modalities to obtain a fruitful view. Our iDAF achieves a recognition accuracy of 93.5\% at 10dB and 0.6232 at full SNR. The comparative experiments and ablation studies effectively demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the iDAF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2126.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: structural heart disease; left atrial appendage closure; fusion imaging; learning curve
Online: 31 August 2023 (10:36:53 CEST)
Due to the complex and variable anatomy of the left atrial appendage, percutaneous left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) can be challenging. In this study, we investigated the impact of fusion imaging (FI) on the LAAC learning curve of 2 interventionalists. The first interventionalist (IC 1) was initially trained without FI and continued his training with FI. The second interventionalist (IC 2) performed all procedures with FI. We compared the first 36 procedures without FI of IC 1 (group 1) with his next 36 interventions with FI (group 2). Furthermore, group 1 was compared to 36 procedures of IC 2 who directly started his training with FI (group 3). Group 1 demonstrated that the learning curve without FI has a flat course with weak correlations for fluoroscopy time, contrast volume, and procedure time, but not for dose area product. Group 2 with FI showed improvement with a steep course and strong correlations for all 4 parameters. In group 3 we also saw a steep progression with strong correlations. Furthermore, the mean measurements of the procedural parameters in the groups with FI decreased significantly as indicator for procedural efficacy. We demonstrated that FI may improve the learning curve of experienced and non-experienced ICs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0309.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: feature identification and extraction; Copula analysis; multi-energy loads; model fusion
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:13:57 CEST)
To improve the accuracy of short-term multi-energy load prediction models for integrated energy systems, the historical development law of the multi-energy loads must be considered. Moreover, understanding the complex coupling correlation of the different loads in the multi-energy systems and accounting for other load-influencing factors, such as weather, may further improve the forecasting performance of such models. In this study, a two-stage fuzzy optimization method is proposed for the feature selection and identification of the multi-energy loads. To enrich the information content of the prediction input feature, we introduced a copula correlation feature analysis in the proposed framework, which extracts the complex dynamic coupling correlation of multi-energy loads and applies Akaike information criterion (AIC) to evaluate the adaptability of the different copula models presented. Furthermore, we combined a NARX neural network with Bayesian optimization and an extreme learning machine model optimized using a genetic algorithm to effectively improve the feature fusion performances of the proposed multi-energy load prediction model. The effectiveness of the proposed short-term prediction model was confirmed by the experimental results obtained using the multi-energy load time-series data of an actual integrated energy system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2012.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: acceleration sensor; angle sensor; multi-sensor fusion; Kalman filter; signal acquisition
Online: 31 July 2023 (02:52:57 CEST)
In order to perform multi-degree-of-freedom motion measurements of marine machinery such as ship-borne mechanical platform in an absolute environment without a reference, absolute measurement methods using acceleration sensors and tilt gyroscopes are typically employed. However, due to the influence of wave forces on ship-borne mechanical platform, the coupling between different degrees of freedom can cause mutual interference, resulting in significant sensor measurement disturbances that make efficient computation and real-time analysis challenging. Specifically, when ship-borne mechanical platform swings, the proof mass of the acceleration sensor produces an undesirable signal output in the vertical direction, which leads to imprecise acceleration integration, thereby affecting accurate motion collection and posture estimation. To address these challenges, by analyzing the influence of the inclination angle of the ship-borne mechanical platform on the sensor measurement, and using the working principle of the acceleration sensor and angle sensor, a correction method for the motion measurement of the ship-borne mechanical platform based on multi-sensor fusion is proposed. In this article, we first analyze the influence of inclination angle on the integral effect in the heave direction. Then the configuration using four groups of acceleration sensors to correct the integral effect is proposed. Finally, the optimal inclination angle is determined through Kalman filtering based on the measured value of angle sensors and estimated values from the acceleration sensor sets. Experiments have proved that the average error of the corrected heave displacement signal is 25.34 mm, which is better than the integral displacement signal of a single acceleration sensor. At the same time, the acceleration sensor is used to calculate the roll angle and pitch angle of the ship-borne mechanical platform, and combined with the angle sensor signal to perform Kalman filtering, which filters out the errors caused by the shaking and instability of the mechanical platform, and can more accurately estimate the true inclination of the platform. Therefore, this method can enhance the precision and accuracy of the ship-borne mechanical platform motion signal acquisition, providing more valuable experimental data for research in marine engineering and related fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1993.