REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0097.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: e-health, online monitoring, smart textiles, telemedicine, exercise, extreme environment, work, occupational health, performance, prevention
Online: 2 August 2023 (05:44:07 CEST)
Telemedicine and remote survey of physiological parameters may significantly increase the health and safety of people working in extreme environmental conditions, like firefighters, maintain rescuers, soldiers, and others. We highlight this problem and give an overview of the historical development and the actual status of systems available. Ruggedized systems, as small, lightweight, and flexible as possible, are needed to optimize the goal of increasing occupational health and safety of persons at risk and maximizing their performance during missions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0172.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: chronobiology; shiftwork; insomnia; cognitive behavioral therapy, telepsychiatry; occupational health
Online: 19 June 2019 (10:05:50 CEST)
In western societies about one in six employees works in shifts. Shiftwork is associated with a number of poor somatic and psychological health outcomes, especially sleep issues. Higher rates of absenteeism and accidents in the workplace are possible consequences. Still, prevention programs and treatment options that are specifically tailored to shift workers’ needs are rare. We devised a 4-week online sleep intervention (n = 21) and compared treatment outcomes to our outpatient treatment for shift workers (n = 12). Measures included the WHO-5, ISI, and ESS scales as well as sleep diaries. Shift workers reported worse symptoms of insomnia than other participants. Results show significant average increases in sleep efficiency (+ 7%) and total sleep time (+ 25 min.), as well as significant improvements regarding insomnia symptoms and wellbeing in the online sample. Rates of improvement did not differ between the online and outpatient samples. Sleep disorders affect a relevant part of the working population, especially shift workers. Online approaches to treatment of these issues seem feasible and effective. Randomized controlled trials are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0066.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Afghanistan; health; hope; resilience; young people
Online: 17 February 2017 (07:28:14 CET)
Insecurity, corruption, and rising unemployment have resulted in a mass exodus of young adult Afghans seeking asylum in western nations. This has depleted Afghanistan of generations of young people which are critical to rebuild the country. This study aimed to examine the characteristics of young adult Afghans with no immediate intentions of seeking international asylum; that is, individuals who intend to stay in Afghanistan. In a cross-sectional study conducted in Kabul, we surveyed 232 young adults between 18 and 35 years of age. Surveys included measures assessing standard socio-demographic and -economic factors, as well as health and psychological factors. Univariate logistic regression analyses suggest that participants with an intent to stay in Afghanistan are more likely to be financially stable, possess higher health-related quality of life, lower psychological distress, and higher levels of hope and optimism, as well as higher resilience. When controlling for all other variables in the model, only hope, optimism, and higher resilience remained as significant correlates of intending to stay. Our findings suggest that young people who intend to stay in their country look forward to a better future, which provides strong evidence for the need to strengthen the social contract by fostering resilience, hope and optimism in war-affected communities, in order to prevent a generation of talented young people from seeking asylum in western nations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0076.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: mercury; exposure assessment; human health; artisanal and small-scale gold mining
Online: 14 March 2017 (08:40:59 CET)
Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has been an important source of income for communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin in Peru for hundreds of years. However, in recent decades, the scale of ASGM activities in the region has increased dramatically, and exposures to a variety of occupational and environmental hazards related to ASGM, including mercury, are becoming more widespread. The aims of our study were to: (1) examine patterns in the total hair mercury level of human participants in several communities in the region and compare these results to the 2.2 µg/g total hair mercury level equivalent to the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee of Food Additives (JECFA)’s Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI); and (2), to measure the mercury levels of paco (Piaractus brachypomus) fish raised in local aquaculture ponds, in order to compare these levels to the EPA Fish Tissue Residue Criterion of 0.3 µg Hg/g fish (wet weight). We collected hair samples from 80 participants in four communities (one control and three where ASGM activities occurred) in the region, and collected 111 samples from fish raised in 24 local aquaculture farms. We then analyzed the samples for total mercury. Total mercury levels in hair were statistically significantly higher in the mining communities than in the control community, and increased with increasing distance away from the Madre de Dios headwaters (as the crow flies), did not differ by sex, and frequently exceeded the reference level. Regression analyses indicated that higher hair mercury levels were associated with residence in ASGM communities. The analysis of paco fish samples found no samples that exceeded the EPA tissue residue criterion. Collectively, these results align with other recent studies showing that ASGM activities are associated with elevated human mercury exposure. The fish farmed through the relatively new process of aquaculture in ASGM areas appeared to have little potential to contribute to human mercury exposure. More research is needed on human health risks associated with ASGM to discern occupational, residential, and nutritional exposure, especially through tracking temporal changes in mercury levels as fish ponds age, and assessing levels in different farmed fish species. Additionally, research is needed to definitively determine that elevated mercury levels in humans and fish result from the elemental mercury from mining, rather than from a different source, such as the mercury released from soil erosion during deforestation events from mining or other activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0026.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: smart sensor; multi-agent system; modular architecture; Blade Health Monitoring; system on chip
Online: 1 July 2021 (12:33:59 CEST)
Blade Health Monitoring (BHM) is often necessary in power plants and in aviation to prevent excessive blade vibration and cracks. This article proposes a network of blade tip timing sensors operated in a distributed BHM system. A number of cooperating agents is implemented in smart conditioning units which can autonomously operate in an adverse environment and communicate with other nodes via a serial interface. The project uses special versions of reduced instruction set chips that are able to operate near the hot section of the engine. Due to the limited number of types of microprocessors available in the extended temperature range grading, it was necessary to fully utilize the limited hardware resources and implement preemptive multitasking. For this purpose, a custom operating system and communication protocol were designed. The protocol hosts the middle layer which hides the implementation of the distributed system. The presented architecture ensures the sufficient computational capacity in individual nodes of the network operated in adverse conditions. It is scalable and resistant to transmission errors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0879.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: health; dentistry; oral disease; sport; sport dentistry
Online: 13 June 2023 (07:19:41 CEST)
Oral health involves physiological functions related to mouth, teeth and orofacial structures, but also includes psychological and social dimensions. In this sense, oral health is an integrated part of human general health and well-being. Our aim was to access and evaluate the general oral health status of a high- and elite-level sample of Portuguese athletes from different sports. One hundred and sixteen participants were examined regarding their dental relationships, teeth and periodontal health, the presence of parafunctional activities (bruxism), and current or past orthodontic treatment. Our sample were predominantly adolescents and young adults, including 54 high-level and 62 elite subjects (71 males and 45 males) from 11 different sports, but mainly from swimming and athletics. Most sport performers presented with normocclusion (77%), despite the presence of other sagittal, transverse and vertical malocclusions. Twenty-three participants were affected by dental caries and six had missing teeth. Gingivitis (~40%) and dental calculus (~30%) were presented in our sample. Bruxism signs (47%) and current or past orthodontic treatment (~22%) were also found. Oral health conditions are not under control among high- and elite-level athletes, supporting the importance of healthcare needs and oral health promotion strategies in sports.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0126.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Afghan; Andersen Model; health services; medications; migrant; Turkey; utilization
Online: 26 December 2016 (09:57:20 CET)
(1) Background: There is insufficient empirical evidence on the correlates of health care utilization of irregular migrants currently living in Turkey. The aim of this study was to identify individual level determinants associated with health service and medication use. (2) Methods: 155 Afghans completed surveys assessing service utilization including encounters with primary care physicians and outpatient specialists in addition to the use of prescription and nonprescription medicines. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to examine associations between service use and a range of predisposing, enabling, and perceived need factors. (3) Results: Health services utilization was lowest for outpatient specialists (20%) and highest for nonprescription medications (37%). Female gender and higher income predicted encounters with primary care physicians. Income, and other enabling factors such as family presence in Turkey predicted encounters with outpatient specialists. Perceived illness-related need factors had little to no influence on use of services; however, asylum difficulties increased the likelihood for encounters with primary care physicians, outpatient services, and the use of prescription medications. 4) Conclusion: This study suggests that health services use among Afghan migrants in Turkey is low considering the extent of their perceived illness-related needs, which may be further exacerbated by the precarious conditions in which they live.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0029.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Mobility; infrastructure; flexible pavement; pavement condition index (PCI); international roughness index (IRI); artificial intelligence (AI); predictive models; ensemble learning; structural health monitoring; machine learning
Online: 3 April 2020 (09:35:44 CEST)
The construction of different roads, such as freeways, highways, major roads or minor roads must be accompanied by constant monitoring and evaluation of service delivery. Pavements are generally assessed by engineers in terms of the smoothness, surface condition, structural condition and surface safety. Pavement assessment is often conducted using the qualitative indices such as international roughness index (IRI), pavement condition index (PCI), structural condition index (SCI) and skid resistance value (SRV), which are used for smoothness assessment, surface condition assessment, structural condition assessment, and surface safety assessment, respectively. In this paper, Tehran-Qom Freeway in Iran has been selected as the case study and its smoothness and pavement surface conditions are assessed. At 2-km intervals, a 100-meter sample unit is selected in the slow-speed lane (totally, 118 sample units). In these sample units, the PCI is calculated after a visual inspection of the pavement and the recording of distresses. Then, in each sample unit, the average IRI is computed. The purpose of this study is to provide a method for estimating PCI based on IRI. The proposed theory was developed by Random Forest (RF), and Random Forest optimized by Genetic Algorithm (RF-GA) methods and these methods were validated using correlation coefficient (CC), scattered index (SI), and Willmott’s index of agreement (WI) criteria. The proposed method reduces costs, saves time and eliminates the safety risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0570.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: occupational health services; mining; primary health clinics; labour
Online: 24 July 2020 (05:02:16 CEST)
Only 15% of the global population has access to occupational safety and health services. In Africa only 5% of employees working from major establishments, have access to occupational health services (OHS). Access to primary health care (PHC) services is addressed in many settings and inclusion of OHS in these facilities might increase efficiency in preventing occupational diseases. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four SADC countries aiming at assessing the availability of OHS at PHC facilities and the organization of OHS. We conducted a literature review to assess the provision and organization of OHS services. In addition to the review, a total of 23 doctors from PHC facilities were interviewed using questionnaires in order to determine the availability of OHS and training. Consultations with heads of ministries were done in four SADC countries. Results showed that in the SADC region, OHS are fragmented and lack a comprehensive approach. In addition, out of 23 PHC facilities only two (13%) provided occupational health and PHC. However, OHS provided at PHC facilities were limited to TB screening and audiometric testing. Our study showed a huge inadequacy of trained occupational health practitioners. This study supports the World Health Organization’s advocacy of integrating OHS at PHC level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0584.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: telemedicine; mHealth; e-Health; telehealth; cardiology; cardiovascular medicine; myocardial infarction
Online: 8 September 2023 (10:45:49 CEST)
Telemedicine, telehealth, e-Health, and other related terms refer to the exchange of medical information or medical care from one site to another through electronic communication between a patient and healthcare provider. As telemedicine infrastructure has changed since the COVID-19 pandemic, this review provides an overview of telemedicine use and effectiveness in cardiology, with emphasis on the post-pandemic context. Pre-pandemic studies tend to report statistically insignificant or modest improvements in cardiovascular disease outcome from telemedicine use to usual care. By contrast, post-pandemic studies tend to report positive outcomes or comparable acceptance of telemedicine use to usual care. Today, telemedicine can effectively replace in person follow-ups to produce comparable (but not necessarily superior) outcomes in cardiovascular disease management. A major benefit of telemedicine is the significant reduction in follow-up time or time-to-intervention which may lead to earlier detection and prevention of adverse events. Nonetheless, there remain barriers to effective telemedicine implementation in the post-pandemic context. Providing accuracy and ease-of-use of telemedicine devices, ensuring adherence to remote rehabilitation procedures, and implementing widespread telemedicine infrastructure are such examples. Current knowledge gaps include the true economic cost of telemedicine infrastructure, feasibility of use in specific cardiology contexts, and sex/gender differences of health outcomes through telemedicine use. Future telemedicine developments will need to address these concerns to achieve widespread acceptance as the new standard of care.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0345.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; occupational health; returning to work
Online: 13 April 2021 (11:15:02 CEST)
With the COVID-19 pandemic continuing and the resulting economic burden increasingly apparent, the Indonesian government began to prepare a "new normal" phase and make peace with COVID-19. From this new decision arises the question of the readiness of businesses and the industrial sector to resume operations amid COVID-19. This article aims to provide concise and precise information about the preparations that can be made by businesses to operate safely amid COVID-19 based on existing scientific studies and literatures. From the literature visits it can be concluded that transmission and danger of a COVID-19 pandemic can be prevented through: creation of infectious disease prevention and response plan, implementing basic infection prevention measures, policies and procedures for proper identification and isolation of sick people, applying flexibilities in policies, and protections in the workplace.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0422.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: awareness; education; hearing loss; mineworkers; occupational health; health literacy; audiologists
Online: 18 October 2018 (12:04:09 CEST)
The aim of this study was to explore perspectives of occupation health personnels (OHPs) regarding education and training of mineworkers on occupational noise induced hearing loss (ONIHL) and its impact on mineworkers’ hearing. Qualitative, in-depth telephonic and face-to-face interviews were conducted with 16 OHPs comprising representatives from the state, employer and labour as well as audiologists and occupational health hygienists. Purposive and snowball sampling were utilized to recruit participants. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Findings revealed that mineworkers have a superficial awareness and knowledge of the impact of noise on their hearing and health. Moreover, OHPs are not knowledgeable on how mineworkers are educated on ONIHL and its latent consequences. Furthermore, language, low levels of education and literacy as well as the financial constraints were factors that had a negative impact on raising awareness and training mineworkers. There is a need to prioritize health literacy among mineworkers. Additionally, audiologists need to play an active role in educating mineworkers about the effects of excessive exposure to noise. There is a need to take into account literacy levels and language barriers in planning training material for mineworkers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0210.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: telemedicine; Questionnaires and Surveys; validation studies; health personnel
Online: 12 March 2020 (09:58:12 CET)
