ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0234.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: adeno-associated virus; protein sequence analysis; overlapping genes; amino acid depletion; cysteine depletion; tyrosine depletion; capsid design; membrane-binding amphipathic helix
Online: 17 February 2020 (02:42:39 CET)
Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs, genus dependoparvovirus) are promising gene therapy vectors. In strains AAV1-12, the capsid gene VP1 encodes a recently discovered protein, MAAP, in an overlapping frame. MAAP binds the cell membrane by an unknown mechanism. We discovered that MAAP is also encoded in bovine AAV and in porcine AAVs (which have shown promise for gene transfer into muscle tissues), in which it is probably translated from a non-canonical start codon. MAAP is predicted to be mostly disordered except for a predicted C-terminal, membrane-binding amphipathic α-helix. MAAP has a highly unusual composition. In particular, it lacks internal methionines, and is devoid of tyrosines in most strains. Unexpectedly, we discovered that the N-terminus of VP1 also lacks several amino acids. In all AAVs that encode MAAP, the first 200 aas of VP1 are devoid of internal methionines, probably owing to a selection against ATG codons that could prevent translation of MAAP and of capsid isoforms (VP2, VP3). The N-terminus of VP1 also lacks cysteines, likely to avoid the formation of disulfide bridges when it becomes exposed outside of the capsid during post-endocytic trafficking. Finally, the region common to VP1 and VP2 lacks tyrosine in the vast majority of AAVs that encode MAAP. Avoiding these "forbidden" aas in MAAP and VP1 when creating recombinant AAV capsids might increase the efficiency of capsid design. Conversely, the presence of "forbidden" aas in some rare strains probably indicates that they have unusual properties that could help us understand the viral cycle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0026.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: analog circuit design; buffer amplifiers; offset voltage's systematic component; voltage followers; operational amplifiers; depletion-mode; СMOS; JFET; Si; GaAs; GaN
Online: 5 May 2022 (08:42:15 CEST)
The authors of the article performed computer simulation of buffer amplifiers (BA), which have medium and extremely small values of the offset voltage's systematic component (Voff), for different technological processes (Si, GaAs and GaN). The proposed control units are distinguished by a small number of elements and allow operation in the range of low and high temperatures. The variants of circuitry implementation of control units based on GaAs, GaN depletion-mode CMOS and JFET technological processes are considered. The results of the comparative modeling showed that the basic circuit of the BA on two field-effect transistors, when implemented on various modifications of GaN MOS and depletion-mode MOS transistors, provides sufficiently low values of the offset voltage's systematic component (less than 2 μV). The proposed BAs are designed for use in the structure of the Sallen-Key low-pass filter (LPF) when they are implemented both on mid-frequency Si CJFET and on GaAs microwave transistors. Low values of the LPF Voff have a positive effect on the effective capacity of the ADC. An example of switching on a BA in the JFET OpAmp structure based on the depletion-mode MOS input stage and a “folded” cascode, which, with 100% negative feedback, can be used in the Sallen-Key LPF, is considered. Computer simulation of the JFET/MOS OpAmp showed that the OpAmp has an open-loop voltage gain of 76-85dB, and its Voff is within 7µV in the temperature range from -60°C to +120°C. The presented circuitry of buffer amplifiers is intended, first of all, for the tasks of designing precision Sallen-Key low-pass filter (low-pass filter, high-pass filter, PF, RF).
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: oxygen depletion; heritage metals; corrosion testing
Online: 10 August 2021 (09:46:39 CEST)
The altered nature of archaeological metals means they deteriorate at conditions where metals would be stable. The study of deterioration for such materials is hampered by their complexity, variability and difficulties in measuring deterioration. Placing an object in a sealed container, controlling the RH and pollutant gases and measuring any decrease in oxygen concentration is an accessible method to measure deterioration rate. It has been used for research into suitable environmental conditions to manage deterioration rates of such artefacts including differences in response for artefacts from different excavation sites. Some objects need careful control of RH to low values, this is expensive to maintain and poses risks to other artefacts displayed together. Many objects are actually stable up to quite high RH values and oxygen depletion testing has been used to identify those that can be safely displayed with minimal environmental control. The accelerated corrosion, ‘Oddy’ test is frequently used to sift out unsuitable display materials. The visual assessment is widely recognized to be subjective. The test container has been modified and oxygen depletion appears to give good quantitative measurements of corrosion that correspond with both visual comparison and corrosion quantification for copper, lead and steel, but not for silver.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0507.v1
Online: 25 January 2021 (14:53:39 CET)
The main focus of this paper is to analyze the effect of local public finance on spatial land use through economic models and empirical evidence from Israel. The theoretic models extends the Alonso-Mill-Muth model by incorporating local public finance. The first finding is that steady population growth provides a channel for land capitalization through the mechanism of long term land property right. This implies a possible conflict of interest if ownership of land leasing revenue and the ad valorem property tax are not consistent. The empirical section examines one of the implications derived from the models highlighting a possible inconsistency between central and local governments due to land ownership centralization. This causes local tax revenue inequality among Israeli municipalities. Statistical evidence shows that cities with a larger share business land use can generate more tax without assistance from the central government, and are therefore more fiscal independent. Fiscal status has a significant effect on the planning time of residential construction. Municipalities with higher local tax revenues have shorter planning time(higher probability of acceptance) conditional on the plan’s size and other features.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0045.v1
Online: 6 April 2020 (09:28:00 CEST)
The emerging of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates globally. One of the most prominent characteristics of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is lymphopenia which is in contrast to other viral infections. This controversy might be explained by the evaluation of impaired innate and adaptive immune responses during the SARS-CoV-2 infection. During the innate immune response, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) hyperactivated due to virus entry and extensive DNA damage sequentially leading to NAD+ depletion, ATP depletion and finally cell death. In contrast to the immune response against viral infections, cytotoxic T lymphocytes decline sharply in SARS-CoV-2 infection which might be due to infiltration and trapping in the lower respiratory tract. In addition, there are more factors proposed to involve in lymphopenia in COVID-19 infection like the role of CD38 which functions as NADase and intensifies NAD depletion which in turn affects NAD+ dependent Sirtuin proteins, as the regulators of cell death and viability. Lung tissue sequestration following cytokine storm supposed to be another reason for lymphopenia in COVID-19 patients. Protein 7a as one of the virus-encoded proteins induces apoptosis in various organ-derived cell lines. These mechanisms proposed to induce lymphopenia, although there are still more studies needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms for lymphopenia in COVID-19 patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0436.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Carbon depletion; Solar Nebula; Surface Mediated Reactions; Planetesimal Accretion
Online: 19 July 2020 (20:34:27 CEST)
Solids in the interstellar medium consist of an intimate mixture of silicate and carbonaceous grains. Because 99% of silicates in meteorites were reprocessed at high temperatures in the inner regions of the Solar Nebula, we propose that similar levels of heating of carbonaceous materials in the oxygen-rich Solar Nebula would have converted nearly all carbon in dust and grain coatings to CO. We discuss catalytic experiments on a variety of grain surfaces that not only produce gas-phase species such as CH4, C2H6, C6H6, C6H5OH or CH3CN, but also produce carbonaceous solids and fibers that would be much more readily incorporated into growing planetesimals. CO and other more volatile products of these surface mediated reactions were likely transported outwards along with chondrule fragments and small Calcium Aluminum Inclusions (CAIs) to enhance the organic content in the outer regions of the nebula where comets formed. Carbonaceous fibers formed on the surfaces of refractory oxides may have significantly improved the aggregation efficiency of chondrules and CAIs. Carbonaceous fibers incorporated into chondritic parent bodies might have served as the carbon source for the generation of more complex organic species during thermal or hydrous metamorphic processes on the evolving asteroid.
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: agricultural activities; central region; forest cover depletion; LULC; urbanization
Online: 18 February 2020 (10:54:53 CET)
Cameroon territory is experiencing significant land use and land cover (LULC) changes since its independence in 1960. But the main relevant impacts are recorded since 1990 due to intensification of agricultural activities and urbanization. LULC effects and dynamics vary from one region to another according to the type of vegetation cover and activities. Using remote sensing, GIS and subsidiary data, this paper attempted to model the land use and land cover (LULC) change in the Centre Region of Cameroon that host Yaoundé metropolis. The rapid expansion of the city of Yaoundé drives to the land conversion with farmland intensification and forest depletion accelerating the rate at which land use and land cover (LULC) transformations take place. This study aims at assessing the impacts of both agriculture and urbanization on the LULC change in the Centre Region of Cameroon. A detailed LULC map from MAPBOX high resolution images and three LULC maps were produced from Landsat TM-OLI images (1984-2015). A maximum likelihood classification techniques using ERDAS Imagine, showed forest decline with a total loss of 54% in thirty years. Also, Landsat and MAPBOX images to which we added 1951 aerial photograph and SPOT 6 (2006) were used to analyse urban growth in the city of Yaoundé. The results show a remarkable urban spatial spread of the metropolis between 1951 and 2015, with a peak in 2000. Images processing enabled us to analyse the long term dynamics of LULC change since the 1950s in this Region using ArcGIS & QGIS software’s. Based on this dynamic, a LULC projection map was produced using Markov model on IDRISI Selva, demonstrating the decrease of the dense forest (45% in 2015 to 0.25% in 2050). It was estimated that by 2050, the entire dense forest can be depleted if nothing is done, while only 12.67% of the secondary forest would remain in the Region. Such a projected map is very useful to decision makers for council development and urban planning. This effective forest depletion ties with the hypothesis that urbanization of Yaoundé and its secondary surrounding satellite cities (within a radius of 30-100km) is a veritable driving force of deforestation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0109.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: fiber ring laser; hybrid mode locking; passive mode locking; rational harmonic mode locking; pulse compression
Online: 18 April 2017 (05:14:55 CEST)
Mode locked pulse generation has been reported using both active and passive mode locking schemes. Active mode locking technique has been proven to be an effective way to generate high-repetition-rate pulses by incorporating a modulator inside the laser cavity. Compared to actively mode locked lasers, passively mode locked lasers can generate pulse train at ultrashort pulse width but with relatively lower repetition rate. Thus, it is a brilliant idea to build a hybrid mode locked system combining both active and passive mode lockers. In this review, several hybrid mode locked fiber ring laser systems are discussed and summarized. Hybrid mode locking is a promising method to generate high speed ultrashort optical pulses for fiber-optic telecommunication system.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: mindfulness; cognitive control; dual mode mechanisms; dual mode control
Online: 16 December 2020 (13:26:55 CET)
Recent years have seen a massive increase in research on mindfulness as both a therapeutic practice as well as a protective health factor. While many associations have been made between mindfulness and clinical outcomes, understanding of the underlying mechanistic processes is still in its infancy. In this review, associations between mindfulness and other established frameworks in cognitive control are explored—in particular the dual modes of control framework in cognitive control theory. Studies in mindfulness providing evidence towards a dual-mode mindfulness model are reviewed and compared with the proactive and reactive modes of cognitive control to identify common underlying principles. Studies involving cognitive testing, advanced neuroimaging, and neurotransmitter levels and their associations with proactive and reactive control are reviewed in the context of the dual modes of mindfulness. While evidence supporting relationships between proactive and reactive modes of mindfulness and cognitive control are preliminary, existing literature on mindfulness already supports the notion of two components of mindfulness and is in line with the hypothesis that cognitive control and mindfulness are closely related. Since preliminary evidence suggests that proactive forms of mindfulness are more associated with improvement in clinical outcomes, mindfulness programs could be modified to target proactive mindfulness practices to maximize outcomes. The implications of proactive and reactive mindfulness on therapy, limitations of the framework, and necessity of studies providing direct evidence are further discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0410.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Streamflow depletion; trend analysis; irrigation; land use change; GRACE; water scarcity
Online: 17 September 2020 (13:20:04 CEST)
Water scarcity is a key challenge to global development. In Brazil, the Sao Francisco River Basin (SFB) has experienced water scarcity problems because of decreasing streamflow and increasing demands from multiple sectors. However, the drivers of decreased streamflow, particularly the potential role of surface-groundwater interaction, have not been yet investigated. Here, we assess long-term trends in baseflow, quickflow, and streamflow of the SFB during 1980–2015 and constrain the most likely drivers of observed decreases through trend analysis of precipitation (P), evapotranspiration (ET), and terrestrial water storage change (TWS). We found that over 82% of the observed decrease in streamflow can be attributed to a significant decreasing baseflow trend (< -20 m3 s-1 y-1) along the SFR with spatial agreement between decreased baseflow, increased ET, and irrigated agricultural land. We also noted a decrease in TWS across the SFB with trends exceeding -20 mm y-1. Overall, our findings indicate that decreasing groundwater contributions (i.e., baseflow) is providing the observed reduction in total SFR flow. A lack of significant P trends indicates that only P variability likely has not caused the observed baseflow reduction, mainly in the Middle and Sub-middle SFB. Therefore, groundwater and surface withdrawals may be likely a driver of water scarcity over the SFB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0036.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Power factor corrector; One cycle control; Common-mode voltage; Common-mode current
Online: 2 September 2020 (09:36:36 CEST)
In this work, it is analyzed a Digital Signal Processor, DSP, based One Cycle Control, OCC, strategy for a Power Factor Corrector, PFC, rectifier, which presents Common-mode Voltage, CMV, immunity. The proposed strategy utilizes an emulated-resistance-controller in closed-loop configuration to set up dc-link voltage and achieve unity power factor, UPF. It is shown that if PFC can achieve UPF condition and if phase voltage is only affected by CMV, then phase current is free from CMV, as well as a lead-lag compensator, LLC, to average phase current. Another possible condition is also analyzed. The proposal is verified by simulation and experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0018.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: piezoelectric nanotransducers; depletion piezopotential; enhancement piezopotential; base piezopotential; tip piezopotential; characteristic lengths of piezopotentials; depletion-to-enhancement piezopotential ratio; tip-to-base piezopotential ratio; piezoelectric nanogenerators; piezotronics.