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: mitochondria; membrane; fusion; Mifofusin; amphipathic helix; divalent cations; lipid packing defects
Online: 28 July 2023 (11:29:25 CEST)
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that constantly undergo fusion and fission events to maintain their shape, distribution, and cellular function. Mitofusin 1 and 2 proteins are two dynamin-like GTPases involved in the fusion of outer mitochondrial membranes (OMM). Mitofusins are anchored to the OMM through their transmembrane domain and possess two heptad repeat domains (HR1 and HR2) in addition to their N-terminal GTPase domain. The HR1 domain was found to induce fusion via its amphipathic helix, which interacts with the lipid bilayer structure. The lipid composition of mitochondrial membranes can also impact mitochondrial fusion. However, the precise mode of action of lipids in mitochondrial fusion is not fully understood. In this study, we have examined the role of the mitochondrial lipids phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), cardiolipin (CL) and phosphatidic acid (PA) in membrane fusion induced by the HR1 domain, both in the presence and absence of divalent cations (Ca2+ or Mg2+). Our results show that PE, as well as PA in the presence of Ca2+, effectively stimulate HR1-mediated fusion, while CL has a slight inhibitory effect. By considering the biophysical properties of these lipids in the absence or presence of divalent cations, we infer that the interplay between divalent cations and specific cone-shaped lipids creates regions with packing defects in the membrane, which provides a favorable environment for the amphipathic helix of HR1 to bind to the membrane and initiate fusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1252.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: spatial multi-information fusion; random forest; metallogenic prediction; Central Kunlun; Xinjiang
Online: 19 July 2023 (03:08:11 CEST)
In recent years, how to combine intelligent prospecting algorithms such as random forest with a large number of geological and mineral data for quantitative prediction of exploration geochemistry has become an important topic of concern to quantitatively improve the accuracy of target delineation. The ore-forming geological conditions in the central Kunlun area of Xinjiang are great and have good prospecting prospects. However, due to the exhaustion of shallow deposits and the lag of geological prospecting work in the past ten years, there has been no expected breakthrough in the search for large and super-large metal deposits for many years. There has been a serious shortage of reserve resources. The use of new theories, new methods and new technologies for mineral resources investigation and evaluation has become an urgent need in the current prospecting work. In view of this, based on the existing spatial database of geological and mineral resources in the central Kunlun of Xinjiang, combined with the geological characteristics, genesis and metallogenic regularity of the area, this paper carried out a series of studies on gold polymetallic minerals with the help of geographic information system and data science programming software platform. The researchers integrated geological and regional geochemical data, and constructed a random forest metallogenic discriminant model based on two different sampling methods (integrated random undersampling and selection of training samples) to predict the mineralization of gold polymetallic minerals in the central Kunlun area of Xinjiang and delineate the metallogenic target area. The quantitative prediction of gold polymetallic mineral resources in the central Kunlun area of Xinjiang by two random forest models is compared and discussed: the known ore spots, fault structures and geochemical information are extracted, and the known gold polymetallic ore spots and geochemical data are used to form a training set and a prediction set to construct a machine learning random forest model. The results of prediction evaluation and metallogenic prospect division show that for different sampling methods, the performance evaluation parameters of the training process show that the prediction accuracy of the selected training samples is higher, and the selected training samples are more reliable because they can fully learn the complex information of the original data. In the metallogenic prospect prediction and metallogenic potential division, the random forest model of selecting training samples has more reference value and further exploration research significance in the production problem considering the actual exploration cost because of its small area of high potential prediction area and high proportion of ore bearing per unit area. At the same time, this study innovatively improves the prediction accuracy, reduces the exploration risk, and expands the prospecting idea of machine learning algorithm in mathematical geology in the central Kunlun area of Xinjiang. The delineated metallogenic potential area has positive guiding significance for the actual gold polymetallic prospecting work in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2220.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: infrared and visible image fusion; transformer; deep learning; residual dense block
