REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0386.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: herbicide resistance; crop diversification; intercropping; crop rotation; cover crops; sustainable; weeds; climate change
Online: 14 April 2021 (14:23:08 CEST)
Weeds are among the major constraints to any crop production system, reducing productivity and profitability. Herbicides are among the most effective methods to control weeds, and reliance on herbicides for weed control has increased significantly with the advent of herbicide-resistant crops. Unfortunately, over-reliance on herbicides leads to environmental-health issues and herbicide-resistant weeds, causing human-health and ecological concerns. Crop diversification can help manage weeds sustainably in major crop production systems. It acts as an organizing principle under which technological innovations and ecological insights can be combined to manage weeds sustainably. Diversified cropping can be defined as the conscious inclusion of functional biodiversity at temporal and/or spatial levels to improve the productivity and stability of ecosystem services. Crop diversification helps to reduce weed density by negatively impacting weed seed germination and weed growth. Additionally, diversified farming systems are more resilient to climate change than monoculture systems and provide better crop yield. However, there are a few challenges to adopting a diversified cropping system, which ranges from technology innovations, government policies, farm-level decisions, climate change, and market conditions. In this review, we discuss how crop diversification supports sustainable weed management, the challenges associated with it, and the future of weed management with respect to the diversification concept.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0237.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: crop diversification; resilience; water management; water efficiency
Online: 15 July 2022 (14:54:43 CEST)
The specialisation and intensification in agriculture have increased the productivity but have also led to the spread of monocultural systems, simplifying production and reducing genetic diversity. The purpose of this study was to propose crop diversification as a tool to increase biodiversity and achieve sustainable and resilient intensive agriculture, particularly in areas with water scarcity. In this paper, a combined Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) was applied to evaluate the environmental and economic sustainability of a differentiated system of cultivation (pomegranate, almond and olive), according to modern intensive and superintensive cropping systems. Based upon the results obtained, it is deduced that pomegranate cultivation generated the highest environmental load, followed by almond and olive. From the financial analysis, it emerged that almond is the most profitable, followed by pomegranate and olive.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0213.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: crop diversification; C3 xerophtyes; food security; underutilized crops; drought adaptation strategies
Online: 12 January 2021 (10:19:08 CET)
Citron watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) is an underexploited and under-researched crop species with potential to contribute to crop diversification in sub-Saharan Africa and beyond. The species is commonly cultivated in the drier parts of Southern Africa, mainly by smallholder farmers who maintain a wide range of landraces. Understanding the molecular and morpho-physiological basis for drought adaptation of Citron watermelon in these dry environments can aid in screening local germplasm, identification of suitable traits for crop improvement and improving food system resilience among smallholder farmers by adding to crop diversification. This paper reviews literature on drought adaptation of C. lanatus spp. (C3 xerophytes), using the systematic review approach. The review discusses; (i) the potential role of citron watermelon in adding to crop diversification, (ii) alternative food uses and potential by-products that can be processed from citron watermelon and (iii) the role of Sub-Saharan farmers as key actors in conserving citron watermelon germplasm and biodiversity. Finally, the review provides a summary of significant findings and identifies critical knowledge gaps for further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0091.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: crop coefficient; evapotranspiration; salinity; wheat crop
Online: 17 November 2016 (10:55:59 CET)
A field experiment was conducted for determination of crop coefficient (KC) and water stress coefficient (Ks) for wheat crop under different salinity levels, during 2015-16. Complete randomized block design of five treatments were considered, i.e., 0.51 dS/m (fresh water) as a control treatment and other four saline water treatments (4, 6, 8 and 10 dS/m), for S1, S2, S3 and S4 with three replications. The results revealed that the water consumed by plants during the different crop growth stages follows the order of FW>S1>S2>S3>S4 salinity levels. According to the obtained results, the calculated values of crop coefficients significantly differed from those suggested by FAO No.56 for the crops. The Ks values clearly differ from one stage to another because the salt stress causes both osmotic stress, due to a decrease in the soil water potential, and ionic stress which the average values of water stress coefficient (Ks) follows this order; FW(1.0)=S1(1.0)>S2(1.0)>S3(0.93)>S4(0.82). Overall, it was found the differences are attributed primarily to specific cultivar, the changes in local climatic conditions and seasonal differences in crop growth patterns. Thus, further studies are essential to determine the crop coefficient values under different variables, to make the best management practice (BMP) in agriculture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0616.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Crop Disease Classification; Crop Disease Dataset; Image Augmentation
Online: 8 June 2023 (09:47:54 CEST)
Crop disease classification has always been a critical and persistent problem in the field of agricultural and forestry sciences, where often we do not have access to a sufficient number of samples to know the distribution of real-world samples. How to make full use of the existing data is the starting point of our thinking. To address this problem, this paper proposes a supervised image augmentation method Negative Contrast, which uses the contrast images of existing disease samples after removing disease areas as negative samples for image augmentation when samples are relatively scarce. Numerous experiments have shown that several classical models using this augmentation method have improved in disease classification of four crops, rice, wheat, corn, and soybean, with a maximum accuracy improvement of 30.8%. In addition, the comparative analysis of attentional heat map shows that the model using Negative Contrast is more accurate and intense on the area of interest of diseases, and thus reflects better generalization ability in real-world disease classification. Our dataset and codes can be found in https://www.kaggle.com/datasets/w970704112/corn-wheat-rice-soybean and https://github.com/hiter0/contrastaug .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0162.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: crop residues; water regime; crop rotation; temperate region
Online: 17 January 2018 (13:00:39 CET)
This study was carried out at Kita-mura near Bibai located in central Hokkaido, Japan, with the intention of investigating the effects of different agronomical managements on CH4 emissions from paddy fields on mineral soil over peat under farmers’ actual management conditions in the snowy temperate region. Four fields were studied, including two fields with twice drainage (D1-M and D2-M) and also a single-drainage field (D3-S) under single-cropping yr-1 and a paddy-fallow-paddy crop rotation as their systems. The other field was under single cropping yr-1 with continuous flooding (CF-R) in the pattern of soybean (upland crop)-fallow-paddy. The mineral-soil thickness of these soil-dressed peatland fields varied from 20 to 47 cm. The amount of crop residues leftover in the fields ranged from 277 to 751 g dry matter m−2. Total CH4 emissions ranged from 25.3 to 116 g CH4-C m−2 per growing season. There was a significant relationship between crop-residue carbon (C) and total CH4 emissions during the rice-growing season. This study, therefore, CH4 fluxes from paddy soils in that there was a strong interaction between readily available C source for methanogens and anaerobic conditions created by water management. Despite the differences in water regime and soil type, the average values of straw’s efficiency on CH4 production in this study were significantly higher than those of southern Japan and statistically identical with central Hokkaido. Our results suggest that the environmental conditions of central Hokkaido in association with crop-residue management had a significant influence on CH4 emission from paddy fields on mineral soil over peat. Rotation soybean (upland)-to-paddy followed by drainage twice practices also largely reduces CH4 emission. However, mineral-soil dressing on peat could have a significant impact to suppress CH4 emission from beneath the peat reservoir.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2157.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: algae biostimulants; sustainable agriculture; microalgae; crop nutrition; biofertiliser; crop protection products
Online: 29 June 2023 (13:47:40 CEST)
In order to ensure food security worldwide in the face of current climatic changes, a higher quality and quantity of crops is necessary to sustain the growing human population. By developing a sustainable circular economy and biorefinery approaches, we can move from a petroleum-based to a bio-based economy. Plant biostimulants have long been considered an important source of plant growth stimulants in agronomy and agro-industries with both macroalgae (seaweeds) and microalgae (microalgae). There has been extensive exploration of macroalgae biostimulants. A lack of research and high production costs have constrained the commercial implementation of microalgal biostimulants, despite their positive impact on crop growth, development and yields. The current knowledge on potential biostimulatory compounds, key sources and their quantitative information from algae is summarized in the present review. Our goal is to provide a brief overview of the potential for microalgal biostimulants to improve crop production and quality. A number of key aspects are discussed, including the biostimulant effects caused by microalgae extracts, as well as the feasibility and potential for cocultures and coapplication with other biostimulants and biofertilizers. This article also discusses the current knowledge, recent developments and achievements in extraction techniques, types of applications, timings of applications. Ultimately, this review highlights the potential for microalgal biostimulants for sustainable agricultural practices, the algal biochemical components contributing to these traits, and finally bottlenecks and involved prospects in commercializing microalgal biostimulants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0809.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Camelina sativa; oilseed crop; cover crop; plant breeding; synthetic population; agrobiodiversity
Online: 11 May 2023 (06:01:42 CEST)
In recent years, the interest in increasingly sustainable agriculture has also turned attention towards new crops which could enter the food chain as new protein and oil sources or that can be used as new cover crops. In this scenario, Camelina sativa is a perfect crop to study. Camelina is an annual herbaceous plant belonging to the Brassicaceae which is interesting for its oil content, since the seeds contain about 40% of oils, with a high level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (30-40% alpha linolenic acid, 15-25 % linoleic acid, 15% oleic acid and about 15% eicosenoic acid). It is a hexaploid species (2n = 40, genome size ~782 Mb) characterized by rapid growth, short life cycle (85-100 days for spring varieties, 190-210 for autumn varieties) and low input cultivation needs. All these traits make it suitable for use in marginal areas. However, its use in feed and food is limited by the presence of glucosinolates (GLS). GLS are sulfur molecules involved in plant defense. In recent years, they have been studied not only as anti-nutritionals, but also for their anti-carcinogenic effects against chronic inflammatory and heart diseases and for their use as natural pesticides. Given the recent interest in camelina and its highly nutritious oil, eight pure lines and a synthetic population were compared in two different growing periods, spring and winter. In this work, the genetic materials were characterized for different phenotypic traits, yields and yield components, bromatological and glucosinolate content. The results confirmed that in North Italy camelina has higher yields if cultivated in the autumn-winter period (about 2 t/ha vs 0.6 t/ha), furthermore, a negative correlation was found between spring and winter yields, indicating that varieties that produce more in winter cultivation produce less in spring cultivation. Moreover, to our knowledge, it is the first work in which a synthetic population of Camelina sativa has been tested and proved to be a valid solution for use in various environments both for its adaptability and for the low content of glucosinolates (about 17 mmol/ kg).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0152.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: crop modelling; DSSAT; climate variability; survey; maize; crop guidelines/cropping calendar
Online: 10 September 2018 (06:13:47 CEST)
Rain-fed maize production has significantly declined in Zimbabwe especially in semi-arid and arid areas causing food insecurity. Erratic rainfall received associated with mid-season dry spells largely contribute to low and variable maize yields. This study involved a survey of current farmers’ cropping practices, analyses of climatic data (daily rainfall and daily minimum and maximum temperature) of Hwedza station and simulation of maize yield response to climate change using DSSAT CERES crop growth simulation model. The climatic and maize yield data was analysed using mean correlation and regression analyses to establish relationships between rainfall characteristics and maize yield in the study area. Survey results showed that maize was the staple food grown by 100% of the farming households while 8.7% also grew sorghum. The survey concludes that 56.2% of the farmers grew short season varieties, 40.2% medium season varieties and 3.6% long season varieties. The result of the correlation analysis of climatic data and maize yield showed that number of rain days had strong positive relationship (r = 0.7) with maize yield. Non-significant yield differences (p > 0.05) between maize cultivar and planting date criteria were obtained. Highest yields were obtained under the combination of medium season maize cultivar and the DEPTH criterion in all simulations. The range of simulated district average yields of 0.4 t/ha to 1.8 t/ha formed the basis for the development of an operational decision support tool (cropping calendar).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0095.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: : Crop Water Requirements; Irrigation Requirements; crop coefficient; web-GIS; Earth Observation; evapotranspiration
Online: 17 November 2016 (15:41:52 CET)
The experiences gathered during the past 30 years support the operational use of irrigation scheduling based on frequent multi-spectral image data. Currently, the operational use of dense time series of multispectral imagery at high spatial resolution makes monitoring of crop biophysical parameters feasible, capturing crop water use across the growing season, with suitable temporal and spatial resolutions. These achievements, and the availability of accurate forecasting of meteorological data, allow for precise predictions of crop water requirements with unprecedented spatial resolution. This information is greatly appreciated by the end users, i.e. professional farmers or decision-makers, and can be provided in an easy-to-use manner and in near-real-time by using the improvements achieved in web-GIS methodologies. This paper reviews the most operational and explored methods based on optical remote sensing for the assessment of crop water requirements, identifying strengths and weaknesses and proposing alternatives to advance towards full operational application of this methodology. In addition, we provide a general overview of the tools which facilitates co-creation and collaboration with stakeholders, paying special attention to these approaches based on web-GIS tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0487.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: woody crop classification; Sentinel-2; random forest; crop phenology; olive; orchard; vineyards; Mediterranean
Online: 28 March 2023 (11:19:29 CEST)
The characteristics of the Sentinel-2 mission with a decametric resolution and frequent acquisitions allow to improve the identification of crops. The majority of the studies on crop classification using RS were targeted at herbaceous and gramineous crop classes while fewer results were obtained on woody crops which present a strong variability in management practices that make their identification difficult. Thus, this study aimed to propose a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective analytical approach for the delineation of fruit orchards (OC), vineyards (VY), and olive groves (OL) in the Mediterranean (Southern France) considering two locations. A classification based on phenology metrics (PM) de-rived from temporal Sentinel-2 time series was developed to perform the classification. The PM were computed by fitting a double logistic model on temporal profiles of vegeta-tion indices to delineate OC, VY, and a DC class gathering all remaining surfaces. The generated PM were introduced in a random forest (RF) algorithm to identify woody crops across the two sites. The method was tested on different vegetation indices, the best results being obtained with the leaf area index (LAI). To delineate OL in the DC class, the tem-poral features of the green chlorophyll vegetation index (GCVI) were found to be the most appropriated with a typical drop of the signal during the mid-season (DOY 150-250). As a final result, we obtained an overall accuracy ranging from 89-96% and Kappa of 0.86-0.95 by considering each study site and year (2016-2021), separately. This accuracy is much better than applying the RF algorithm on the LAI times series, which led to a Kappa rang-ing between 0.3 and 0.52 and demonstrates the interest of using phenological traits rather than the raw time series of the RS data. The method can be well reproduced from one year to another. Moreover, it is possible to apply the classification model of a given year to an-other, keeping good accuracy. This is an interesting feature to reduce the burden of col-lecting ground truth information. On the contrary, the use of a classification model cali-brated in one site and applied to another led to a strong degradation of the classification accuracy. Woody crop phenology is dependent on site climatic conditions as well as the cultivar and management practices that can differ from one site to another.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0119.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Agroecology; Bio-economic farm models; Crop Syst; Aqua Crop; Organic farming; sustainable development
Online: 7 July 2022 (09:12:26 CEST)
Nations of the world have seen unprecedented changes in climate variables in recent decades. But it is unclear to what extent climate change has impacted and will impact food systems in some developing regions, and how policymakers can frame an approach to encouraging adaptation and advancing climate-smart agriculture. Many studies attempting to link agroecology to climate change adaptation do so without understanding the potential of Agroecology not only to mitigate climate change – which is the weak response – but to reverse its impact and ‘climate proof’ our food systems. By modeling the near and far future impacts of climate change on crop production, we showed how climate will impact crop production under two crop production systems (agroecology and non-agroecology production systems). The overarching aim is to derive sustainable development strategies and lessons for policymakers and climate researchers - essential components of environment and Agricultural development. Using case studies from Nigeria, we observed that transitioning to agroecology, even at the farm level also transforms farm designs, thereby affecting their overall food and nutrition status. The result showed that the use of agroecology management practices not only reduces the impact of climate change in the near future but will also lead to increased crop yield in the future. The finding suggests that to feed the over 400 million projected population of Nigeria by 2050, the use of agroecological practices will be a better alternative to the conventional farming methods. To advance the use of agroecological farming methods, governments at every level in Nigeria need to mainstream organic agriculture in national government policies. This is important as it will not only address climate change impacts but also hunger and poverty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0361.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Agro-economic crop water productivity; Hydro-economic modeling; CSPSO-MODSIM; Economic benefits; Crop pattern planning; Crop water Irrigation depth; Climate change; Iran.