Background: Telemedicine is both effective and can provide efficient care at lower costs. It also enjoys a high acceptance rate among users. The Technology Acceptance Model proposed is based on the two main concepts of ease of use and perceived usefulness and comprises three dimensions: the individual context, the technological context and the implementation or organizational context. There is not a short and validated questionnaire to check the acceptance of telemedicine services amongst health care professionals using a technology acceptance model. Objective To translate and validate a telemedicine acceptance questionnaire based in the technology acceptance model. Methods The study included the following phases: adaptation and translation of the questionnaire into Catalan and psychometric validation which include construct (exploratory factor analysis), consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) and stability (test-retest). Factor analysis was used to describe variability amongst observed variables. Results After removing incomplete responses 144 responses where considered for analysis. The internal consistency measured with the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was good with an alpha coefficient of 0.84 (95%, CI: 0.79-0.84). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.852-0.964). The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test of sampling was adequate (KMO = 0.818) and the Bartlett test of sphericity was significant (Chi-square 424.188; gl=28; P < .001), indicating that the items were appropriate for a factor analysis. Conclusions The questionnaire validated with this study has robust statistical features that make it a good predictive model of professional’s satisfaction with telemedicine programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0518.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: mobile phones; health promotions; short message service; health students
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:53:53 CET)
Students are regarded as frequent users of mobile phones which has proven to be a convenient and acceptable method to promote healthy lifestyle. Students usually engage in relatively high levels of risky behavior and make unhealthy lifestyle choices, a study that investigates how health students access health information is necessary. The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional study which was undertaken among third-year nursing students from three nurses training institutions in Ghana. A total of 270 students participated in the study. Most of the respondents who were currently subscribers of the health messages reported that they usually received health information on reproductive health issues, nutrition, and practicing safe sex. Most of the health students revealed that they needed more information on safe sex, diet, managing weight, and stress management. The results also show that health students are likely to remember and share short messages with friends. The findings serve as an ‘eye-opener’ for health educators and mobile service providers concerning factors that should be taken into consideration when framing health text messages that will attract health students.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0103.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: suicide prevention; e-mental health; implementation; fundamental research; ecological momentary assessment; experience sampling; network analysis
Online: 18 April 2017 (03:24:13 CEST)
Suicidal behaviour remains difficult to predict and prevent, even for experienced mental health care professionals. The known distal risk factors for suicidal behaviour are not sufficiently specific to fully understand the complex dynamic processes that precede a suicide attempt. Real-time mobile monitoring data can be used to analyse proximal risk mechanisms within the suicidal process. At the same time smartphone-based safety planning and self-monitoring may enhance a patient’s self-management skills thereby increasing their capacity to respond to a suicidal crisis and to become more aware of crisis symptoms. The current paper describes the theoretical and conceptual rationale for the CASPAR study which applies an innovative approach to the study of suicidal processes. It uses basic science approaches to inform the implementation of an innovative suicide prevention intervention. We aim to develop and implement mobile safety plan in conjunction with real-time monitoring in order to both directly implement suicide prevention interventions and to study the ongoing dynamics of individual suicidal behaviour by applying network analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0026.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: online health information; digital literacy; e-Health; e-Health solutions; Dr. Google
Online: 5 October 2022 (03:55:03 CEST)
The investment in digital e-Health services is a priority direction in the development of global health care systems. While people are increasingly using the Web for health information, it is not entirely clear what is the physicians’ attitude towards digital transformation, and the acceptance of new technologies in healthcare. The aim of this cross-sectional survey study was to investigate physicians’ self-digital skills, and their opinions on obtaining online health knowledge by patients, as well as the recognition of physicians’ attitudes towards e-Health solutions. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to emerge the variables from self-designed questionnaire, and cross-sectional analysis comparing descriptive statistics and correlations for dependent variables using the one-way ANOVA (F-test). 307 physicians participated in the study, reported using the internet mainly several times a day (66.8%). Most participants (70.4%) were familiar with new technologies and rate their e-Health literacy high, although 84.0% reported the need for additional training in this field, and reported a need to introduce a larger number of subjects shaping digital skills (75.9%) in medical studies 53.4% of physicians perceived Internet-sourced information as sometimes reliable, and in general assessed the effects of using it by their patients negatively (41.7%). Digital skills increased significantly with frequency of internet use (F = 13.167; p = 0.0001), and decreased with physicians’ age, and the need for training. Those who claimed that patients often experienced health benefits from online health showed higher digital skills (-1.06). Physicians most often recommended their patients to obtain laboratory test results online (32.2%), and to arrange medical appointments via the Internet (27.0%). Along with the deterioration of physicians’ digital skills, the recommendation of e-Health solutions decreased (r = 0.413), and lower the assessment of e-Health solutions for the patient (r = 0.449). Physicians perceive digitization as a sign of the times, and frequently use its tools in daily practice. The evaluation of Dr. Google’s phenomenon and online health is directly related to their own e-Health literacy skills, but there is still a need for practical training to deal with digital revolution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1304.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: middle-income countries; economic globalisation; psychosocial work environments; occupational health; Asia Pacific; Latin America
Online: 20 October 2023 (03:55:30 CEST)
In response to new developments of work and employment in high-income countries (HICs), psychosocial aspects of work and health received increased attention. In contrast, middle-income countries (MICs) are mainly concerned with severe challenges of noxious and dangerous material work environments, poor employment conditions, and deficient social policies, leaving psychosocial aspects in a marginal role at best. More recently, differences between these two worlds were even aggravated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet, with economic globalisation and growing worldwide interconnectivity, the world of work in MICs is being rapidly transformed, sharing several concerns with modern Western societies. In this process, psychosocial occupational health will become an increasingly pressing issue. This contribution explores to what extent psychosocial aspects of work and health are already addressed in research originating from MICs. A selective focus on recent findings from two regions, Asia Pacific and Latin America, reveals a high degree of awareness of, and inquiry into, work-stress related problems within these countries. Importantly, in addition to incorporating research progress from HICs, these analyses identify new aspects within specific cultural and socio-economic environments, thus enriching the international state of art.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1546.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: osteopenia; osteoporosis; nutraceuticals; prevention; lifestyle; bone health; minerals; phytochemicals.
Online: 23 November 2023 (16:10:43 CET)
Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue with increased risk of fracture. The population that is most at risk for primary osteoporosis in-cludes post-menopausal women. Among different approaches, nutraceuticals are increasingly popular in developed countries since can contribute to bone health and can delay the onset of pathological bone loss. Our review covers three main aspects. Firstly, we discuss the current state of the two con-ditions, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. Secondly, we focus on the latest developments in natural Nutraceuticals and their effectiveness in reducing bone loss. Finally, we conduct a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis to examine the pros and cons of Nutraceuticals assumption. Nutraceuticals hold great promise, but we must address challenges such as regulatory control and experimental evidence to fully realize their potential. Other challenges include identifying the source of raw materials, ensuring the purity of the compound, avoiding contamination or the presence of other active compounds, maintaining product quality, and preventing interactions with other elements or drugs. By addressing these challenges, the scientific community can ensure more reliable indica-tions for the use of Nutraceuticals and help people lead healthier lives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0550.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: burnout; occupational therapist; emotional exhaustion; health; stress; coping; personality
Online: 29 November 2022 (11:55:47 CET)
1) Background: There are few studies of burnout syndrome (BS) in occupational therapists (OTs), and protective factors of BS has received little attention in the scientific literature. This research aimed to estimate the prevalence of BS, characterize the associated psychosocial factors, and analyze their relationship with health in a sample of Spanish OTs. (2) Methods A total of 127 therapists completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and other standardized questionnaires measuring: personality traits (reduced five-factor personality inventory, NEO-FFI), coping styles (Coping Strategies Questionnaire, CAE), work-family conflict (Survey Work-Home Interaction Nijmegen, SWING), professional factors (role ambiguity/clarity and modified role conflict questionnaires), and the perception of health (Goldberg’s General Health Questionnaire). Several correlational and multiple regression analyses were performed to study the psychosocial predictors of burnout and its relationship with health perception. (3) Results showed that 15.8% of the professionals presented BS, with emotional exhaustion (EE; 38.7%) being the most compromised dimension. Neuroticism, role conflict, negative work-family interaction, and open emotional expression (OE) significantly predicted a higher EE. The main predictors of cynicism (CY) were being male, role conflict, and OE. Finally, role conflict and role ambiguity and social support-seeking were significant predictors of reduced professional eﬃciency (PE). (4) Conclusion: A high percentage of OTs with BS advocates becoming aware of the importance of this syndrome in the health community, it would be critical to consider the protective factors (i.e., emotional management, social support) that help promote OTs’ well-being and health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0134.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: refugee mental health; gender and mental health; Afghan; resettlement stressors; dissonant acculturation; gender ideology
Online: 28 December 2016 (11:04:54 CET)
Recent studies have emphasized the influence of resettlement factors on the mental health of refugees resettling in developed countries. However, little research has addressed gender differences in the nature and influence of resettlement stressors and sources of resilience. We address this gap in knowledge by investigating how gender moderates and mediates the influence of several sources of distress and resilience among 259 Afghan refugees residing in northern California. Gender moderated the effects of four factors on levels of distress. Intimate and extended family ties have little correlation with men’s distress levels, but are strongly associated with lower distress for women. English ability is positively associated with lower distress for women, but not men. In terms of gender ideology, traditionally oriented women and egalitarian men have lower levels of distress. And experiencing greater dissonant acculturation increases distress for men, but not women. The influence of gender interaction terms is substantial and patterns may reflect difficulty adapting to a different gender order. Future studies of similar populations should investigate gender differences in sources of distress and resilience, and efforts to assist new arrivals might inform them of changes in gender roles they may experience, and facilitate opportunities to renegotiate gender roles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0478.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Nanotechnology; Risk assessment and management; safety and health; Nano worker; DOSH guideline; IRGC framework; policy advice; Malaysia
Online: 26 January 2023 (10:41:49 CET)
In its 8th Malaysia Plan (MP*), the Malaysian government has given nanotechnology development a high priority and has been made a Strategic Research (SR) programme. Consequently, an exhaustive and long-term approach is essential. Additionally, specific laws are required to provide an optimal health and safety environment for workers. Consequently, the current study intends to assist Malaysian policymakers in promoting improved safety, risk assessment, and management for nanotechnology workplaces, as well as drafting a comprehensive policy for the recently released DOSH guideline in 2018. Utilizing a unique methodology, this study evaluated the assessment and management of nanotechnology health and safety risks in Malaysia using the international risk governance council (IRGC) framework. In addition to document analysis, n = 20 semi-structured interviews were conducted with representatives of several nanotechnology platforms to collect data that was then analyzed thematically. The research evaluated current workplace safety regulations and laws. Consequently, we propose a future dynamic strategy for Malaysian nanotechnology with more favourable upgrades supported by increased concentrations in the following areas: I policy creation, ii) comprehensive management system, iii) knowledge transfer, and iv) infrastructure management. In addition, the findings highlight the need of cross-sectional communication in bridging existing gaps. This study laid the groundwork for a more systematic and comprehensive health and safety strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1246.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: health and safety; wellbeing; strategy; sustainability; resilience
Online: 19 October 2023 (08:34:39 CEST)
As a prominent organizational issue there was limited evidence in the literature about the relationship between organizational strategy, workplace health, safety, and wellbeing, and performance measurement that demonstrate a measurable impact on organizational performance. Whilst the literature reports numerous studies into the relationship between employee engagement and performance, they hardly incorporate workplace health, safety, and well-being within this relationship. This mixed-methods study investigated the relationship between organizational strategy, workplace health, safety, and wellbeing strategy, employee engagement, and strategy efficacy from a corporate perspective. Findings from Phase two, the online survey, revealed a seven-factor HSW Strategy framework. The workplace health, safety, and wellbeing strategy framework provide empirical evidence towards a suitable and valuable framework for high-risk businesses to improve individual and organizational performance.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0361.v1
Subject: Public Health And Health Services, Public Health And Healthcare Keywords: burden of disease; disability-adjusted life year (DALY); disease prevention; epidemiology; health policy; health service; health surveillance; medical research; public health
Online: 6 December 2023 (08:07:09 CET)
Burden of diseases measured as disability-adjusted life years per 100,000 people can be mined from public domain data, when they are made available by population health surveillance systems. This can be analysed to allow insightful comparisons with the national average, and to understand differences in trends between the sexes, age groups, time periods, geographic regions and sub-regions. In this illustrative case study, we have analysed the Scottish burden of disease database to understand what ailed the population of the Grampian region before the COVID-19 pandemic. We have identified selected cancers, ischaemic heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias amongst the highest contributors to the burden; that drug use disorders and colorectal cancer are showing worsening trends and require health promotion and disease prevention measures from ages 15 and 25 respectively, especially in Aberdeen City; and that males are more vulnerable to atrial fibrillation and flutter, diabetes mellitus and oesophageal cancer, while females are to cerebrovascular disease. We demonstrate the usefulness of our analysis and methodology for the wider health system, allowing targeted medical research investments and coordinated response from public health and health service delivery. We also show the need for up-to-date surveillance data, forecasts and evidence on the impact of interventions to be made available widely.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0209.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: sustainable development goals (sdgs); sustainability reporting; quality, environmental and occupational health and safety; certified organizations
Online: 18 September 2019 (15:38:36 CEST)
Organizations can play a significant role in the advancement of Sustainable Development, and companies with Quality, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (QEOHS) certified management systems address the three Sustainability Dimensions (economic, environmental and social). This research aims to map the present level of engagement of those companies in contributing and reporting to the 17 Sustainable Development Goals of The United Nations 2030 Agenda. The content of companies reports (available in web sites, by 31 December 2017) of a total of 235 Portuguese organizations with QEOHS certified management systems, was analyzed. The results show a moderate reporting of SDGs by those companies, with the top five being SDG 12 - Responsible consumption and production (23.8%), SDG 13 – Climate action (22.1%), SDG 09 - Industry, innovation, and infrastructure (21.3%), SDG 08 - Decent work and economic growth (20.0%) and SDG 17 - Partnerships for the goals (19.6%). The results of the statistical tests indicate that the communication of SDGs is more prominent in organizations (QEOHS) with higher business volume, that are members of the United Nations Global Compact Network Portugal, and that disclose their sustainability reports on their web site. This study can be useful for decision-makers that aim to support organizations to contribute to the Sustainable Development Goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0635.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: health literacy; healthcare; disease prevention; health promotion.