Online: 30 June 2023 (10:40:08 CEST)
Infrared and visible image fusion technologies are used to characterize the same scene by diverse modalities. However, most existing deep learning-based fusion methods are designed as symmetric networks, which ignore the differences between modal images and lead to the source image information loss during feature extraction. In this paper, we propose a new fusion framework for the different characteristics of infrared and visible images. Specifically, we design a dual-stream asymmetric network with two different feature extraction networks to extract infrared and visible feature maps respectively. The transformer architecture is introduced in the infrared feature extraction branch, which can force the network to focus on the local features of infrared images while still obtaining their contextual information. And the visible feature extraction branch uses residual dense blocks to fully extract the rich background and texture detail information of visible images. In this way, it can provide better infrared targets and visible details for the fused image. Experimental results on multiple datasets indicate that DSA-Net outperforms state-of-the-art methods in both qualitative and quantitative evaluations. In addition, we also apply the fusion results to the target detection task, which indirectly demonstrates the fusion performances of our method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1193.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: SLAM; multi-sensor fusion; tight coupling; factor graph optimization; construction machinery
Online: 16 June 2023 (11:08:13 CEST)
Unmanned construction machinery vehicles mostly carry work in bridges, tunnels, and outdoor open spaces. Obtaining accurate pose estimation of the entire vehicle and establishing a map of the surrounding environment is of great significance for path planning and control in the later stage. Traditional simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) schemes, which mostly use a single sensor, but there are problems with localization drift and mapping failure in scenarios where there are few geometric features and the environment is prone to degradation. Currently, the multi-sensor fusion strategy has been proven to be an effective solution and widely used in the field of unmanned vehicle localization and mapping. This paper proposes a SLAM framework that tightly couples a LiDAR, IMU and camera to achieve accurate and reliable pose estimation. The framework is based on LiDAR-inertial system(LIS) and factor graph optimization theory. Texture information provided by vision is integrated into the LiDAR-inertial odometry to generate a new visual-inertial subsystem(VIS).The two subsystems, VIS and LIS, can assist each other and work jointly. Through real vehicle tests, the system can perform incremental, real-time state estimation, reconstruct dense 3D point cloud maps,and effectively solve the problems of localization drift and mapping failure in the lack of geometric features or challenging construction environments. Meanwhile, the system has a safety redundancy mechanism. When any subsystem fails, the system can also operate normally, to ensure the reliability and robustness of vehicle positioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0281.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Infrared dim small targets; Object detection; Adaptive Fusion Attention Module; ISVD
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:47:09 CEST)
Infrared detection plays an important role in the military, aerospace, and other fields, which has the advantages of all-weather, high stealth, and strong anti-interference. However, infrared dim small target detection suffers from complex backgrounds, low signal-to-noise ratio, blurred targets with small area percentages, and other challenges. In this paper, we proposed a multiscale YOLOv5-AFAM algorithm to realize high-accuracy and real-time detection. Aiming at the problem of target intra-class feature difference and inter-class feature similarity, the Adaptive Fusion Attention Module - AFAM was proposed to generate feature maps that are calculated to weigh the features in the network and make the network focus on small targets. This paper proposed a multiscale fusion structure to solve the problem of small and variable detection scales in infrared vehicle targets. In addition, the downsampling layer is improved by combining Maxpool and convolutional downsampling to reduce the number of model parameters and retain the texture information. For multiple scenarios, we constructed an infrared dim and small vehicle target detection dataset, ISVD. The multiscale YOLOv5-AFAM was conducted on the ISVD dataset, compared to YOLOv7, mAP@0.5 achieves a small improvement while the parameters are only 17.98% of it. By contrast with the YOLOv5s model, mAP@0.5 was improved by 4.3% with a 6.6% reduction in the parameters. Experiments results demonstrate that the multiscale YOLOv5-AFAM has a higher detection accuracy and detection speed on infrared dim and small vehicles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1967.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: UAV images; multi-feature fusion; information aggregation; multi-scale object detection