Online: 5 November 2018 (11:12:25 CET)
For water-stressed regions like Iran improving the effectiveness and productivity of agricultural water-use is of utmost importance due to climate change and unsustainable demands. Therefore, a hydro-economic model has been developed here for the Zarrine River Basin with the central concept of that demands are value-sensitive functions, where quantities of water-uses at different locations and times have a changeable economic benefits. To do this, the potential crop yields and the surface and groundwater resources, especially Boukan Dam inflow are simulated using the hydrologic model, SWAT, based on predicted climatic scenarios i.e. quantile mapping-downscaled projections. Then, to allocate the agricultural water based on the agro- economic crop water productivity (AEWP) of crops, a basin-wide water management tool, MODSIM, is customized. Next, a simulation- optimization model has been developed using a coupled CSPSO-MODSIM, to optimize the total AEWP, considering climatic impact and crop pattern scenarios, for 2020-2038, 2050-2068 and 2080-2098 periods. Finally, the optimum crop pattern and crop water irrigation depths are presented for different RCPs and periods. The results indicated that this approach will improve considerably the AEWPs and decrease the agricultural water-use up to 40%. Thus, this integrated model is able to support water authorities and other stakeholder in a water-scarce basin, as is the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0109.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Agroecology; Crop modeling; Crop production; Decision support system; Ecological management; On-farm experimentation; Optimization
Online: 7 December 2022 (02:14:42 CET)
Precision agriculture and open-source data repositories provide a plethora of field-specific ecological data about agroecosystems, but few mechanisms have been developed to turn that information into management recommendations for crop production. The On-Farm Precision Experiments (OFPE) framework is an agroecological model-based methodology to improve crop manager’s abilities to make field-scale agronomic input decisions. This work evaluates the use of field-specific experiments that employ open-source data and the data emanating from precision agriculture technologies to gain local knowledge of the spatial and temporal variability in agroeconomic performance at the sub-field scale. Quantification of the temporal variability in crop response to inputs (e.g., crop seeding rates, crop rotations, fertilizers, other soil amendments, pesticides, etc.) allows for estimation of the probability that a future management scenario will outcompete another, in terms of crop yield, crop quality, farmer net return, or environmental quality. The challenge is to integrate OFPE into applied management with minimal disruption of stakeholder practices while drawing on historic knowledge about the field and economic constraints. OFPE is the basis of a decision support system that includes a six-step cyclical process that harnesses precision agriculture technology to apply experiments and gather field-specific data, incorporates modern data management and analytical approaches, and generates management recommendations as probabilities of outcomes. The OFPE framework allows field managers to assess the tradeoffs in agronomic input management between the maximization of crop production, quality and profits from production while considering environmental effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0561.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: water footprint, crop water usage, oil palm (Eleasis guenensis), crop ages, soil type, environmental sustainability
Online: 28 September 2018 (10:21:52 CEST)
Various environmental challenges, related to oil palm commodity has became a major environmental challenge to oil palm production. The aim and objective of this study is to analyze the actual water footprint of oil palm based on root water uptake under varying crop age and soil type. The research was conducted in Pundu Village, Central Kalimantan. The methodology adopted in carrying out this study consists of various stages which includes observing soil moisture, rainfall, and water table, ETo, root water uptake and oil palm water footprint. The highest rate of water consumption was the 13 years oil palm on spodosol soil type with an average daily rate of 3.73 mm/day. The lowest evapotranspiration was represented by the 7th year oil palm on spodosol with an average rate of 3.07 mm/day. The total water footprint value obtained was between 0.56 – 1.14 m3/kg for a variety of plants with various age and soil types. It can be deduced that the water footprint value of oil palm vary for different crop age and soil types on temporal scale. The study also presented that the source of green water from the first root zone of oil palm deliver the highest contribution for oil palm root water uptake.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1926.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Sustainability; plant production; fungus; crop production
Online: 26 May 2023 (10:56:35 CEST)
Purpureocillium lilacinum PL11 (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus) is a ubiquitous fungus found in several habitats, mainly in the soil, and belongs to the Ophiocordycipitaceae family. This fungus was shown to have potential applications in agriculture as a biocontrol agent and biofertilizer. P. lilacinum can inhibit plant‒pathogenic fungi and nematodes, including root-knot and potato cyst nematodes. Additionally, P. lilacinum produces siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), enhancing plant development and increasing soil nutrient availability. P. lilacinum has been extensively studied in various commodities, including pineapple, maize, soybean, and legume. Most studies have evaluated P. lilacinum as a biocontrol agent, especially for nematode control. Other studies have evaluated the production of secondary metabolites and bioremediation, and few studies have used this fungus as a plant growth promoter. This review addressed important aspects of using this fungus. P. lilacinum is a promising fungus that can be used for agricultural production, reducing environmental impact, and thus collaborating for a sustainable agriculture production system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0357.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: crop residues, non-puddled, strip tillage, yield
Online: 4 December 2020 (11:09:42 CET)
On-farm research was conducted at Gouripur sub-district under Mymensingh district of Bangladesh during the boro (mid November-June) season in 2013-14 and 2014-15 to evaluate the performance of non-puddled rice cultivation with and without crop residue retention. The rice var. BRRI dhan28 was transplanted by two tillage practices viz., puddled conventional tillage (CT) and non-puddled strip tillage (ST) and at two levels of mustard residues, i.e., no residue (R0) and 50% residue (R50). The experiment was designed in a randomized complete block design with four replications. There were no significant yield differences between tillage practices and residue levels in 2013-14. But in the following year, ST yielded 9% more grain compared to CT leading to 22% higher BCR. Retention of 50% residue increased yield by 3% compared to no-residue, which contributed to 10% higher benefit-cost ratio (BCR). The ST combined with 50% residue retention yielded the highest grain yield (5.81 t ha-1) which contributed to produce the highest BCR (1.06).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1196.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: CRISPR/Cas technology; Crop; Germplasm; Breeding technology
Online: 18 July 2023 (09:27:20 CEST)
Crop breeding is an important global strategy to meet sustainable food demand. CRISPR-Cas is a most promising gene-editing technology for rapid and precise generation of novel germplasm, and leads to revolutionary crop breeding innovation. In this review, we summarize recent advance of CRISPR/Cas technology in gene function analyses and generation of new germplasms with increased yield, improved product quality, and enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. We highlight their applications and breakthroughs in agriculture including crop de novo domestication, decoupling the gene pleiotropy tradeoff, crop hybrid seed conventional production, hybrid rice asexual reproduction, and double haploid breeding. Moreover, the challenges and development of CRISPR/Cas technology in crops are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0345.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Fabaceae; bioinformatics; molecular markers; neglected crop; genomics
Online: 19 January 2023 (03:57:25 CET)
Lupinus mutabilis Sweet (Fabaceae), “tarwi” or “chocho”, is an important grain legume in the Andean region. In Peru, studies on tarwi have been mainly focused on morphological features, however, the have not been molecularly characterized. Currently, it is possible to explore genetic parameters of plants with reliable and modern methods like genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). We here for the first time used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers to infer the genetic diversity and population structure of 89 accessions of tarwi from nine Andean regions of Peru. A total of 5922 SNPs distributed along all chromosomes of tarwi were identified. STRUCTURE analysis revealed that this crop is grouped into two clusters. A dendrogram was generated using the UPGMA clustering algorithm and, similar to the principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), it showed two groups that correspond to the geographic origin of the tarwi samples. AMOVA showed a reduced variation between clusters (7.59 %) and indicated that variability within populations is 92.41 %. Population divergence (Fst) between clusters 1 and 2 revealed low genetic difference (0.019). We also detected a negative Fis for both populations, demonstrating that, similar to other Lupinus species, tarwi also depends on cross-pollination. SNPs markers were powerful and effective for the genotyping process in this germplasm. We hope that this information is the beginning of the path towards a modern genetic improvement and conservation strategies of this important Andean legume.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0030.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Crop, CRISPR/Cas9; Resistance; RNA interference; Stress
Online: 1 July 2021 (14:13:20 CEST)
With the rapid population growth, there is an urgent need for innovative crop improvement approaches to meet the increasing demand for food. Classical crop improvement approaches involve, however, a backbreaking process that cannot equipoise with increasing crop demand. RNA based approaches i.e. RNAi-mediated gene regulation and site-specific nuclease based CRISPR/Cas9 system for gene editing has made advances in the efficient targeted modification in many crops for the higher yield and resistance to diseases and different stresses. In functional genomics, RNA interference (RNAi) is a propitious gene regulatory approach that plays a significant role in crop improvement by permitting down-regulation of gene expression by small molecules of interfering RNA without affecting the expression of other genes. Gene editing technologies viz. clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas) have appeared prominently as a powerful tool for precise targeted modification of nearly all crops genome sequence to generate variation and accelerate breeding efforts. In this regard, the review highlights the diverse roles and applications of RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9 system as powerful technologies to improve agronomically important plants to enhance crop yields and increase tolerance to environmental stress (biotic or abiotic). Ultimately, these technologies can prove to be important in view of global food security and sustainable agriculture.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0128.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Chia; Salvia hispanica; nutraceutical; pre-Columbian crop
Online: 7 May 2021 (09:10:35 CEST)
Among the plant resources in pre-Columbian Mexico and Central America, the Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is unique in being the only member of the Lamiaceae cultivated for the mericarps. Recently the crop has gained considerable attention due to its high of content omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, antioxidants, fibre and protein classifying it as a nutraceutical.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0444.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: blueberry; crop modeling; plant nutrition; machine learning
Online: 19 September 2020 (03:27:32 CEST)
Nutrient management of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) depends on several yield-limiting features. Machine learning models can process such yield-impacting variables to predict berry yield. We investigated the effects of local variables on yields and nutrient management of lowbush blueberry. We collected 1504 observations from N-P-K fertilizer trials conducted in Quebec, Canada. Meteorological indices at various phenological stages showed the greatest impact on yield. High mean temperature at flower bud opening and after fruit maturation, and total precipitation at flowering showed positive effects. Low mean temperature and low total precipitation before bud opening, at flowering, and by fruit maturity, as well as number of freezing days (< -5ºC) before flower bud opening, showed negative effects. Soil fertility variables, leaf nutrient compositions and N-P-K fertilization showed smaller effects. Gaussian processes predicted berry yields from historical weather data, soil analysis, fertilizer dosage, and leaf nutrients with a root-mean-square-error of 1447 kg ha-1 on the testing data set. An in-house Markov chain algorithm optimized yields modelled with Gaussian processes from leaf nutrient composition, soil test value, and fertilizer dosage conditioned to specified historical weather features. We propose to use conditioned machine learning models to manage nutrients of lowbush blueberry at local scale.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0301.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: glyphosate; herbicide degradation; crop health; nutrient availability
Online: 26 September 2019 (12:07:03 CEST)
Glyphosate-based herbicide products are the most widely used broad-spectrum herbicides in the world for post-emergent weed control. There are ever-increasing concerns that glyphosate, if not used judiciously, may cause adverse non-target impacts in agroecosystems. The purpose of this brief review is to present and discuss the state of knowledge with respect to its persistence in the environment, possible effects on crop health, and impacts on crop nutrition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0041.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Crop rotation; Fertilization; Maize; Microbial community structure
Online: 2 November 2018 (09:37:31 CET)
Examining the soil microbiome structure has a great significance in exploring the mechanism behind plant growth changes due to maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max Merr.) crop rotation. This study explored the effects of soil microbial community structure after soybean and maize crop rotation by designing nine treatments combining three crop rotations (continuous cropping maize or soybean; and maize after soybean) with three fertility treatments (organic compound fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, or without fertilizer). Soil was sampled to 30 cm depth the second year at approximately the middle of the growing season, and was analyzed for physical, chemical, and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles. Bacteria was found to be the predominant component of soil microorganisms, which mainly contain the PLFAs i15:0, 16:1 ω 7c, 16:0, 10Me16:0, and 18:1 ω 7c. The concentration of soil gram-negative bacteria from the soybean and maize rotation was less than in soybean continuous cropping when organic fertilizer was applied to both. Crop rotation reduced the percentage of fungi in the soil, among which the effect of organic compound fertilizer application was significantly reduced 24%. The combined crop rotation with organic fertilizer can reduce maximum the percentage of fungi/bacteria. In addition, the content of soil aggregate and organic matter had great influence on gram-positive bacteria and actinomyces, and soil pH had a greater impact on other fungi.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0062.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: agricultural productivity; agrometeorology; climate change; crop yield
Online: 12 December 2016 (09:59:28 CET)