Online: 25 March 2021 (15:24:34 CET)
Health literacy is an indicator of a society’s ability to make better health judgement for themselves and the people around them. This study investigates the prevalence of health literacy among Malaysian adults and provides an overall picture of the current health literacy state of the society. The study also highlights socio-demographics markers of communities with limited health literacy which may warrant future intervention. A population based self-administered survey using the Health Literacy Survey Malaysian Questionnaire18 (HLS-M-Q18) instrument was conducted as part of the National Health Morbidity Survey 2019 in Malaysia. The nationwide survey utilized two-staged stratified random sampling method. A sample of 9478 individuals aged 18 and above participated in the study. The health literacy score was divided into three levels; limited, sufficient and excellent. Findings showed that majority Malaysian population has sufficient health literacy level, albeit leaning towards the lower end of the category with an average score of 35.5. The limited health literacy groups are associated with respondents with older age, lower education level and lower household income. Overall health literacy state for Malaysia is categorized at a lower sufficient level. Health literacy improvements should focus on communities with limited health literacy level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0478.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: health literacy; media health literacy; ehealth literacy; social environment; health apps; social support; digital health; empowerment
Online: 31 May 2018 (11:45:44 CEST)
Health literacy describes skills and competencies that enable people to gain access to, understand and apply health information to positively influence their own health and the health of those in the social environment. In an increasingly media saturated and digitized world, these skill sets are necessary for accessing and navigating sources of health information and tools, such as television, the Internet, and mobile apps. The concepts of Media Health Literacy (MHL) and eHealth Literacy (eHL) describe the specific competencies such tasks require. This article introduces the two concepts, and then reviews findings on the associations of MHL and eHL with several contextual variables in the social environment such as socio-demographics, social support, and system complexity, as a structural variable. As eHL and MHL are crucial for empowering people to actively engage in their own health, a growing body of literature reports of the potential and the effectiveness of intervention initiatives to positively influence these competencies. From an ethical standpoint, equity is emphasized, stressing the importance of accessible media environments for all - including those at risk of exclusion from (digital) media sources. Alignment of micro and macro contextual spheres will ultimately facilitate both non-digital and digital media to effectively support and promote public health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1579.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Work engagement; burnout; health professionals; private sector; healthcare unit
Online: 23 May 2023 (05:17:04 CEST)
The aim of this study was to investigate the work engagement and burnout in healthcare professionals in a private health unit in Greece. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 151 professionals (doctors, nurses, administrative staff and professionals of other specialties). The questionnaire included demographic and work-related information and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and Maslach Burnout Inventory. Analysis was performed by SPSS v.26. With regard to the work engagement, the participants presented a medium score in absorption and a medium to high score in vigor and dedication. In addition, they presented low score in depersonalization, a medium score in emotional exhaustion and a high score in personal accomplishment. Those who had a working contract for an indefinite period had higher score in all the dimensions of burnout. Vigor, dedication and absorption were negatively correlated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and positively with personal accomplishment. Healthcare professionals in private health sector in Greece present moderate work engagement and experience moderate levels of burnout. Work engagement is associated with burnout and plays an important role in its prevention. There are some significant differences in work engagement and burnout based on several demographic and work-related characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2046.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: health care; antimicrobial textile; polypropylene continuous multifilament yarns; polypropylene fabric
Online: 28 June 2023 (14:04:17 CEST)
In this work we present a study of impact of textile materials used in health care facilities on microbial colonization of textile surfaces. Polypropylene yarns doped with silver phosphate glass and zinc pyrithione were prepared and used for production of bed sheets and clothing for healthcare personnel. Subsequently measurements of airborne particles and viable microorganisms on given textiles were conducted in a private surgery clinic during 3 weeks comparing the counts of viable microorganisms before and after replacing of staff clothing and bedding on examination and surgical bed with said polypropylene cloth. In this study a significant reduction of viable airborne fungi and viable microorganisms on monitored textiles was observed by multiple methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0215.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Air pollution; Health risk; Driving; Automobile; Bus; Motorcycle
Online: 12 August 2018 (19:35:44 CEST)
Introduction: Ambient air pollution is major global health problem and commercial drivers are particularly exposed to it. No systematic assessment of the health risks associated with occupational exposure to ambient air pollution in this population has been carried out. Methods: We conducted a systematic review using a protocol-driven strategy. Papers published from inception to 20th April 2018 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, African journals online, Cochrane library, ISRCTN and WHO ICTRP databases were screened for inclusion by two independent reviewers. Original articles with at least an available abstract in English or French were included. Results: The initial search retrieved 1454 published articles of which 20 articles were included. 3 Studies reported a significant difference in white blood cells (106/L) among commercial motorcyclists compared to rural inhabitants (5.041±1.209 vs 5.900±1.213,p=0.001), an increased risk of lung cancer (RR=1.6, 95%CI 1.5-1.8) in bus drivers and an increased standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in bus drivers from Hodgkin’s lymphoma (SMR 2.17, 95%CI 1.19-3.87) compared to white collar workers. Other studies also found that drivers had more oxidative DNA damage and chromosome breaks. 4 papers failed to demonstrate that the drivers were more exposed to air pollution than the controls. 3 other studies also reported no significant difference in lung function parameters and respiratory symptoms. The genetic polymorphisms of detoxifying enzymes were not also homogeneously distributed compared to the controls. Conclusion: There is some evidence that occupational exposure to ambient air pollution among commercial drivers is associated with adverse health outcomes but the existing literature is limited with few studies of small sample size, methodological weaknesses and contradictory findings. Further research is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0113.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Smart Sensor; Sensing System; Wearable Sensor; Health Monitoring; Encryption
Online: 2 June 2023 (02:36:36 CEST)
Programmable Object Interfaces are increasingly intriguing researchers because of their broader applications, especially in the medical field. In Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN), for example, the patients’ health can be monitored using clinical nano sensors. Exchanging such sensitive data requires a high level of security and protection against attacks. To that end, the literature is rich with security schemes that include the advanced encryption standard, secure hashing algorithm, and digital signatures that aim to secure the data exchange. However, such schemes elevate the time complexity rendering the data transmission slower. Cognitive Radio technology with a medical body area network system involves communication links between WBAN gateways, server and nano sensors rendering the entire system vulnerable to security attacks. In this paper, a novel DNA-based encryption technique is proposed to secure medical data sharing between sensing devices and central repositories. It has less computational time throughout authentication, encryption, and decryption. Our analysis of experimental attack scenarios shows that our technique is better than its counterparts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0386.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: remaining useful life; c-mapss; extreme learning machine; prognostic and health management; neural networks
Online: 24 May 2020 (16:24:08 CEST)
This work can be considered as a first step of designing a future competitive data-driven approach for remaining useful life prediction of aircraft engines. The proposed approach is an ensemble of serially connected extreme learning machines. The results of prediction of the first networks are scaled and fed to the next networks as an additive features to the original inputs. This feature mapping allows increasing the correlation of training inputs with their targets by holding new prior knowledge about the probable behavior of the target function. The proposed approach is evaluated under remaining useful estimation using a set of “time-varying” data retrieved from the public dataset C-MAPSS (Commercial Modular Aero Propulsion System Simulation) provided by NASA. The prediction performances are compared to basic extreme learning machine and proved the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0602.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Dust; Mining; Environment; Sustainability; community health; occupational health
Online: 27 November 2018 (12:10:56 CET)
Dust inhalation is a huge concern in the mining environment and within all its operations. In fact, dust to be one of the most serious occupational hazards in the mining industry. Coal and crystalline silica dust are the causes of serious, sometimes fatal lung diseases such as pneumoconiosis, which affects coal miners, as well as silicosis, tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic renal disease, which affect coal and other types of miners. The resulting effects both affect workers and nearby communities. The mining industry has in the past, employed several approaches to reduce effects of dust. But these strategies have often been ineffective because the grass withers during the dry season and sprayed water is rapidly absorbed or evaporates. This paper endeavors to review information on dust in the mining environment and how it is a nuisance to workers and communities and establish what strategies exist for this.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0797.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: industrial robot; condition monitoring; health indicator
Online: 30 April 2021 (15:46:07 CEST)
Condition monitoring of industrial robots has the potential to decrease downtimes in highly automated production systems. We suggest a new health indicator based on vibration data measurements and compare its performance with state-of-the-art health indicators regarding different criteria. This evaluation is based on different data sets from robot test rigs. We find that the proposed health indicator can detect different faults, has low temperature sensitivity and works in instationary velocity regimes. A discussion of the validity of the results rounds up our contribution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0620.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Doe Run Peru; socioeconomic policy; public health; systemic freedom; La Oroya
Online: 26 May 2021 (08:02:56 CEST)
The La Oroya metallurgical complex reveals a process of structural or power pathology, where economic and environmental social policies lead to a citizenry without systemic freedom, characterized by environmental contamination (PAMA executed on average 67%, some processes with 0%) and sanitary (plumbosis 8.39 to 10.28 μg / dL), the economic dependence of this industry is also observed, which caused the weakening of the communities to maintain autonomy over their own destinies.The Doe Run Peru, operated the metallurgical complex, creating added value to the extractive-export chain of mineral concentrate, but also took advantage of the legal loopholes, the little coordination between the State institutions and the little authority of the supervisory institutions to get the most out of it, complying with the law in some cases, but without moral quality in some others, such as health in the oroinos.Government institutions must have strong links that provide a normative framework with prospects with sustainable development, where the beneficiary is society and not only certain interest groups. The economic benefits of the metallurgical complex operation are multiple, which begin with labor, the purchase and sale of materials and services, the collection of taxes and energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0525.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Occupational Health; Quality of Life; Nurses; Working Conditions; Work; Primary Health Care.
Online: 29 November 2021 (11:54:29 CET)
Background: The concept of Quality of Work Life (QWL) has been built multidimensionally through social reproduction; it is impacted by the perceptions of each individual and by the relationship between workers and the work environment. Objective: to analyze the Work Process and QWL of assisting nurses in public health. Methods: Research in a critical paradigm, descriptive, exploratory with a qualitative approach. The population corresponds to Nurses who work in care work. Semi-structured guiding questions were applied and were analyzed with content analysis. Results: seven participants declared female; all Chilean; seven are young adults; six singles; only one has children, and one has a person dependent on her care; six are heads of household, and five receive help with housework. All have a nursing degree, five have a diploma, but none have a postgraduate. Work Process has three subcategories: work object, instrument, organization, and work conditions; the QWL category has six subcategories: definition and perception of QWL, QWL potentiating factors, QWL exhausting factors, QWL improvement strategies, the emotional burden associated with QWL, and Health problems. Conclusions: In this way, the lifestyle built by the assistance in the health area has repercussions on the quality of life and health in general.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0384.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: Solid Waste; Waste Management; Environment; Human Health
Online: 7 September 2023 (03:06:49 CEST)
Solid waste has become a tenacious issue worldwide. It has been increasing exponentially due to urbanization and the increase in the population. Since the twentieth-century technological revolution, there have been significant changes in the composition of solid waste. It poses significant challenges for waste management systems worldwide. Waste management is the process of handling waste right from its creation to its final disposal, including transport, collection, treatment, and monitoring. The present solid waste management (SWM) system is affected by unfavorable institutional, economic, technical, legislative, and operational constraints. Poor waste management is affecting ecosystems and human health, damaging our finite natural resources, impeding human economic progress, and harming people's quality of life. Now, researchers are concerned about the environment's degradation, a decline in quality of life, and risks related to waste management grow as the volume of solid waste. So, they are focusing on sustainable waste management practices which will be crucial for creating a cleaner and healthier environment for future generations. This chapter focuses on the concept of solid waste, its types, management, and its effect on the health of humans and the environment.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Artisanal mining; PPE; Occupational factors; Occupational health and safety
Online: 13 September 2021 (08:43:37 CEST)
Artisanal goldminers in Ghana are exposed to various levels and forms of health, safety and environmental threats. Without the required legislation and regulations, artisanal miners are responsible for their own health and safety at work. Consequently, understanding the probabilities of self-protection at work by artisanal goldminers is crucial. A cross-sectional survey of 500 artisanal goldminers was conducted to examine the probabilities of personal protective equipment use among artisanal goldminers in Ghana. The data was subjected to both descriptive and inferential statistics. Initial findings showed that personal protective equipment use among artisanal miners was 77.4%. Overall, higher probabilities of personal protective equipment use was observed among artisanal goldminers who work in good health and safety conditions as compared to artisanal miners who work in poor health and safety conditions. Also, personal protective equipment use was more probable among the highly educated artisanal goldminers, miners who regularly go for medical screening and the most experienced miners. Additionally, personal protective equipment use was more probable among artisanal miners who work in non-production departments and miners who work in the medium scale subsector. Inversely, personal protective equipment use was less probable among female artisanal miners and miners who earn more monthly income ($174 and above). To increase self-care and safety consciousness in artisanal mining, there is the need for a national occupational health and safety legislation in Ghana. Also, interventions and health promotion campaigns for better occupational conditions in artisanal mining should target and revise the health and safety related workplace programs and conditions
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0067.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Energy Harvester, Neutrality, Perpetual, COTS, Health Monitoring WSN
Online: 22 July 2016 (15:14:29 CEST)
This paper investigates an Energy Neutral System using Micro Energy Harvesters for a Health Monitoring Wireless Sensor Node (HM-WSN). We have implemented HM-WSN consisting of a solar cell energy harvester, a Power Management Unit (PMU) and the ucontroller, sensor and transmitter acting as load. A battery extender and a switching logic circuit for sensor node is designed to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed system. The HM-WSN senses body temperature with improvement in lifetime of coincell. The HM-WSN is built using commercially available off the shelf (COTS components and consumes 47.2uW for data being updated every 134s. It can be operated for approximately 1.32 years only on a coincell. Furthermore, the HM-WSN can be operated with solar energy at 200lux, achieving 96.36 years with a combination of a coincell with an additional capacitor of 2.2mF. It attains 4.07 years to 16.87 years lifetime with the load capacitor varying from 1mF to 1.5mF at 350lux lighting condition. With the same ambient condition and a 2mF load capacitor, HM-WSN attains complete energy autonomy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0494.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Radicalisation; Social Media; Public Mental Health; Online Radicalisation
Online: 8 May 2023 (09:36:22 CEST)
This systematic review seeks to position online radicalisation within whole system frameworks incorporating individual, family, community and wider structural influences, whilst reporting evidence of public mental health approaches for individuals engaging in radical online content. Methods: Authors searched Medline (via Ovid), PsycInfo (via Ebscohost) and Web of Science (Core Collection), with the use of Boolean operators across ‘extremism’, ‘online content’, and ‘intervention’. Results: Following assessment of full text, all retrieved papers had to be excluded. Results from six excluded articles which did not fit inclusion criteria but identified theoretical relationships between all three elements of online extremism, psychological outcomes, and intervention strategy, were discussed. Authors found no articles outlining public mental health approaches to specifically online radicalisation. Conclusions: There is an immediate need for further research in this field given the increase in different factions of radicalised beliefs resulting from online, particularly social media, usage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0034.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: 3PLs; E-business enterprise; low carbonization; game theory; Nash Equilibria
Online: 9 January 2017 (03:29:14 CET)