Online: 29 May 2023 (04:52:15 CEST)
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) image object detection has great application value in military and civilian fields. However, the objects in the captured images from UAVs have problems of large scale variation, complex backgrounds, and a large proportion of small objects. To resolve these problems, a multi-scale object detector based on coordinate and global information aggregation is proposed, named CGMDet. Firstly, a Coordinate and Global Information Aggregation Module (CGAM) is designed by aggregating local, coordinate, and global information, which can obtain features with richer context information. Secondly, a Multi-Feature Fusion Pyramid Network (MF-FPN) is proposed, which can better fuse features of different scales and obtain features containing more context information through repeated use of feature maps, to better detect multi-scale targets. Moreover, more location information of low-level feature maps is integrated to improve the detection results of small targets. Furthermore, we modified the bounding box regression loss of the model to make the model more accurately regress the bounding box and faster convergence. Finally, the proposed CGMDet was tested on VisDrone and UAVDT datasets and mAP0.5 of 50.9% and 48% was obtained, respectively. At the same time, our detector achieved the best results compared to other detectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0306.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: Aluminium alloys; AlMgSi; Printability; Powder Bed Fusion; High Through Put; Screening.
Online: 13 April 2023 (07:48:12 CEST)
The importance of both recycling and additive manufacturing (AM) is increasing, however there has been a limited focus on development of AM alloys that are recyclably compatible with the larger scrap loops of wrought 5xxx, 6xxx and cast 3xx aluminium alloys. In this work the powder bed fusion (PBF) printability of AlMgSi alloys in the interval of 0-30wt%Mg and 0-4wt%Si is screened experimentally with a high throughput method. This method produces PBF mimicked material by PVD co-sputtering followed by laser remelting. Strong evidence was found for AlMgSi alloys being printable in two different composition ranges; Si+Mg<0.7wt% or for Si+2/3Mg>4wt% when Mg < 3wt% and Si > 3wt%. Increasing the amount of Mg and Si influence the grain structure by introducing fine columnar grains at the melt pool boundary, although the melt pool interior was unaffected. Hardness in as-built state increased with both Mg and Si, alt-hough Si had neglectable effect at low levels of Mg. Both evaporative loss of Mg and the amount of Mg in solid solution increased linearly with the amount of Mg.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0119.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Sensor Fusion; IIOT; IOT; Precision Agriculture; Time Series data; Predictive model
Online: 11 April 2023 (10:24:24 CEST)
Precision Agriculture is the ability to handle variations in productivity within a field and maximize financial return, optimize resource utilization and minimize impact of the environment. It is also the process of automated data collection, cloud storage and utilization to build robust decision support system. In case of Ethiopia, due to poor communication infrastructure coverage and absence of the state-of-the-art technology in the agriculture sector, implementing precision farming system is a challenging tasks in the domain area. In this work, we proposed a fusion of multiple sensors using IOT and IIOT infrastructure to collect critical data from farming fields to develop precision farming facility for decision makers. The main purpose was to monitor weather variability, automate irrigation process, extract critical soil properties. In addition, we have used time series data collected from sensor devices to build forecasting model. Fusion of multiple IoT device provide a mechanism in the agriculture area to deal with real-time monitoring of crops. It is cost-effective technology and required low-energy with edge computing sensor device. We employed the Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) protocol to connect the Industrial/Internet of Things (I/IoT) to the cloud server. The communication between system user and sensor device has been done via cloud using Node-RED platform, web android APIs. The cloud-based Eco-system allows us to aggregate, visualize, and analyze live streams output from each sensor in real-time manner. Finally, we have built time series forecasting model using records collected by each sensor device. Using the multi-variate time series data-set, we have obtained about 99 forecasting accuracy on some important variables. Finally, we have developed mobile and web-based application for the end-user to monitor the proposed system remotely.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0007.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Human herpesvirus 5; glycoprotein B; UL55; cell-cell fusion; entry; infectivity