In Bangladesh, climate change is a major concern because of its geophysical location and climate dependent agriculture. As sessile organisms, crops plants have to face difficulties often in this environmentally vulnerable country. Therefore, this study examines the seasonal trend of two climatic parameters viz. temperature (maximum and minimum) and rainfall over a period of 1983 to 2013. Besides, this study provides insight into the relationship between climatic parameters and crop yield of two major crops viz. rice and wheat during 1997-2013. To assess the relationship of climatic parameters with time and yield using Pearson correlation analysis, time series data used at an aggregate level. SPSS software utilized for this analysis. The cropping seasons such as rice growing seasons Aus (summer rice), Aman (autumn rice) and Boro (winter rice) exhibited a significant increase in maximum and minimum temperature. Rainfall found to have a decreasing trend for all the seasons. This study also revealed that the climatic parameters had significant effects on rice yield, but these results varied among three rice crops. Maximum temperature had positive effects on all rice yields, especially on Aus and Aman. Minimum temperature had a negative effect on Aman rice yield but a positive effect on Aus rice yield. Wheat yield negatively associated with temperature. Rainfall exhibited negative relation with both rice and wheat yield.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0143.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: satellite data; machine learning; data calibration; thermal time; growing degree days; Extreme Gradient Boosting; crop yield; crop monitoring
Online: 8 December 2021 (15:42:11 CET)
Timely crop yield forecasts at national level are substantial to support food policies, to assess agricultural production and to subsidize regions affected by food shortage. This study presents an operational crop yield forecasting system for Poland that employs freely available satellite and agro-meteorological products provided by the Copernicus programme. The crop yield predictors consist of: (1) vegetation condition indicators provided daily by Sentinel-3 OLCI (optical) and SLSTR (thermal) imagery, (2) a backward extension of Sentinel-3 data (before 2018) derived from cross-calibrated MODIS data, (3) air temperature, total precipitation, surface radiation, and soil moisture derived from ERA-5 climate reanalysis generated by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. The crop yield forecasting algorithm is based on thermal time (growing degree days derived from ERA-5 data) to better follow the crop development stage. The recursive feature elimination is used to derive an optimal set of predictors for each administrative unit, which are ultimately employed by the Extreme Gradient Boosting regressor to forecast yields using official yield statistics as a reference. According to intensive leave-one-year-out cross validation for 2000–2019 period, the relative RMSE for NUTS-2 units are: 8% for winter wheat, and 13% for winter rapeseed and maize. Respectively, for the LAU units it equals 14% for winter wheat, 19% for winter rapeseed, and 27% for maize. The system is designed to be easily applicable in other regions and to be easily adaptable to cloud computing environments (such as DIAS or Amazon AWS), where data sets from the Copernicus programme are directly accessible.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1625.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Microbial biofertilizers; microbial symbioses; plant interactions; crop resistance
Online: 25 July 2023 (08:58:55 CEST)
To identify soil microbial communities, it is essential to understand their phenotypic and genetic characteristics. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are bacteria capable of promoting plant growth. In addition, rhizobacteria also serve as biological control agents. In addition to fixing atmospheric nitrogen, solubilising insoluble phosphate and secreting hormones such as indoloacetic acid, kinetics and gibberellins, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria help plants grow directly. Furthermore, they facilitate plant growth indirectly by inducing systemic resistance, siderophores, antibiotics, lytic enzymes, hydrogen cyanide production and stress regulation. This review examines in detail the direct and indirect mechanisms of PGPR action and their interaction in plant growth and resistance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1653.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Climate; livelihood; crop production; collective action; public good
Online: 23 June 2023 (10:18:59 CEST)
Climate change is a large and challenging collective action problem facing the world today. This seminar review impacts of climate change on r yield of major cereal crops. Literatures have indicated that climate change would likely have positive impact in the highland agro-ecology in the short run. However, in the long run climate change will have negative impact in all agro-ecology. Negative impacts will be high in low land agro-ecology. Failure to prepare for climate variability can seriously affect the livelihood of smallholder farmers. Ethiopia by enacting Climate-Resilient Green Economy strategy and National Adaptation Plan aims to minimize the impacts of CC. Despite the existing adaptation and mitigation strategies negative impacts of climate change on agriculture especially on cereal crop production is continued. Thus, both private and public investment on adaptation strategies should be expanded more. Studies regarding the impacts of climate change on labour productivity, labour market, its distributional (which section society mostly by climate change?) and why the existing adaptation strategies are not successful? are not well studied, as most literature are focused on impact of climate change on yield, its adaptation and mitigation strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1663.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Ata; crop management; farming practices; Matigsalog; sustainable agriculture
Online: 23 May 2023 (14:33:00 CEST)
The Philippines is an archipelagic country composed of different indigenous cultural communities (ICCs) spread across various islands. Many of these Indigenous Peoples (IP) are marginalized and do not have access to common resources enjoyed in the lowland areas. An initial assessment focusing on the evaluation of their available livelihood and resources was conducted, in order to find common solutions to existing problems. The assessment took place at the office of the tribal council of Matigsalog in barangay Datu Salumay, Marilog District, Davao City from April 11 to 13, 2023. There were about 42 participants in total for Matigsalog tribes (26 men and 16 women) who attended the meeting and there were 15 participants from the Ata tribe (7 men and 8 women). Validation of the study separately took place through a brief presentation of the results before 15 members of the tribe and a hiking visit in their farmlands. The study determined the existing livelihoods in the two areas which are mainly agricultural, farming of crops (rice, corn, cassava, sweet potato) and fruit trees (coconut, banana, durian, jackfruit, pomelo) and the resources as well as the community’s knowledge, systems, and practices with regards to agricultural crops including climate change. Their sustainable farming practices include intercropping, seed-saving, and exchange practices, preserving these crop varieties and ensuring their availability for future planting seasons, no usage of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. To conclude, the tribe’s aspirations and resulting recommendations are summarized, to facilitate more directed and effective governmental assistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0129.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: crop rotation; metabarcoding; soil-borne oomycetes; soybean; tillage
Online: 3 May 2023 (10:17:04 CEST)
Soil-borne oomycetes include devastating plant pathogens that cause substantial losses in the agricultural sector. To better manage this important group of pathogens, it is critical to understand how they respond to common agricultural practices, such as tillage and crop rotation. Here, a long-term field experiment was established using a split-plot design with tillage as the main plot factor (conventional tillage [CT] vs. no till [NT], 2 levels) and rotation as the subplot factor (monocultures of soybean, corn, or wheat, and corn-soybean-wheat rotation, 4 levels). Post-harvest soil oomycete communities were characterized over three consecutive years (2016-2018) by metabarcoding the Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) region. The community contained 292 Amplicon Sequence Variants (ASVs) and was dominated by Globisporangium spp. (85.1% in abundance, 203 ASV) and Pythium spp. (10.4%, 51 ASV). NT decreased diversity and community compositional structure heterogeneity, while crop rotation only affected the community structure under CT. The interaction effects of tillage and rotation on most oomycetes species accentuated the complexity of managing these pathogens. Soil and crop health represented by soybean seedling vitality was lowest in soils under CT cultivating soybean or corn, while grain yield of the three crops responded differently to tillage and crop rotation regimes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0126.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: high tunnel; protected structure; crop vigor; scientometric analysis
Online: 7 April 2023 (13:01:29 CEST)
This study assessed the literature about the use of high tunnels (HTs) in agricultural systems in the United States since the 2009 launch of the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) High Tunnel Initiative. This NRCS program led to an increase in HT adoption nationwide. The literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science (WoS) database. The final sample was 133 peer-reviewed articles published between 2009 and February 2023. We used CiteSpace 6.2.R1 and Gephi 0.9.2 to conduct co-citation, co-author, co-institution, and clustering techniques. The findings showed that the peer-reviewed literature about HT use has increased since 2009, substantially rising between 2017 and 2021. Horticulture was the top subject category in the literature, and most articles were published in peer-reviewed journals of the American Society for Horticultural Science (i.e., HortTechnology and HortScience). The research field evolved from general HT practices, nutrient management, and plant pathology to focus on trials of specific crops and integrated pest management. The institutions with the most contributions to the HT literature were Kansas State University, the University of Florida, Michigan State University, Purdue University, and the University of Minnesota. The patterns of HT research revealed in this study offer a greater understanding of the current state of knowledge to inform the focus of future research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0210.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Maize; drought; landrace; climate-change; crop genetic resources
Online: 13 December 2022 (01:07:51 CET)
To meet an ever global population's food demand, crop yields must be sustained and increased. Drought, which is getting harsher as a result of global warming, is largely impeding the agricultural productivity. Maize is widely used as food and animal feed in many regions of the world, but its yields are largely effected by drought and heat stress. Historical data on climate change predicts that drought and heat stress becoming major threat for maize cultivation in coming years, which will have huge impact on food security of the world especially in Africa and Asia. Thus there is an immense necessary to develop drought tolerant and climate resilient maize to feed the predicted population of the world. Availability and accessibility of crop genetic resources plays a huge role in development of drought-tolerant maize cultivars. A huge genetic resources of maize, including its landraces and crop wild relatives (CWR) have been reported naturally and many of them have stored in National and International gene banks globally. Conventional breeding methods have been tremendously increased maize yields, but these methods frequently fall short of achieving the demand for improved drought stress resistance. In this article, we have briefly discussed about impact of climate variability on crop production, maize yield losses due to drought, drought tolerance in maize landraces and CWR, and origin and evolution of Mexican landraces. This information may help in utilization of these potential resources in various pre-breeding programs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0254.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Insect pest control; Insect Resistance Management; Crop protection
Online: 18 October 2022 (07:27:52 CEST)
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a spore-forming bacterium that produces insecticidal proteins and other virulence factors and is considered one of the most successful bioinsecticides available to control pests in agriculture. Bt strains have been reported as endophyte or rhizospheric bacteria, but little is known about the implications of this property of Bt in crop protection. Here, we review if Bt can establish as an endophyte/rhizobacterium and evaluate if Bt as an endophyte/rhizobacterium can simultaneously act against different phytopathogens (fungi, bacteria, insects and viruses) plus promote plant growth. The implications of the proposed review will broaden our understanding of Bt as a versatile entomopathogen by exhibiting differential behavior depending on context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0185.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: desert locusts; control; crop loss; pastureland; land cover
Online: 6 December 2021 (15:29:48 CET)
The desert locust remains a major threat to global food security. Control operations are a crucial tool to manage crisis; this research investigated the nature of control operations conducted between 2019-2021. Historical data on desert locust and control operations were obtained from the survey reports at the FAO Locust Hub and analysed with respect to survey reports, land cover types, cropland/rangeland extent and crop productivity data. We found that 16.1% of the grid cells with locust presence and 14.9% of the grid cells with control operations had a proportion of rangeland higher than 0.75; while 13.3% of the grid cells with locust presence and 13.2% of the grid cells with control operations had a proportion of croplands higher than 0.75, highlighting that locust presence and control operations were reported in both rangeland and cropland. Control operations continue to be used both to reduce overall locust numbers and to protect crops. Furthermore, through identifying which crops were most at risk, our analyses indicate that wheat production was under the highest strain during periods of increased locust infestations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0601.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Macadamia; Smallholder farmers; Lucrative crop; Poverty reduction; Consumption
Online: 24 November 2020 (08:31:43 CET)
Macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia) nuts have become an essential commodity crop in Malawi. The nuts are a lucrative commodity and are used for household consumption and income generation among farming families and as a foreign exchange earning crop at country-level. In addition, macadamia production has increased significantly in recent years in the country. Currently, Malawi is the seventh top producer of macadamia nuts, with a global market share of three percent (1,846 metric tonnes on kernel basis). In 2018, exports of macadamia kernel had a value of US$24.3 million (£19.8 million or MKW 18.01 billion). However, the bulk (85%) of the crop is grown on large commercial plantations, but the smallholder sector is emerging as vital for the future growth of the macadamia sub-sector in Malawi. Furthermore, Malawian smallholders consider macadamia production to be a low-input crop with large returns per unit area (US$14.37 kg-1ha-1 or MKW 10,701kg-1ha-1) thus a lucrative crop with high potential for poverty reduction and wealth creation among these farming families. This paper, therefore, explores: (i) the historical and current trends in macadamia nut production in Malawi; (ii) analyses the country’s macadamia value chain and (iii) discusses the constraints of macadamia production in Malawi for informed policymaking. Thus, the synthesis of the Malawian macadamia sub-sector provides an understanding of the vital contributions of macadamias to Malawi’s economic growth and improvement of livelihoods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0496.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: plant genetic resources; population genomics; crop evolution; food legumes
Online: 7 September 2023 (09:23:38 CEST)