Online: 1 December 2020 (12:41:04 CET)
Piezoelectric nanotransducers may offer key advantages in comparison with conventional piezoelectrics, including more choices for types of mechanical input, positions of the contacts, dimensionalities and shapes. However, since piezo-semiconductive nanostructures are generally much easier to fabricate and integrate into functional systems than insulating materials, modeling becomes significantly more intricate and the effects of free charges have been considered only in a few studies. The available reports are complicated by the absence of proper nomenclature and figures of merit. Besides, some analyses are incomplete. For instance, the local piezopotential and free charges within axially strained conical piezo-semiconductive nanowires have only been systematically investigated for very low doping (1016 cm-3) and under compression. Here we give the definitions for the enhancement, depletion, base and tip piezopotentials, their characteristic lengths and both the tip-to-base and the depletion-to-enhancement piezopotential-ratios. As an example, we use these definitions for analyzing the local piezopotential and free charges in n-type ZnO truncated conical nanostructures with different doping levels (intrinsic, 1016 cm-3, 1017 cm-3) for both axial compression and traction. The definitions and concepts presented here may offer insight for designing high performance piezosemiconductive nanotransducers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0274.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: acoustics of non-uniform media; wave mode diagnostics; entropy mode; initialization of hydrodynamic field
Online: 13 May 2021 (13:57:12 CEST)
Diagnostics and decomposition of atmospheric disturbances in a planar flow are considered and applied to numerical modeling results with the direct possibility to use in atmosphere monitoring especially in such strong events which follow magnetic storms. The study examines a situation in which the stationary equilibrium temperature of a gas may depend on a vertical coordinate, that seriously complicates the problem solution. The relations connecting perturbations for acoustic and entropy modes are analytically established and led to the solvable diagnostic equations. These perturbation structures, found as the equation solutions specify acoustic and entropy modes in an arbitrary stratified gas under the condition of stability. These time-independent diagnostic relations link gas perturbation variables of the acoustic and the entropy modes. Hence, they provide the ability to decompose the total vector of perturbations into acoustic and non-acoustic (entropy) parts uniquely at any instant within the all accessible heights range. As a prospective model, we consider the diagnostics at the height interval [120;180] km, where the equilibrium temperature of a gas depends linearly on the vertical coordinate. For such a heights range it is possible to proceed with analytical expressions for pressure and entropy perturbations of gas variables. Individual profiles of acoustic and entropy parts for some data, obtained by numerical experiment, are illustrated by the plots for the pure numerical data against ones obtained by the model. The total energy of a flow is determined for both approaches and its height profiles are compared.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2020039
Subject: Keywords: ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD); denoising; mode mixing; electromyographic (EMG) signals; filtering; wavelet method
Online: 3 June 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
One of the most basic pieces of information gained from dynamic electromyography is accurately defining muscle action and phase timing within the gait cycle. The human gait relies on selective timing and the intensity of appropriate muscle activations for stability, loading, and progression over the supporting foot during stance, and further to advance the limb in the swing phase. A common clinical practice is utilizing a low-pass filter to denoise integrated electromyogram (EMG) signals and to determine onset and cessation events using a predefined threshold. However, the accuracy of the defining period of significant muscle activations via EMG varies with the temporal shift involved in filtering the signals; thus, the low-pass filtering method with a fixed order and cut-off frequency will introduce a time delay depending on the frequency of the signal. In order to precisely identify muscle activation and to determine the onset and cessation times of the muscles, we have explored here onset and cessation epochs with denoised EMG signals using different filter banks: the wavelet method, empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method, and ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) method. In this study, gastrocnemius muscle onset and cessation were determined in sixteen participants within two different age groups and under two different walking conditions. Low-pass filtering of integrated EMG (iEMG) signals resulted in premature onset (28% stance duration) in younger and delayed onset (38% stance duration) in older participants, showing the time-delay problem involved in this filtering method. Comparatively, the wavelet denoising approach detected onset for normal walking events most precisely, whereas the EEMD method showed the smallest onset deviation. In addition, EEMD denoised signals could further detect pre-activation onsets during a fast walking condition. A comprehensive comparison is discussed on denoising EMG signals using EMD, EEMD, and wavelet denoising in order to accurately define an onset of muscle under different walking conditions.
Subject: Keywords: mode discrimination; multi-mode waveguide; S-bend resonator; refractive index sensor; integrated optical sensor
Online: 18 July 2019 (09:19:20 CEST)
In this paper, a multi-mode waveguide-based optical resonator is proposed for an integrated optical refractive index sensor. Conventional optical resonators have been studied for single-mode waveguide-based resonators to enhance the performance, but mass production is limited owing to the high fabrication costs of nano-scale structures. To overcome this problem, we designed an S-bend resonator based on a micro-scale multi-mode waveguide. In general, multi-mode waveguides cannot be utilized as optical resonators, because of a performance degradation resulting from modal dispersion and an output transmission with multi-peaks. Therefore, we exploited the mode discrimination phenomenon using the bending loss, and the resulting S-bend resonator yielded an output transmission without multi-peaks. This phenomenon is utilized to remove higher-order modes efficiently using the difference in the effective refractive index between the higher-order and fundamental modes. As a result, the resonator achieved a Q-factor and sensitivity of 2.3x103 and 52 nm/RIU, respectively, using the variational finite-difference time-domain method. These results show that the multi-mode waveguide-based S-bend resonator with a wide line width can be utilized as a refractive index sensor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0052.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: empirical mode decomposition; intrinsic mode function; permutation entropy; multi-scale permutation entropy; feature extraction
Online: 9 November 2016 (10:24:35 CET)
In order to solve the problem of feature extraction of underwater acoustic signals in complex ocean environment, a new method for feature extraction from ship radiated noise is presented based on empirical mode decomposition theory and permutation entropy. It analyzes the separability for permutation entropies of the intrinsic mode functions of three types of ship radiated noise signals, and discusses the permutation entropy of the intrinsic mode function with the highest energy. In this study, ship radiated noise signals measured from three types of ships are decomposed into a set of intrinsic mode functions with empirical mode decomposition method. Then, the permutation entropies of all intrinsic mode functions are calculated with appropriate parameters. The permutation entropies are obviously different in the intrinsic mode functions with the highest energy, thus, the permutation entropy of the intrinsic mode function with the highest energy is regarded as a new characteristic parameter to extract the feature of ship radiated noise. After that, the characteristic parameters, namely, the energy difference between high and low frequency, permutation entropy, and multi-scale permutation entropy, are compared with the permutation entropy of the intrinsic mode function with the highest energy. It is discovered that the four characteristic parameters are at the same level for similar ships, however, there are differences in the parameters for different types of ships. The results demonstrate that the permutation entropy of the intrinsic mode function with the highest energy is better in separability as the characteristic parameter than the other three parameters by comparing their fluctuation ranges and the average values of the four characteristic parameters. Hence, the feature of ship radiated noise can be extracted efficiently with the method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0393.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: twisted optical fiber; chirality; laser beam profile; differential mode delay; laser-based few-mode optical signal transmission; fiber Bragg grating; few-mode effects
Online: 30 March 2022 (15:17:48 CEST)
This work presents results of property researches of fabricated samples of silica few-mode optical fiber (FMF) with induced chirality under twisting 10 and 66 revolutions per meter, core diameter 11 µm, typical “telecommunication” cladding diameter 125 µm and improved height of quasi-step refractive index profile. Proposed FMF supports 4 guided modes over “C”-band. We represent results of computed characteristics, as well as experimentally measured spectral responses of laser-excited optical signals, including researches and analysis of few-mode effects, occurring after fiber Bragg grating writing.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: co-design; ITO; thermo-optic phase shifter; mode selective converter; mode selective router; numerical simulation
Online: 14 April 2021 (10:13:38 CEST)
Recently, Indium Tin Oxide, a highly transparent, well conductive, and CMOS-compatible material, has been paying strong attention to the thermo-optic controlled silicon photonics industry because it allows a miniature of the gap between the core silicon and the heater, thus enabling reducing the electric power consumption and enhancing the switching speed. In this article, we propose an ultralow loss and small-size ITO microheater for the phase shift tuning. The designated microheater is manipulated in realizing a numerical co-design of compact and high bandwidth three-mode converter and three-mode selective router. Simulation results illustrate the 3-dB bandwidth for the three-mode converter and three-mode selective router as much as 100-nm and 40-nm during crosstalk under -25 dB, respectively. Besides, co-designed devices attain relatively large fabrication tolerances corresponding to width and height tolerances of ±50 nm and ±5 nm. In addition, the proposed devices consumed less than 90 mW total power consumption and took a fast switching time below 8 μs. Moreover, both two co-designs can be integrated into an estimated compact footprint of 8 μm2160 μm. Such excellent performances demonstrate the attractive potential of ITO as low-loss thermo-optic phase shifters and open an alternative way for enabling ultrafast and high-speed mode division multiplexing systems and very large-scale photonic integrated circuits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0304.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: converter; leakage current; common-mode; renewable
Online: 13 July 2021 (11:29:11 CEST)
Power generation systems based on renewable energy sources are finding ever-widening applications and many researchers work on this problem. Many papers address the problem of transformerless structures, but few of them are aimed at conducting research on structures with multilevel converter topologies. In this paper a grid-tied transformerless PV-generation system based on a multilevel converter is discussed. There are common-mode leakage currents which act as a parasitic factor. It is also known that common-mode voltage is the main cause of the common-mode leakage current in grid-tied PV-generation systems. This paper considers the space vector pulse-width modulation (PWM) technique which is used to suppress or reduce common-mode leakage current. The proposed engineering solutions for a generation system based on the multilevel converter controlled with a pulse-width modulation technique are verified by experiment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0195.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: EUR; shale; infill wells; (re)fracturing; pressure depletion; average well; Middle Bakken; Three Forks
Online: 19 August 2019 (12:56:57 CEST)
We replace the current industry-standard empirical forecasts of oil production from hydrofractured horizontal wells in shales with a statistically and physically robust, accurate and precise approach, using the Bakken shale as an illustration. The proposed oil production forecasting method extends our previous work on predicting fieldwide gas production in the Barnett shale and merges it with our new scaling of oil production in shales. We first divide the existing 14,678 horizontal oil wells in the Bakken into 12 static samples in which depositional settings and completion technologies are similar. For each sample, we construct a purely data-driven P50 well prototype by merging the GEV distribution fits of oil production from appropriate well cohorts. We fit the parameters of our physics-based scaling curve to the statistical well prototypes, and obtain their smooth extrapolations to 30 years on production. By calculating the number of potential wells of each Bakken region, and scheduling future drilling programs, we stack up the extended well prototypes to achieve the most plausible forecast. We predict that Bakken will ultimately produce 5 billion barrels of oil from the existing wells, with the possible increments of 2 and 6 billion barrels from core and noncore areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0498.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Fault tolerant control; Adaptive fuzzy control; Time-varying actuator faults; Sliding mode control; Sliding mode observer
Online: 21 July 2021 (15:14:06 CEST)
In this paper, the problem of observer-based adaptive sliding mode control is discussed for nonlinear systems with sensor and actuator faults. The time-varying actuator degradation factor and external disturbance are considered in the system simultaneously. In this study, the original system is described as a new normal system by combining the state vector, sensor faults and external disturbance into a new state vector. For the augmented system, a new sliding mode observer is designed, where a discontinuous term is introduced such that the effects of sensor and actuator faults and external disturbance will be eliminated. In addition, based on a tricky design of the observer, the time-varying actuator degradation factor term is developed in the error system. On the basis of the state estimation, an integral-type adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller is constructed to ensure the stability of the closed-loop system. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed control methods can be illustrated with a numerical example.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0276.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: life cycle assessment; sisal production; circular economy; nutrient depletion; anaerobic digestion; waste management; bioenergy; biogas.