To improve carbon efficiency for urban logistics service system composed of a third-party logistics service provider (3PLs) and an e-business enterprise, low-carbon operation game between them was studied. Considering low carbon technology investment cost and sales expansion effect of low carbon level, profit functions for both players were constituted. Based on their different bargaining capabilities, totally 5 types of game scenarios were designed. Through analytical solution, Nash Equilibria under varied scenarios were obtained. By analyzing these equilibria, 4 major propositions were given, in which, some key variables and system performance index were compared. Results show that the best system yields could only be achieved under the fully cooperative situation; limited cooperation only for carbon emission reduction would not benefit the system performance improvement; E-business enterprise-leading game’s performance overtook 3PLs-leading ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: longitudinal study; emergency; infectious disease; organizational justice; stress; loneliness; compassion fatigue; meditation; prayer; insomnia; mental health; anaesthetists
Online: 23 August 2021 (10:22:05 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has severely tested the physical and mental health of health care workers (HCWs). The various stages of the epidemic have posed different problems; consequently, only a prospective study can effectively describe the changes in the workers’ health. This repeated cross-sectional study is based on a one-year investigation (spring 2020 to spring 2021) of intensive care physicians in one of the two COVID-19 hub hospitals in Central Italy. Changes in their work activity due to the pandemic were studied anonymously together with their perception of organizational justice, occupational stress, sleep quality, anxiety, depression, burnout, job satisfaction, happiness, and intention to quit. In May-June 2021, one year after the baseline, doctors reported an increased workload, isolation at work and in social life, lack of time for physical activity and meditation and compassion fatigue. Stress was inversely associated with the perception of justice in safety procedures and directly correlated with work isolation. Occupational stress was significantly associated with anxiety, depression, burnout, dissatisfaction, and intention to quit. Procedural justice was significantly associated with happiness. Doctors believed vaccinations would help control the problem; however, this positive attitude had not yet resulted in improved mental health. Doctors reported high levels of distress (73%), sleep problems (28%), anxiety (25%), depression (64%). Interventions to correct the situation are urgently needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0044.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: environmental impact assessment, remediation, petroleum-contaminated sites, environment, health, capacity building
Online: 3 October 2018 (12:01:44 CEST)
Human-generated, natural occurrences and other actions connected with the petroleum industry have contributed expansively to the contamination of numerous areas of human habitant, thus effecting overwhelming challenges and constraints to sustainable human health, development and the biosphere. The sites commonly associated include derelict pits, hydrocarbon onshore release sites, and places to where oil slicks exuding from offshore releases are blown onshore. In diverse cases, remediation is pertinent to restore the affected ambient. This is required despite the complexity and intricate pore structure and fluid trafficking trajectories of soil which are not easily amenable to remediation. Due to the complex assemblage of contaminated soil, it is necessary to conduct an encompassing site assessment by considering the potential impact of the environment and human health prior to proper selecting and implementing of a desirable remediation process. There are extant remediation methodologies which are effective and efficient for the clean up of contaminated shorelines and other petroleum-contaminated sites involving inter alia agricultural activities. There are salient variations in the techniques to expunge contaminants regarding spatiotemporal and pecuniary costs or considerations due to the gross environmental hazards entailed. This study provides for the opportunity to harness and sustain the capacity for the mitigation of untoward impacts, and induce the latitude for an enabling condition in sustainable human health, environment and development in the petroleum industry and other anthropogenic activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0334.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: organic producer; organic practices; surveillance data; health and safety
Online: 20 September 2021 (13:40:18 CEST)
Research indicates that farmers’ demographic characteristics and production practices have safety and health implications. However, current systems do not identify organic farmers independently from conventional farmers, and literature on how organic and conventional farmers compare is very limited. We conducted a secondary analysis of 2012 Census of Agriculture data to compare organic and non-organic farms and principal operators (POs) in New Mexico (NM). Organic farms were smaller in size, and POs of farms with organic sales were significantly younger (55.8±9.5 vs. 60.5±5.5 years) and less experienced (19.5±6.8 vs. 25.2±6.8 years). Significant differences were also found in POs ethnicity, race, and primary occupation. More farms with organic sales had a female PO compared to farms with non-organic sales (27% vs. 19%). Other significant differences related to work arrangements, household income, living conditions, and access to Internet. National surveys and regional studies may not accurately typify and describe the local organic producer, which is essential in order to advance policy, develop health interventions, and properly address occupational safety and risk among organic farmers. This study makes a unique contribution to understanding the importance of surveillance and collecting place-based data that are specific to the organic producer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0380.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: maternal health; new media; bibliometric analysis; cited reference analysis; structural variation analysis; hot spots
Online: 26 October 2021 (12:17:49 CEST)
Background: The new media provides a convenient digital platform to access, use and exchange health information. As a special group of health care, maternal is still of international concern due to their high mortality rate. Improving maternal health as a Millennium Development Goal of the United Nations is an important quest for the health care system. Scientific research provides advice on how to improve maternal health through stringent reasoning and accurate data. However, the dramatic increase of publications, the diversity of themes, and the dispersion of researchers may reduce efficiency. Objective: This study aims to analyze the research progress on maternal health under the global new media environment, exploring the current research hotspots and research frontiers. Methods: A scientometric analysis was carried out by CiteSpace5.7.R1, searching in the core database of Web of Science for articles published in English from 1998 to 2021, and combined topic words such as new media, maternal, and health. In total, 3312 articles have been retrieved, of which 2270 studies have been included for further analysis. Top countries and institutions, potentially high-impact literature, research frontiers, and hotspots were analyzed in this study. Results: The number of publications grew rapidly after 2008, from 29 publications sharply increasing to 472 publications by 2020. Research centers concentrated in Latin America, such as the University of Toronto, the University of California. The work of Larsson M, Lagan BM, Tiedje L, and Helle C had a high potential impact. Most of the research subjects were maternal and newborn babies, and the research frontiers focused on health education and maternal psychological problems. Maternal mental health, maternal and infant nutrition, weight, production technology, and equipment were hotspots. Conclusion: The development of new media has brought a new era for maternal health, characterized by psychological qualities, healthy and reasonable physical conditions, and advanced technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0312.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Health cadres; knowledge; motivation; stunting children; stunting prevention
Online: 20 December 2021 (12:40:36 CET)
Stunting in children is a serious problem of nutritional disorders and is strictly monitored by the Indonesian government, it is not only cause physical but also cognitive abnormalities in the form of less intelligence in children so that when they grow up, their productivity will decrease. The incidence of stunting in 2018 in Indonesia was 30.8 %, while in West Java was 29.92%, still at a moderate to high level, consequently, prevention and early detection efforts need to be carried out by various parties, including health professionals and health cadres. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between the socio demographic characteristics factors as well as the knowledge and motivation of health cadres in the stunting prevention in West Java. A correlational study with a cross-sectional approach was employed with the samples of health cadres from 8 districts/cities in West Java Province: Karawang, Tasikmalaya, Garut, Bandung, Subang, Sukabumi, Cianjur, and West Bandung. A total of 363 health cadres participated and the sampling technique used is the stratified method. The data were collected using a questionnaire developed specifically for this study and were analyzed using a correlation with Chi-Square test and presented in the form of a frequency distribution. The study findings found that majority of the health cadres have good knowledge of 81.27%, which was significantly influenced by education level and marital status with p <0.05. Meanwhile, approximately half of the respondents had moderate motivation with 47.66%, while one-third or 39.12% had high motivation. This motivation was significantly influenced by education level, marital status, and age with p <0.05. It was concluded that health cadres need to further enhance the roles and functions in the prevention and early detection of stunting in West Java by providing continuous guidance, stunting training prevention and award presentations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0414.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Embedded Sensors; Sensing Technology; Smart Materials; Structural Health Monitoring; Non-Destructive Evaluation
Online: 26 October 2022 (12:19:56 CEST)
Sensing Technology (ST) plays a key role in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems. ST focuses on developing sensors, sensory systems or smart materials that monitor a wide variety of materials properties aiming to create smart structures and smart materials, using Embedded Sensors (ESs), and allowing continuous and permanent measurements of the structural integrity. The integration of ESs is limited to the processing technology to embed the sensor due to its high-temperature sensitivity and the possibility of damage during its insertion into the structure. In addition, the technological process selection is dependent on the base material composition, either metallic or composite parts. The selection of smart sensors or the technology underlying them is fundamental to the monitoring mode. This paper presents a critical review of the fundaments and applications of sensing technologies for SHM employing ESs, focusing on the actual developments and innovation of these, as well as analysing the challenges that these technologies present, to build a path that allows a connected world through distributed measurement systems.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: bioelectrical signals; biorthogonal wavelet; approximation coefficients; detail coefficient; smartwatch; m-health monitoring
Online: 5 January 2020 (16:36:48 CET)
The World Health Organization(WHO) in 2016 considered mHealth as: “the use of mobile wireless technologies including smart devices such as smartphones and smartwatches for public health” as an important resource for health services delivery and public health given their ease of use, broad reach and acceptance. WHO emphasizes the potential of this technology to increase access to health information, services and skills as well as promoting positive changes in health behaviors and management of diseases. In this regard, the capability of smartphones and smartwatches for m-health monitoring as well as verification of the patient the signal has become an important component of mHealth system. Most of the smartwatches could extract more than one bioelectrical signal therefore, therefore they provide suitable platform for extracting health data for e-monitoring. The existing approaches have not considered the integrity of data obtained from these smart devices. Therefore, it is important that the integrity of the collected data be verified continuously through user authentication. This could be done using any of the bioelectrical signals extracted and transmitted for e-monitoring. In this article, a smartwatch is used for extracting bioelectrical signal before decomposing the signal into sub-bands of Detail and Approximation Coefficient for user authentication. To select suitable features using biorthogonal wavelet decomposition of signal from a non-intrusive extraction, a detailed experiment is conducted extracting suitable statistical features from the bioelectrical signal from 30 subjects using different biorthogonal wavelet family. Ten features are extracted using Biorthogonal wavelet to decompose the signal into three levels of sub-band Detail and Approximation Coefficient and features extracted from each level the decomposed Detail and Approximation Coefficients. Comparison analysis is done after the classification of the extracted features based on the Equal Error Rate (EER). Using Neural Network (NN) classifier, Biorthogonal Wavelet Detail Coefficient Sub-band level 3 of bior1.1 achieved the best result of EER 13.80% with the fusion of the best sub-band three levels of bior1.1 achieving a better result of 12.42% EER.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1003.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: automotive; noise; vibration; harshness; human health; environment; sustainability
Online: 15 November 2023 (11:52:15 CET)
This paper exposes the initial part of a larger research on the impact of the automotive on human health and the quality of life and environment. After a brief introduction on the need for responsible and sustainable approaches and few questions on the subject, some considerations and statistical data are presented, based on a study of the literature on the impact of road traffic and vehicles noise and vibration on people's comfort and health and their quality of life. The research results show, based on official statistics, the significant harmful impact of noise and vibration from motor vehicles and road transport on people's health and quality of life, especially in urban areas during the day. Also, the significant increase in the number of electric and hybrid vehicles from one year to another, a reality and a necessity nowadays, and the awareness that electric vehicles are not perfectly quiet and comfortable, open new research opportunities and require the development of new standards, materials, tools, equipment and test methods in the field of NVH, in a sustained synergistic approach from all stakeholders, to meet the needs and demands of today's consumers, and to comply with existing regulations and standards on environmental protection and sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0540.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Health Indicator; Monitoring Data; Machine Learning; Autoencoder
Online: 10 July 2023 (05:12:24 CEST)
The prediction of system degradation is very important as it serves as an important basis for the formulation of condition-based maintenance strategies. An effective health indicator (HI) plays a key role in the prediction of system degradation as it enables vital information for critical tasks ranging from fault diagnosis to remaining useful life prediction. To address this issue, a method for monitoring data fusion and health indicator construction based on autoencoder (AE) and long short-term memory (LSTM) network is proposed to improve the predictability and effectiveness of health indicator in this study. Firstly, an unsupervised method and overall framework for HI construction is built based on deep autoencoder and LSTM neural network. The neural network is trained fully based on the normal operating monitoring data and then the construction error of the AE model is adopted as the health indicator of the system. Secondly, we propose related machine learning techniques for monitoring data processing to overcome the issue of data fusion, like mutual information for sensor selection and t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (T-SNE) for operating condition identification, etc. Thirdly, in order to verify the performance of the proposed method, experiments are conducted based on CMAPSS dataset and results are compared with algorithms of principal component analysis (PCA) and vanilla autoencoder model. Result shows that LSTM-AE model outperforms the PCA and Vanilla-AE model in metrics of monotonicity, trendability, prognosability and fitness. Fourthly, in order to analyze the impact of the time step of the LSMT-AE model on HI construction, we construct and analyze the system HI curve under different time steps of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cycles. Finally, the results demonstrate that the proposed method for HI construction can effectively characterize the health state of system, which is helpful for further failure prognostics and converting the scheduled maintenance into condition-based maintenance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1714.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: E-Waste; Soil; Water; Heavy metals; Human Health
Online: 28 November 2023 (08:03:33 CET)
E-waste is considered the fastest-growing global waste stream and has become an emerging environmental challenge. The widespread usage of digital devices has generated a large amount of e-waste. According to the Ministry of Commerce, India annually generates ~14.5 lakh metric tons of e-waste and recycles only ~5 % of e-waste. Annually, the global production of e-waste has been expected to increase by 4–5 %. Advancements in IT and communication divisions have improved the usage of electronic equipment. Heavy metals such as (Pb), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), tin (Sn), and organic chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are subsequently released from e-wastes and contaminates soil and water sources. These toxic compounds are hazardous to human health and the environment. They are capable of entering various biological systems and causing alterations in respiratory functions of the lungs, DNA damage, impaired functioning of the thyroid, and increased risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular ailments. Such concerns raise the quintessential need to manage e-waste to prevent future hazards. This manuscript critically reviews the sources, health and environmental impact, disposal techniques, recycling, and regulation of e-waste.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0553.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: e-Health domain; Differential Privacy; Blockchain; IoT; real-time data; health survey; electronic medical record
Online: 10 October 2023 (12:22:28 CEST)
A systematic and comprehensive review of critical applications of Blockchain Technol-ogy with Differential Privacy integration lies within the privacy and security enhancement. This paper aims to highlight the research issues in the e-health domain (e.g., Electronic Medical Rec-ords) and to review the current research directions in Differential Privacy integration with Blockchain Technology.(1) Background: The current state of the art in the e-health domain is identified as follows: (a) healthcare information poses a high level of security and privacy concerns due to its sensitivity; (b) due to vulnerabilities surrounding the healthcare system, a data breach is common and presents a risk for attacks by an adversary; and (c) the current privacy and security apparatus needs further fortification. (2) Methods: The methodology uses a systematic literature review (SLR) to identify and select relevant research papers and academic journals in DP and BT. (3) Results: The results are categorized into: e-Health Record Privacy, Real-Time Health Data, and Health Survey Data Protection to identify inherent issues with Differential Privacy integra-tion with Blockchain and technical challenges.(4) Conclusion: This review thoroughly surveyed and summarized Differential Privacy mechanisms in EMR privacy, real-time health data, and health survey data protection while highlighting challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0422.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: telemedicine; COVID-19; telehealth; health service lines; pandemic
Online: 20 August 2020 (04:10:27 CEST)