Paleogenomics focuses on the recovery, manipulation, and analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA) from historical or long-dead organisms to reconstruct and analyze their genomes. The aDNA is commonly obtained from remains found in paleontological and archaeological sites, conserved in museums and in other archival collections. Herbarium collections represent a great source of phenotypic and genotypic information, and their exploitation allowed to infer and to clarify previously unsolved taxonomic and systematic relationships. Moreover, Herbarium specimens offered a new source to study phenological traits in plants and to disentangle biogeography and evolutionary scenarios of species. More recently, advances in the molecular technologies went in parallel with the decreasing costs of the next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches, that paved the way to the utilization of aDNA for whole-genome studies. Although many studies have been carried out combining modern analytic techniques and Herbarium specimens, this research field is still relatively unexplored, due to the need of improving strategies for aDNA manipulation and exploitation. The higher susceptibility of aDNA to degradation and contamination during the Herbarium conservation and manipulation, and the occurrence of biochemical post-mortem damages, can result in the more challenging reconstruction of the original DNA sequence. Here, we review the methodological approaches that have been developed for the exploitation of historical Herbarium plant materials, such as the best practices for aDNA extraction, amplification and genotyping. We also focus on some strategies to overcome the main problems related to the utilization of Herbarium specimens for their exploitation in plant evolutionary studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0724.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: crop type recognition; deep learning; crowdsourcing; street-level imagery
Online: 12 July 2023 (04:40:51 CEST)
The creation of crop-type maps from satellite data has proven challenging, often impeded by a lack of accurate in-situ data. This paper aims to demonstrate a method for crop-type (ie. Maize, Wheat and Other) recognition based on Convolutional Neural Networks using a bottom-up approach. We trained the model with a highly accurate dataset of crowdsourced labelled street-level imagery. Classification results achieved an AUC of 0.87 for wheat, 0.85 for maize and 0.73 for other. Given that wheat and maize are the two most common food crops globally, combined with an ever-increasing amount of available street-level imagery, this approach could help address the need for improved crop-type monitoring globally. Challenges remain in addressing the noisy aspect of street-level imagery (ie. buildings, hedgerows, automobiles, etc.), where a variety of different objects tend to restrict the view and confound the algorithms
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0275.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Crop residues; animal feed; drought; Secale cereale L.; Fertilization
Online: 5 July 2023 (08:45:52 CEST)
The rye (Secale cereale L.) crop shows a high potential to collaborate in the sustainability of high Andean livestock because it supports the agroclimatic conditions and acid soils in the Peruvian Andes. The production of green forage, hay, and grain of the rye crop in acid soils was studied with the use of different levels of phosphorus and potassium fertilization in four local rye ecotypes (CBI-001, CSM-001, CJS-001, and CCE-001). The green forage yield (FV) ranged from 32.35 to 53.62 t ha-1, dry matter from 6.05 to 8.56 t ha-1, and hay from 7.0 to 10.36 t ha-1; nutritional levels ranged from 9.02 % to 13.56 % protein and 6.50 to 7.75 % ash levels, mainly with differences between ecotypes (p<0.05). No differences existed between fertilization levels for the number of stems per plant, and flowering stems per plant, and grains per ear (p>0.05). Also, CBI-001 and CCE-001 were superior with 1868.4 and 1797.8 kg ha-1 of grain, respectively (p=0.0072); the use of 60 kg ha of Nitrogen, 120 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and 80 kg ha-1 of K2O gave higher grain and residue yields. The high nutritional value and yield of the rye ecotypes studied in acid soil conditions and without irrigation can be an alternative for livestock feeding and grain production in the rainy season in the Andes as a dual-purpose crop.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1042.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Crop improvement; Omics, Pathogenesis; Plant-microbe interactions (PPI); Resistance
Online: 14 June 2023 (10:09:32 CEST)
The concept of omics-based technological approaches has promoted translational research by integrating knowledge from diverse areas to understand their dynamics by exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying various processes paving the way for further improvements in the crops quality by providing sound knowledge on controlling plant diseases. This area is not profoundly investigated a decade back and hence this knowledge has become exceedingly important in modern times as it has got potential for being utilized in crop improvement programs. In this review, the contributions of different omics technologies including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics in understanding and materializing the ways involved in the plant pathogen interaction (PPI) is discussed. Furthermore, opportunities, challenges, and perspectives of omics linked to signaling mechanisms have also been highlighted that are significantly linked to plant-microbe interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0705.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Phenology; Tillering; Random Forest; Crop type; Clustering, Unsupervised classification
Online: 9 June 2023 (11:04:40 CEST)
The rising global population amidst the growing concerns of climate change will have a dire consequence on global food security and socio-economic activities. Wheat is one of the most important staple foods consumed by more than four billion people in the world, but climate change impacts account for a decline of 5.5% in wheat yield and predictions indicate that the production could further dwindle by nearly 30% in 2050, due to trends in temperature, precipitation, and carbon dioxide. An effective annual crop estimate is necessary not only to inform government the status of national food security, but also is used to determine the benchmark on which agricultural commodities are priced in the market. Thus, annual crop monitoring and yield estimate is paramount to determine the amount of wheat imports required to make up for the shortfalls in the national wheat production in South Africa, which has been a net importer of wheat since 1998. A joint project between South Africa and Poland investigated satellite based-crop growth monitoring using Sentinel 2 and determined the most distinguishable crop phenology for an accurate winter wheat classification during the growing season from August – December with Random Forest (RF) algorithm. The winter wheat crop was more accurately identified during the crop ‘heading’ stage in October yielding the highest user’s (75.56%) and producer’s (92.52%) accuracies, despite the relatively lower overall accuracy (78.14%) compared to that of December with OA of 83.58% obtained during the maturity stage. This study, therefore, confirms the suitability of sentinel 2 for an effective phenology-based winter wheat crop classification during the heading stage, reducing the ambiguity of spectral confusion created with surrounding grass and maize crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0624.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: aerial photography; agricultural crop; digital image processing; pattern identification
Online: 9 May 2023 (09:26:00 CEST)
The agricultural sector is undergoing a revolution that requires sustainable solutions to the challenges that arise from traditional farming methods. To address these challenges, technical and sustainable support is needed to develop projects that improve crop performance. This study focuses on the onion crop and the challenges presented throughout its phenological cycle. Aerial monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and digital image processing were used to identify patterns in the onion crop, including humid areas, weed growth, vegetation deficits, and decreased harvest performance. An algorithm was developed to identify the patterns that most affected crop growth, as the average local production reported was 40.166 ton/ha, but only 25.00 ton/ha was reached due to blight caused by constant humidity and limited sunlight. This resulted in the death of leaves and poor development of bulbs, with 50% of the production being of medium size. It is estimated that approximately 20% of the production was lost due to blight and unfavorable weather conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0296.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: biochar; crop straws; heavy metal adsorption; adsorption kinetics; characterization
Online: 13 April 2023 (05:08:11 CEST)
China is a large agricultural country that produces a large amount of crop straw every year. Thus, the development of cost-effective and economic application of invasive plants is warranted. Biochars derived from crop straw has been proven to be promising for adsorbent materials. However, less studies have focused on biochar derived from different types of crop straw as adsorbent under the same conditions to compare their adsorption performance. Here, we characterized the five biochars in the same system (600 ℃). In results, GBC has higher ash content, pH, CEC, specific surface area, mineral composition and oxygen-containing functional groups. The adsorption kinetics can be explained adequately by pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir model, indicating that the adsorption behavior of the biochar is both physical adsorption and chemical adsorption, the adsorption process includes complexation reaction, cationic π bond, ion precipitation and electrostatic adsorption. In conclusion, GBC exhibited higher metal equilibrium adsorption capacities (125 mg·g-1 for Pb2+, 29 mg·g-1 for Cd2+). The solution pH, biochar dosing, pyrolysis temperature and the properties of these heavy metals were responsible for adsorption capacity, thus showing stronger affinity and better adsorption effect. Our results are important for the selection and utilization of plant-based biochar for different heavy metals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0252.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: waterlogged preservation; arboriculture; crop expansion; urban area; Iberian Peninsula
Online: 28 April 2022 (09:47:33 CEST)
The Roman economy of the Iberian Peninsula has habitually been characterised in terms of prestige goods and economic activities such as trade, mining and metallurgy. The analysis of plant-based foods –less prestigious but more essential in everyday life– has commonly been marginalised in state-of-the-art reviews. The O Areal saltworks is exceptional in terms of the large number of organic materials it preserves, and the excellent state of that preservation. After its abandonment (end of the 3rd/4th century AD), the saltworks was briefly used as a dumping ground for the surrounding area. The site's archaeobotanical remains, preserved under anoxic, waterlogged conditions, consist of the building materials used at the saltworks, tools and other artefacts, organic objects employed in activities such as fishing, and refuse. The assemblage suggests a wide diversity of species to have been introduced into northwestern Iberia during the Roman Period, including the mulberry, peach, fig, plum, grapevine, and melon. The notable presence of other edible fruit species that normally grew wild during this period, such as chestnut, walnut, stone pine, and cherry trees, might be related to the start of their cultivation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0494.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: fruit quality; pruning; growth regulation; fruit set; crop value
Online: 30 December 2021 (19:54:48 CET)
In perennial fruit crops, bearing can be influenced by various factors, including environmental conditions, germplasm, rootstocks, and cultivation methods. Cherries, one of the most important and popular fruit species from the temperate climate zone, achieve high prices on the market. New agricultural technologies and environmental factors force a change in the approach to cherry cultivation. Old-type cherry orchards with their high demand for water, nutrients and manual work are replaced by orchards of self-pollinating cherry cultivars grown on dwarf rootstocks. These changes make it necessary to search for ways to regulate fruiting, in particular to thin buds, flower and fruit. In view of environmental regulations and consumer pressure, thinning methods are being sought that either do not involve the use of chemicals or that use eco-friendly chemical agents. This review examines recent progress in understanding the effect of thinning methods on the physiology, tree growth and fruit quality of cherries, discusses horticultural practices aimed to ensure regular cropping and their influence on fruit quality, and provides suggestions for future research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0248.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Grain legumes; crop diversification; sustainable intensification; Growing Degree Days
Online: 15 December 2021 (08:21:42 CET)
In the Global North, there is an increasing interest in pulses both for their beneficial effects in cropping systems and for human health. However, despite these advantages, the acreage dedi-cated to pulses has been declining and their diversity reduced, particularly in European temperate regions, due to several social and economic factors. This decline has stimulated a political debate in the EU on the development of plant proteins. By contrast, in the Global South, a large panel of minor pulses is still cropped in regional patterns of production and consumption. The aim of this paper is to investigate the for cultivation of potential minor pulses in European temperate regions as a complement to common pulses. Our assumption is that some of these crops could adapt to different pedo-climatic conditions, given their physiological adaptation capacity, and that these pulses might be of interest for the development of innovative local food chains in an EU policy context targeting protein autonomy. The research is based on a systematic review of 269 papers retrieved in the Scopus database (1974–2019), which allowed us to identify 41 pulses as candidate species with a protein content higher than 20% that are already consumed as food. For each spe-cies, the main agronomic (e.g. temperature or water requirements) and nutritional characteristics (e.g. proteins or antinutritional contents) were identified in their growing regions. Following their agronomic characteristics, the candidate crops were confronted with variability in the annual growing conditions for spring crops in European temperate areas to determine the earliest poten-tial sowing and latest harvest dates. Subsequently, the potential sum of temperatures was calcu-lated with the Agri4cast database to establish the potential climatic suitability. For the first time, 21 minor pulses were selected to be grown in these temperate areas and appear worthy of inves-tigation in terms of yield potential, nutritional characteristics or best management practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0363.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: leguminous root crop; high quality protein; dry matter yield
Online: 19 November 2021 (14:45:52 CET)
Among the many neglected underutilized species, tuberous Andean root crops like the ahipas (Pachyrhizus ahipa) constitute a promising alternative for increasing diversity in nutrient sources and food security at a regional level. In this study, we present the content of some functional compounds in tuberous roots from several ahipa accessions and the progenies of the interspecific hybrid X207 (P. ahipa × P. tuberosus). A significant objective was to determine protein and free amino acids in the roots to evaluate their food quality as protein supply. The interspecific hybrids have been found to possess the root quality to provide the crop with a higher dry matter content. The high dry matter content of the P. tuberosus Chuin materials is retained in the root quality of the hybrids. Food functional components like carbohydrates, organic acids, and proteins were determined in several ahipa accessions and a stable (non-segregating) progeny of the interspecific hybrid, X207. The X207 roots showed a significantly higher dry matter content and a lower content in soluble sugars, but no significant differences were found in starch content or organic acids compared to the ahipa accessions. About the root mineral contents, Fe and Mn concentrations in X207 were significantly raised compared to the average of ahipa accessions. Among the ahipa and the hybrid, no prominent differences in protein content or protein amino acids were found, being both partially defective in providing sufficient daily intake of some essential amino acids. Root weight, a central component of root yield, was significantly higher in X207, but thorough field studies are required to substantiate the hybrid’s superior yield performance..