Online: 12 July 2021 (23:02:10 CEST)
Nutrient depletion in Tanzanian sisal production has led to yield decreases over time. We use nutrient mass balances embedded within a life cycle assessment to quantify the extent of nutrient depletion for different production systems, then used circular economy principles to identify potential cosubstrates from within the Tanzanian economy to anaerobically digest with sisal wastes. The biogas produced is then used to generate bioelectricity and the digestate residual can be used as a fertilizer to address the nutrient depletion. If no current beneficial use of the cosubstrate was assumed, then beef manure and marine fish processing waste were the best cosubstrates. If agricultural wastes were assumed to have a current beneficial use as fertilizer, then marine fish processing waste and human urine were the best cosubstrates. The largest reduction in environmental impacts resulted from bioelectricity replacing electricity from fossil fuels in the national electricity grid and improved onsite waste management practices. There is significant potential to revitalize Tanzanian sisal production by applying circular economy principles to sisal waste management and bioenergy production.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Synthetic Aperture Radar; wave mode; ocean wave
Online: 21 October 2020 (07:47:35 CEST)
The Wave Mode (WM) is a unique imaging mode of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which is dedicatedly designed for global ocean surface wave observations. Since it was firstly achieved in the ERS-1/SAR satellite starting from 1991, the WM data over global oceans have been continuously acquired by the ESA’s SAR instruments onboard the satellites of ERS-2 (1997 – 2011), ENVISAT (2002 – 2012), Sentinel-1A(2014--)/1B(2016--) and the Chinese GaoFen-3 SAR (2016--), for nearly 30 years. Therefore, spaceborne SAR WM data have been a ‘big data’, which however, has not been widely exploited for global ocean wave measurements. In this study, we demonstrate its application on global ocean wave measurements based on the ten-year Advanced SAR (ASAR) WM data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0322.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: internal mode control,PID control,robustness,simulation
Online: 20 June 2018 (12:10:30 CEST)
In the development of automatic control, PID control is the oldest of the basic control mode, the control algorithm is the most widely used in engineering, especially the applied research of robustness has extensive engineering practical value. In this paper, based on the principle of the internal model PID parameter setting method was studied, through different approximate processing method, derived the three different formula of PID internal model setting and simulation verify the effectiveness of the algorithm. At the same time, the robustness of the controlled process under different parameter perturbation is theoretically analyzed and simulated.Finally, the paper summarizes the whole paper and looks forward to the future development trend.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0075.v1
Online: 25 July 2016 (06:34:26 CEST)
Over the past couple of decades, Global positioning system (GPS) technology has been utilized to collect large-scale data from travel surveys. As the precise spatiotemporal characteristics of travel could be provided by GPS devices, the issues of traditional travel survey, such as misreporting and non-response, could be addressed. Considering the defects of dedicated GPS devices (e.g., need much money to buy devices, forget to take devices to collect data, limit the simple size because of the number of devices, etc.), and the phenomenon that the smartphone is becoming one of necessities of life, there is a great chance for the smartphone to replace dedicated GPS devices. Although, several general reviews have been done about smartphone-based GPS travel survey in the literature review section in some articles, a systematic review from smartphone-based GPS data collection to travel mode detection has none. The included studies were searched from six databases. The purpose of this review is to critically assess the current literature on the existing methodologies of travel mode detection based on GPS raw data collected by smartphones. Meanwhile, according to the systematic comparison among different methods from data-preprocessing to travel mode detection, this paper could carefully provide the Strengths and Weaknesses of existing methods. Furthermore, it is the crucial step to develop the methodologies and applications of GPS raw data collected by smartphones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0035.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Airborne wind energy, crosswind kite, induction factor, actuator disc, lift mode, drag mode, pumping kite, on-board generation
Online: 5 February 2018 (13:50:33 CET)
This paper generalizes the actuator disc theory to the application of crosswind kite power systems. For simplicity, it is assumed that the kite sweeps an annulus in the air, perpendicular to the wind direction (i.e. straight downwind configuration with tether parallel to the wind). It is further assumed that the wind flow has a uniform distribution. Expressions for power harvested by the kite is obtained, where the effect of the kite on slowing down the wind (i.e. the induction factor) is taken into account. It is shown that although the induction factor may be small for a crosswind kite (of the order of a few percentage points), neglecting it in calculations may result in noticeable overestimation of the amount of power harvestable by a crosswind kite system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0614.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: groundwater depletion; precision water management; adoption; sustainability; Ogallala aquifer; Arkansas Delta; Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer
Online: 25 May 2021 (14:18:47 CEST)
Even though groundwater-based irrigation has increased agricultural productivity and economic activity in the United States (US), the current rate of groundwater withdrawals from major aquifers could significantly affect the sustainability of agricultural production systems in the near future. In the major agricultural regions, producers are now facing challenges to irrigate to meet full crop water needs. There is an increasing need to strategize irrigation management under various climatic and environmental conditions to optimize water use in agriculture while optimizing crop yields. This study reviews some of the major challenges facing irrigated agriculture in the US and the potential measures to ensure the sustainability of groundwater-based irrigation. Identified challenges included diminishing quantity and quality of groundwater resources, frequent droughts, low adoption rates of precision irrigation technologies, and rising energy requirements for irrigation abstractions. Irrigation efficiency improvements, shifting to high water use efficiency crops, wastewater reuse, groundwater monitoring, availing incentives, and policy changes, were identified as promising water management strategies to ensure irrigation sustainability. The success of these strategies will depend on the uptake and adoption by the producers in the affected agricultural regions.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: radiation track chemistry; chemical track structure; oxygen effect; oxygen depletion; ion beam therapy; ROS; superoxide anion
Online: 5 December 2019 (03:32:18 CET)
The radiosensitivity of biological systems is strongly affected by the system oxygenation. On the nanoscopic scale and molecular level, this effect is considered to be strongly related to the indirect damage of radiation. Even though particle track radiolysis has been the object of several studies, still little is known about the nanoscopic impact of target oxygenation on the radical yields. We present here an extension of the chemical module of the Monte Carlo particle track structure code TRAX, taking into account the presence of dissolved molecular oxygen in the target material. The impact of the target oxygenation level on the chemical track evolution and the yields of all the relevant chemical species is studied in water under different irradiation conditions: different linear energy transfer (LET) values, different oxygenation levels, and different particle types. Especially for low LET radiation, a large production of two highly toxic species (HO2• and O2•− ), which are not produced in anoxic conditions, is predicted and quantified in oxygenated solutions. The remarkable correlation between the HO2• and O2•− production yield and the oxygen enhancement ratio observed in biological systems suggests a direct or indirect involvement of HO2• and O2•− in the oxygen sensitization effect. The results are in agreement with available experimental data and previous computational approaches. An analysis of the oxygen depletion rate in different radiation conditions is also reported.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0414.v1
Subject: Keywords: Chattering reduction; discrete-time sliding mode control; magnetic levitation system; multirate output feedback; robust control; sliding mode control (SMC)
Online: 27 October 2021 (13:33:34 CEST)
This paper presents three types of sliding mode controllers for a magnetic levitation system. First, a proportional-integral sliding mode controller (PI-SMC) is designed using a new switching surface and a proportional plus power rate reaching law. The PI-SMC is more robust than a feedback linearization controller in the presence of mismatched uncertainties and outperforms the SMC schemes reported recently in the literature in terms of the convergence rate and settling time. Next, to reduce the chattering phenomenon in the PI-SMC, a state feedback-based discrete-time SMC algorithm is developed. However, the disturbance rejection ability is compromised to some extent. Furthermore, to improve the robustness without compromising the chattering reduction benefits of the discrete-time SMC, mismatched uncertainties like sensor noise and track input disturbance are incorporated in a robust discrete-time SMC design using multirate output feedback (MROF). With this technique, it is possible to realize the effect of a full-state feedback controller without incurring the complexity of a dynamic controller or an additional discrete-time observer. Also, the MROF-based discrete-time SMC strategy can stabilize the magnetic levitation system with excellent dynamic and steady-state performance with superior robustness in the presence of mismatched uncertainties. The stability of the closed-loop system under the proposed controllers is proved by using the Lyapunov stability theory. The simulation results and analytical comparisons demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control schemes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0401.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Power Converters; Power Electronics; Electromagnetic Interference; EMI; Noise; Differential Mode; DM; Common Mode; CM; Imbalance Difference Model; Boost Converter
Online: 19 August 2021 (10:43:55 CEST)
This article is a big picture of how electrical noise or conducted Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) is generated and mitigated in power converters. It gives an overview of what EMI in power converters is – from generation through to conduction and mitigation. It is meant to cover the complete subject as a summary so that the reader will have an outline of how to control conducted EMI by design (where possible) and how to mitigate by filtering. A clear distinction is made between Differential Mode (DM) and Common Mode (CM) EMI generation and mitigation. By using a boost converter as an example the trade-offs for DM noise control are discussed. It is shown how CM EMI is generated in a boost converter using the concept of the “Imbalance Difference Model” (IDM). Practical measurements for an in-line power filter is given showing the effect of the filter on the total EMI of a boost converter. Measurements for the CM current produced due to the imbalance difference for different values of the boost conductor are also shown. The main contribution of this study is linking CM noise generation to DM EMI. It is shown that CM noise is a direct consequence of DM noise (although circuit imbalance and coupling to a common ground also play a role). This paper will be useful to designers seeking the “bigger picture” of how EMI is generated in power converters and what can be done to mitigate the noise.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: connected vehicles; freight; mode share; pavement; railroad; sensors
Online: 10 October 2022 (11:04:33 CEST)
The condition of surface transportation infrastructure directly affects the economic health of a nation. However, it is difficult to justify the large sums of money needed to extend current methods to monitor all the multimodal infrastructure. The convergence of connected vehicle and cloud computing technologies presents an opportunity to automate the collection of ride quality and imagery data to continuously assess the condition of all roadways and railways. This paper presents several perspectives to help policy and standardization initiatives promote adoption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0204.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: microgrid; DNN; parallel inverters; island mode; power quality
Online: 16 May 2022 (10:13:15 CEST)
The microgrid is a small-scale, autonomous decentralized power plant with its own distributed generation, storage capacity and multiple loads, with the capacity to function in grid interconnected and an island mode. The decentralized control of microgrids with parallel operated voltage source converters (VSCs) is proposed in this paper to improve power quality using a machine learning approach. The DNN based MPPT controller is proposed and its best performance is presented. The SRF-PLL is utilized for AC side synchronization in VSC control. The proposed microgrid involves two PV arrays fed to two voltage source converters along with their independent controls, connected in parallel through LC filters and line coupling transformers and serves the loads at PCC. The proposed model is simulated using MATLAB/Simulink. The dq-framed inner loop control is employed to individually regulate the real and reactive power at the point of common coupling. Furthermore, the proposed model is analyzed and compared by employing a mathematical model of AC system dynamics, inner loop control, output voltage quality, AC harmonic spectrum analysis, and total harmonic distortion (THD) in both grid interconnected and island mode. In island mode, AC harmonic spectrum and THD are accomplished within the permissible range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0050.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: laminate; material properties; identification; guided waves; mode separation
Online: 5 May 2022 (16:08:23 CEST)
Numerical methods, including machine learning methods, are now actively used in the applications related to guided wave propagation. The method proposed in this study for material properties characterization is based on the algorithm of the clustering of multivariate data series obtained as a result of the application of the matrix pencil method to the experimental data. In the proposed technique, multi-objective optimization is employed to improve the accuracy of particular parameter identification. At the first stage, the computationally efficient method based on the calculation of the Fourier transform of Green's matrix is employed iteratively and the obtained solution is used for the filter construction with decreasing bandwidth, which allows us to obtain nearly noise-free classified data (with mode separation). The filter provides data separation between all guided waves in a natural way, which is needed at the second stage, where the slower method based on the minimization of the slowness residuals is applied to the data. The method might be applied for material properties identification in plates with thin coatings/interlayers, multi-layered anisotropic laminates etc.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: synthetic aperture radar (SAR); wave mode; ocean waves
Online: 15 May 2020 (18:22:41 CEST)
This dataset consists of integral sea state parameters of significant wave height (SWH) and mean wave period (zero-upcrossing mean wave period, MWP) data derived from the advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR) onboard the ENVISAT satellite over its full life cycle (2002-2012) covering the global ocean. Both parameters are calibrated and validated against buoy data. A cross-validation between the ASAR SWH and radar altimeter (RA) data is also performed to ensure that the SAR-derived wave height data are of the same quality as the RA data. These data are stored in the standard NetCDF format, which are produced for each ASAR wave mode Level1B data provided by the European Space Agency. This is the first time that a full sea state product in terms of both the SWH and MWP has been derived from spaceborne SAR data over the global ocean for a decadal temporal scale.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: biosensor; optical fiber sensor; two-mode fiber; sensitivity
Online: 20 February 2020 (05:33:03 CET)
Conventional method for monitoring the IgG levels suffered from some apparent problems such as long assay time, multistep processing, and high overall cost. An effective and suitable optical platform for label-free biosensing has been investigated by the implementation of antibody/antigen immunoassays. Thus, the ultrasensitive detection of IgG levels can be achieved by exploiting the dispersion turning point (DTP) existed in the tapered two-mode fibers (TTMFs) due to the sensitivity will reach ±∞ on either side of the DTP. Tracking the resonant wavelength shift it was found that the fabricated TTMF device exhibited limits of detection (LOD) down up to concentrations of 10 fg/mL of IgG in PBS solution. Such immunosensors based on the DTP have great significance on trace detection of IgG due to simple detection scheme, quick response time, and miniaturation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0252.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: optical vortices; topological charge; shear interference; mode superposition
Online: 17 May 2018 (13:26:46 CEST)
Optical modes bearing optical vortices are important light systems in which to encode information. Optical vortices are robust features of optical beams that do not dissipate upon propagation. Thus decoding the modal content of a beam is a vital component of the process. In this work we present a method to decode modal superpositions of light beams that contain optical vortices. We do so using shear interferometry, which presents a simple and effective means of determining the vortex content of a beam, and extract the parameters of the component vortex modes that constitute them. We find that optical modes in a beam are easily determined. Its modal content can be extracted when they are of comparable magnitude. The use of modes of well defined topological charge but not well defined radial-mode content, such as those produced by phase-only encoding, are much easier to diagnose than pure Laguerre-Gauss modes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0013.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid); silica; nanoparticles; enzymes; amino acid depletion; cancer; drug delivery; double emulsion; biocompatible