Background – The profound impact of COVID-19 on the U.S. healthcare industry cannot be overstated. Telemedicine utilization exploded virtually overnight as healthcare systems, hospitals, and clinical practices rushed to implement this delivery model to ensure accessibility and continuity of patient care access across myriad service lines and dimensions. Objective – The purpose of this systematic literature review is to examine the measures that were implemented to accommodate community and individual patient needs not only to afford access to critical services, but to also maintain safety standards for affected parties. Methods – Boolean operators were crafted with the expressed intent of identifying articles within multiple database domains germane to our chosen topic. Results – 52,206 articles were captured from a general search query and subsequently distilled to 44 through group consensus based on pertinence to our basic research question. The four health service lines identified encountered similar, surmountable obstacles in their care delivery models, but adapted accordingly to the respective needs of their patient populations. Conclusion – This review showcased the healthcare industry’s ability to rapidly acclimate and change due to the pervasive spread of COVID-19 throughout the U.S. Although imperfect, unique responses were developed within telemedicine platforms to broadly and effectively mitigate disruptions in care and treatment modalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0245.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: MEMS vibrometer; Structural Health Monitoring (SHM); Guided Ultrasonic Waves (GUW); Fiber Metal Laminates (FML); wafer bonding
Online: 17 June 2022 (03:55:30 CEST)
Structural health monitoring of lightweight constructions made of composite materials can be performed using guided ultrasonic waves. If modern fiber metal laminates are used, this requires integrated sensors that can record the inner displacement oscillations caused by the propagating guided ultrasonic waves. Therefore, we have developed a robust MEMS vibrometer that can be integrated with structural and functional compliance. This vibrometer is directly sensitive to the high-frequency displacements from structure-borne ultrasound when excited between its first and second natural frequency. The vibrometer is mostly realized by processes earlier developed for a pressure sensor but with additional femtosecond laser ablation and wafer bonding. The piezoresistive transducer made from silicon is encapsulated between top and bottom glass lids. The natural frequencies are experimentally determined using an optical micro vibrometer setup. The vibrometer functionality and usability for structural health monitoring are demonstrated on a customized test rig by recording application-relevant guided ultrasonic wave packages with a central frequency of 100 kHz at a distance of 200 mm from the exciting ultrasound transducer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0269.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: dietary intervention; multilevel intervention; diet & exercise; health outcomes
Online: 16 July 2018 (09:59:19 CEST)
There is a growing need to utilize community interventions to address modifiable behaviors that lead to poor health outcomes like obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Poor health outcomes can be tied to community-level factors such as food deserts (identified areas with low access to fresh fruit, vegetables, and other healthful whole foods) and individual behaviors like sedentary lifestyles, consuming large portion sizes, and eating high-calorie fast food and processed foods. Through a social ecological approach with family, organization and community, the Faithful Families Cooking and Eating Smart (FFCES) intervention was created to address these concerns in a rural South Carolina community. FFCES used gatekeepers to identify 18 churches and 4 apartment complexes in low-income areas. 176 participants completed both pre- and post- survey measures. Student’s t-test measures found statistically significant change in participant perception of food security (0.39, p-value=0.005), self-efficacy with physical activity and healthy eating (0.26, p-value=000), and cooking confidence (0.17, p-value=.01). There was not significant change in cooking behaviors as assessed through the Cooking Behaviors Scale. FFCES shows that a social ecological approach can be effective at increasing and improving individual healthy behaviors and addressing community-level factors in low-income rural communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0232.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: mHealth; ODK scan; mobile health application; digitizing data collection; data management processes; paper-to-digital system; technology-assisted data management; treatment adherence
Online: 2 September 2016 (03:17:38 CEST)
The present grievous situation of the tuberculosis disease can be improved by efficient case management and timely follow-up evaluations. With the advent of digital technology this can be achieved by quick summarization of the patient-centric data. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of the ODK Scan paper-to-digital system during testing period of three months. A sequential, explanatory mixed-method research approach was employed to elucidate technology use. Training, smartphones, application and 3G enabled SIMs were provided to the four field workers. At the beginning, baseline measures of the data management aspects were recorded and compared with endline measures to see the impact of ODK Scan. Additionally, at the end, users’ feedback was collected regarding app usability, user interface design and workflow changes. 122 patients’ records were retrieved from the server and analysed for quality. It was found that ODK Scan recognized 99.2% of multiple choice bubble responses and 79.4% of numerical digit responses correctly. However, the overall quality of the digital data was decreased in comparison to manually entered data. Using ODK Scan, a significant time reduction is observed in data aggregation and data transfer activities, however, data verification and form filling activities took more time. Interviews revealed that field workers saw value in using ODK Scan, however, they were more concerned about the time consuming aspects of the use of ODK Scan. Therefore, it is concluded that minimal disturbance in the existing workflow, continuous feedback and value additions are the important considerations for the implementing organization to ensure technology adoption and workflow improvements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Gini coefficient; online health community; medical service delivery; Lorenz curve; inequality of health service; differential Effect
Online: 20 May 2019 (03:13:23 CEST)
Inequality of health service for different specialty categories not only occurs in different areas inequality of health service for different specialty categories in the world, but also happens in the online service platform. In the online health community (OHC), health service was often of inequality for different specialty categories, including both online views and medical consultation for offline registered service. Moreover, how the factor city-level impacts the inequality of health service in OHC is still unknown. We designed a causal inference study with data on distributions of serviced patients and online views in over 100 distinct specialty categories on one largest OHC in China. To derive the causal effect of the city-levels (two levels inducing 1 and 0) on the Gini coefficient, we matched the focus cases in cities of rich healthcare resources with the potential control cities. For the Gini coefficient of serviced patients in over 100 specialty categories, the average treatment effect of level-1 cities is 0.470, which is 0.029 higher than that of the matched group. Similarly, for the Gini coefficient of online views, the average treatment effect of Level-1 cities is 0.573, which is 0.016 higher than that of the matched group. For each of the specialty categories, we also estimated the average treatment effect the specialty category’s Gini coefficient ( ) with the balanced covariates. The results support the argument that the total Gini coefficient of all the doctors in OHC shows that the inequality of health service is still very serious. This study contributes to the development of the theoretically grounded understanding of the causal effect of city-level on the inequality of health service in an online to offline healthcare service setting.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0581.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Healthcare; Internet of Things; Smart hospitals; Big data; Cloud computing; Blockchain; Electronic health records; Smart-health; IOT-Healthcare; Healthcare sensors; Remote health monitoring; Healthcare
Online: 24 May 2021 (15:10:31 CEST)
In this ‘New Normal' post-COVID-19 modern world, people's health is becoming increasingly important to track. An advanced technology that uses sensory instruments to track and record critical parameters and communicates with others is the need of the time. It's difficult to keep track of all of the medical parameters and post-operative data of people with non-communicable diseases like diabetes and heart disease on a continuous basis. The system discussed here to be designed for patients who are confined to their homes, particularly when going out and being exposed to the outer world is prohibited. This paper proposed a groundbreaking health management system based on the Internet of Things (IoT) for accessing patient medical parameters in both local and remote areas. When a person's wellbeing becomes urgent, this initiative seeks to send an emergency alert to family members or loved ones. A cloud server records data from the patient's temperature sensor and pulse sensor; the data is analyzed using support vector machine algorithms to identify irregular conditions, and an emergency message is sent to the rest of the family via a mobile application, as well as a warning message to the nearest hospital.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1048.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: eHealth; Digital Health; Strategy; Telemedicine strategy; eHealth Strategy Development Framework; eHSDF; Botswana
Online: 17 July 2023 (04:33:41 CEST)
Botswana is developing its eHealth capacity using a National eHealth Strategy. However, that Strategy overlooks telemedicine, a potential solution for many healthcare challenges. For telemedicine to benefit Botswana, a telemedicine-specific strategy is required. While establishing a national strategy is a sovereign responsibility, guidance and recommendations can be provided. Using published resources specific to Botswana, key health-related issues were identified. These issues were matched with suitable telemedicine activities and delivery approaches. Recommendations were then derived from these for use in an effective telemedicine-specific strategy for Botswana. From 28 health-related issues, six were prioritised. Three telemedicine activities were identified (clinical services, education, and behaviour change), and one delivery approach was chosen (store-and-forward) because they align well with current needs, infrastructure, and mobile phone user capabilities. Since telemedicine has been proven to be effective, efficient, and cost-effective when implemented correctly this knowledge and experience, plus a recognised strategy development framework, has led to evidence-based recommendations. Specific telemedicine options were identified as examples. As confidence grows, telemedicine options can be expanded to address additional clinical needs and explore alternative activities and delivery options. The recommendations can help the Government develop a telemedicine-specific strategy that aligns with the National eHealth Strategy while actively promoting and supporting the adoption and system integration of straightforward telemedicine interventions. This foundation will facilitate the future expansion of telemedicine initiatives for the benefit of all Batswana.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0519.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Digital Mental Health community; Peer Online Community; Experience measure; Forums; User testing; Quality of Care; Measure design and development; Peer support; Affinity maps
Online: 31 December 2021 (12:34:46 CET)
Online digital mental health communities can contribute to users’ mental health positively and negatively. Yet the measurement of outcomes and impact relating to digital mental health communities is difficult to capture. In this paper we demonstrate the development of an online experience measure for a specific children and young people’s community inside a digital mental health service. The development is informed by three phases: (i) item reduction through Estimate-Talk-Estimate modified Delphi methods, (ii) user testing with participatory action research and (iii) a pilot within the digital service community to explore its use. Rounds of experts talks help to reduce the items. User experience workshops helped to inform the usability and appearance, wording, and purpose of the measure. Finally, the pilot results highlight completion rates, difference in scores for age and community roles and a preference to ‘relate to others’; as a mechanism of support. Outcomes frequently selected in the measure show the importance of certain aspects of the community, such as safety, connection, and non-judgment previously highlighted in the literature. Self-reported helpfulness scales like this one could be used as indicators of meaningful engagement within the community and its content but further research is required to ascertain its acceptability and validity. Phased approaches involving stakeholders and participatory action research enhances the development of digitally enabled measurement tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0412.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Geographical Area Network (GAN); Structural Health Monitoring (SHM); Utility Computing (UC); Things as a Service (TaaS); Internet of Things (IoT)
Online: 19 November 2018 (03:58:56 CET)
In view of intensified disasters and fatalities caused by natural phenomena and geographical expansion, there is a pressing need for a more effective environment logging for a better management and urban planning. This paper proposes a novel utility computing model (UCM) for structural health monitoring (SHM) that would enable dynamic planning of monitoring systems in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The proposed UCM consists of network-attached data drive that stores data from SHM logger, population count system and Geographic Information System (GIS) enhanced with a Cloud IoT data backup, display, and analysis server. The UCM using this data and data from building information systems applies a simple machine learning algorithm to generate real-time structure health and suggests re-planning of SHM units. The health of structure varies dynamically with disturbances created by higher occupancy and structure density per zone. The proposed SHM-UCM is unique in terms of its capability to manage heterogeneous SHM resources. This was tested in a case study on Qatar University (QU) in Doha Qatar, where it looked at where SHM nodes are distributed along with occupancy density in each building. This information was taken from QU simulated occupation and zone calculation models and then compared to ideal SHM system data. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed model in logging and dynamically planning SHM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0251.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: Geological process, geological materials, trace elements, environmental health
Online: 15 June 2018 (11:47:52 CEST)
Inadequate data linking geology and health in Developing Countries contributes immensely to the challenges to identify sources and causes of many of the emerging diseases. Deficiencies and toxicities of trace elements generally impact human and animal health. The review of the geology of Ghana suggests the presence of oxides and sulphide minerals that are released into the natural environment during the geological process of weathering which introduce both essential and, potentially harmful elements. Of great concern is the fact that majority of the Ghanaian population eat locally cultivated food and expect to be nourished from the diet. Furthermore, archived reports on Ghana rural drinking water indicates most of the aquifers are enriched in As and F while deficient in Mg. Medical geology, the emerging discipline that attempts to address the environmental health issues emanating from geological processes is known in developed nations but not much of its activities are recognized in Ghana. This review has identified the concentrations of a number of elements in different geological settings and have linked these concentrations with health issues. There is therefore a need for medical geologists to work together with other disciplines to devise preventive as well as mitigative techniques in addressing many geology related health issues in Ghana.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0577.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online learning; e-learning; hybrid learning; innovation; education
Online: 31 January 2023 (08:07:58 CET)
In recent years, online learning has become one of the most popular methods of educational delivery due to advances in technology, which has been made even more evident in the COVID-19 lockdown period. Online education has evolved into a distinct field of study within the educational system over the last few years. It is also important to note that parallel with the growth in this field, there has also been an increase in the number of scholarly journals that regularly publish research in this field, reflecting the importance of this field in the modern day. In spite of the fact that online learning offers a wide range of educational options, from short courses to full-time degrees, as well as being accessible, flexible, environmentally friendly, and affordable, there are also certain challenges associated with this educational approach. These challenges include the lack of social interaction, technical errors, a lack of hands-on training, and difficulties in assessing students. It is, therefore, imperative to ask the crucial question of whether online learning can replace traditional classroom learning or whether it can supplement it in hybrid models with it, as well as what factors and conditions are likely to determine this in the short- and long-term, as well as how it will be blended together in the future. The purpose of this commentary is to provide a brief summary of the current status of both learning models, as well as their pros and cons, in order to answer the question that was posed above.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0470.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: wireless body area networks; controlled sensing; energy efficiency; partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs); remote health monitoring
Online: 19 April 2021 (12:08:56 CEST)
Abstract: Wireless body area networks (WBANs) have strong potential in the field of health monitoring. However, the energy consumption required for accurate monitoring limits the time between battery charges of the wearable sensors, which is a key performance factor (and can be critical in the case of implantable devices). In this paper, we study the inherent trade-off between the power consumption of the sensors and the probability of misclassifying a patient’s health state. We formulate this trade-off as a dynamic problem, in which at each step we can choose to activate a subset of sensors that provide noisy measurements of the patient’s health state. We assume that the (unknown) health state follows a Markov chain, so our problem is formulated as a partially observable Markov decision problem (POMDP). We show that all the past measurements can be summarized as a belief state on the true health state of the patient, which allows tackling the POMDP problem as an MDP on the belief state. We then empirically study the performance of a greedy one-step look-ahead policy compared to the optimal policy obtained by solving the dynamic program. For that purpose, we use an open-source Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) data set of 232 patients over six months and extract the transition matrix and sensor accuracies from the data. We find that the greedy policy saves ~50% of the energy costs while reducing the misclassification costs by less than 2% compared to the most accurate policy possible that always activates all sensors. Our sensitivity analysis reveals that the greedy policy remains nearly optimal across different cost parameters and a varying number of sensors. The results also have practical importance, because while the optimal policy is too complicated, a greedy one-step look-ahead policy can be easily implemented in WBAN systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0544.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Fogo volcano; volcanic eruption; outdoor dust; PM10; human health Risk
Online: 24 May 2021 (08:52:24 CEST)