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0486.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: coating; food and crop; hybrid energy; storage facility; sustainability
Online: 20 May 2021 (11:27:52 CEST)
This research project focuses on the optimization of the hybrid energy system together with the assistance of thin-film coatings aiming to achieve self-sustainable food and crop storage facilities which will run effectively with its own generated energy. An infrastructure will be designed and constructed that will comprise a hybrid power generation system accompanied by thin-film coated semitransparent and non-transparent construction materials for energy saving. Thin-film low emissivity (Low-E) type coatings will assist the transparent or semitransparent construction materials to reflect most of the infrared (IR-mostly heat) and UV spectra of sunlight without interrupting the visible spectrum and will lead to saving energy consumption by reducing the heat and lighting during day time
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Rice yield production; Crop model; Nitrogen fertilizer; DSSAT; WRF
Online: 23 April 2021 (12:02:53 CEST)
To increase rice production, fertilizer plays a crucial role in rice yield. In this research, we applied the coupled atmospheric and crop model, which is based on the WRF and CERES-Rice models, to find the appropriate nitrogen fertilizer level for increasing rice yield production in northern Thailand. The model was conducted from October to December in 2011 to 2015. To evaluate the model capability, the output from the model, including meteorological data, i.e., precipitation and temperature, and rice production, as compared to actual observation data. The modeling system shows an acceptable level of output for statistical examination; for example, the R2 values were 0.93, 0.76, and 0.97 for precipitation, temperature, and rice production, respectively. To assess the optimization of the nitrogen fertilizer level, we designed 9 experiments: control cases and other cases that were multiplied by a factor of 2 – 10 times the nitrogen fertilizer levels. The model suggested that we can produce worthwhile rice yield production by approximately 4830 kg/ha if we increase the nitrogen fertilizer levels by 36 kg/ha.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0619.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: climate smart agriculture; crop productivity; climate change; Pfumvudza; Zimbabwe
Online: 29 January 2021 (12:40:06 CET)
Concerns of food and environmental security have increased enormously in recent years due to the vagaries of climate change and variability. Efforts to promote food security and environmental sustainability often reinforce each other and enable farmers to adapt to and mitigate the impact of climate change and other stresses. Some of these efforts are based on appropriate technologies and practices that restore natural ecosystems and improve the resilience of farming systems, thus enhancing food security. Climate smart agriculture (CSA) principles, for example, translate into a number of locally-devised and applied practices that work simultaneously through contextualised crop-soil-water-nutrient-pest-ecosystem management at a variety of scales. The purpose of this paper is to review concisely the current state-of-the-art literature and ascertain the potential of the Pfumvudza concept to enhance household food security, climate change mitigation and adaptation as it is promoted in Zimbabwe. The study relied heavily on data from print and electronic media. Datasets pertaining to carbon, nitrous oxide and methane storage in soils and crop yield under zero tillage and conventional tillage were compiled. Findings show that, compared to conventional farming, Pfumvudza has great potential to contribute towards household food security and reducing carbon emissions if implemented following the stipulated recommendations. These include among others, adequate land preparation and timely planting and acquiring inputs. However, nitrous oxide emissions tend to increase with reduced tillage and, the use of artificial fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides is environmentally unfriendly.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0542.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: climate change； vegetables； crop wild relatives； nitrogen use efficiency
Online: 23 September 2020 (07:51:18 CEST)
Climate variation and change are an unavoidable phenomenon faced by the natural habitat of this planet. For getting potential yield from vegetable crops under the changing climate conditions, the practical strategies at field level can serve as a guideline for the farmers. Moreover, there are several strategies available for mitigating the harmful effects of climate change. In this manuscript, efforts have been made for reviewing the mitigating strategies against the impact of climate change in vegetable crops via conventional approaches. Considering the situation, the information reviewed revealed that significant result of conventional approaches with climate-smart adoptions strategies has a direct bearing on vegetable production for the increasing population in frenziedly changing climate scenario.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0088.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Gene pyramiding; marker assisted selection; stress resistance; crop improvement
Online: 4 August 2020 (11:10:22 CEST)
Sustainable agricultural production is endangered by several ecological factors such as drought, extreme temperatures, excessive salts, parasitic ailments, and insect pest infestation. These challenging environmental factors may have adverse effects on future agriculture production in many countries. In modern agriculture, conventional crop breeding techniques alone are inadequate for achieving the increasing population’s food demand on a sustainable basis. The advancement of molecular genetics and related technologies are promising tools for the selection of new crop species. Gene pyramiding through marker assisted selection (MAS) and other techniques have accelerated the development of durable resistant/tolerant lines with high accuracy in the shortest possible period of time for agricultural sustainability. Gene stacking has not been fully utilized for biotic stress resistance development and quality improvement in most of the major cultivated crops. This review emphasizes on gene pyramiding techniques that are being successfully deployed in modern agriculture for improving crop tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses for sustainable crop improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0232.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: cooperatives; crop marketing index; municipality; smallholder-farmer; supermarkets; vendors
Online: 15 March 2020 (01:23:55 CET)
Recent studies of the difficulties faced by smallholder farmers in many developing countries have echoed their disconnection with formal markets. These limitations have been attributed to a number of factors including stringent quality and volume requirements, among others. While smallholder farmers seek access to formal markets, the existing alternatives through which they sell their produce remain obscure. Using an interview of market outlets and selected smallholder farmers in the area, the study applied a crop marketing index to examine the outlets currently used by farmers and the volume of potatoes sold in each. Findings indicate that smallholder farmers on average sold sixty-eight percent of their produce. The outlet mostly used by farmers was street vendors because the large supermarkets sold potatoes supplied from external sources. It would be helpful for smallholder farmers to aggregate their produce through producer and marketing cooperatives, to better engage with these formal market outlets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0260.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: ENSO; El Nino; La Nina; Crop Yield; Climate change
Online: 22 January 2020 (09:44:40 CET)
This study was conducted to investigate the impact of El Niño Southern Oscillation on rainfall distribution and productivity of major Agricultural crops in the Kembta Tembaro Zone of Southern Ethiopia over the past 30 years. Precipitation and temperature data were obtained from the National Meteorology Agency, crop data from the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia, and the Sea Surface Temperature data from the NOAA website. The rainfall trend had shown decreasing trend with high variability at all the stations (p<0.05). Over the same period, El Niño and La Niña event were observed and highly affected rainfall distribution. It was found that Coefficient Variation was greater than 30%, which indicates the area was prone to drought episodes. The impacts of the ENSO events on the yield of Maize, Wheat, Barely, Sorghum and Enset were assessed. Wheat and Maize were highly affected by the ENSO events. Enset was found to be more resistant crop to the influence of ENSO. Barely and Sorghum were affected at varying magnitude. Among the five chosen crop for this investigation two of the crops were seriously affected during the two extremes, i.e. El Niño and La Niña. From this investigation it is conclude that the overall cereal crop productivity was decreased and precipitation variability was noticed. So, having the information about ENSO phase in advance can be used to forecast ENSO and select crop types and varieties to maximize agricultural rain fed cereal crop productivity while minimizing the crop risk associated with seasonal rainfall and ENSO phases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0275.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Landsat; Sentinel 2; harmonization; crop monitoring; Google Earth Engine
Online: 24 October 2019 (06:02:04 CEST)
Proper satellite-based crop monitoring applications at the farm-level often require near-daily imagery at medium to high spatial resolution. The synthesizing of ongoing satellite missions by ESA (Sentinel 2) and NASA (Landsat7/8) provides this unprecedented opportunity at a global scale; nonetheless, this is rarely implemented because these procedures are data demanding and computationally intensive. This study developed a complete stream processing in the Google Earth Engine cloud platform to generate harmonized surface reflectance images of Landsat7,8 and Sentinel 2 missions. The harmonized images were generated for two agriculture schemes in Bekaa (Lebanon) and Ninh Thuan (Vietnam) during the period 2018-2019. We evaluated the performance of several pre-processing steps needed for the harmonization including image co-registration, brdf correction, topographic correction, and band adjustment. This study found that the miss-registration between Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2 images, varied from 10 meters in Ninh Thuan, Vietnam to 32 meters in Bekaa, Lebanon, and if not treated, posed a great impact on the quality of the harmonized dataset. Analysis of a pair overlapped L8-S2 images over the Bekaa region showed that after the harmonization, all band-to-band spatial correlations were greatly improved from (0.57, 0.64, 0.67, 0.75, 0.76, 0.75, 0.79) to (0.87, 0.91, 0.92, 0.94, 0.97, 0.97, 0.96) in bands (blue, green, red, nir,swir1,swir2, ndvi) respectively. We demonstrated that dense observation of the harmonized dataset can be very helpful for characterizing cropland in highly dynamic areas. We detected unimodal, bimodal and trimodal shapes in the temporal NDVI patterns (likely cycles of paddy rice) in Ninh Thuan province only during the year 2018. We fitted the temporal signatures of the NDVI time series using harmonic (Fourier) analysis. Derived phase (angle from the starting point to the cycle's peak) and amplitude (the cycle's height) were combined with max-NDVI to generate an R-G-B image. This image highlighted croplands as colored pixels (high phase and amplitude) and other types of land as grey/dark pixels (low phase/amplitude). Generated harmonized datasets that contain surface reflectance images (bands blue, green, red, nir, swir1, swir2, and ndvi at 30 meters) over the two studied sites are provided for public usage and testing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0115.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; agroclimactic modelling; crop breeding and genetics; GxE
Online: 11 March 2019 (07:59:22 CET)
Crop breeding is as ancient as the invention of cultivation. In essence, the objective of crop breeding is to improve plant fitness under human cultivation conditions, making crops more productive while maintaining consistency in life cycle and quality. The applications of predictive breeding has been gaining momentum in agricultural industry and public breeding programs for the last decade, in the aftermath of genomic selection being recognized and widely applied for accelerating genetic gain in breeding programs. The massive amounts of data that has been generated by industry and farmers year after year through several decades has finally been recognized as an asset. A wide range of analytical methods such as machine learning, deep learning and artificial intelligence that were initially developed for diverse quantitative disciplines are now being adopted to crop breeding decision making processes. New technologies are currently being developed that would enable integration of data from various domains such as geospatial variables and a multitude of phenotypic responses as well as genetic information, in order to identify, develop and improve crop faster via partial or full automation of the decisions that pertain to variety development. Here we will discuss and summarize efforts from public and private domains for predictive analytics, and its applications to crop breeding and agricultural product development, and provide suggestions for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0287.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: root length density; ratoon crop; Sacharum spp; varietal selection
Online: 24 December 2018 (15:31:02 CET)
The objective of this study was to determine the association of physiological responses and root distribution patterns on yield of the second ratoon cane and the relationships among these traits. Seventeen sugarcane genotypes were planted in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The second ratoon crop was evaluated for germination percentage, cane yield, SPAD chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR), chlorophyll fluorescence, relative water content (RWC), specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal conductance. Root length density (RLD) was evaluated by auger method. The root samples were divided into upper soil layer and lowers soil layers to study root distribution patterns. Sugarcane genotypes were significantly different for RLD, germination percentage and cane yield. Root distribution patterns were classified into three groups based on the RLD. High RLD between plants in the upper soil layers at 90 DAH was positively correlated with high germination, whereas high RLD between rows in the lower soil layers at 90 and 270 DAH was associated with high cane yield. RWC at 90 DAH and stomatal conductance at 180 DAH were closely related to germination percentage, whereas chlorophyll fluorescence and stomatal conductance at 180 DAH were closely related to cane yield.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0035.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: brassica; food odour preference; HIPVs; Plutella xylostella; trap crop
Online: 6 June 2017 (09:00:57 CEST)
The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is very destructive crucifers specialized pest that has resulted in significant crop losses worldwide. The pest is well attracted to glucosinolate-containing crucifers such as; Barbarea vulgaris (Brassicaceae), and generally to other plants in the genus Barbarea. B. vulgaris on their part, build up resistance against DBM and other herbivorous insects using glucosinolates; that are plant secondary metabolites used in plant defense–contained only in plants of the order Brassicales. Aside glucosinolates, plants in this genus Barbarea (Brassicaceae) also contain saponins; which is toxic to insects and act as feeding deterrents for plant herbivores, most importantly, DBM, as it was found to prevent the survival of DBM larvae on the plant. Saponins are plant secondary metabolites have been established in higher concentrations in younger in contrast to older leaves within the same plant. Previous studies have found a relationship between ontogenetical changes in the host plant’s saponin content and attraction/resistance to P. xylostella. The younger leaves recorded higher concentrations of glucosinolates and saponins, which naturally attracts the plant herbivores. DBM was reported to have evolved mechanisms to avoid the toxicity of the former. The plant-herbivore had adapted glucosinolates for host plant recognition, feeding and oviposition stimulants. Despite the adaptation for oviposition by P. xylostella adults, larvae of the insect cannot survive on the same plant. An example is in some varieties of B. vulgaris. The triterpenoid saponins which act as feeding deterrents in larvae are responsible for this direct defense mechanism against P. xylostella. In the future, trials by plant breeders could aim at transferring this insect resistance to other crops. The previous trials had limited because of lack of knowledge on the biosynthetic pathways and regulatory networks of saponins. Herein, we discussed exclusively; saponins mediated plant defense mechanisms against the DBM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0007.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Crop production, Soil management, Soil Organic Carbon, Soil productivity