Online: 1 December 2022 (07:56:18 CET)
Some cancer cells rely heavily on non-essential biomolecules for survival, growth, and proliferation. Enzyme based therapeutics can eliminate these biomolecules, thus specifically targeting neoplastic cells; however, enzyme therapeutics are susceptible to immune clearance, exhibit short half-lives, and require frequent administration. Encapsulation of therapeutic cargo within biocompatible and biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA NPs) is a strategy for controlled release. Unfortunately, PLGA NPs exhibit burst release of cargo shortly after delivery or upon introduction to aqueous environments where they decompose via hydrolysis. Here we show the generation of hybrid silica-coated PLGA (SiLGA) NPs as viable drug delivery vehicles exhibiting sub-200 nm diameters, a metastable Zeta potential, and high loading efficiency and content. Compared to uncoated PLGA NPs, SiLGA NPs offer greater retention of enzymatic activity and slow the burst release of cargo. Thus, SiLGA encapsulation of therapeutic enzymes, such as asparaginase, could reduce frequency of administration, increase half-life, and improve efficacy for patients with a range of diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0108.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: non-equilibrium phase behavior; compositional flow simulations; phase transitions; upscaling; hydrocarbon mixtures; non-equilibrium constant volume depletion
Online: 18 April 2017 (04:05:57 CEST)
Numerical models widely used for hydrocarbon phase behavior and compositional flow simulations are based on assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. However, it is not uncommon for oil and gas-condensate reservoirs to exhibit essentially non-equilibrium phase behavior, e.g., in the processes of secondary recovery after pressure depletion below saturation pressure, or during gas injection, or for condensate evaporation at low pressures. In many cases the ability to match field data with equilibrium model depends on simulation scale. The only method to account for non-equilibrium phase behavior adopted by the majority of flow simulators is the option of limited rate of gas dissolution (condensate evaporation) in black oil models. For compositional simulations no practical yet thermodynamically consistent method has been presented so far except for some upscaling techniques in gas injection problems. Previously reported academic non-equilibrium formulations have a common drawback of doubling the number of flow equations and unknowns compared to the equilibrium formulation. In the paper a unified thermodynamically-consistent formulation for compositional flow simulations with non-equilibrium phase behavior model is presented. Same formulation and a special scale-up technique can be used for upscaling of an equilibrium or non-equilibrium model to a coarse-scale non-equilibrium model. A number of test cases for real oil and gas-condensate mixtures are given. Model implementation specifics in a flow simulator are discussed and illustrated with test simulations. A non-equilibrium constant volume depletion algorithm is presented to simulate condensate recovery at low pressures in gas-condensate reservoirs. Results of satisfactory model matching to field data are reported and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0489.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Integrated optics; resonators; Fano resonance; mode splitting; classical filters
Online: 19 April 2021 (13:27:26 CEST)
We propose and theoretically investigate integrated photonic filters based on coupled Sagnac loop reflectors (SLRs) formed by a self-coupled wire waveguide. By tailoring coherent mode interference in the device, three different filter functions are achieved, including Fano-like resonances, wavelength interleaving, and varied resonance mode splitting. For each function, the impact of device structural parameters is analyzed to facilitate optimized performance. Our results theoretically verify the proposed device as a compact multi-functional integrated photonic filter for flexible spectral shaping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0601.v1
Online: 26 February 2021 (09:33:58 CET)
We present theoretical designs of high performance optical filters in integrated silicon photonic nanowire resonators. We use mode interference in formed by zig-zag waveguide coupled Sagnac loop reflectors (ZWC-SLRs), tailored to achieve diverse filtering functions with good performance. These include compact bandpass filters with improved roll-off, optical analogues of Fano resonances with ultrahigh spectral extinction ratios (ERs) and slope rates, and resonance mode splitting with high ERs and low free spectral ranges. The analysis verifies the feasibility of multi-functional integrated photonic filters based on ZWC-SLR resonators for flexible spectral engineering in diverse applications.
Online: 30 November 2020 (12:39:23 CET)
We theoretically investigate advanced multi-functional integrated photonic filters formed by three waveguide coupled Sagnac loop reflectors (3WC-SLRs). By tailoring the coherent mode interference, the spectral response of the 3WC-SLR resonators is engineered to achieve diverse filtering functions with high performance. These include optical analogues of Fano resonances that yield ultrahigh spectral extinction ratios (ERs) and slope rates, resonance mode splitting with high ERs and low free spectral ranges, and classical Butterworth, Bessel, Chebyshev, and elliptic filters. A detailed analysis of the impact of the structural parameters and fabrication tolerances is provided to facilitate device design and optimization. The requirements for practical applications are also considered. These results theoretically verify the effectiveness of using 3WC-SLR resonators as multi-functional integrated photonic filters for flexible spectral engineering in diverse applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0344.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: BLDC; Dual Rotor; Magnetic Equivalent circuit; Operation mode; TRV
Online: 12 November 2020 (12:03:57 CET)
In this paper, the design process of BLDC adopting the dual rotor method that can reduce the overall size of the motor while generating the same torque as the conventional Permanent Magnet BLDC is analyzed. A simple size is selected by obtaining the torque per rotor volume (TRV), and a method of matching the counter electromotive force by selecting the pole arc of the magnet through a magnetic equivalent circuit is analyzed. Since the efficiency is low because the 120-degree commutation method is selected, the middle stator is optimized through detailed design through the experimental design method. Afterwards, it has the advantage of being able to shift without stopping due to the characteristic of a dual rotor. For this, an analysis of the driving characteristics for each mode is performed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0219.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: manipulator; sliding mode controller; proportional integral derivative (PID) controller
Online: 12 October 2020 (10:04:18 CEST)
In this paper, a two-link manipulator system stability performance is designed and analyzed using Optimal control technique. The manipulator system is highly nonlinear and unstable. The system is modelled using Lagrangian equation and linearized in upward unstable position. The closed loop system is designed using optimal sliding mode controller. The system is compared with a known PID controller with an impulse applied and disturbance torques and a promising results has been obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0034.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: model updating; modal identification; measured data; measured mode shape
Online: 3 September 2019 (16:21:42 CEST)
A systematic approach for model updating using the modal identification results is proposed. Modal identification provides mode shapes for physical quantities (acceleration strain, etc.) measured in specific directions at the location of the sensors. Besides, model updating involves the use of the mode shapes related to the nodal degrees-of-freedom of the finite element analytic model. Consequently, the mode shapes obtained by modal identification and the mode shapes of the model updating process do not coincide even for the same mode. Therefore, a method constructing transform matrices that distinguish the cases where measurement is done by acceleration, velocity and displacement sensors and the case where measurement is done by strain sensors is proposed to remedy such disagreement between the mode shapes. The so-constructed transform matrices are then applied when the mode shape residual is used as objective function or for mode pairing in the model updating process. The feasibility of the proposed approach is verified by means of a numerical example in which the strain or acceleration of a simple beam is measured and a numerical example in which the strain of a bridge is measured. Using the proposed approach, it is possible to model the structure regardless of the position of the sensors and to select the location of the sensors independently from the model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0183.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: failure mode; impulse current; microstructure; multiple lightning; ZnO varistors
Online: 18 January 2019 (11:08:51 CET)
In this study, in order to explore the failure mode of ZnO varistors under multiple lightning stroke, a 5-pulse 8/20 μs nominal lightning current with pulse intervals of 50 ms was applied to the ZnO varistors. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) were used to analyze the microstructure of the material. The failure processes of ZnO varistors caused by multiple lightning impulse current were described. The performance changes of ZnO varistors after multiple lightning impulses were analyzed from macro and micro perspectives. According to the results of this study’s experiments, the macroscopic failure mode of the ZnO varistors after multiple lightning impulse was that the electrical parameters deteriorate rapidly with the increase of the number of impulse groups, and finally destroyed by side-corner cracking. The microstructural examination indicated that after the multiple lightning strokes, the proportion of Bi in the several crystal phases had been converted, the grain size of ZnO varistors became smaller, and the white intergranular phase (Bi-rich grain boundary layer) increased significantly. The failure mechanism was thermal damage and grain boundary structure damage caused by temperature gradient thermal stress generated by multiple lightning current.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0186.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: TSV, nanoindentation, FIB, micro-cantilever beam, mixed-mode, fracture
Online: 17 December 2018 (10:01:04 CET)
In-situ nanoindentation experiment has been widely adopted to characterize material behaviors of microelectronic devices. This work introduces the latest developments of nanoindentation experiment in characterizing nonlinear material properties of 3D integrated microelectronic devices with through-silicon-vias (TSVs). The elastic, plastic, and interfacial fracture behavior of the copper via and matrix-via interface have been characterized using small scale specimens prepared with focused-ion-beam (FIB) and nanoindentation experiment. A brittle interfacial fracture was found at the Cu/Si interface under mixed-mode loading with a phase angle ranging from 16.7 to 83.7 degrees. The mixed-mode fracture strengths were extracted using the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analysis and a fracture criterion was obtained by fitting the extracted data with the power-law function. The vectorial interfacial strength and toughness were found to be independent with mode-mix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0297.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: doubly fed induction generator; variable speed wind turbine; power control; sliding mode control (SMC); sliding mode control (SMC) with exponential reaching law (ERL)
Online: 23 April 2018 (12:50:34 CEST)
The main objective of this paper is to continue the development of activities of basic and applied research related to wind energy and to develop methods of optimal control to improve the performance and production of electrical energy from wind. A new control technique of Double fed induction generator for wind turbine is undertaken through a robust approach tagged nonlinear sliding mode control (SMC) with exponential reaching law control (ERL). The SMC with ERL proves to be capable of reducing the system chattering phenomenon as well as accelerating the approaching process. A nonlinear case numerical simulation test is employed to verify the superior performance of the ERL method over traditional power rate reaching strategy. Results obtained in Matlab/Simulink environment show that the SMC with ERL is more robust, prove excellent performance for the control unit by improving power quality and stability of wind turbine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0196.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Boiling Water Reactors; density wave oscillations; stability monitor; Shannon Entropy; noise-assisted Empirical Mode Decomposition variants; mode-mixing; Hilbert-Huang transform; instantaneous frequency
Online: 29 May 2017 (10:28:28 CEST)
There are currently around 78 Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) in the world based on Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). The current parameter to assess BWR instability issues is the linear Decay Ratio (DR). However, it is well known that BWRs are complex non-linear dynamical systems that may even exhibit chaotic dynamics that normally preclude the use of the DR when the BWR is working at a specific operating point during instability. In this work a novel methodology based on an adaptive Shannon Entropy estimator and on Noise Assisted Empirical Mode Decomposition variants is presented. This methodology was developed for real-time implementation of a stability monitor. This methodology was applied to a set of signals stemming from several NPPs reactors (Ringhals-Sweden, Forsmark-Sweden and Laguna Verde-Mexico) under commercial operating conditions, that experienced instabilities events, each one of a different nature
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0168.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Carbon nanotubes; Microalgae; Mode of action; Nanofibers; Silica nanotubes; Toxicity
Online: 13 February 2020 (12:33:37 CET)
Nanoparticles (NPs) have various applications in medicine, cosmetics, optics, catalysis, environmental purification, and other areas nowadays. With an increasing annual production of NPs, the risks of their harmful influence to the environment and human health is rising. Currently, our knowledge about the mechanisms of interaction between NPs and living organisms is limited. Additionally, poor understanding of how physical and chemical characteristic and different conditions influence the toxicity of NPs restrict our attempts to develop the standards and regulations which might allow us to maintain the safe living conditions. The marine species and their habitat environment are under continuous stress due to anthropogenic activities which result in the appearance of NPs in the aquatic environment. Our study aimed to evaluate and compare biochemical effects caused by the influence of different types of carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and silica nanotubes on four marine microalgae species. We have evaluated the changes in growth-rate, esterase activity, membrane polarization, and size changes of microalgae cells using flow cytometry method. Our results demonstrated that toxic effects caused by the carbon nanotubes strongly correlated with the content of heavy metal impurities in the NPs. More hydrophobic carbon NPs with less ordered structure had a higher impact on the red microalgae P. purpureum because of higher adherence between the particles and mucous covering of the algae; silica NPs caused significant inhibition of microalgae growth-rate predominantly produced by mechanical influence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0172.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Fixed-time stabilization; Sliding mode control; Adaptive control; Neural network
Online: 16 September 2019 (16:47:55 CEST)
In this paper, the fixed-time stabilization problem for a class of uncertain chained system is addressed by using a novel nonsingular recursive terminal sliding mode control approach. A fixed-time controller and an adaptive law are designed to guarantee the uncertain chained form system both Lyapunov stable and fixed-time convergent within the settling time. The advantage of the controller based on the sliding mode is that the settling time does not depend on the system initial state. Furthermore, we use RBF neural network to estimate the uncertainty of the system. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the performance of the control laws.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0554.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: slope compensation; coupled inductors; current mode control; boost-flyback converter
Online: 28 September 2018 (05:50:01 CEST)
Power converters with coupled inductors are very promising due to the high efficiency and high voltage gain. Apart from the aforementioned advantages, the boost-flyback converter reduces the voltage stress on the semiconductors. However, to obtain good performance with high voltage gains, the controller must include two control loops (current and voltage), and a compensation ramp. One of the most used control techniques for power converters is the peak current-mode control with compensation ramp. However, in the case of a boost-flyback converter there is no mathematical expression in the literature, to compute the slope of the compensation ramp. In this paper, a formula to compute the slope of the compensation ramp is proposed in such a way that a stable period-1 orbit is obtained. This formula is based on the values of the circuit parameters, such as inductances, capacitances, input voltage, switching frequency and includes some assumptions related to internal resistances, output voltages, and some other electrical properties related with the physical construction of the circuit. The formula is verified numerically using the saltation matrix and experimentally using a test circuit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0288.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: analog feedback, operational amplifier (Opamp), buck converter, continuous conduction mode.