Fogo (Fogo island, Cape Verde Republic) is the youngest and most active volcano of the archipelago. The last eruption occurred in 2014–2015. Aiming at studying dust emissions and transport during the eruption period and assessing their impact on air quality and human health, a mineralogical and chemical characterization was undertaken in outdoor dust from all over the island, as well as in the lava resulting from this event. Air quality monitors were used to obtain concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants. The mineralogical constitution of the samples was analysed by X-ray diffraction and Electron Microprobe, while the chemical characterization was performed through X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry and ICP-MS. The volcanic rock was found to be tephritic to basanitic, with high potassium content. Several minerals were identified, such as titanian augite with ilmenite, basaltic hornblendes, pyrrhotites, apatites, pyroxenes, basaltic hornblendes and hematites. Concentrations of the particulate matter inhalable fraction (PM10) exceeded the 24-hour mean of 50 µg/m3 recommended by the World Health Organization. Nevertheless, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) showed levels lower than the worrying range. The highest levels of CO2 were recorded in more populated villages and farthest from the volcano. The Pollution Load Index (PLI) for outdoor dust collected on rooftops was always above 1, suggesting enrichment, with higher values in the dust size fraction < 63 µm. In the same way, the Contamination Factor pointed to high enrichment of As, Ni and Pb, and very high enrichment of Cd in the same size fraction. The Non-carcinogenic Hazard Quotient and Hazard Index estimated for Children suggest that health problems may arise. The Carcinogenic Risk, for all size fractions, was above the target risk. The element that most contributed to the global risk was As, followed by Pb and Co. Ingestion was the main exposure route for all size fractions. The dust size fraction that represented the highest risk was < 63 µm, mostly due to the As concentration.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0352.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Health record; electronic health record; e-health record; the history of medicine; the economy of the healthcare system
Online: 22 May 2020 (10:48:18 CEST)
The history of health records (later also called medical records), including ones regarding individual patients, is thousands of years old. It finds it roots in the first ancient civilisations. Up until the 19th century the records’ purpose was mainly an educational one. In the 19th and 20th century they started becoming significant in other roles as well, including those not strictly limited to medicine. In particular, to account for medical procedures, insurance proceeds or legal action. Currently we are living in a revolutionary era when it comes to health records, in which their character has changed from a “paper-based” to an electronic one. This paper presents the development of health records from the ancient to modern times, mainly in Europe and North America. Other cultures and civilisations, including China and India, are not discussed. An analysis of available sources was conducted, inter alia digital versions of manuscripts up to hundreds of years old. The analysis was based on PubMed and Google Scholar (several key words, all the available sources). Sources published in non-international languages (e.g. Dutch) were also investigated. Overall, approximately 600 articles were analysed, 158 of which were used and cited in this paper. The conclusions drawn from the analysis are as follows: (1) Health records, priorly used mostly for educational purposes, for about 100 years now have acquired a fully formal status. (2) We are currently facing the most revolutionary changes regarding the transformation of paper-based records into electronic ones. (3) The consequences of this process include systematic applications of solutions within the area of e-health, which allow us to make medical services more flexible, improve the health of individual patients and entire populations and potentially limit expenditure. (4) In the light of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, introducing electronic health records could be beneficial in terms of limiting the potential sources of contamination (physical copies of health records), saving time and resources, and improving the network of communication between medical centres.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Asthma; Erbil; Health education; Knowledge; Attitudes; Practice
Online: 3 May 2023 (04:10:18 CEST)
Asthma causes chronic coughing, wheezing, dyspnea, and chest pressure. This study assessed asthmatic patients' knowledge, attitudes and awareness of bronchial asthma and proper education on its meaning, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, management, and prevention practice. We performed a cross-sectional interventional asthma KAP survey in Erbil, Iraq. We adapted a validated study questionnaire from KAP studies in other nations to the Erbil situation and culture. In Erbil, Kurdistan, Iraq, two major hospitals' asthma clinics were studied. We chose 250 asthmatic ICU patients from October 2018 to July 2019. Health education was comprehensive. The health education program used a Kurdish PowerPoint with a printout. 25 groups got two-weeks of one-hour health education pre-intervention. Each group was questioned before, 2 and 12 weeks after health education. All data were analyzed by SPSS v26. The mean age of the respondent was 37.52±15.16 with 48.7 % respondent having a positive family history of asthma. After 2weeks of health education intervention, respondent have a higher knowledge score, positive attitudes compared to pre-education and after 12 weeks of education with a significant difference (P < 0.001) with improvised prevention practice. Health education programs led to considerable improvements in asthmatic patients' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding their condition. After receiving health education for a period of two weeks, the majority of the participants answered correctly regarding asthma, its causes, and the elements that trigger asthma attacks.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1116.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Suicidal ideation; Suicide prevention; Mental health; COVID- 19; Public health
Online: 15 August 2023 (14:13:16 CEST)
Suicide is a global public health concern that has enormous social and psychological 1 implications for individuals, families, and communities affected. While the rate of suicide in the 2 UK has remained steady over the years mainly due to the various approaches to detection and 3 management of suicidal ideation, it is still one of the main causes of mortality amongst people 4 between the age of 20 – 34 years. The recent global events such as the COVID-19 pandemic, global 5 warming, war, and various environmental catastrophes means that suicide and suicidal ideation 6 is expected to increase especially among younger people. Thus, evidence-based, population-wide 7 preventative approach will be needed to ameliorate the predicted increase in suicide. Also, to 8 understand the effects of some of the suicide prevention approaches, objective and universal risk 9 assessment approach is required. However, there is no universally accepted preventative approach 10 or tools of assessment. This review examines current advances in suicide prevention in the United 11 Kingdom. It examines the epidemiology, risk factors, as well as the strengths and limitations of 12 the various suicide risk assessment and prevention tools currently in use. We hope to obtain a 13 deeper understanding of how these approaches have evolved and their impact on enhancing mental 14 health and preventing suicide ideation in the UK. We present an in-depth review of existing suicide 15 prevention research and policies, while proposing areas for future research and improvement.16
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: e-learning; online teaching; Galaxy; TIaaS; accessibility; scalability
Online: 18 December 2020 (16:30:25 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic is shifting teaching to an online setting all over the world. The Galaxy framework facilitates the online learning process and makes it accessible by providing a library of high-quality community-curated training materials, enabling easy access to data and tools, and facilitates sharing achievements and progress between students and instructors. By combining Galaxy with robust communication channels, effective instruction can be designed inclusively, regardless of the students' environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0093.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depression; anxiety; emotional distress; HADS; GDS; Health Centre
Online: 11 August 2016 (11:05:44 CEST)
Objective: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the mental health of Cypriot citizens, living in the current difficult period of economic recession. Specific objective was to investigate the different factors (gender, age, socio-economic factors, etc.) that may affect the levels of emotional distress, anxiety and depression in visitors of the Rural Health Centre of Kofinou. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of total 300 Cypriots who visited Kofinou Health Centre in the period between August and September 2015. For the middle-aged citizens the Greek version of the HADS scale (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale) was administered to 150 persons (Michopoulos I., 2007), while for the visiting senior citizens (aged over 65 years) the Greek version of the GDS scale (Geriatric Depression Scale) was used (Fountoulakis K., et al., 1999). All analyses were performed with the social science analysis package SPSS (version 21). Results: HADS: A total of 150 people of average age 47±11,5 years (23-64), were 56% women, while the 77.3% stated they had drastic reduction of income as well as 46.7% suffered from chronic disease. The 36.6% and 28.7% of the visitors showed moderate and severe forms of anxiety and depression, accordingly. Higher emotional distress is associated with lower educational level (p<0,001). Moreover, patients with low income have higher levels of anxiety (p=0,003), depression (p=0,036) and total emotional distress (p=0,007), while those with chronic disease have a higher stress (p<0,001), depression (p<0,001) and total emotional distress symptoms (p<0,001) compared to non - patients. GDS: 150 patients out of which 77 were women (51.3%). The average age of participants was 72±5,5 years. 93(62%) participants declared a drastic reduction of income due to the financial crisis while 139 (92.7%) stated they had chronic disease. 53 participants (35.3%) think they have symptoms of depression after the economic crisis. The women showed higher level of geriatric depression symptoms than men (p<0.001). Higher levels of depression is associated with lower income (p=0.001). Conclusions: The study shows that stress levels, depression and emotional distress are increased in specific population groups. The main factors affecting the mental health of the participants are the presence of chronic disease, income and level of education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: inverse Finite Element Method; iFEM; Digital-Twin; Structural Health Monitoring; crack; Digital Image Correlation
Online: 6 February 2023 (09:04:08 CET)
The inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM) is a model-based technique to compute the displacement (and then the strain) field of a structure from strain measurements and a geometrical discretization of the same. Different literature works exploit the error between the numerically reconstructed strains and the experimental measurements to perform damage identification in a Structural Health Monitoring framework. However, only damage detection and localization are performed, without attempting a proper damage size estimation. The latter could be based on machine learning techniques, however, an a priori definition of the damage conditions would be required. To overcome these limitations, the present work proposes a new approach in which the damage is systematically introduced in the iFEM model to minimize its discrepancy with respect to the physical structure. This is performed with a maximum likelihood estimation framework, where the most accurate damage scenario is selected among a series of different models. The proposed approach is experimentally verified on an aluminum plate subjected to fatigue crack propagation, which enables the creation of a Digital-Twin of the structure itself. The strain field fed to the iFEM routine is experimentally measured with an Optical Backscatter Reflectometry fiber and the methodology is validated with independent observations of lasers and the Digital Image Correlation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0254.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: autonomous systems; multiple sclerosis; stroke; smart mirror; autonomy; lived experience; home healthcare; digital health technology; data sharing.
Online: 5 July 2023 (08:57:32 CEST)
The home is becoming a key location for healthcare delivery, including the use of technology driven by autonomous systems (AS) to monitor and support healthcare plans. Using the example of a smart mirror, this paper describes the outcomes of focus groups with people with multiple sclerosis (MS; n=6) and people who have had a stroke (n=15) to understand their attitudes towards the use of AS for healthcare in the home. We thematic analysis to analyse the data. The results indicate that the use of such technology depends on the level of adaptability and responsiveness to the users’ specific circumstances, including their relationships with the healthcare system. A smart mirror would need to support manual entry, responsive goal setting, effective aggregation of data sources and integration with other technology, have a range of input methods, be supportive rather than prescriptive in messaging, and give the user full control of their data. Barriers to adoption include a perceived lack of portability and practicality, lack of accessibility and inclusivity, a sense of redundancy, being overwhelmed by multiple technological devices, and a lack of trust in data sharing. These results inform the development and deployment of future health technologies based on the lived experiences of people with health conditions who require ongoing care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0048.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: emergency rainwater tanks; earthquake; Wellington; health hazards; drinking-water quality; E. coli; lead; zinc
Online: 13 October 2016 (05:41:48 CEST)
The greater Wellington region, New Zealand, is highly vulnerable to large earthquakes because it is cut by active faults. Bulk water supply pipelines cross the Wellington Fault at several different locations, and there is considerable concern about severe disruption of the provision of reticulated water supplies to households and businesses in the aftermath of a large earthquake. A number of policy initiatives have been launched encouraging householders to install rainwater tanks to increase post-disaster resilience. However, little attention has been paid to potential health hazards associated with consumption of these supplies. To assess health hazards for householders in emergency situations, six 200-litre emergency water tanks were installed at properties across the Wellington region, with five tanks being allowed to fill with roof-collected rainwater and one tank being filled with municipal tapwater as a control. Such tanks are predominantly set aside for water storage, and once filled, feature limited drawdown and recharge. Sampling from these tanks was carried out fortnightly for one year, and samples analysed for E. coli, pH, conductivity, a range of major and trace elements, and organic compounds, enabling an assessment of the evolution of water chemistry in water storage tanks over time. Key findings were that the overall rate of E.coli detections in the rain-fed tanks was 17.7%, which is low in relation to other studies. We propose that low incidences of E.coli may be due to biocidal effects of high zinc concentrations in tanks, originating from unpainted galvanised steel roof cladding. Lead concentrations were high compared to other studies, with 69% of rain-fed tank samples exceeding the World Health Organisation’s health-based guideline of 0.01 mg/L. Further work is required to determine risks of short-term consumption of this water in emergency situations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0391.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: occupational health; leadership; mental health; workplace climate; worksite
Online: 29 June 2022 (03:27:08 CEST)
Objectives: This study validated the Japanese version of O’Donovan et al.’s (2020) composite measure of psychological safety scale and examined the associations of psychological safety with mental health and job-related outcomes. Methods: Online surveys were administered twice to Japanese employees with teams of more than three members. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability was tested using Cronbach’s α and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Structural validity was examined using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Convergent validity was tested. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between psychological safety and psychological distress, work engagement, job performance, and job satisfaction. Results: Two hundred healthcare workers and 200 non-healthcare workers were analyzed. The Cronbach’s alpha of the total score was 0.92 - 0.96 and ICC was 0.88 - 0.92. CFA demonstrated poor fit, and EFA yielded a two-factor structure, suggesting one factor combined with peers and team. The scale showed good convergent validity. The total score of the scale showed significant associations with all outcomes in adjusted model in all workers. Conclusions: The Japanese version of the measure of the psychological safety scale presented good reliability and validity. Psychological safety is important for employees’ mental health and performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0695.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: respiratory health; ammonia; ventilation; smart farming
Online: 12 September 2023 (04:08:36 CEST)
This study aimed to assess the feasibility of employing audio and vision technologies as an integrated monitoring system to monitor the health and behavior of pigs under different environmental conditions and to associate these factors. A total of 81 growing pigs ((Landrace x Largewhite) x Duroc) with distinct weight categories (10.47 ± 2.57 kg and 28.81 ± 5.03 kg) were distributed into two distinct housing conditions: Control (characterized by low NH3 levels and low stocking density) and Treatment (marked by elevated NH3 levels and varying stocking densities). Each house was installed with a SoundTalks monitor for automated daily evaluation of respiratory health status (ReHS), and a camera with a microphone to facilitate manual tracking of respiratory symptoms and behavioral patterns. Results showed that the Treatment group encountered significantly high room temperature, NH3 concentration, and carbon dioxide levels, resulting in compromised growth performance—a phenomenon further exacerbated in high stocking density conditions. Pigs within the treatment exhibited increases (p < 0.05) in lateral and total lying behaviors, and incidences of ear and tail injuries, increases screaming frequency, conjunctivitis incidences, coughing frequency, elevated respiration rates, and a decrease in ReHS. The environmental conditions affect the behavior and health of the pigs. Moreover, the behavioral patterns of the pigs are associated with their health conditions. The SoundTalks system did not trigger any warnings during the experimental period. Nevertheless, trend analysis indicated a significant reduction in respiratory health in the treatment. In conclusion, this study underscores the efficacy of merging audio and visual technologies to holistically monitor pig health and behavior, enabling enhanced management strategies. Findings emphasize that monitoring the ReHS trend serves as a pivotal marker for identifying respiratory health problems, complementing the system's innate alarm functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0346.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: state of charge; state of health; model identification; estimation; lithium-ion battery
Online: 22 June 2018 (05:58:02 CEST)
The accurate monitoring of state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) is critical for the reliable management of lithium-ion battery (LIB) systems. In this paper, the online model identification is scrutinized to achieve high modeling accuracy and robustness, and a model-based joint estimator is further proposed to estimate the SOC and SOH of LIB concurrently. Specifically, an adaptive forgetting recursive least squares (AF-RLS) method is exploited to optimize the estimation alertness and numerical stability, so as to achieve accurate online adaption of model parameters. Leveraging the online adapted battery model, a joint estimator is proposed by combining an open-circuit voltage (OCV) observer with a low-order state observer to co-estimate the SOC and capacity of LIB. Simulation and experimental studies are performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed data-model fusion method. Results suggest that the proposed method can effectively track the variation of model parameters by using the onboard measured current and voltage data. The SOC and capacity can be further estimated in real time with fast convergence, high accuracy and high stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2227.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Dental education; Dental curriculum; E-learning; Video learning
Online: 30 June 2023 (12:31:48 CEST)