Online: 2 January 2017 (14:25:02 CET)
Crop productivity is directly dependent to soil fertility. High soil organic carbon (SOC) content in soil is vital as it leads to improved soil quality, increased productivity, and stable soil-aggregates. In addition, with the signing of the climate agreement, there is growing interest in carbon sequestration in landscapes. This paper looks at how SOC can be increased so that it not only contributes to reduction of CO2, but also translates to increased food production thereby enhancing food security. This synergy between mitigation and enhancing food security is even more relevant for mountain landscapes of the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region where there remains huge potential to increase CO2 sequestration and simultaneously address food security in the chronic food deficit villages. Soil samples were collected from seven transects each in Bajhang and Mustang and from 4 land use types in each transect. Samples of soils were taken from two depths in each plot; 0-15 cm below the soil surface and 15-30 cm below the soil surface to compare the top soil and subsoil dynamics of the soil nutrients. The lab analysis was performed to assess the soil texture, soil color, soil acidity in 'power of hydrogen' (pH), macro-nutrients as soil fertility. Secondary data was used to analyze the level of food deficit in the villages. The result shows that most of the sample soils from Mustang were clay (82.1%) which is 46 samples out of 56. The pH value of soil from Bajhang ranged from 5.29 to 9.09. The pH value of soil ranged from 5.65 to 8.81 in Mustang. SOC contents of sampled soils from Bajhang ranged from 0.20% to 7.69% with mean amount of 2.47% ± 0.17. SOC contents of sampled soils from Mustang ranged from 0.51% to 8.56% with mean amount of 2.60% ± 0.25. By land use type, forest land had the highest carbon (C) content of 53.61 t ha-1 in Bajhang whereas in Mustang, agricultural land had the highest C content of 52.02 tons ha-1. Based on these data, we can say that there is potential for increasing SOC through improved soil health and crop production and soil. Sustainable soil management should be practiced for higher productivity. Livestock may also provide farmyard manure, which can be used to fertilize cultivated soils, which increases soil productivity. Increasing productivity would aid in increasing the access and availability of food in these mountain villages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0056.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: green manure; soil microbial communities; crop health; Illumina sequencing
Online: 18 September 2016 (08:56:53 CEST)
Green manure could improve soil nutrients and crop production, playing a significant role in sustainable agriculture. However, the impacts of green manure on crop health and the roles soil microbial communities play in the process haven’t been clarified clearly yet. In this study, we investigated soil microbial community composition and structure in four tobacco farmlands, which were treated with different green manure (control, ryegrass, pea and rape), using 16S rRNA gene amplicons sequencing. Results showed that green manure had significant impacts on soil properties, microbial communities and tobacco health. First, soil total C, N and Ca content increased significantly in groups treated with green manure than control. Second, soil community diversity was significantly higher in groups treated with green manure. Third, green manure especially ryegrass, decreased tobacco disease (bacterial wilt) rate dramatically, and the process might be mediated by soil microbial communities. On the one hand, several microbial populations were found to be potentially disease inducible or suppressive. For example, the abundances of Dokdonella and Rhodanobacter were positively correlated to tobacco disease rate, while Acidobacteira_Gp4 and Gp6 had negative correlations with tobacco disease. On the other hand, soil microbial communities were shaped by soil properties (e.g., pH, C and N content). In conclusion, our research showed that green manure could increase soil nutrients directly, and further improve tobacco health mediated by soil microorganisms, which may shed light on revealing interactions among soil properties, microorganisms and plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1519.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: crop prediction; machine learning; feature selection; artificial intelligent; smart farming
Online: 22 May 2023 (11:24:05 CEST)
This research investigates the potential benefits of integrating machine learning algorithms and IoT sensors in modern agriculture. The focus is on optimizing crop production and reducing waste through informed decisions about planting, watering, and harvesting crops. The paper discusses the current state of machine learning and IoT in agriculture, highlighting key challenges and opportunities. It also presents experimental results that demonstrate the impact of changing labels on the accuracy of data analysis algorithms. The findings recommend that by analyzing wide-ranging data collected from farms, including real-time data from IoT sensors, farmers can make more informed verdicts about factors that affect crop growth. Eventually, the integration of these technologies can transform modern agriculture by increasing crop yields while minimizing waste. In our studies, we achieve a classification accuracy of 99.59% using the Bayes Net algorithm and 99. 46% using Naïve Bayes Classifier, and Hoeffding Tree algorithms. Our results indicate that we achieved high accuracy results in our experiments in order to increase crop growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0265.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: active crop canopy sensor; plant height; canopy temperature; sensor integration
Online: 19 October 2022 (04:02:29 CEST)
About a decade ago, active optical crop canopy sensors are being used to manage in-season variable nitrogen (N) fertilization in cornfields to match the plant demand that occurs mid season, increasing the efficiency compared to broadcast N applications. There were also initiatives of using ultrasonic sensors to measure plant height on-the-go for N application and crop water demand estimation, but no studies have integrated the optical, ultrasonic and canopy temperature for crop water stress assessment. The objective of this chapter is to evaluate the crop water status using infrared thermometry integrated with optical and ultrasonic sensors. Specifics objectives are: (i) evaluate the corn canopy temperature under different previous crop, N rates and irrigation levels; (ii) test a procedure for water stress assessment in commercial cornfields using the integration of sensors, (iii) correlate plant based sensor measurements (N status, plant height and canopy temperature) with grain yield, soil attributes and detailed topographical features, and (iv) study the spatial dependence of canopy temperature. This study was conducted in one small plot study area and on three producer’s fields in 2010. The small plot experiment consisted of two irrigation levels (70 and 100% of evapotranspiration – ET), two previous crop schemes (corn after corn – CC and corn after soybeans – CS), and four N rates (0, 75, 150, 225 kg N ha-1). Canopy temperature, optical reflectance and plant height was measured from R2 until R6 in the small plots. At the producer’s fields, three long strips across center pivots were used to have a non-limited N and water crop and then continuous georeferenced sensors measurements were taken during side-dress (V11 growth stage) in about 10 hectares in each field. In the small plot study the crop canopy temperature was influenced by the irrigation levels and N rates. The procedure proposed could be used to identify zones in the producer’s field where water stress can be a yield limiting factor other than N derived. Inside the zones considered that water stress played a major whole, there were low correlations between plant height, plant N status and canopy temperature, indicating that the canopy temperature had more influence from water stress than vegetation cover. Concave and lower elevation areas had higher yields compared to convex and high elevation, showing that the detailed elevation mapping can be beneficial to delineate stables zones that possibly could be used in variable irrigation systems. The spatial dependence of canopy temperature was over 65 meters across producers’ sites, showing that the commercial high clearance applicator’s swath width was adequate to obtain accurate maps. The integration of plant N status, plant height and canopy temperature was beneficial to detect water stressed zones in the field. Opportunities can be foresee also for on-the-go N fertilization using integration of these sensors because is likely that water stress can be confounded with different N supply during the growing season and in different zones in the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0049.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: maize; okra; roselle; intercrops; sole crop; land equivalent ratios; productivity
Online: 6 October 2022 (06:20:28 CEST)
Intercropping as a practice is very crucial in livelihood sustainability among smallholder farm-ing communities in many growing countries. However, for most cropping systems, the benefits of intercropping have yet to be optimized due to a lack of knowledge regarding spatial ar-rangements and planting densities. The objective of the study was to find out the profitability of maize-vegetable intercropping and the yields obtained from various spatial arrangements and planting densities of intercrops. From May to October 2019 and 2020 respectively, Experimental trials were set up in the rainy season in Northern, Upper West and Upper East regions of Ghana comprising of eight treatments each. A randomized complete block experimental design was used for the field layout with three to four replications. Data was collected on grain and fruit yield and land equivalent ratios was estimated (LER). At the end of the trial, important spatial arrangements and planting densities were identified that can be adopted by smallholder famers for system intensification. For okra, the optimal intercropping system under sufficient rainfalls was 2 okra rows at higher density and 2 maize rows at lower density for Upper West Region. In Upper East Region, the optimal spatial arrangement to recommend is 1 row of maize at recom-mended density: 2 rows of okra at lower density under well distributed rainfalls. For roselle, intercropping with spatial arrangement of 2 rows of maize at higher density: 1 row of okra at recommended density was recommended in Northern Region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0388.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Mollisol; soil organic matter; microorganisms; microbial index; crop growing season
Online: 21 February 2022 (12:05:40 CET)
Tillage has been reported to induce seasonal changes of organic carbon (Сmicro) and nitrogen (Nmicro) in biomass of microorganisms. Soil microorganisms execute such ecosystem functions as: it is an immediate sink of labile biophil elements; it is an agent of a conversion, catalysis and synthesis of humus substances; it transforms soil contaminants into non-hazardous wastes; it participates in soil aggregation and pedogenesis as a whole. However, the seasonal turnover of microorganisms on arable lands in temperate ecosystems has not been investigated on a relevant level. Hence, we aimed to study the dynamics of such soil microbial biomass patterns as: Сmicro, Nmicro, microbial index (MI = (Сmicro/CTOC)·100, %) and CO2-C emission on the background of 9 years of tillage and 22 years of abandoned (Ab) and fallow (F) usage. Our study was conducted on a long-term experimental site on a Mollisol in the northeast China. The maximum Сmicro and Nmicro content was found: at the beginning of the growing season – in 0-10-; in mid-July – in 20-40 cm layers, while the minimum – in August-October. The Сmicro content ranged from 577.79- and 381.79 mg-1 kg-1 under Ab in spring to 229.53- and 272.86 mg-1 kg-1 in autumn under CT (conventional tillage) and F in 0-10- and 10-20 cm layers, respectively. The amplitude of Nmicro content changes was several times lower comparatively to Сmicro. The smallest quartile range (IQR0.25-0.75) of such changes was under: no-till (NT) and Ab in 0-10-, NT and F – in 10-20- and CT - in 20-40 cm layers. The widest Сmicro : Nmicro ratio was found at F and CT – in 0-20- and CT and rotational tillage (Rot) – in 20-40 cm layers. MI dynamics resembled the trends of Сmicro and Nmicro and changed from 0.72 0.168- tо 2.00 0,030 %. The highest part of Сmicro in CTOC was at Ab (1.82 1.85 %) and NT (1.66 1.52 %) – in 0-10-; Ab (1.23 1.27 %) and NT (1.29 1.32 %) – in 10-20- and – Ab (1.19 1.09 %) and F (1.11 1.077 %) – in 20-40 cm layers, correspondingly. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient between Сmicro and CTOC increased from the upper 0-10- to the lower 20-40 cm layer, it was "strong" and "high" between Сmicro and CTOC. Different use of Mollisol affected the amplitude of Сmicro and Nmicro seasonal changes, but it didn’t change their trend. Our results suggest the key role of Ab and NT technologies in Сmicro accumulation in total organic carbon (TOC).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0337.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Lower bed single row; plant weight; fruit texture; crop growth
Online: 18 November 2021 (17:31:31 CET)
Abstract: A lower bed single row for pineapple cultivation could protect pineapple from soil erosion in rainy season and during drought, however, disease problem could arise due to water logging. Two experiments using a lower bed single row was done to understand the ability of gypsum providing soil calcium (Ca) available to pineapple plant, resistance to heart rot disease, and give better effect on crop growth and fruit quality of the pineapple in Ultisol soil. In the first trial, four level dosis of gypsum (0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 Mg ha-1) and dolomite 2 Mg ha-1 were applied by spreading and incorporated into the soil which have saturated with inoculums of Phytophthora nicotianae. In the second trial, gypsum treatments (0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 Mg ha-1) were applied in the row between the single row beds as a basic fertilizer. The result showed that P. nicotianae attacked the pineapple plants in all treatments at 6 weeks after planting (WAP), and at 10 WAP, the mortality of dolomite treatment reached 63.8%, significantly different than that for gypsum treatments (3.3-14.3%). In the second experiment, gypsum increased plant weight significantly at 3 until 9 months after planting especially when it was applied 1.5-2.5 Mg ha-1. Fruit texture, total soluble solid (TSS), titratable acidity (TA) were not significant different among the treatment but all meet the standards for grades of canned pineapple. Result showed that soil applied gypsum before planting provides soil calcium and met the plant Ca requirement during a period of early and fast growth step and safe for heart rot disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0232.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Cyperus exculentus; Neglected/Underutilized Crop species; Biology; Uses; Production constraints
Online: 10 August 2021 (12:33:44 CEST)
Food security relies mainly on a few major crop such as wheat, maize, rice and yam. Many of the cultivated plant such as Cyperus exculentus are still considered invasive plants and are neglected and underutilized. In the perspective to valorization of the species, this systematic review aimed at identifying the biology, production constraints and uses of tigernut for future research directions. Extensive searches were carried out and studies were screened and extracted using established systematic review methods. A total of 175 papers met the inclusion criteria. Approximately 52% and 21.71% of the studies were undertaken in Europe and Africa respectively. Most of the papers reviewed for the study were published between [2010-2015[. The review highlighted the critical research gaps in genetic diversity using SSR makers and evolutionary biology. Further, production constraints and solution approaches for the promotion of the species were the other gaps identified in the reviewed studies. Production constraints were specifically related to the insufficient mineral fertilizers and difficult in harvesting. Tigernut is used in more fields such as food, medicinal, cosmetic, biofuel and fishing and fish breeding. Such investigations would help in decision-making and elaboration of breeding strategies, and advancing steps towards sustainable use of the species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0363.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: compost; high-throughput sequencing; sheep manure; soil properties; crop yield