Online: 16 August 2018 (14:10:02 CEST)
In this paper, we discuss voltage control method for buck converter operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM) using analog feedback system. The aim of this work is to control the output voltage of a buck converter during the variation in load current. This is obtained using analog feedback made with operational amplifier (Opamp). However, the same technique can be applied to other DC-DC converters (e.g boost, buck-boost, cuk converter, etc) in CCM mode, but for the purpose of analysis buck converter is chosen as an example.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0188.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: variational mode decomposition; detrended fluctuation analysis; heavy gearbox; fault diagnosis
Online: 16 April 2018 (05:35:21 CEST)
The vibration signal of heavy gearbox presents non-stationary and nonlinear characteristics, which increases the difficulty to extract the fault feature. When the gear has a subtle fault, it may cause a perceptible change of local fluctuation rather than the large scale fluctuation. Therefore, the feature parameters extracted from local fluctuation can effectively improve the recognition performance of the gear fault. In this paper, a novel signal processing method based on variational mode decomposition (VMD) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is proposed to identify the gear fault of heavy gearbox. Firstly, the raw vibration signal is decomposed several mode components by VMD, which is an adaptive and non-recursive signal decomposition method. Next, the sensitive mode component is selected by a maximal indicator, which is composed of kurtosis and correlation coefficient of relative higher frequency mode components corresponding to local fluctuation of raw vibration signal. Finally, the characteristics of the double-scales feature parameters of selected sensitive mode are extracted by DFA. In addition, the position of turning point of double scales is estimated by sliding windowing algorithm. The proposed method is evaluated through its application to gear fault classification using vibration signal. The results demonstrates that the recognization rate of gear faults condition have marked improvement by proposed method than the DFA of Small Time Scale (STS-DFA) method.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0239.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: regenerative, shock absorber, drive mode, vehicle dynamics, output power, nonlinearity
Online: 28 March 2018 (14:18:30 CEST)
In this paper, the current technologies of the regenerative shock absorber systems have been categorized and evaluated. Three drive modes of the regenerative shock absorber systems, namely the direct drive mode, the indirect drive mode and hybrid drive mode are reviewed for their readiness to be implemented. The damping performances of the three different modes are listed and compared. Electrical circuit and control algorithms have also been evaluated to maximize the power output and to deliver the premium ride comfort and handling performance. Different types of parameterized road excitations have been applied to vehicle suspension systems to investigate the performance of the regenerative shock absorbers including that of the nonlinear regenerative shock absorber. The research gaps for comparison of the different drive modes and the nonlinearity analysis of the regenerative shock absorbers are identified and, the corresponding research questions have been proposed for future work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0083.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: state estimation; model reference; sliding mode; real-time; parameter detuning
Online: 9 May 2017 (11:01:45 CEST)
The purpose of this work is to present an adaptive sliding mode luenberger state observer with improved disturbance rejection capability and better tracking performance under dynamic conditions. The sliding hyperplane is altered by incorporating the estimated disturbance torque with the stator currents. Also, the effects of parameter detuning on the speed convergence is observed and compared with the conventional disturbance rejection mechanism. The entire drive system is first built in simulink environment. Then, the simulink model is integrated with RT-Lab blocksets and implemented in a relatively new real-time environment using OP4500 real-time simulator. Real-time simulation and testing platforms have succeeded offline simulation and testing tools due to their reduced development time. The real-time results validate the improvement in the proposed state observer and also correspond to the performance of the actual physical model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0250.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: cell nucleus; gene expression; transcription foci; transcription factors; super-resolution microscopy; structured illumination; stimulated emission depletion; stochastic optical reconstruction; photoactivation
Online: 9 June 2021 (10:29:32 CEST)
Classical models of gene expression were built using genetics and biochemistry. Although these approaches are powerful, they have very limited consideration of the spatial and temporal organization of gene expression. Although the spatial organization and dynamics of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription machinery has fundamental functional consequences for gene expression, its detailed studies have been for long time abrogated by the limits of classical light microscopy. The advent of super-resolution microscopy (SRM) techniques allowed for the visualization of the RNAPII transcription machinery with nanometer resolution and millisecond precision. In this review, we summarize the recent methodological advances in SRM, focus on its application for studies of the nanoscale organization in space and time of RNAPII transcription, and discuss its consequences for the mechanistic understanding of gene expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0076.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: H3K27M; DIPG; p53; APR-246; Jumonji family histone demethylases; GSK-J4, radiation; DNA damage repair; glutathione depletion; oxidative stress induction
Online: 6 December 2019 (04:34:45 CET)
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an aggressive pediatric brainstem tumor with a 5-year survival of <1%. Up to 80% of DIPG tumors contain a specific K27M mutation in one of two genes encoding histone H3 (H3K27M). Furthermore, p53 mutations found in >70-80% of H3K27M DIPG, and mutant p53 status is associated with a decreased response to radiation treatment and worse overall prognosis. Recent evidence indicates that H3K27M mutation disrupts tri-methylation at H3K27 leading to aberrant gene expression. Jumonji family histone demethylases collaborates with H3K27 mutation in DIPG by erasing H3K27 trimethylation and thus contributing to derepression of genes involved in tumorigenesis. Since the first line treatment for pediatric DIPG is fractionated radiation, we investigated the effects of Jumonji demethylase inhibition with GSK-J4, and mutant p53 targeting/oxidative stress induction with APR-246, on radio-sensitization of human H3K27M DIPG cells. Both APR-246 and GSK-J4 displayed growth inhibitory effects as single agents in H3K27M DIPG cells. Furthermore, both of these agents elicited mild radiosensitizing effects in human DIPG cells (sensitizer enhancement ratios (SERs) of 1.12 and 1.35, respectively; p<0.05). Strikingly, a combination of APR-246 and GSK-J4 displayed a significant enhancement of radiosensitization, with SER of 1.50 (p<0.05) at sub-micro-molar concentrations of the drugs (0.5 μM). The molecular mechanism of the observed radiosensitization appears to involve DNA damage repair deficiency triggered by APR-246/GSK-J4, leading to the induction of apoptotic cell death. Thus, a therapeutic approach of combined targeting of mutant p53, oxidative stress induction, and Jumonji demethylase inhibition with radiation in DIPG warrants further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0113.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: CMOS; DC-DC converter; control circuit; integration; voltage –mode; boost converter
Online: 7 November 2022 (08:48:18 CET)
The integrated DC-DC converter is appropriate for use in many domains, namely, display, cellular, and portable applications. This paper presents an integrated monolithic voltage-mode DC-DC boost converter with a low-power control circuit. The driver circuit requires an integrated converter to power up a digital logic circuit and converts the unregulated DC input to the controlled DC output at the desired voltage level. It is the integration of both power switches and control circuitry within the same CMOS technology to buck down and boost voltages using a switch mode regulator. In order to increase power efficiency in the DC-DC boost converter that provides low-power operation with a small chip size, a low-voltage operation is applied to the unique circuit characteristic. The operational transconductance amplifier(OTA), comparator, and oscillator in the control circuit are designed with the supply voltage of 3.3V and the operating frequency of 5.5 MHz. A compensator is used to create a pole that has sufficient phase margin for high stability. The DC- DC boost converter is measured in both experiment and simulation. Testing of the proposed circuit on the 0.35μm CMOS process shows that the output transient time of the amplifier can be controlled within of 7μsec and the output voltage is accurately controlled with a ripple ratio of 3%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Empirical Mode Decomposition; Hybrid techniques; LSSVM; Wavelet transform; Wind speed prediction
Online: 5 October 2020 (14:06:29 CEST)
This paper presents a methodology to calculate day-ahead wind speed predictions based on historical measurements done by weather stations. The methodology was tested for three locations: Colombia, Ecuador, and Spain. The data is input into the process in two ways: 1) as a single time series containing all measurements, and 2) as twenty-four separate parallel sequences, corresponding to the values of wind speed at each of the 24 hours in the day over several months. The methodology relies on the use of three non-parametric techniques: Least-Squares Support Vector Machines, Empirical Mode Decomposition, and the Wavelet Transform. Also, the traditional and simple Auto-Regressive model is applied. The combination of the aforementioned techniques results in nine methods for performing wind prediction. Experiments using a MATLAB implementation showed that the Least-squares Support Vector Machine using data as a single time series outperformed the other combinations, obtaining the least mean square error.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: single-mode field interference; coherence; Path indistinguishability; Fringe visibility; Quantum Optics
Online: 12 August 2020 (10:06:29 CEST)
A well known result for the interference of two single-mode fields is that the degree of coherence and the degree of indistinguishablity are same when we consider the detection of a single photon. In this article we present the relation between degree of coherence, path indistinguishability and the fringe visibility considering interference of multiple number of single-mode fields while being interested in the detection of a single photon only . We will also mention how Born’s rule of interference for multiple sources is reflected in these results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0139.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: transport mode; revealed preference; stated preference; multinomial logit model; university students
Online: 8 May 2020 (08:42:54 CEST)
This work mainly aims to identify and understand the factors influencing the switching of transportation modes among higher-education students in Joinville, Brazil when traveling to universities. Furthermore, this study evaluates the possibility of switching from individual vehicles to other modes of transport (i.e., bus, bicycle, and walking) by employing a multinomial logit model. The results indicate that students would be interested in switching from individual motor vehicles to other options. The scenarios for switching to buses presented the highest switching probability. The bus cost was the most important factor for switching. Meanwhile, the parking space reduction does not affect the student's choice, indicating that restricting available spaces should not be an isolated measure for decreasing the car mode attractiveness. Finally, the transport mode switch would occur only if alternative modes to the car or their infrastructure are improved; otherwise, students maintain their usual choices.