Introduction: Dental students use of online material to supplement their learning has been studied but it is unclear whether educators are aware of the findings of this research. This study aimed to investigate dental students use of online content as a learning tool from an educator’s perspective. Methods: Educators in the Dublin Dental University Hospital were invited to complete an online survey based on dental students' use of online learning. Quantitative descriptive statistical analyses were carried out as appropriate on the data collected. A focus group with interested survey participants was held to gain a deeper insight into educator’s opinions on this topic. The transcript from this discussion was analyzed by deductive and inductive coding methods. Results: From a sample of 20 educators, this study found that educators were not aware that students rely on Google and YouTube for educational videos more than university websites. Most educators believed that students are likely to refer to online videos to prepare for dental procedures that they have not done before. The same amount also believed that teachers should incorporate videos into their learning. However, 30% of educators have not uploaded or recommended online videos to their students. Most educators believed they have discussed accuracy and/or relevancy of online content with their students. Interestingly, only 20% believed that students would discuss a contradictory video with their lecturers. The focus group participants expressed concern over the accuracy of online content. They felt that this along with a lack of time were the main reasons that deter them from referring students to online videos. Conclusions: Dental educators are unaware that students access online dental content through Google and YouTube more often than through official academic platforms. Educators are concerned about the accuracy of online dental content. Many believe that they direct their students on how to determine the accuracy of online content which contrasts with other researchers’ findings. More communication is needed between educators and dental students to address each other’s concerns and enhance student’s learning.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1498.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: mental health; public schooling; self-directed learning; standardized learning; positive psychosocial outcomes; John Dewey; COVID-19; online learning; Google Scholar
Online: 21 June 2023 (09:33:09 CEST)
Negative mental health in students currently is classified as a global crisis with the highest and lowest student achievers recognized at greatest risk. Public schooling, in reproducing accepted psychosocial beliefs through standardized learning, developed separately from necessitating student mental health, in contrast to self-directed learning. Differing from standardized learning, the objective of self-directed learning in public schools is the creation of relevant support structures for student mental health, promoting positive psychosocial outcomes. The designed separation of public schooling from both mental health and self-directed learning was first acknowledged—and lamented—by John Dewey, over 100 years ago, in anticipating today’s mental health crisis. Yet, in responding effectively to the limitations of COVID-19, self-directed learning became an acknowledged learning method in public schools, potentially able to be accommodated by them regularly in support of mental health through the use of online technology. This study investigates the COVID-19 results of self-directed online learning in public schools through a Google Scholar search of peer reviewed research regarding self-directed learning, online learning, and mental health during COVID-19, recommending support for self-initiated self-directed online learning so that self-directed learning can continue, post COVID-19, improving student mental health in public schools, leading to positive psychosocial outcomes.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0286.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Covid-19; lockdown; preventive restriction; rate of transmission; public health policy
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:23:56 CEST)
In the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, if a preventive restriction (PR), intended to arrest the transmission of the virus, is effective we expect a decrease in the rate of transmission. If an effective PR is lifted or relaxed, the rate may show some increase. We test this expectation in the history of PR imposition and relaxation in all countries based on available public database. We found marginal or no negative correlation between standing stringency index of PR and change in slope of the local curve. A change in stringency index was significantly negatively correlated with change in slope, but change in stringency of PRs could explain only 6.1 percent of the variance in rates of transmission. The distribution of slope changes after imposing versus after relaxing PRs was highly overlapping with only a tail consisting of 4.5 % PR impositions being clearly non-overlapping with PR relaxation. Non-parametrically, only 9.4% of PR impositions were associated with a reduction in the slope above the expectation of a null hypothesis. In brief, globally, preventive restrictions have played a very small role in the pandemic process over the one year period. This feedback needs to be considered in making policy for disease prevention in the further course of the pandemic as well as in any future threats of respiratory disease epidemics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; occupational health; new normal
Online: 13 April 2021 (14:33:45 CEST)
Work-life after COVID-19 might never be the same again. After an economic crisis due to the pandemic, the Indonesian government is applying large-scale social restriction relaxation to allow companies to reopen. However, just after a few weeks of social relaxation, new clusters from offices are occurring. With many employees infected with COVID 19, concerns arise among employers; when is the best time for employees to get back to work after COVID-19 infection? This paper provides a general guideline to discontinue isolation in people with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection in non-healthcare establishments. According to the newest available evidence, commencing back to work should refer to a symptom-based strategy rather than a test-based strategy. In all circumstances, universal health protocol should be practiced at all times to minimize widespread transmission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1781.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: US-Mexico border health; community-wide campaign; physical exercise; mental health; public health; Latino community health; health behavior promotion
Online: 27 September 2023 (05:19:20 CEST)
Hispanics are disproportionately affected by low rates of physical activity and high rates of chronic diseases. Hispanics generally and Mexican Americans specifically are underrepresented in research on physical activity and its impact on mental well-being. Some community-based interventions have been effective in increasing physical activity among Hispanics. This study examined data from a sample of low-income Hispanic participants in free community exercise classes to characterize the association between self-reported frequency of exercise class attendance, intensity of physical activity, and participant well-being. As part of two cross-sectional samples recruited from a stratified random sample of community exercise classes, 302 participants completed a questionnaire consisting of a modified version of the Godin-Shephard Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ) and the Mental Health Continuum Short Form (MHC-SF). Adjusted binary logistic regression analyses indicated that those who achieve moderate and strenuous self-reported physical activity have 130% higher odds (p = 0.0422) of positive mental well-being after adjustment for age, attendance, and self-reported health. This study provides evidence that physical activity intensity and time are associated with flourishing mental health among Hispanics. The study provides insight into the planning and development of community-based physical activity programming tailored to low-income populations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0045.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Coral; Health; Bleaching; Review; Hyperspectral Imaging; Survey methods
Online: 2 August 2020 (16:37:46 CEST)
Rapidly and repeatedly ascertaining the health status of coral reefs is an ever more pressing issue as part of activities to understand and monitor the damaging impacts of climate change. A combination of increasing ocean temperatures, acidity and frequency of extreme storm events continues to alter the marine environment beyond what sensitive organisms, such as coral, can cope with. It is therefore vital to establish technologies and validated methods to provide a metric or indication into the health of these organisms. There are currently many surveys and techniques used by coral scientists to uncover insights into the status and assessment of coral reefs, from colour wheels to multispectral satellite surveys. Here we outline an array of current techniques and methods focused specifically on coral monitoring and health diagnosis, ranging across the length scales from simple diver-based surveyance to satellite remote sensing. The technique of using hyperspectral fluorescence imaging is also introduced as a viable novel addition to aid and extend the current toolbox of available technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0952.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: adolescent health; health policies; India
Online: 14 July 2023 (09:03:53 CEST)
Adolescence is a crucial phase marked by significant physical, psychological, emotional and social changes. India having the world's largest adolescent population, understanding and addressing their health needs are vital for the nation's social, political, and economic progress. The primary aim of this study is to examine the impact of key health policies on adolescent health outcomes in India. To achieve this objective, the research adopts a mixed-method approach, combining qualitative and quantitative analysis of health policies, strategies, and programs implemented since 2005 was conducted. Additionally, data from the most recent three Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) were analyzed and compared to assess changes in adolescent health indicators after the implementation of these policies/strategies. Major adolescent health policies in India were assessed, namely the Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health Strategy (ARSH 2005), Rashtriya Kishor Swasthya Karyakram (RKSK 2014), and School Health Programme 2020. All the strategies and programs aim to provide a comprehensive framework for sexual and reproductive health services, expand the scope of adolescent health programming, and address various health aspects. The SWOT analysis findings, highlighted strengths in targeted interventions, monitoring, and promotion, but weaknesses in awareness, societal barriers, and healthcare worker participation. Opportunities include female-friendly clinics and education about early pregnancy, while addressing substance abuse and training volunteers remain challenges. Family planning has improved, with higher contraception usage and a decrease in unmet needs. Violence reduced, and positive health behaviors increased, such as condom use. However, challenges remain, including limited access to health services, concerns about female providers, and low health insurance coverage. Nutrition indicators show a slight increase in overweight/obesity and anemia rates. Overall, progress has been made, but certain health aspects still require attention. Therefore, conducting targeted awareness campaigns, strengthening health worker and NGOs engagement, combating the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents are highly recommended. Further efforts are needed to achieve universal health coverage and improve adolescent health outcomes globally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0649.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Sleep deficiency severity; Monte-Carlo Feature Selection; Bayesian Regression; Artificial Neural Network; Smart Health; Wearables
Online: 29 July 2021 (11:36:05 CEST)
Sleep deficiency impacts the quality of life and may have serious health consequences in the long run. Questionnaire-based subjective assessment of sleep deficiency has many limitations. On the other hand, objective assessment of sleep deficiency is challenging. In this study, we propose a polysomnography-based mathematical model for computing baseline sleep deficiency severity score and then investigated the estimation of sleep deficiency severity using features available only from wearable sensor data including heart rate variability and single-channel electroen-cephalography for a dataset of 500 subjects. We used Monte-Carlo Feature Selection (MCFS) and inter-dependency discovery for selecting the best features and removing multi-collinearity. For developing the Regression model we investigated both the frequentist and the Bayesian ap-proaches. An Artificial Neural Network achieved the best performance of RMSE = 5.47 and an R-squared value of 0.67 for sleep deficiency severity estimation. The developed method is com-parable to conventional methods of Functional Outcome of Sleep Questionnaire and Epworth Sleepiness Scale for assessing the impact of sleep apnea on sleep deficiency. Moreover, the results pave the way for reliable and interpretable sleep deficiency severity estimation using a wearable device in Smart Health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0111.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Heatwaves; health protection; perception; key informant interviews
Online: 26 October 2016 (09:52:01 CEST)
National heatwave plans are aimed at reducing the avoidable human health consequences due to heatwaves, by providing warnings to and improving communication between relevant stakeholders. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions of key stakeholders within plans in Belgium and the Netherlands on their responsibilities, the partnerships, and the effectiveness of the local implementation in Brussels and Amsterdam. Key informant interviews were held with stakeholders that had an important role in development of the heatwave plan in these countries, or its implementation in Brussels or Amsterdam. Care organisations, including hospitals and elderly care organisations, had a lack of familiarity with the national heatwave plan in both cities, and prioritised heat the lowest. Some groups of individuals, specifically socially isolated individuals, are not sufficiently addressed by the current national heatwave plans and most local plans. Stakeholders reported that responsibilities were not clearly described and that the national plan does not describe tasks on a local level. We recommend to urgently increase awareness on the impact of heat on health among care organisations. More emphasis needs to be given to the variety of heat risk groups. Stakeholders should be involved in the development of updates of the plans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1007.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: Structural Health Monitoring; Deep Learning; Lamb waves; Autoencoder; Anomaly Detection
Online: 14 June 2023 (07:49:07 CEST)
Lamb wave-based structural health monitoring is widely acknowledged as a reliable 11 method for damage identification, classification, localization and quantification. However, due to 12 the complexity of Lamb wave signals, especially after interacting with structural components and 13 defects, interpreting these waves and extracting useful information about the structure's health is 14 still a major challenge. However, deep learning-based strategy offers a great opportunity to address 15 such challenges as the algorithm can operate directly on raw discrete time-domain signals. Unlike 16 traditional methods, which often require careful feature engineering and preprocessing, deep learn-17 ing can automatically extract relevant features from the raw data. This paper proposes an autoen-18 coder based on a bidirectional long short-term memory network with maximal overlap discrete 19 wavelet transform layer to detect the signal anomaly and determine the location of the damage in 20 the composite structure. This approach has the potential to greatly enhance our ability to detect and 21 locate structural damage in composite structures, thereby increasing safety and efficiency.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1991.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: diabetes; herbs and spices; metabolic syndrome; nutrition; phytochemicals; preventative health
Online: 31 October 2023 (04:09:55 CET)
Metabolic syndrome is a growing global health problem. Evidence suggests that diets rich in phytochemical-containing herbs and spices can contribute to reduced risk of chronic disease. This review assesses the scope of evidence supporting the use of herbs and spices in the diet for prevention or treatment of metabolic syndrome and associated health conditions. A search of PubMed and Scopus databases was carried out to assess the available clinical or cohort evidence for culinary doses of commonly used herbs and spices. Trials that were measuring health factors related to metabolic disorders or the health of individuals with metabolic syndrome or associated diseases were included. Out of a total of 1742 papers identified, there were 146 relevant studies on black pepper, chilli, cardamom, cinnamon, coriander, cumin, fennel, fenugreek, garlic, ginger, Nigella seed, rosemary, sage and turmeric. No relevant research was found for cloves, mint, oregano, parsley or thyme. Cinnamon, fenugreek and ginger were the herbs/spices with the most published trials on them and showed promise for glycaemic control. Cardamom appears to have potential to reduce inflammatory markers, and cinnamon, ginger and turmeric for blood lipids. Patients with type 2 diabetes were the population most likely to be included in studies, but the preventative benefits of herbs/spices in healthy populations were also investigated, particularly for chilli, ginger and cinnamon. There is evidence for the beneficial effect of culinary doses of many common herbs/spices in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome and associated disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0334.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: structural health monitoring; sensing element; split ring resonator; continuous monitoring; sensor network
Online: 18 August 2022 (07:48:54 CEST)
The aim of this work is to propose two different and complementary sensors for the structural health monitoring of concrete beams. In particular, a diffused sensing element and a split ring resonator network are presented. The first sensor is able to detect the variation of the dielectric properties of the concrete along the whole beam length, for a diffuse monitoring both during the important concrete curing phase and also for the entire life cycle of the concrete beams. The resonators instead work punctually, in their surroundings, allowing an accurate evaluation of the permittivity both during the drying phase and after. This allows the continuous monitoring of any presence of water both inside the concrete beam and in points that can be critical, in the case of beams in dams, bridges or in any case subject to a strong presence of water which could lead to deterioration, or worse, cause serious accidents. Moreover, the punctual sensors are able to detect the presence of cracks in the structure and to localize them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0013.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: transportation infrastructure; concrete bridges; structural health monitoring; bridge condition index; analytical hierarchy process; prioritizing
Online: 1 April 2021 (11:14:27 CEST)
This paper proposes a method for monitoring the structural health of concrete bridges in Iran. In this method, the bridge condition index (BCI) of bridges is determined by the analytical hierarchy process. BCI constitutes eight indices that are scored based on the experts' views, including structural, hydrology and climate, safety, load impact, geotechnical and seismicity, strategic importance, facilities, and traffic and pavement. Experts' views were analyzed by Expert Choice software, and the relative importance (weight) of indices were determined using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Then, the gave scores of experts were assigned to indices for various conditions. Bridge inspectors can examine the bridge, determine the scores of indices, and compute BCI. Higher values of BCI indicate better conditions. Therefore, bridges with lower BCI take priority in maintenance activities. Five bridges in Iran, Semnan province, were selected as the case studies, and BCI calculation of these bridges was conducted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0557.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: cyberethics; cybercivility; health professions education; scoping review; pedagogy; theoretical frameworks; digital professionalism; e-professionalism; cultural sensitivity; emerging technologies
Online: 8 September 2023 (08:58:51 CEST)