Online: 1 March 2023 (03:05:22 CET)
Viruses can induce the fusion of infected and neighboring cells, leading to the formation of syncytia. Cell-cell fusion is mediated by viral fusion proteins on the plasma membrane of infected cells that interact with cellular receptors on neighboring cells. Viruses use this mechanism to spread rapidly to adjacent cells or escape host immunity. For some viruses, syncytium formation is a hallmark of infection and a known pathogenicity factor. For others, the role of syncytium formation in viral dissemination and pathogenicity remains poorly understood. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in transplant patients and the leading cause of congenital infections. Clinical HCMV isolates have broad cell tropism but differ in their ability to induce cell-cell fusions, and little is known about the molecular determinants. We developed a system to analyze HCMV glycoprotein B (gB) variants in a defined genetic background. HCMV strains TB40/E and TR were used as vectors to compare the fusogenicity of six gB variants from congenitally infected fetuses with those from three laboratory strains. Five of them conferred the ability to induce fusion of MRC-5 human embryonic lung fibroblasts to one or both backbone strains, as determined by a split GFP-luciferase reporter system. The same gB variants were not sufficient to induce syncytia in infected ARPE-19 epithelial cells, suggesting that additional factors are involved. The system described here allows a systematic comparison of the fusogenicity of viral envelope glycoproteins and may help to clarify whether fusion-promoting variants are associated with increased pathogenicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0089.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Borderline personality disorder; machine learning; data fusion; child trauma; symptoms severity
Online: 6 February 2023 (08:47:40 CET)
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a severe personality disorder whose neural bases are still unclear. Indeed, previous studies reported inconsistent findings concerning alterations in cortical and subcortical areas. In the present study we applied for the first time an unsupervised machine learning approach known as mCCA+jICA, in combination with a supervised machine learning approach known as Random Forest, to possibly find covarying GM-WM circuits that separate BPD from controls and that are also predictive of this diagnosis. To this aim, we analyzed the structural images of patients with BPD and matched HCs. Results showed that two GM-WM covarying circuits, including basal ganglia, amygdala, and portions of the temporal lobes and of the orbitofrontal cortex, correctly classified BPD against HC. Notably, these circuits are affected by specific child traumatic experiences (emotional and physical neglect, and physical abuse) and predict symptoms severity in the interpersonal and impulsivity domains. These results support that BPD is characterized by anomalies in GM and WM circuits related to early traumatic experiences and specific symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0411.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Multiple exposure image fusion; Fringe projection profilometry; High reflective surface measurement
Online: 26 October 2022 (10:13:48 CEST)
Fringe projection profilometry(FPP) has been extensively applied in various fields for its superior fast speed, high accuracy and high data density. However, measuring some objects with high reflective surfaces or high dynamic range surfaces remains challenging for FPP. Some multiple exposure image fusion methods have been proposed and successfully improved the measurement performance for these kinds of objects. Normally, these methods have a relatively fixed sequence of exposure settings determined by artificial experience or trial and error experiments, which may decrease the efficiency of the entire measurement process and may have less robustness to various environmental lighting conditions and object reflective properties. In this paper, a novel self-adaptive multiple exposure image fusion method is proposed with two main aspects of improvement on adaptively optimizing the initial exposure and the exposure sequence. By introducing the theory of information entropy, combined with the analysis of the characterization of fringe image entropy, an adaptive initial exposure searching method is first proposed. Then, an exposure sequence generation method based on dichotomy is further described. On the base of these two improvements, a novel self-adaptive multiple exposure image fusion method for FPP as well as its detailed procedures are given. Experimental results validate the performance of the proposed self-adaptivity multiple exposure image fusion method by measuring the objects with different surface reflectivity and in different ambient lighting conditions.