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: diesel engine; fault diagnosis; variational mode decomposition; random forest; feature extraction
Online: 25 December 2019 (11:13:13 CET)
Diesel engines, as power equipment, are widely used in the fields of automobile industry, ship and power equipment. Due to wear or faulty adjustment, the valve train clearance abnormal fault is a typical failure of diesel engines, which may result in the performance degradation, even valve fracture and cylinder hit fault. However, the failure mechanism features mainly in time domain and angular domain, on which the current diagnosis methods based, are easily affected by working conditions or hard to extract accurate enough, as the diesel engine keeps running in transient and non-stationary process. This work arms at diagnosing this fault mainly based on frequency band features which would change when the valve clearance fault occurs. For the purpose of extracting a series of frequency band features adaptively，a decomposition technique based on improved variational mode decomposition is investigated in this work. As the connection between the features and the fault is fuzzy, the random forest algorithm is used to analyze the correspondence between features and faults. In addition, the feature dimension is reduced to improve the operation efficiency according to importance score. The experimental results under variable speed condition show that the method based on variational mode decomposition and random forest is capable to detect valve clearance fault effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0356.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: higher-mode surface waves; dispersion curves; morphological component analysis; Radon transform
Online: 17 October 2018 (09:00:53 CEST)
Extraction of high-resolution surface waves is essential in surface-wave survey. Because reflections usually interfere with surface waves on X component in a multicomponent seismic exploration, it is difficult to extract dispersion curves of surface waves. The situation goes more serious when the frequencies and velocities of higher-mode surface waves are close to those of PS-waves. A method for surface-wave extraction is proposed based on the morphological differences between reflections and surface waves. Frequency-domain high-resolution linear Radon transform (LRT) and time-domain high-resolution hyperbolic Radon transform (HRT) are used to represent surface waves and reflections respectively. Then, the sparse representation problem based on the morphological component analysis (MCA) is built and optimally solved to obtain high-fidelity surface waves. An advantage of our method is its ability to extract surface waves when their frequencies and velocities are close to those of reflections. Furthermore, results of synthetic and field examples confirm that the proposed method can attenuate the distortion of surface-wave dispersive energy caused by reflections, which contributes to extracting accurate dispersion curves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0148.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: modal wave-number spectrum; match mode; horizontal line array; moving source
Online: 11 April 2018 (12:42:57 CEST)
In this study, a matched-mode autoregressive source depth estimation method (MMAR) based on autoregressive (AR) wavenumber estimation is proposed for a moving source in shallow water waveguides. The signal original frequency and the environmental parameters, namely, the sound speed profile and bottom properties are known as a prior knowledge. The mode wavenumbers are estimated by the AR modal wavenumber spectrum. On the basis of the mode wavenumber estimation, the mode amplitudes can be estimated by the wavenumber spectrum that is obtained by generalized Hankel transform. The source depth estimation is determined by the peak of source depth function wherein the data mode best matches the replica mode that is calculated using a propagation model. Compared with other methods of moving source depth estimation, the proposed method exhibits a better performance in source depth estimation under low signal-to-noise ratio or the small range span. The selection of horizontal line array depth is illustrated by simulation and normal mode theory in details.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0266.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: variational mode decomposition; random decrement technique; crankshaft bearing; engine; feature extraction
Online: 30 March 2018 (10:01:18 CEST)
The vibration signal of the engine contains strong background noise and many kinds of modulating components, which is difficult to diagnose. Variational mode decomposition (VMD) is a recently introduced adaptive signal decomposition algorithm with a solid theoretical foundation and good noise robustness compared with empirical mode decomposition (EMD). VMD can effectively avoid endpoint effect and modal aliasing. However, VMD cannot effectively eliminate the random noise in the signal, so the random decrement technique is introduced to solve the problem. Based on the crankshaft bearing fault simulation experiment, the four kinds of wear state vibration signals are decomposed by VMD, and the modal components with smaller permutation entropy are selected as fault components. Then the fault component is processed by the random decrement technique, and the Hilbert envelope spectrum of the fault component is obtained. Compared with the fault feature extraction method based on EMD and EEMD, the feature extraction results of the proposed method are better than those of the above two methods. The simulation analysis and the simulation test of the crankshaft bearing fault verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0158.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: variational mode decomposition; Euclidean Distance; diesel engine; vibration signal; denoising algorithm
Online: 29 September 2017 (14:53:38 CEST)
Variational mode decomposition (VMD) is a recently introduced adaptive signal decomposition algorithm with a solid theoretical foundation and good noise robustness compared with empirical mode decomposition (EMD). There is a lot of background noise in the vibration signal of diesel engine. To solve the problem, a denoising algorithm based on VMD and Euclidean Distance is proposed. Firstly, a multi-component, non-Gauss, and noisy simulation signal is established, and decomposed into a given number K of band-limited intrinsic mode functions by VMD. Then the Euclidean distance between the probability density function of each mode and that of the simulation signal are calculated. The signal is reconstructed using the relevant modes, which are selected on the basis of noticeable similarities between the probability density function of the simulation signal and that of each mode. Finally, the vibration signals of diesel engine connecting rod bearing faults are analyzed by the proposed method. The results show that compared with other denoising algorithms, the proposed method has better denoising effect, and the fault characteristics of vibration signals of diesel engine connecting rod bearings can be effectively enhanced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0044.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: advanced high strength steel; yield function; hardening model; springback; deformation mode
Online: 8 March 2017 (04:51:37 CET)
The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of constitutive equations on the prediction accuracy for springback in cold stamping with various deformation modes. In this study, two types of yield functions—Hill’48 and Yld2000-2d—were considered to describe yield behavior. Isotropic and kinematic hardening models based on the Yoshida–Uemori model were also adopted to describe hardening behavior. Various material tests (such as uniaxial tension, tension- compression, loading-unloading, and hydraulic bulging tests) were carried out to determine the material parameters of the models. The obtained parameters were implemented in the finite element (FE) simulation to predict springback, and the results were compared with experimental data. U-bending and T-shape drawing were employed to evaluate the springback prediction accuracy. Obviously, the springback prediction accuracy was greatly influenced by constitutive equations. Therefore, it is important to choose appropriate constitutive equations for accurate description of material behaviors in FE simulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0115.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Mode I crack; fracture process zone; heterogeneity; discrete element method; reservoir fracability
Online: 10 October 2022 (07:16:19 CEST)
Hydraulic fracturing for oil-gas and geothermal reservoir stimulation is closely related to the generation and propagation of Mode I crack. Nonlinear deformation due to rock heterogeneity occurs at such crack tip, which causes the fracture process zone (FPZ) to form before the crack propagates unsteadily. However, the relationship between the FPZ characteristics and rock heterogeneity still remain elusive. We used three rock types common in reservoir for experimental investigation, and each of them includes two subtypes with different heterogeneity due to grain size or microstructural characteristics. Drawing on the experiment results, we calculated the FPZ size in each cracked chevron notched Brazilian disk, and we reproduced the formation process of the FPZ in marble by discrete element method. We showed that strong heterogeneity is favorable to large FPZ size, can enhance the ability of crack generation and complicate crack morphology. Coupling the Weibull distribution with fracture mechanics, the dependence of the FPZ size on heterogeneity degree can be theoretically explained, which suggests that inherent heterogeneity of rocks set physical foundation for formation of FPZ. These findings can improve our recognition to formation mechanism of the Mode I crack and provide useful guidelines for evaluating reservoir fracability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0406.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Smartphone; App Usage; Transport Mode Usage; Latent Class Cluster Analysis; Multimodality; Environment
Online: 24 August 2022 (03:59:57 CEST)
Smartphone-based mobility apps enable users to make informed transportation decisions, offering instant access to transport-related information. This development has created a smartphone-enabled ecosystem of mobility services in developed countries while it is slowly picking up pace in the global south, which can contribute towards the decarbonization of urban transport. Work on this has already started in India, and there is considerable evidence indicating the profound impact of these apps on the perceived utility and usage of transport modes, with far-reaching implications for sustainable development goals (SDGs). However, for most users, the use of smartphone apps is a novel trend, and the knowledge of the impacts of usage of existing apps on the usage pattern of transport modes by various user groups is essential for positioning new consolidated app-based services soon. Against this backdrop, the present study uses latent class cluster analysis to empirically investigate the impacts of mobility apps on transport mode usage patterns in Delhi by classifying users into latent classes based on socioeconomic characteristics, attitudes/preferences, smartphone app usage, and mode usage pattern. The characteristics of the latent class and factors affecting the individual’s probability of being classified to these cluster have been discussed, along with some measures to encourage app-based mobility for each cluster.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0441.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Active learning (AL); batch mode; expected model change; linear regression; nonlinear regression
Online: 28 January 2022 (15:03:10 CET)
Training supervised machine learning models requires labeled examples. A judicious choice of examples is helpful when there is a significant cost associated with assigning labels. This article improves upon a promising extant method – Batch-mode Expected Model Change Maximization (B-EMCM) method – for selecting examples to be labeled for regression problems. Specifically, it develops and evaluates alternate strategies for adaptively selecting batch size in B-EMCM. By determining the cumulative error that occurs from the estimation of the stochastic gradient descent, a stop criteria for each iteration of the batch can be specified to ensure that selected candidates are the most beneficial to model learning. This new methodology is compared to B-EMCM via mean absolute error and root mean square error over ten iterations benchmarked against machine learning data sets. Using multiple data sets and metrics across all methods, one variation of AB-EMCM, the max bound of the accumulated error (AB-EMCM Max), showed the best results for an adaptive batch approach. It achieved better root mean squared error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) than the other adaptive and non-adaptive batch methods while reaching the result in nearly the same number of iterations as the non-adaptive batch methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0421.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Unmanned Surface Vehicle; Guidance; Navigation and Control; Path Following; Adaptive Sliding Mode
Online: 23 November 2021 (12:37:17 CET)
This paper investigates the path following control problem for a unmanned surface vehicle (USV) in the presence of unknown disturbances and system uncertainties. The simulation study combines two different types of sliding mode surface based control approaches due to its precise tracking and robustness against disturbances and uncertainty. Firstly, an adaptive linear sliding mode surface algorithm is applied, to keep the yaw error within the desired boundaries and then an adaptive integral non-linear sliding mode surface is explored to keep an account of the sliding mode condition. Additionally, a method to reconfigure the input parameters in order to keep settling time, yaw rate restriction and desired precision within boundary conditions is presented. The main strengths of proposed approach is simplicity, robustness with respect to external disturbances and high adaptability to static and dynamics reference courses without the need of parameter reconfiguration.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0457.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: saturable absorbers; Rhenium disulfide; pulsed lasers; mode-locking; Q-switching; 2D TMD
Online: 23 August 2021 (14:59:07 CEST)
Rhenium Disulfide (ReS2) has evolved as a novel 2D transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) material which has promising applications in optoelectronics and photonics because of its distinctive anisotropic attributes. In this review, we emphasize on formulating saturable absorbers (SAs) based on ReS2 to produce Q-switched and mode-locked pulsed lasers of diverse operation wavelengths like 1 μm, 1.5 μm, 2 μm, and 3 μm. We outline ReS2 synthesis techniques and integration platforms concerning solid-state and fiber-type lasers. We discuss the laser performance based on SAs attributes. Lastly, we draw conclusions and outlook by recommending additional improvements for SA devices so as to advance the domain of ultrafast photonic technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0324.v1
Subject: Keywords: air quality; carbon dioxide (CO2); thermal comfort; office buildings; mixed-mode buildings.
Online: 11 June 2021 (14:55:27 CEST)
Since people spend most of their time in indoor environments, the objective of this work was to study indoor air quality perception and its effects on users’ thermal comfort. Based on previous data from a building with a central air-conditioning system and two mixed-mode buildings located in the humid subtropical climate of Florianópolis, southern Brazil, statistical analyses were performed. Each user subjective answer obtained through a questionnaire was combined with the corresponding environmental conditions – measured using microclimate stations, a portable thermo-anemometer and a CO2 analyser. Results showed that improvement in air quality was associated with the reduction of air temperature and humidity ratio. Also, there was a significant influence of thermal, air movement and humidity sensation and acceptability of air quality perception. Users felt more satisfied or neutral with air quality for being in thermal comfort, and not because of the CO2 level – which means that air quality perception is influenced by factors other than CO2. This study recommends the implementation of an air exchange device in split air-conditioners with air recirculation used in mixed-mode buildings in Brazil. It is important to provide suitable indoor ventilation to reduce pollutants concentration, ensure good air quality and prevent respiratory diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0057.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: birefringence; confinement loss; photonic crystal fibre; relative dispersion slope; single mode operation
Online: 22 April 2020 (05:45:04 CEST)
This article reveals a best possible design for hybrid dispersion compensating fiber (HyDCF) with high birefringence established on modified broadband compensating structure through S, C and L telecommunication bands. The simulation outcome exhibits relatively higher birefringence of 3.76×10-2 at wavelength of 1550 nm. The suggested fiber also has dispersion compensation characteristics in an inclusive series of wavelengths which covers 1400-1625 nm. The reported design can achieve dispersion quantity of – 606 ps/ (nm.km) at 1550 nm effective wavelength. The reported fiber design matches the relative dispersion slope (RDS) 0.003694 nm-1 similar to single mode fiber at 1550 nm operating wavelength. This fiber demonstrates negatively flattened effective dispersion of – 2.703 ± 0.734 ps/ (nm.km) within 180 nm flat band ranging from 1460-1640 nm wavelength. It is also convenient to optical high bit rate communication systems. The low confinement loss is found 3.756×10-10 dB/m at the operating wavelength. This design also achieves highly nonlinear coefficient of 50.34 W-1km-1. In some cases, it can also be used in sensing applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0392.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: power converter; fault diagnosis; intelligent algorithm; variational mode decomposition; deep belief network
Online: 26 February 2020 (11:25:27 CET)
The power converter is the significant device in a wind power system. Wind turbine will be shut down and off grid immediately with the occurrence of the IGBT module open-circuit fault of power converter, which will seriously impact the stability of grid and even threaten personal safety. However, in the existing diagnosis strategies of power converter, there are few single and double IGBT modules open-circuit fault diagnosis methods producing negative results including erroneous judgment, omissive judgment and low accuracy. In this paper, a novel method to diagnose the single and double IGBT modules open-circuit faults of the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind turbine grid-side converter (GSC) is proposed. Above all, collecting the three-phase current varying with wind speed of 22 failure states including a normal state of PMSG wind turbine GSC as the original signal data. Afterward, the original signal data are decomposed by using variational mode decomposition (VMD) to obtain the mode coefficient series, which are analyzed by the proposed method base on fault trend feature for extracting the trend feature vectors. Finally, the trend feature vectors are used as the input of deep belief network (DBN) for decision-making and obtaining the classification results. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can diagnose the single and double IGBT modules open-circuit faults of GSC, and the accuracy is higher than the benchmark models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0223.v4
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Gaofen-3; SAR; Wave Mode; calibration constants; cross-pol; noise floor; polarization
Online: 9 May 2018 (13:48:16 CEST)
In this paper, we analyze the measurements of the normalized radar cross-section(NRCS) in Wave Mode for Chinese C-band Gaofen-3(GF-3) synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Based on 2779 images from GF-3 quad-polarization SAR in Wave Mode and collocated wind vectors from ERA-Interim, we verify the feasibility of using ocean surface wind fields and VV-polarized NRCS to perform normalized calibration. The method uses well-validated empirical C-band geophysical model function (CMOD4) to estimate the calibration constant for each beam. The Amazon rainforest experiment results show that the accuracy of obtained calibration constant meets the requirements. In addition, the relationship between cross-pol NRCS and wind vectors is discussed. The cross-pol NRCS increases linearly with wind speed and it has an approximate cosine modulation with the wind direction when the wind speed is greater than 8m/s. The cross-polarized system noise floor is low enough to ignore it in wind retrieval. Furthermore, we also investigate the properties of the polarization ratio, denoted PR, and show that it is dependent on incidence angle and azimuth angle. Two empirical models of the PR are fitted, one as a function of incidence angle only, the other with additional dependence on azimuth angle. Assessments show that the σ_VV^0 retrieved from new PR models as well as σ_HH^0 is in good agreement with σ_VV^0 extracted from SAR images directly. And it is also shown that considering the azimuth angle can improve polarization conversion accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0089.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Closed Loop Control; Cuk Converter; Sliding Mode Control; Robustness; Active Hysterisis Control
Online: 19 June 2017 (16:52:57 CEST)
This paper introduces a sliding mode control (SMC) based equivalent control method to a novel high output gain Cuk converter. An additional inductor and capacitor improves the efficiency and output gain of the classical Cuk converter. Classical PI controllers are widely used in DC-DC converters. However, it is a very challenging task to design a single PI controller operating in different load and disturbances. SMC based equivalent control method which achieves a robust operation in a wide operation range is also proposed. Switching frequency is kept constant in appropriate interval in different loading and disturbance conditions by implementing a dynamic hysteresis control method. Numerical simulations conducted on Matlab/Simulink confirm the accuracy of analytical analysis of high output gain modified Cuk converter. In addition, proposed equivalent control method is validated in different perturbations to demonstrate the robust operation in wide operation range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0274.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Field Oriented Control (FOC); electric scooter; Traction Motor Control System; Sliding Mode Control
Online: 19 October 2022 (08:27:17 CEST)
Nowadays brushless DC motors (BLDCMs) are becoming indispensable components as the electrification revolution in the mobility industry is happening. Electric kick scooters, so-called e-scooters, are among these micro-mobility vehicles which are powered by these motors. Due to the uncertain and nonlinear features, the controller performance developed for these motors degrades. For these reasons, a chattering-reduced cascaded Sliding Mode Control (SMC) scheme to effectively track reference motor speed in the outer loop by eliminating torque ripples in the inner loop current control was designed. Field-oriented Control (FOC) methodology was used to implement the SMC in the BLDCM. An exponential reaching law algorithm was proposed for sliding surfaces of the inner and outer loop controllers. The suitability and performance of electric scooter-hub motors were analyzed in terms of traction control. A cascaded speed and torque controller produced significantly favorable results representing minimized torque and current ripples, and operation over a wide speed range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0143.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Sliding Mode Control; Three phase Voltage Source Inverter; Reaching Law; Chattering; Sliding Surface.