Online: 14 April 2021 (08:06:52 CEST)
Microbial communities play a key role in sustainable agriculture. However, we still need more in-formation, to understand the complex response of the microbial community to long-term organic farming, which aims to reduce synthetic fertilizer and pesticide use in order to produce sustainably and improve soil quality. We have assessed the long-term effect of two organic cropping systems and a conventional system on the microbial soil community structure using high-throughput se-quencing analysis. We analyzed the link between these communities and changes in soil properties and crop yield. Results showed that the crop yield was similar among the three cropping systems. Soil properties, such as total organic carbon, nitrogen, ammonium, magnesium and boron, influ-enced changes in the bacterial community structure. A linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) showed different bacteria and fungi as key microorganism of each of the three different cropping systems, in addition, our results reflected that fungal community were more sensitive than bacteria to cropping system. This research provides an insight about changes occurred in soils, especially in microbial communities considering the effect of that changes in crop yield which were remained stable among the different cropping systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0144.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Cropland allocation, linear programming, Crop production performance, Smallholder, resource management
Online: 7 September 2018 (15:41:18 CEST)
Crop production is a major livelihood activity of smallholders in Ethiopia. However, it is often characterized by low performance. In an effort to improve crop production, a series of agricultural extension programs have been running in Ethiopia since the 1950s. Nevertheless, the performance of agriculture is still low. In this study, it is argued that the limited attention given to cropland allocation methodologies is one of the major causes of low performance of crop production and increased environmental degradation. This study used linear programming to examine the role and impacts of cropland allocation methods on performance of crop production. The data for this study was drawn from household survey of 75 randomly selected households combined with focus-grouped discussion, key informant interview, and secondary data. In the current conventional cropland allocation, households were not able to meet their household consumption. The average profitability of farms under current practice was found significantly below than estimated optimal level of profit that could be realized using linear programming. In addition, it uncovered that low performance of crop production (in terms of meeting household consumption demand and profitability) is the primary cause that limited the effort of households to participate in environmental and natural resource management. This study suggests the use of linear programming-based cropland allocation to enhance the profit performance of smallholder crop production, meeting household consumption requirement, and thereby promote sustainable utilization of natural and environmental resources.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0162.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: abscission layer; artificial selection; crop domestication; dehiscence; legumes; seed dispersal
Online: 11 June 2018 (15:28:54 CEST)
In wild habitats, fruit dehiscence is a critical strategy for seed dispersal; however, in cultivated crops it is one of the major sources of yield loss. Therefore, indehiscence of fruits, pods, etc., was likely to be one of the first traits strongly selected in crop domestication. Even with the historical selection against dehiscence in early domesticates, it is a trait still targeted in many breeding programs, particularly in minor or underutilized crops. Here, we review of this trait in pulse (grain legume) crops, which are of growing importance as a source of protein in human and livestock diets, and which have received less attention than cereal crops and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We specifically focus on the i) history of indehiscence in domestication across legumes, ii) structures and the mechanisms involved in shattering, iii) the molecular pathways underlying this important trait, iv) an overview of the extent of crop losses due to shattering, and the effects of environmental factors on shattering, and, v) efforts to reduce shattering in crops. While our focus is mainly pulse crops, we also included comparisons to crucifers and cereals because there is extensive research on shattering in these taxa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0198.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: UAV; multi-spectral; lychee; pruning; tree crop structure; change detection
Online: 16 April 2018 (08:56:39 CEST)
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide an unprecedented capacity to monitor the development and dynamics of tree growth and structure through time. It is generally thought that the pruning of tree crops encourages new growth, has a positive effect on fruiting, makes fruit-picking easier, and may increase yield, as it increases light interception and tree crown surface area. To establish the response of pruning in an orchard of lychee trees, an assessment of changes in tree structure, i.e. tree crown perimeter, width, height, area and Plant Projective Cover (PPC), was undertaken using multi-spectral UAV imagery collected before and after a pruning event. While tree crown perimeter, width and area could be derived directly from the delineated tree crowns, height was estimated from a produced canopy height model and PPC was most accurately predicted based on the NIR band. Pre- and post-pruning results showed significant differences in all measured tree structural parameters, including an average decrease in tree crown perimeter of 1.94 m, tree crown width of 0.57 m, tree crown height of 0.62 m, tree crown area of 3.5 m2, and PPC of 14.8%. In order to provide guidance on data collection protocols for orchard management, the impact of flying height variations was also examined, offering some insight into the influence of scale and the scalability of this UAV based approach for larger orchards. The different flying heights (i.e. 30, 50 and 70 m) produced similar measurements of tree crown width and PPC, while tree crown perimeter, area and height measurements decreased with increasing flying height. Overall, these results illustrate that routine collection of multi-spectral UAV imagery can provide a means of assessing pruning effects on changes in tree structure in commercial orchards, and highlight the importance of collecting imagery with consistent flight configurations, as varying flying heights may cause changes to tree structural measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0086.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: arsenic pollution; differential display; genes; resistance; rice crop; soil contamination
Online: 22 June 2017 (05:16:08 CEST)
The main objective of the present study was to investigate arsenate [As (V)] resistance genes in rice cultivars grown in arsenic contaminated Egyptian soil in order to genetically induce resistance against arsenic in the local rice varieties as well as defining contaminated rice grains and/or soil. Three local rice cultivars; Sakha 102-104 were cultivated on modified Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium (MS medium) containing elevated concentrations of arsenate (0.1, 1 and 10 mg/l). The three varieties showed different resistant attitudes against arsenate with Sakha 104 being the most resistant. Extracted messenger RNA (mRNA) from treated and untreated Sakha 104 plantlets was scanned using differential display to demonstrate the arsenate resistant genes using three different arbitrary primers. About 100 different RNAs with (1500 bp - 50 bp) were obtained from which seven were up-regulated genes, subjected to DNA cloning using TOPO TA system and the selected clones were sequenced. The sequence analysis described four genes out of the seven namely disease resistance protein RPM1, Epstein-Barr virus EBNA-1-like, CwfJ family protein and outer membrane lipoprotein OmlA while the other three genes were hypothetical proteins. It is concluded the four induced genes in the resistant rice cultivar considered as a direct response to arsenic soil pollution. Genes detected in the present study can be used as geno-sensors for rice grains and soil contamination with As (V). Moreover, local rice cultivars may be genetically modified with such genes to induce high resistance and to overcome arsenic soil pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1681.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: convolutional neural network; Fusarium wilt; transfer learning; ResNet-50; banana crop
Online: 25 September 2023 (11:29:36 CEST)
During the 1950s, the Gros Michel species of bananas were nearly wiped out by the incurable Fusarium Wilt, also known as Panama Disease. Originating in Southeast Asia, Fusarium Wilt is a banana pandemic that has been threatening the multi-billion-dollar banana industry worldwide. The disease is caused by a fungus that spreads rapidly throughout the soil and into the roots of banana plants. Currently, the only way to stop the spread of this disease is for farmers to manually inspect and remove infected plants as quickly as possible, whereas it is a time-consuming process. The main purpose of this study is to build a deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) using a transfer learning approach to rapidly identify fusarium wilt infections on banana crop leaves. We chose to use the ResNet50 architecture as the base CNN model for our transfer learning approach owing to its remarkable performance in image classification, which was demonstrated through its victory in the ImageNet competition. After its initial training and fine-tuning on a data set consisting of 300 healthy and diseased images, the CNN model achieved near-perfect accuracy of 0.99 and was fine-tuned to adapt the ResNet base model. ResNet50’s distinctive residual block structure could be the reason behind these results. To evaluate this CNN model, 500 test images, consisting of 250 diseased and healthy banana leaf images, were classified by the model. The deep CNN model was able to achieve an accuracy of 0.98 and an F-1 score of 0.98 by correctly identifying the class of 492 of the 500 images. These results show that this DCNN model outperforms existing models such as Sangeetha et al., 2023’s deep CNN model by at least 0.07 in accuracy and is a viable option for identifying Fusarium Wilt in banana crops.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0908.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: CRISPR technology; crop yield enhancement; genetic modification; sustainable agriculture; food security
Online: 13 July 2023 (10:12:05 CEST)
Crop yield enhancement is crucial for ensuring food security and meeting the growing global demand for agricultural products. The development of innovative technologies, such as CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats), has provided new avenues for precise genetic modifications in crops. In this research article, we explore the application of CRISPR technology for crop yield improvement. We discuss the methodology, present recent results, and engage in a comprehensive discussion of the potential benefits, challenges, and future prospects of CRISPR-mediated crop yield enhancement.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0451.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: plant-microbe interactions, signaling molecule, root exudate, disease suppression, crop production
Online: 7 July 2023 (08:33:10 CEST)
Plant roots host various microorganisms around and inside their roots, known as the root microbiome. To become healthy and productive, plants should keep under surveillance niches around the roots to recognize disease-causing microbes and similarly exploit the services of beneficial microorganisms in nutrient acquisition, stress mitigation and growth promotion. Here we presented the communication strategies between plant roots and root-associated microbes in improving plant growth and yield. Understanding how plant root and root-associated microbes communicate is vital in designing ecofriendly strategies for targeted disease suppression and improved plant growth that will help in sustainable agriculture.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0683.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Natural biostimulant; Solid-state fermentation; Organic waste; Sustainable agriculture; crop improvement
Online: 9 June 2023 (09:46:16 CEST)
Agriculture has been experiencing a difficult situation because of limiting factors in its production, Natural biostimulants (NBs) have emerged as a novel alternative. This study reviews NBs produced through Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) from organic waste, focusing on the processes and production methods. The aim is to highlight their potential for improving agricultural productivity and promoting sustainable agriculture. Through a literature review, the effects of NBS on crops were examined, as well as the challenges associated with their production and application. The importance of standardizing production processes, optimizing fermentation conditions, and assessing their effects on different crops is emphasized. Furthermore, future research areas are identified, such as enhancing production efficiency and evaluating the effectiveness of SSF-produced NBS in different agricultural systems. In conclusion, SSF-produced NBS offers a promising alternative for sustainable agriculture, but further research and development are needed to maximize its efficacy and enable large-scale implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0076.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: South Asian monsoon; rainy season, TIMESAT, APSIM, crop modeling, climate adaptation
Online: 3 November 2022 (09:24:42 CET)
The rice-wheat rotation is the dominant cropping system in Bihar, where food security of the rural population depends heavily on the production of rice and wheat. In Bihar, climatic shocks induced by low temperatures and terminal heat stress can significantly affect rice and wheat yields. The present work evaluates the benefit of using the monsoon onset as the date for planting rice in reducing thermal stress on rice-wheat systems. High-resolution gridded crop simulations using the APSIM model were performed to simulate potential yields of rice and wheat using the monsoon onset and the farmers’ practice as planting dates. The monsoon onset was calculated using an agronomic definition and farmers’ practice dates were estimated using satellite data. Model outputs were analyzed in terms of planting dates, yields, and the incidence of low temperature stress on rice and high temperature stress on wheat by means of the APSIM yields limiting factors. The results show that the rice planting and harvest dates using the monsoon onset are in general 20-30 days earlier, decreasing the incidence of thermal stress in rice and wheat, and generating higher and more stable yields. These results can help design mitigation strategies for the impacts of climate shocks induced by low and high temperature events in the context of the advances in sub-seasonal and seasonal forecasting, targeting climate services for farmers in Bihar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0316.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Precision farming; Early crop-type mapping; Sentinel-2; Random Forest; SVM
Online: 17 January 2022 (10:54:10 CET)
