Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Health Risks Associated with Occupational Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution in Commercial Drivers: a Systematic Review

Version 1 : Received: 12 August 2018 / Approved: 12 August 2018 / Online: 12 August 2018 (19:35:44 CEST)

How to cite: Lawin, H.; Ayi Fanou, L.; Hinson, A.V.; Stolbrink, M.; Houngbegnon, P.; Kedote, M.; Fayomi, B.; Kagima, J.; Katoto, P.; Ouendo, E.M.D.; Mortimer, K. Health Risks Associated with Occupational Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution in Commercial Drivers: a Systematic Review. Preprints 2018, 2018080215 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201808.0215.v1). Lawin, H.; Ayi Fanou, L.; Hinson, A.V.; Stolbrink, M.; Houngbegnon, P.; Kedote, M.; Fayomi, B.; Kagima, J.; Katoto, P.; Ouendo, E.M.D.; Mortimer, K. Health Risks Associated with Occupational Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution in Commercial Drivers: a Systematic Review. Preprints 2018, 2018080215 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201808.0215.v1).

Abstract

Introduction: Ambient air pollution is major global health problem and commercial drivers are particularly exposed to it. No systematic assessment of the health risks associated with occupational exposure to ambient air pollution in this population has been carried out. Methods: We conducted a systematic review using a protocol-driven strategy. Papers published from inception to 20th April 2018 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, African journals online, Cochrane library, ISRCTN and WHO ICTRP databases were screened for inclusion by two independent reviewers. Original articles with at least an available abstract in English or French were included. Results: The initial search retrieved 1454 published articles of which 20 articles were included. 3 Studies reported a significant difference in white blood cells (106/L) among commercial motorcyclists compared to rural inhabitants (5.041±1.209 vs 5.900±1.213,p=0.001), an increased risk of lung cancer (RR=1.6, 95%CI 1.5-1.8) in bus drivers and an increased standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in bus drivers from Hodgkin’s lymphoma (SMR 2.17, 95%CI 1.19-3.87) compared to white collar workers. Other studies also found that drivers had more oxidative DNA damage and chromosome breaks. 4 papers failed to demonstrate that the drivers were more exposed to air pollution than the controls. 3 other studies also reported no significant difference in lung function parameters and respiratory symptoms. The genetic polymorphisms of detoxifying enzymes were not also homogeneously distributed compared to the controls. Conclusion: There is some evidence that occupational exposure to ambient air pollution among commercial drivers is associated with adverse health outcomes but the existing literature is limited with few studies of small sample size, methodological weaknesses and contradictory findings. Further research is recommended.

Subject Areas

Air pollution; Health risk; Driving; Automobile; Bus; Motorcycle

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