Online: 11 October 2022 (05:39:53 CEST)
Voltage Source Inverters (VSI) are the integral part of Electrical Vehicles (EV) to enhance the reliability of supply power to critical loads in vehicle to load (V2L) applications. Inherent properties of sliding mode control (SMC) makes it one of the best vailable options to achieve desired voltage quality under variable load conditions. Intrinsic characteristic of robustness associated with SMC is achieved generally at the cost of unwanted chattering along the sliding surface. To manage this compromise better, optimal selection of sliding surface coefficient is applied with proposed composite exponential reaching law (C-ERL). The novelty of proposed C-ERL is associated with the intelligent mix of exponential, power and difference functions blended with rotating sliding surface selection (RSS) technique for three phase two level VSI. Moreover, proposed reaching law along with power rate exponential reaching law(PRERL), enhanced exponential reaching law(EERL) and repeatitive reaching law(RRL) are implemented on two level three phase VSI under variable load condtions. Comparative analysis of which strongly advocates the authenticity and effectiveness of proposed reaching law in achieving well regulated output voltage, with high level of robustness, reduced chattering and low %THD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0136.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Droop control; micro-grid inverter; grid-connected mode; instantaneous frequency detection; incomplete derivation
Online: 4 June 2021 (10:48:27 CEST)
This paper presents an improved droop control strategy for grid-connected inverter power stability and power quality under distorted with consideration of grid fluctuation and inter-harmonics. An instantaneous frequency without PLL and amplitude of capacitor voltage feed-forward control strategy is given to power stability control, meanwhile a grid current feedback control is given by an incomplete derivation with a high-pass filter, so that the harmonics and inter-harmonics current can be suppressed. These approaches can provide both good active and reactive power dynamic response under fluctuation of frequency, and rejection ability against harmonic and inter-harmonic voltage. Based on model of inverter, the proposed control strategies are designed in detail. Simulations and experiments are present to validate the effectiveness of proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0704.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Parascaris; carvacrol; nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; muscle contraction; electrophysiology; Xenopus oocytes; mode of action
Online: 27 April 2021 (10:54:16 CEST)
Parascaris sp. is the only ascarid parasitic nematode in equids and one of the most threatening infectious organisms in horses. Only a limited number of compounds are available for treatment of horse helminthiasis and Parascaris sp. worms have developed resistance to the three major anthelmintic families. In order to overcome the appearance of resistance, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies. The active ingredients of herbal essential oils are potentially effective antiparasitic drugs. Carvacrol is one of the principal chemicals of essential oil from Origanum, Thymus, Coridothymus, Thymbra, Satureja and Lippia herbs. However, the antiparasitic mode of action of carvacrol is poorly understood so far. Here, the objective of the work was to characterize the activity of carvacrol on Parascaris sp. nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) function both in vivo with the use of worm neuro-muscular flap preparations and in vitro with two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology on nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. We have developed a neuromuscular contraction assay on Parascaris body flaps and obtained acetylcholine concentration-dependent contraction responses. Strikingly, we observed that 300 µM carvacrol fully and irreversibly abolished Parascaris sp. muscle contractions elicited by acetylcholine. Conversely, carvacrol antagonized acetylcholine-induced currents from both the nicotine-sensitive AChR and the morantel-sensitive AChR subtypes. Thus, we show for the first time that the body muscle flap preparation is a tractable approach to investigate the pharmacology of Parascaris sp. neuro-muscular system. Our results suggest an intriguing mode of action for carvacrol being a potent antagonist of muscle nAChRs of Parascaris sp. worms which may account for its antiparasitic potency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0445.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: mass spectrometry; two-dimensional; tandem mass spectrometry; phase correction; absorption mode; data processing
Online: 16 April 2021 (12:41:15 CEST)
Two-dimensional mass spectrometry (2D MS) is a method for tandem mass spectrometry that relies on manipulating ion motions to correlate precursor and fragment ion signals. 2D mass spectra are obtained by performing a Fourier transform in both the precursor ion mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) dimension and the fragment ion m/z dimension. The phase of the ion signals evolves linearly in the precursor m/z dimension and quadratically in the fragment m/z dimension. This study demonstrates that phase-corrected absorption mode 2D mass spectrometry improves signal-to-noise ratios by a factor of 2 and resolving power by a factor of 2 in each dimension compared to magnitude mode. Furthermore, phase correction leads to an easier differentiation between ion signals and artefacts, and therefore easier data interpretation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0566.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: transportation mode classification; vulnerable road users; recurrence plots; computer vision; image classification system
Online: 24 September 2020 (04:41:32 CEST)
As the Autonomous Vehicle (AV) industry is rapidly advancing, classification of non-motorized (vulnerable) road users (VRUs) becomes essential to ensure their safety and to smooth operation of road applications. The typical practice of non-motorized road users’ classification usually takes numerous training time and ignores the temporal evolution and behavior of the signal. In this research effort, we attempt to detect VRUs with high accuracy be proposing a novel framework that includes using Deep Transfer Learning, which saves training time and cost, to classify images constructed from Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) that reflect the temporal dynamics and behavior of the signal. Recurrence Plots (RPs) were constructed from low-power smartphone sensors without using GPS data. The resulted RPs were used as inputs for different pre-trained Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifiers including constructing 227×227 images to be used for AlexNet and SqueezeNet; and constructing 224×224 images to be used for VGG16 and VGG19. Results show that the classification accuracy of Convolutional Neural Network Transfer Learning (CNN-TL) reaches 98.70%, 98.62%, 98.71%, and 98.71% for AlexNet, SqueezeNet, VGG16, and VGG19, respectively. The results of the proposed framework outperform other results in the literature (to the best of our knowledge) and show that using CNN-TL is promising for VRUs classification. Because of its relative straightforwardness, ability to be generalized and transferred, and potential high accuracy, we anticipate that this framework might be able to solve various problems related to signal classification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0050.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: light trapping; photovoltaics; solar cells; light-funnel arrays; nanophotonics; photon management; mode excitation
Online: 6 February 2018 (00:48:21 CET)
Silicon light funnels are three-dimensional subwavelength structures in the shape of inverted cones with respect to the incoming illumination. Light funnel arrays can serve as an efficient absorbing layers on account of their light trapping capabilities associated with the presence of high density complex Mie modes. Specifically, light funnel arrays exhibit broadband absorption enhancement of the of the solar spectrum. In the current study, we numerically explore the optical coupling between surface light funnel arrays and underlying substrates. We show that the absorption in LF array-substrate complex is higher than the absorption in LF arrays of the same height (~10% increase). This, we suggest, imply that a LF array serves as an efficient surface element that imparts additional momentum components to the impinging illumination, and hence optically excites the substrate by near-field light concentration, excitation of traveling guided modes in the substrate and mode hybridization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0123.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: limited sensor data; structural health monitoring; strain/stress response reconstruction; empirical mode decomposition
Online: 11 August 2016 (11:06:16 CEST)
Structural health monitoring has been studied by a number of researchers as well as various industries to keep up with the increasing demand for preventive maintenance routines. This work presents a novel method for reconstruct prompt, informed strain/stress responses at the hot spots of the structures based on strain measurements at remote locations. The structural responses measured from usage monitoring system at available locations are decomposed into modal responses using empirical mode decomposition. Transformation equations based on finite element modeling are derived to extrapolate the modal responses from the measured locations to critical locations where direct sensor measurements are not available. Then, two numerical examples (a two-span beam and a 19956-degree of freedom simplified airfoil) are used to demonstrate the overall reconstruction method. Finally, the present work investigates the effectiveness and accuracy of the method through a set of experiments conducted on an aluminium alloy cantilever beam commonly used in air vehicle and spacecraft. The experiments collect the vibration strain signals of the beam via optical fiber sensors. Reconstruction results are compared with theoretical solutions and a detailed error analysis is also provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0059.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: multi-slope sliding-mode control (MSSMC); single-phase inverter; multi-slope function (MS)
Online: 19 July 2016 (04:54:06 CEST)
In this paper, a new approach to the sliding-mode control of single-phase inverters under linear and non-linear loads is introduced. The main idea behind this approach is to utilize a non-linear, flexible and multi-slope function in controller structure. This non-linear function makes the controller possible to control the inverter by a non-linear multi-slope sliding surface. In general, this sliding surface has two parts with different slopes in each part and the flexibility of the sliding surface makes the multi-slope sliding-mode controller (MSSMC) possible to reduce the total harmonic distortion, to improve the tracking accuracy, and to prevent overshoots leading to undesirable transient-states in output voltage which are occurred when the load current sharply rises. In order to improve the tracking accuracy and to reduce the steady-state error, an integral term of the multi-slope function is also added to the sliding surface. The improved performance of the proposed controller is confirmed by simulations and finally, the results of the proposed approach are compared with a conventional SMC and a SRFPI controller.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0019.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: discrete choice modeling; mode choice; travel behavior; city tourism; sustainable tourism; revealed preference data
Online: 1 August 2022 (10:13:39 CEST)
With growing city tourism, there is an increasing need for urban travel demand models to consider traffic generated by visitors. Existing research has concentrated on socio-demographic and journey-related factors to determine what influences the mode choice of tourists. In contrast, revealed preference data, like travel time, is almost never considered. In this article, we present the results of discrete choice modeling of city tourists’ mode choice based on revealed preference data from a survey we conducted in Kassel, Germany. We used multinomial logit models and determined the model parameters using maximum likelihood estimations. Surprisingly, travel time played a smaller role in mode choice than understood from previously established knowledge about everyday mobility. In the final model, travel time was only significant for the alternative walking. Also, most other sociodemographic and journey-related variables showed no significant influence. The final model reproduced the mode choice, but the goodness of fit was lower than expected from other research. We conclude that modeling the travel behavior of tourists is more complex than everyday mobility. An alternative approach that we suggest would be to model trip chains rather than single trips.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Koopman Operator; Dynamic Mode Decomposition(DMD); Johnson-Lindenstrauss Lemma; Random Projection; Data-driven method
Online: 24 September 2021 (09:14:01 CEST)
A data-driven analysis method known as dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) approximates the linear Koopman operator on projected space. In the spirit of Johnson-Lindenstrauss Lemma, we will use random projection to estimate the DMD modes in reduced dimensional space. In practical applications, snapshots are in high dimensional observable space and the DMD operator matrix is massive. Hence, computing DMD with the full spectrum is infeasible, so our main computational goal is estimating the eigenvalue and eigenvectors of the DMD operator in a projected domain. We will generalize the current algorithm to estimate a projected DMD operator. We focus on a powerful and simple random projection algorithm that will reduce the computational and storage cost. While clearly, a random projection simplifies the algorithmic complexity of a detailed optimal projection, as we will show, generally the results can be excellent nonetheless, and quality understood through a well-developed theory of random projections. We will demonstrate that modes can be calculated for a low cost by the projected data with sufficient dimension.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0418.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: herbicide efficacy; glutamine synthetase; reactive oxygen species; enzyme turnover; mode of action; Palmer amaranth
Online: 19 July 2021 (16:10:12 CEST)
Glufosinate, a glutamine synthetase (GS) inhibitor, often provides variable weed control depending on environmental conditions such as light, temperature and humidity at the time of application. Midday applications normally provide improved efficacy compared to applications at dawn or dusk. We investigated the physiological, molecular, and biochemical basis for the time-of-day effect on glufosinate efficacy in Amaranthus palmeri. GS1 and GS2 gene expression and protein abundance were assessed in different parts (young leaves, old leaves, and roots) of plants incubated in the dark compared to those in the light. The turnover of GS total activity was also evaluated overtime following glufosinate treatment at midday compared to dusk application. The results suggest that GS in A. palmeri is less expressed and less abundant in the dark compared to in the light. Midday application of glufosinate under intense light conditions in the hours following application provide full control of A. palmeri plants. Consequently, these plants are unable to recover GS activity by de novo protein synthesis. Full activity of GS is required for complete inhibition by the irreversible inhibitor glufosinate. Therefore, glufosinate applications should always be performed in the middle of the day when sunlight is intense, to prevent weed escapes from the herbicide treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0292.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: sliding mode control; position tracking; reference signal generator; telescope mount; motion control; electrical drive