As digital technologies rapidly integrate into Health Professions Education (HPE), gaining a comprehensive understanding of cyberethics becomes crucial. This scoping review aimed to explore the pedagogy of cyberethics within HPE, with an emphasis on its definitions, conceptualizations, theoretical foundations, and interventions. Drawing from 37 documents spanning 2012-2022, primarily originating from the U.S. and encompassing both peer-reviewed and grey literature, the study highlighted a significant gap in the explicit definition and conceptualization of cyberethics. Additionally, the evident lack of specific theoretical frameworks in the majority of these documents could hamper the progression and replicability of research. Among the reviewed articles, only four introduced cyberethics educational interventions, indicating a substantial avenue for future research. While the study utilized comprehensive search methods, limitations such as language biases and the potential omission of pertinent documents were present. Future investigations should broaden the cyberethics discourse to encompass emerging technologies and their ethical implications within HPE. Crafting comprehensive, culturally sensitive, and inclusive guidelines is pivotal in nurturing ethical digital practices in the health care community.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0518.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Langya virus; henipavirus; animal spillover; zoonosis; public health concerns; prevention and control measures
Online: 28 January 2023 (04:53:17 CET)
The risk of 'zoonotic spillovers,' or the transmission of viruses from animals to humans, has been raised by climate change and the devastation of nature, as infectious disease experts have long warned. Even as the world works to stop the spread of the currently unfolding pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the breakout of monkeypox virus (MPXV), a new animal virus, the Langya henipavirus (LayV), has been discovered in humans in Eastern China. The scientists say there is little danger of the virus spreading among humans, but it shares genetic material with Hendra virus and Nipah virus, two other henipaviruses that infect humans and cause life-threatening respiratory diseases. Humans infected with LayV can expect to experience high body temperature, cough, weariness, poor appetite, muscle discomfort, myalgia, nausea and vomiting. It is likely that the virus will spread from animals to humans. Currently, the health authorities of Taiwan and other health organizations are tracking the progress of the ailment to ensure it does not reach humans. Researchers have examined 25 species of small wild animals for presence of the virus, and so far, shrews are the only ones that have tested positive for the virus's RNA. Based on these results, shrews are a possible candidate for the virus's natural reservoir. Too far, no therapies or vaccines have been developed and licensed for henipaviruses like the LayV. When other therapies fail to alleviate viral infections, ribavirin may be the next best thing. The need for novel vaccinations against the LayV infection and the timely delivery of these vaccines to areas at high epidemiological risk is real. To lessen the likelihood of a health calamity being caused by this newly developing virus, it is crucial to conduct active surveillance in a transparent and globally collaborative manner. The questions that have not been answered yet require additional study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1367.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online learning; e-learning; neuroscience; neuropedagogy; neuroeducation; higher education; design thinking; learning management system
Online: 19 May 2023 (03:32:57 CEST)
Higher education teaching staff members need to build a scientifically accurate and comprehensive understanding of the function of the brain in learning to optimize teaching and achieve excellent student learning. An international consortium developed a professional development six-module course on educational neuroscience and online community of practice applying design thinking. A mixed methods research design was employed to investigate the attitudes of thirty-two (N=32) participating academics using a survey comprising eleven closed and open questions. Data analysis methods included descriptive statistics, correlation, generalized additive model and grounded theory. The overall evaluation demonstrated a notable satisfaction level with regard to the quality of the course. Given the power of habits, mentoring and peer interactions are recommended to ensure the effective integration of theoretical neuroscientific evidence into teaching practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0181.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Service Quality; E-Supply Chain Management; Customer Satisfaction; online shopping
Online: 20 December 2021 (11:33:13 CET)
The purposes of this study are to introduce the concept of Service Quality (SQ) in E-Supply Chain Management (E-SCM) and its impact on increasing Customer Satisfaction (CS) and provide insightful enhancements to the literature. In addition, the paper also examines the influence of SQ of E-SCM on CS in online shopping. After a comprehensive literature review, four key factors for measuring the E-Supply Chain (Process Control, Interaction with Supplier, Management Support, and Focus on Customers), four key factors for measuring CS (Informing Customers, Attention to Customers’ Needs, Staff Performance Accuracy, and Easy Access to Services), and four factors for measuring the quality of identification services (Assurance, Accountability, Tangibility and Reliability) were selected. The proposed conceptual model was then presented. This model was validated by data collected through a survey of 150 respondents in order to identify customer satisfaction, including that of customers of online websites in Iran. The sample data was analyzed using SPSS21, after which the interrelationships between the model and factors were examined based on the Partial Least Square-Structural (PLS). Model fit indices were then calculated for the dataset. The proposed model was validated using factor analysis and structural equation modeling techniques. The results indicated that E-SCM has a direct impact on CS. The effect of SQ was also confirmed. A positive and significant relationship was identified between E-SCM and CS, E-SCM and SQ, as well as SQ and CS (P> 0.05). The first limitation was to convince respondents to cooperate with the researchers. The second one was the lack of research-related background due to the subject being relatively new. This study, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, is the first empirical analysis on the CS assessment of SQ of E-Supply Chain in online shopping. This important link to online shopping has rarely been explored. It is expected that by filling this gap, this study will help in strengthening online shopping, which needs a change in the marketing area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0345.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Loss of consciousness; Mental health; Working life; Effort Reward Imbalance; Sleep Dis-orders; Health promotion; Workplace
Online: 25 October 2021 (11:54:17 CEST)
Syncope and presyncope occurring during work can affect safety and impair occupational performance. Few data are available regarding the prevalence of these events among workers. The possible role of sleep quality, mental stress and metabolic disorders in promoting syncope, presyncope and falls in workers is unknown. In the present study, 741 workers (male 35.4%; mean age 47±11 years), employed in different companies, underwent clinical evaluation and blood tests and completed questionnaires to assess sleep quality, occupational distress and mental disorders. The occurrence of syncope, presyncope and unexplained falls during their working life was assessed by an ad hoc interview. The prevalence of syncope, presyncope and falls of unknown origin was 13.9%, 27.0%, and 10.3%, respectively. The occurrence of syncope was associated with an increased risk of occupational distress (adjusted Odds Ratio aOR: 1.62, Confidence Intervals at 95%: 1.05-2.52), low sleep quality (aOR: 1.79 CI 95%: 1.16-2.77) and poor mental health (aOR: 2.43 CI 95%: 1.52-3.87). Presyncope was strongly associated with occupational distress (aOR: 1.77 CI 95%: 1.25-2.49), low sleep quality (aOR: 2.95 CI 95%: 2.08-4.18) and poor mental health (aOR: 2.61 CI 95%: 1.78-3.84), while no significant relationship was found between syncope or presyncope and metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that occupational health promotion interventions aimed at improving sleep quality, reducing stressors and increasing worker resilience might reduce syncope and presyncope events in the working population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0639.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: Vaping; e-cigarettes; tobacco flavors; toxicity; regulation
Online: 8 June 2023 (10:59:40 CEST)
On Feb. 6th, 2020, FDA implemented the enforcement priorities against all flavored, cartridge-based e-cigarettes other than menthol and tobacco flavors. This ban undermined the products’ attraction to vapers, so e-cigarette manufacturers added flavorants of other attractive flavors into tobacco-flavored e-cigarettes and re-established attractions. Both the sales of e-cigarettes and posts on social media suggested that the manufacturers’ strategies are likely “successful”. The re-established attraction causes not only a public health issue, but also threats to the health of individual vapers. Research has shown an increase in toxicity associated with the flavorants commonly used in flavored e-cigarettes that are likely added in tobacco-flavored e-cigarettes based on tobacco-derived and synthetic tobacco free nicotine, and these other flavors are associated with higher clinical symptoms not often induced by only natural traditional tobacco flavors. The additional health risks posed by the flavorants are pronounced even without considering the interactions of toxicology of the different tobacco flavorants, and more research should be done to understand the health risks thoroughly and to take proper actions accordingly for regulation of these emerging products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0153.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: Soil-transmitted helminths; health promotion; shadow puppetry; knowledge and behaviours; Indonesia
Online: 7 November 2018 (09:20:40 CET)
Performing arts used as a method of spreading health information dates back to the origins of storytelling. However, interventions in developing, non-Western countries typically utilise Western entertainment forms. This qualitative investigation assesses responses to an intervention designed around traditional Javanese shadow puppetry (wayang kulit). Semi-structured interviews provided in-depth responses from a sample (n=12) of villagers. Responses analysed both cross-case and within-case, focused on perceptions of the music and storyline, responses to the intervention, and perceived appropriateness of wayang kulit for disseminating a health message. Wayang kulit was considered to be interesting and easy to remember, but concerns remained regarding the reliability of information provided through the drama. The fusion of traditional and modern music and story elements were perceived positively. Some participants were inspired to improve their hygiene practices, although the lack of motivation, or belief that they were unable to change was noted. The performance was generally received positively in terms of the nature of the intervention, the fusion of traditional and Western music and story elements, as well as the use of wayang kulit to spread health information. The study provides guidance for modifications to the production, prior to scaling up.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Seroepidemiologic Studies; Prevalence; Coronavirus Infections; Occupational Exposure; Occupational Health
Online: 25 March 2021 (15:11:01 CET)
The negative effect of COVID-19 pandemic has reach world economy due to absence from work for SARS-CoV-2 infection in workers, among other things. However, some economic areas are essential to society and people must continue working outside home, to support economic reactivation; their serological profile could be different from global population. Cross-sectional study. Workers from health, construction, public transportation, public force, bike delivery messengers, independent or informal commerce areas, and residents of Bucaramanga or its metropolitan area were invited to participate. All participants self-completed a virtual survey and a blood test was taken to assess IgG and IgM with ARC COV2 test. Seroprevalence was estimated considering a complex survey design, correcting for finite population effect and adjusting for test performance. 7.045 workers were enrolled; 59.9% were women, most were residents of Bucaramanga and working in health occupations. Global adjusted seroprevalence was 19.5% (IC95% 18.6 - 20.4), being higher for Girón [27.9% (CI95% 24.5 - 31.30]). Workers with multiple contact with people during working hours or using public transportation to go to work had higher frequency of seropositivity for SARS-CoV-2. Seroprevalence among workers living in these four municipalities from the Colombian northeast area is still low.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0270.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Non-Destructive Tests, Structural Health Monitoring, Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity, Rebound Hammer, Surface Hardness, Compressive Strength, Linear regression
Online: 28 January 2019 (09:43:18 CET)
This work investigates the use of Non-destructive tests as a tool for monitoring the structural performance of concrete structures. The investigation encompassed four phases; the first of which involved the use of destructive and non-destructive mechanisms to assess concrete strength on cube specimens. The second phase research focused on site assessment for a twin engineering theatre located at the Faculty of Engineering, University of Lagos using rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity tester. The third phase was the use of linear regression analysis model with MATLAB to establish a relationship between calibrated strength as well as ultrasonic pulse velocities with their corresponding compressive strength values on cubes and values obtained from existing structures. Results show that the root-mean squared-R2 values for rebound hammer ranged between 0.275 and 0.742 while ultrasonic pulse velocity R2 values were in the range of 0.649 and 0.952 for air curing and water curing systems respectively. It initially appeared that the Ultrasonic pulse velocity was more suitable for predicting concrete strength than rebound hammer but further investigations showed that the latter was adequate for early age concrete while the former was more suited for aging concrete. Hence, a combined use is recommended in this work.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0075.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: emergency; hospital; emergency health; medicine; management
Online: 21 August 2017 (12:47:01 CEST)
Introduction: The management performance of hospitals in emergency departments in coping with clinical hazards is necessary for their success in providing quality services. The purpose of this study is to provide an optimization procedure and applying management performance in health and medical emergency on the rate of emergency preparedness of the suburb city hospitals. Research method: A semi-experimental and interventional descriptive study in the emergency department of Shahid Motahari Hospital in 2015-2016. Data was collected through the standard checklist of hospital emergency responsiveness test to WHO disasters with 90 questions in 9 domains which is codified by the World Health Organization, in the form of interviews and observing evidences , and if necessary a numerical analysis. Initially, the situation was measured according to this checklist. In the next stage, a set of solutions was developed and then the solutions were implemented according to the obtained information. Data analysis before and after proposing the procedure and its application in order to improve the quality of health management performance and emergency preparedness was performed using central indices, and for describing and presenting the survey results, tables and graphs were used. Results: The highest and lowest emergency preparedness rates for disasters and emergencies before the proposed procedure were the Communication Factor (%77/8) and Human resource factor (%2/8) respectively. The degree of preparedness of the medical center was measured in the management performance according to the model (WHO) before proposing the procedure (%77.98). The researcher's procedure provided and applied based on the information obtained from survey environment, location and type of hospital structure. After providing the procedure, the maximum and minimum rates were the continuity of service factor (%58.3) and post-accident rebuilding factor (%100), respectively. Generally, the rate of emergency preparedness of studied medical center in management performance for coping with disasters and medical emergencies was measured (%97.2) according to hospital emergency responsiveness test for accidents and (WHO). The significance level is less than 0.05, so we can say that the effectiveness with confidence (95%) was effective. Conclusion: According to the statistics of accidents and disasters in the suburb cities, the results of the research and the importance of the role of emergency departments in interurban hospitals in controlling accidents, the need for planning and implementation of practical measures such as conducting training courses on health management in disasters and emergencies, having an estimate of critical and essential resources, changing the structure, providing manpower (emergency management) in order to more precise control and ease of service, maintenance and repair of equipment, timely triage and retrofitting of hospitals were effective in improving their preparedness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0054.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: ELM; ANN; compressor; turbine; degradation; microturbine; engine health management
Online: 12 September 2022 (10:12:33 CEST)
Micro turbojets are used for propelling radio-controlled aircraft, aerial targets and personal air vehicles. When compared to full-scale engines, they are characterized by relatively low efficiency and durability. In this context, the degraded performance of gas path components could lead to an unacceptable reduction in the overall engine performance. In this work, a data-driven model based on a conventional Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and an extreme learning machine (ELM) was used for estimating the performance degradation of the micro turbojet. The training datasets containing the performance data of the engine with degraded components were generated using the validated GSP model and the Monte Carlo approach. In particular, compressor and turbine performance degradation were simulated for three different flight regimes. It was confirmed that component degradation had a similar impact in flight than at sea level. Finally, the datasets were used in the training and testing process of the ELM algorithm with four different input vectors. Two vectors had an extensive number of virtual sensors, and the other two were reduced to just fuel flow and Exhaust Gas Temperature. Even with the small number of sensors, the high prediction accuracy of ELM was maintained for takeoff and cruise but was slightly worse for variable flight conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0268.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: occupational health; online education; pain; students; teachers; work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs)
Online: 5 October 2023 (09:28:41 CEST)
Background: One of the most common occupational health hazard and serious health concern, now a days, recognized is Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The high prevalence among students and teachers is a major cause of decline in their health related quality of life and work performance. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among teachers and students during online education. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among university faculty members and students who were involved in online education during COVID-19. Data collection was carried out electronically through a validated Arabic version of the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) which is self reported. A total of 175 respondents responded to the questionnaire (response 60%). Results: The prevalence of any part of the body was 90.3%. The commonest site of MSDs for past 12 months was the low back (65.7%), the neck (58.3%), and shoulders (57.7%). Females (80%) suffered more than males (20%). The students reported slightly higher MSDs as compared to teachers (93.1% vs 90.3). Binominal regression analysis showed association of females with low back pain “OR: 2.24 (95% CI): 1.04-4.83; p = 0.03” and neck pain “OR: 2.7 (95% CI): 1.24–5.84; p = 0.012)” while bad posture was associated with pain in upper back “OR: 3.46 (95% CI): 1.73-6.93; p = 0.001”. Conclusion: The faculty members and students are prone to high MSDs during online classes and significant measures should be taken to reduce the prevalence by addressing associated risk factors.