Online: 20 February 2020 (07:54:14 CET)
Precise and fast position tracking is essential for the correct operation of many industrial robots and CNC machine tools. This subject is also important in the control of the mount of the astronomical telescope, especially for the tracking of artificial satellites. As system parameters can change, a control method that is robust to changes in parameters must be used. Such a method is the sliding control, which, however, ensures the robustness only after reaching the sliding surface. Therefore, a new method was proposed in the paper, which eliminates the phase of reaching the sliding surface. The method consists of using a reference trajectory generator and determining the generalized error in relation to this trajectory. The procedure for designing the control system is presented. Next, the proposed method was verified on the laboratory stand. The described control method provides a robust system operation and can be easily implemented in the control system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0290.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: climatic change; office buildings; overheating; carbon emissions; energy consumption; mixed-mode ventilation; natural ventilation
Online: 13 November 2018 (04:15:59 CET)
The UK Government is committed to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 80% by 2050. Buildings are responsible for 37% of the total GHG emissions in the UK and the need to reduce their emissions has resulted in more stringent building regulations in the recent past. The regulations, energy rating systems and voluntary guidelines — all are primarily aimed at reducing the need for heating and associated energy use by increasing insulation and air-tightness. However, future climates are projected to be warmer than the present day. Internal gains dominated non-domestic buildings will likely overheat, the adaptation to which will require energy-intensive cooling solutions, thus defeating the purpose of heating-focused regulations. This research investigated the effects of warming climate on overheating, and energy use and resulting emissions in representative urban office spaces in London in the present-day and future climates using hourly dynamic thermal simulations. Findings suggest that more airtight and highly—insulated office buildings designed for heating—dominated temperate UK climate will overheat in the 2050s. Heating demand reduces but electricity consumption increases by 121% when hybrid cooling is adopted to ameliorate overheating. Despite the rise, adopting a mixed-mode ventilation strategy was one of the ways of achieving overall energy efficiency while meeting benchmark overheating and carbon emissions target in present and future climatic contradictions. Current heating-focused legislations need to be urgently re-evaluated to account for the effects of climatic variability and overheating risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0107.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: RF MEMS; pressure sensor; MEMS resonators; implantable BioMEMS; flexible electronics; touch mode capacitive sensor
Online: 6 July 2018 (07:42:03 CEST)
This paper reports the novel design of a touch mode capacitive pressure sensor (TMCPS) system with a wireless approach for a full-range continuous monitoring of ventricular pressure. The system consists of two modules: an implantable set and an external reading device. The implantable set, restricted to a 2x2 cm2 area, consists of a TMCPS array connected with a dual-layer coil, for making a reliable resonant circuit for communication with the external device. The capacitive array is modelled considering the small deflection regime for achieving a dynamic and full 5-300 mmHg pressure range. In this design, the two inductive-coupled modules are calculated considering proper electromagnetic alignment, based on two planar coils and considering the following: 13.56 MHz frequency to avoid tissue damage and three types of biological tissue as core (skin, fat and muscle). The system was validated with the Comsol Multiphysics and CoventorWare softwares; showing a 90% power transmission efficiency at a 3.5 cm distance between coils. The implantable module includes aluminum- and polyimide-based devices, which allows ergonomic, robust, reproducible, and technologically feasible integrated sensors. In addition, the module shows a simplified and low cost design approach based on PolyMEMS INAOE® technology, featured by low-temperature processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0002.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: microresonator; whispering gallery mode; long period grating; fiber coupling; distributed sensing; chemical/biological sensing
Online: 2 July 2018 (07:49:08 CEST)
A comprehensive model for designing robust all-in-fiber microresonator-based optical sensing setups is illustrated. The investigated all-in-fiber setups allow light to selectively excite high-Q whispering gallery modes (WGMs) into optical microresonators, thanks to a pair of identical long period gratings (LPGs) written in the same optical fiber. Microspheres and microbubbles are used as microresonators and evanescently side-coupled to a thick fiber taper, with a waist diameter of about 18 µm, in-between the two LPGs. The model is validated by comparing the simulated results with the experimental data. A good agreement between the simulated and experimental results is obtained. As an application example, the sensing of the concentration of an aqueous glycerol solution is demonstrated. The model is general and by exploiting the refractive index and/or absorption characteristics at suitable wavelengths, the sensing of other substances or pollutants can be also predicted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0032.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Francis turbine; crack; dynamic behavior; vibration localization; lumped parameter mode; localization factor; forced response
Online: 2 May 2018 (12:14:30 CEST)
The crack in the blade is the most common type of fatigue damage for Francis turbines. However, the crack sometimes is difficult to be detected in time using the current monitoring system even when the crack is very large. To better monitor the crack, it is imperative to research the effect of a crack on the dynamic behavior of a Francis turbine. In this paper, the dynamic behavior of a Francis turbine runner model with a crack was researched numerically. The intact numerical model was first validated by the experimental data available. Then, a crack was created at the intersection line between one blade and the crown. The change in dynamic behavior with increasing crack length was investigated. Crack-induced vibration localization theory was used to explain the dynamic behavior changes due to the crack. Modal analysis showed that the adopted theory could basically explain the modal behavior change due to the crack. The FFT results of the modal shapes and the localization factors (LF) were used to explain the forced response changes due to the crack. Based on the above analysis, the challenge of crack monitoring was analyzed. This research can also provide some references for more advanced monitoring technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0244.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA); model-based design; automatic generation tool; fault injection simulation
Online: 18 May 2022 (12:40:58 CEST)
In the development of the safety-critical systems, it is important to perform Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) process to identify potential failures. However, traditional FMEA activities tend to be considered difficult and time-consuming tasks. To compensate for the difficulty of the FMEA task, various types of tools are used to increase the quality and the effectiveness of the FMEA reports. This paper explains an Automatic FMEA tool which integrates the Model-based Design (MBD), FMEA, and Simulated Fault Injection techniques in a single environment. The Automatic FMEA tool has the following advantages compared to the existing FMEA analysis tool. First, the Automatic FMEA tool automatically generates FMEA reports compared to the traditional spreadsheet-based FMEA tools. Second, the Automatic FMEA tool analyzes the causality between the failure modes and the failure effects by performing model-based fault injection simulation. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the Automatic FMEA, we used the electronic fuel injection system (EFI) Simulink model. The results of the Automatic FMEA were compared to that of the legacy FMEA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0499.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: seismic isolation; asymmetric building; mode-adaptive bidirectional pushover analysis (MABPA); seismic retrofit; momentary energy input
Online: 29 September 2021 (14:26:15 CEST)
In this article, the main building of the former Uto City Hall, which was severely damaged in the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake, is investigated as a case study for the retrofitting of an irregular Reinforced Concrete building using the base-isolation technique. Its peak response is predicted via mode-adaptive bidirectional pushover analysis (MABPA), which was originally proposed by the authors. In the prediction step of MABPA, the peaks of the first and second modal responses are predicted considering the energy balance during a half cycle of the structural response. The numerical analysis results show that the peak relative displacement can be properly predicted by MABPA. The results also show that the performance of the retrofitted building models is satisfactory for the ground motion considered in this study, including the recorded motions in the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: flexible robot arm; robust-adaptive control, sliding mode variable structure control; actuator dynamics; zero dynamics
Online: 15 September 2021 (10:22:41 CEST)
Modelling errors, robust stabilization/tracking problems under parameter and model uncertainties complicate the control of the flexible underactuated systems. Chattering-free sliding-mode based input-output control law realizes robustness against the structured and unstructured uncertainties in the system dynamics and avoids excitation of unmodeled dynamics. The main purpose is to propose a robust adaptive solution for stabilizing and tracking direct-drive (DD) flexible robot arms under parameter and model uncertainties, as well as external disturbances. A lightweight robot arm subject to external and internal dynamic effects was taken into consideration. The challenges are compensating actuator dynamics with the inverter switching effects and torque ripples, stabilizing the zero dynamics under parameter/model uncertainties and disturbances while precisely track the predefined reference position. The precise control of this kind of system demands an accurate system model and knowledge of all sources that excite unmodeled dynamics. For this purpose, equations of motion for a flexible robot arm were derived and formulated for the large motion via Lagrange’s method. The goals were determined to achieve high-speed, precise position control, and satisfied accuracy by compensating the unwanted torque ripple and friction that degrades performance through an adaptive robust control approach. The actuator dynamics and their effect on the torque output were investigated due to the transmitted torque to the load side. The high-performance goals, precision&robustness issues, and stability concerns were satisfied by using robust-adaptive input-output linearization-based control law combining chattering-free sliding mode control (SMC) while avoiding the excitation of unmodeled dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0631.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Western Cape; Southern Annular Mode; Circulation type; Africa south of the equator; mid-latitude cyclone
Online: 26 May 2021 (11:04:08 CEST)
This study investigates circulation types (CTs) in Africa, south of the equator, that are related to wet and dry conditions in Western Cape, the statistical relationship between the selected CTs and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), and changes in the frequency of occurrence of the CTs related to the SAM under the ssp585 scenario. Obliquely rotated principal component analysis applied to sea level pressure was used to classify CTs in Africa, south of the equator. Three CTs were found to have a high probability to be associated with wet days in Western Cape, and four CTs were equally found to have a high probability to be associated with dry days in Western Cape. Generally, the dry/wet CTs feature the southward/northward track of the mid-latitude cyclone, adjacent to South Africa; anti-cyclonic/cyclonic relative vorticity, and poleward/equatorward track of westerlies, south of South Africa. One of the selected wet CTs is significantly related to variations of the SAM. Years with an above-average SAM index correlate with the below-average frequency of occurrence of the wet CT. The results suggest that through the dynamics of the CT, the SAM might control the rainfall variability of Western Cape. Under the ssp585 scenario, the analyzed climate models indicated a possibility in the decrease of the frequency of occurrence of the aforementioned wet CT associated with cyclonic activity at the mid-latitudes, and an increase in the frequency of occurrence of the CT associated with enhanced SLP in the mid-latitudes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0352.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Wind Farm Control; Axial Induction Control; Dynamic Mode Decomposition; Koopman Operator Theory; Reduced Order Model
Online: 16 October 2020 (14:29:54 CEST)
The high dimensions and governing non linear dynamics in wind farm systems make the design of numerical optimal controllers computationally expensive. A possible pathway to circumvent this challenge lies in finding reduced order models which can accurately embed the existing non linearities. The work here presented applies the ideas motivated by non linear dynamical systems theory - the Koopman Operator - to an innovative algorithm in the context of wind farm systems - Input Output Dynamic Mode Decomposition - to improve on the ability to model the aerodynamic interaction between wind turbines in a wind farm and uncover insights into the existing dynamics. It is shown that a reduced order linear state space model can reproduce the downstream turbine generator power dynamics and reconstruct the upstream turbine wake. It is further shown that the fit can be improved by judiciously choosing the Koopman observables used in the IODMD algorithm without jeopardizing the models ability to rebuild the turbine wake. The extensions to the IODMD algorithm provide an important step towards the design of linear reduced order models which can accurately reproduce the dynamics in a wind farm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0249.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: channel waveguide; proton exchange; fundamental mode; pyroelectric effect; mobile charge; fiber optic gyroscope; phase modulator
Online: 21 September 2019 (09:27:27 CEST)
It is shown that the termination of the channeling of the fundamental radiation mode in the waveguide can be observed upon heating of an optical integrated circuit based on proton exchange channel waveguides formed in a lithium niobate single crystal. This process is reversible, but restoration of waveguide performance takes tens of minutes. The effect of the waveguide disappearance is observed upon rapid heating (5 °C/min) from a low temperature (minus 40 °C). This effect can lead to a temporary failure of navigation systems using fiber optic gyroscopes with modulators based on a lithium niobate crystal