Crop-type mapping is an important intermediate step for cost-effective crop management at the field level, as an overview of all fields with a particular crop type can be used for monitoring or yield forecasting, for instance. Our study used a data set with 2400 fields and corresponding satellite observations from the federal state of Bavaria, Germany. The study classified corn, winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet, potato, and winter rapeseed as the main crops grown in Upper Bavaria. We additionally experimented with a rejection class "Other", which summarised further crop types. Corresponding Sentinel-2 data included the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and raw bands from 2016 to 2018 for each selected field. The influence of raw bands compared to NDVI was analysed and the classification algorithms, i.e. support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF), were compared. The study showed that the use of an index should be critically questioned and that raw bands provided a wider spectral bandwidth, which significantly improved the mapping of crop types. The results underline the use of RF with raw bands and achieved overall accuracies (OA) of up to 92%. We also predicted crop types in an unknown year with significantly different weather conditions and several months before the end of the growing season. Thus, the influence of climate anomalies and the accuracy depending on the time of prediction were assessed. The crop types of a test site and year without labels could be determined with an OA of up to 86%. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the proof-of-concept and its readiness for use in real applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0426.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Crop layout; Nutrient balance; Chemical fertilizer; Nutrient surpluses; Nutrient use efficiency
Online: 18 May 2021 (12:59:36 CEST)
Abstract: Estimating regional soils Nitrogen and phosphorus balance in cropland is essential to improve management practices, reduce environmental risks and develop sustainable agriculture. In this study,spatial and temporal variations in crop layout, the impact on soil N and P nutrient balance were assessed from 2000 to 2015 in the West Liaohe River Basin between 2000 and 2015. The result shows that the area of cropland is on the rise, and the spatial distribution of arable land is consistent with the distribution of the main tributaries of the West Liaohe River basin. The change in planting layout for maize and soybeans has a significant impact on the nutrient balance of farmland, which plays a critical role in modifying surplus nutrients. Nutrient surpluses on farmland were mostly concentrated in areas where maize planting layout changed between 2000 and 2015. The N nutrient surplus rate decreased by 39.3%, N utilization efficiency, increased by 70.7%; P nutrient surplus rate decreased by 3.8%, and P utilization efficiency increased by 49.3%. The average utilization efficiencies of N and P nutrients were 27.8% and 9.1%, respectively, and the utilization efficiency was low. Chemical manure is the main source of nutrients. The risk of phosphorus pollution was higher than the risk of nitrogen pollution in the West Liaohe River Basin. The lower Liaohe River Basin (below the Sujiapu) was the region with the most violent changes in nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient balance. It is recommended that reduce the amount of chemical fertilizer application, especially, reduce the amount of P application, improve the ef-ficiency of nutrient use, and focus on strengthening pollution control in key areas such as the West Liaohe River lower reaches basin (below Sujiabao), reducing the risk of agricultural nonpoint source pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0423.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: gene editing; mutagenesis; genetically modified; GMO; crop breeding; RNP; genetic screening
Online: 20 August 2020 (04:34:55 CEST)
CRISPR-Cas9 technology allows the modification of DNA sequences in vivo at the location of interest. Although CRISPR-Cas9 can produce genomic changes that do not require DNA vector carriers, the use of transgenesis for stable integration of DNA coding for gene-editing tools into plant genomes is still the most used approach and it can generate unintended transgenic integrations, while Cas9 prolonged expression can increase cleavage at off-target sites. In addition, the selection of genetically modified cells from millions of treated cells, especially plant cells, is still challenging. These downfalls can be avoided with the delivery of preassembled ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) composed of purified recombinant enzyme Cas9 and in vitro- transcribed guide RNA (gRNA) molecules in a protoplast system. We therefore aimed to develop the first DNA-free protocol for gene-editing in maize and introduced RNPs into their protoplasts with PEG 4000. We performed effective transformation of maize protoplasts using different gRNAs sequences targeting the inositol phosphate kinase gene and applying two different exposure times to RNPs. Using low-cost Sanger sequencing protocol, we observed an efficiency rate of 0.85 up to 5.85%, which is equivalent to DNA-free protocols used in other plant species. A positive correlation was displayed between exposure time and mutation frequency. Mutation frequency was gRNA sequence- and exposure time-dependent. In summary, we demonstrated the suitability of RNP transfection as an effective screening platform for gene-editing in maize. This efficient and relatively easy assay method for selection of gRNA suitable for editing of gene of interest will be highly useful for genome editing in maize, since genome size and GC-content are large and high in maize genome, respectively. Nevertheless, the large amplitude of mutations at target site requires scrutiny when checking mutations at off-target sites and potential safety concerns.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Climate change; crop production; maize; beans; Just and Pope model; Zambia
Online: 21 November 2019 (10:39:38 CET)
Farming systems prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa are exposed and vulnerable to climate change due to their high dependence on rainfall. However, most studies have only estimated the impacts of climate change on agricultural productivity at a regional or national level. We add to this literature by focussing on the sub-national impacts. This study uses 30 years (1981–2011) of yield and weather data in Zambia and applies the Just and Pope model to determine how rainfall and temperature affect yield and yield variability of maize and beans at the national and subnational levels. Results show a negative impact of temperature rise on yield and a positive impact of rainfall rise on yield, above the current mean levels. These results differ by agro-ecological region. Worst-case-scenario predicted impacts using HadGEM-ES2 global circulation model show that major yield decreases (25% for maize and 34% for beans) by 2050 will be in region II and will be driven mainly by temperature increase offsetting the positive gains from rainfall increase. The model mainly under-predicts yield for maize and overpredicts yield for beans. These findings call for agro-ecological region-specific adaptation strategies and well-planned policy interventions to make agriculture more resilient to climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0117.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Differential Evolution Algorithm; Crop Planning; Economic Crops; Improvement Differential Evolution algorithm
Online: 6 July 2018 (14:03:42 CEST)
This research presents a solution to the problem of planning the optimum area for economic crops by developed mathematical models and developed an algorithm to solve the problem of planning the optimum area by considered economic value for the maximize profit of farmers. The data were collected from farmers in 8 provinces in the northeastern region of Thailand. The 3 economic crops studied were rice, cassava and sugarcane. The solving problem methods were 1) Created mathematical models and solved the problems with Lingo V.11. 2) Improved Differential Evolution algorithms (I-DE) to solve the problems, which had 3 local search methods included (Swap, Cyclic Move and K-variable moves). The results of this study showed that in the small and medium problems instances, Lingo V.11 and DE provided equal profit outcome but DE was faster but in the large size of test instances DE generated better solution than that of Lingo v.11 when Lingo simulation time is set to 250 hours and DE simulation time has set to maximum 21.82 minutes. 2) Comparing DE and I-DE , I-DE outperforms DE in finding the better solution for all size of test instances (small, medium and large).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0229.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Anthracnose fruit rot; Colletotrichum acutatum; Diagnostics; crop protection; sustainable management techniques; strawberry
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:08:31 CEST)
Anthracnose and root rot are major foliar and root diseases of strawberry, respectively that cause most yield and quality losses. Anthracnose is caused by multiple species belonging to Colletotrichum spp complex. This disease alone can causeup to 70% yield loss in North America. Colletotrichum spp. cause several disease symptoms on strawberries, including root, fruit, and crown rot, lesions on petioles and runners, and irregular black spots on the leaf. In many cases, a lower level of infection on foliage remains non-symptomatic (quiescent), posing a challenge to growers as these plants can be a significant source of inoculum for the fruiting field. Reliable detection methods for quiescent infection should play an important role in preventing infected plants' entry into the production system or guiding growers to take appropriate preventative measures to control the disease. The selection of highly effective fungicides and including them in a schedule to prevent the development of fungicide resistance in fungal populations will remain an area of continued research. Disease management methods should entail sensitive molecular testing of suspected fungal isolates for resistance, rotation of products, and monitoring of quiescent infections in transplant materials. Testing and the inclusion of non-chemical methods such as biologicals and biorational treatments especially for soilborne pathogens will also be necessary to make disease management economically feasible and sustainable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0036.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: long-term experiment; shear strength; soil aggregate stability; straw return; cover crop
Online: 1 August 2023 (09:54:32 CEST)
This study investigates the long-term impact of soil tillage systems and crop residue incorporation on agrophysical properties. A long-term field experiment has been conducted since 1999 at the Ex-perimental Station of Vytautas Magnus University Agriculture Academy. According to the latest edition of the International Soil Classification System, the soil in the experimental field was classified as Planosol, with a silty medium loam texture at a depth of 0–20 cm and a silty light loam at a depth of 20–40 cm. This investigation aimed to assess the long-term impact of reduced tillage systems, straw, and green manure combinations on soil physical properties, including soil shear strength, and soil aggregate stability. Studies were carried out on winter wheat crops in 2014, 2017, and 2023. The treatments were arranged using a split-plot design. In a two-factor field experiment, one part of the experimental field had straw removed, while the other part had the entire straw yield chopped and spread at harvest (Factor A). The subplot factor (Factor B) included three different tillage sys-tems: conventional deep ploughing, cover cropping for green manure with no-till, and no-tillage. Soil samples were analysed in the Laboratory of Agrobiology at Vytautas Magnus University Ag-riculture Academy. The findings indicate that long-term application of reduced tillage significantly increases soil shear strength. Shallower tillage depths lead to higher soil shear strength, while the effect of spreading plant residues is relatively lower. Long-term tillage of different intensities, spreading plant residues, and catch crop cultivation for green manure did not significantly affect soil structure. However, soil structural stability was found to be highly dependent on soil tillage. Cover cropping for green manure with no-till and no-tillage positively affected soil aggregate sta-bility in the upper (0–10 cm) and 10–25 cm layers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1686.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Microbial biofertilizers; microbial symbioses; plant interactions; crop resistance; plant stimulation; sustainable agriculture
Online: 26 July 2023 (02:47:09 CEST)
In sustainable agriculture, plant nutrients are the most important elements. Biofertilizers introduce microorganisms that improve the soil nutrients and increase their accessibility to crops. In order to meet the demands of a growing population, healthy crops need to be produced using the right type of fertilizers to provide them with all the major nutrients they require. However, an increasing dependency on chemical fertilizers is destroying the environment and negatively af-fecting the health of humans. Thus, using microbes as bioinoculants as the best replacement of chemical fertilizers as eco-friendly way for plant growth and soil fertility is believed to be the best method for improving plant growth and soil fertility. In sustainable agriculture, these microbes provide significant benefits to crops. In addition to colonizing plant systems (epiphytic, endo-phytic, and rhizospheric), beneficial microbes play a key role in absorbing nutrients from surrounding ecosystems. Plant associate microbes can promote plant growth regardless of natural and extreme conditions. Plant growth promoting microbes promote plant growth through a variety of direct and indirect methods, such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth hormone production, siderophores, HCN, several hydrolytic enzymes, and potassium, zinc, and phosphorus solubilization. Research on biofertilizers has been extensive and even available, which demonstrates how these microbes can deliver nutrients to crops in sufficient quantities to enhance their yield. This review examines in detail the direct and indirect mechanisms of PGPR action and their interaction in plant growth and resistance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0404.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Abiotic stress; biotic stress; biotechnology; climate change; CRISPR; crop improvement; genome editing
Online: 26 July 2022 (10:44:22 CEST)
Climate change poses a serious threat to global agricultural activity and food production. To address this issue, plant genome editing technologies have been developed to provide an alternative solution for crop improvement. Unlike conventional breeding techniques (e.g., selective breeding and mutation breeding), modern genome editing tools offer more targeted and specific alterations of the plant genome to produce crops with desired traits, such as higher yield and/or stronger resilience to the changing environment. In this review, we discuss the current development and future applications of genome editing technologies in mitigating the impacts of biotic and abiotic stresses on agriculture. We focus specifically on the CRISPR/Cas system, which has been the center of attention in the last few years as a revolutionary genome-editing tool in various species. We also conducted a bibliographic analysis on CRISPR-related papers published from 2012 to 2021 (10 years) to identify trends and possible gaps in the CRISPR/Cas-related plant research. In addition, this review article outlines the current shortcomings and challenges of employing genome editing technologies in agriculture with notes on future prospective. We believe combining conventional and more innovative technologies in agriculture would be the key to optimizing crop improvement beyond the limitations of traditional agricultural practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0157.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: crop-improvement; population genetics; weed suppression; sustainable weed management; Palmer amaranth; glyphosate
Online: 9 December 2021 (14:50:33 CET)
Increasing agricultural productivity is indispensable to meet future food demand. Crop im-provement programs rely heavily on genetic diversity. The success of weeds in the ecosystem can be attributed to genetic diversity and plasticity. Weedy rice, a major weed of rice, has diverse morphology and phenology, implying wide genetic diversity. Study was conducted to genotype weedy rice accessions (n =54) previously phenotyped for herbicide tolerance and allelopathic potential using 30 SSR markers. Cultivated rice (CL163, REX) and allelopathic rice (RONDO, PI312777, PI338047) were also included in the study. Nei’s genetic diversity among weedy rice (0.45) was found to be higher than cultivated rice (0.24) but less than allelopathic rice (0.56). The genetic relationship and population structure based on herbicide tolerance and allelopathic po-tential were evaluated. Herbicide-tolerant and susceptible accessions formed distinct clusters in the dendrogram, indicating their genetic variation, whereas no distinction was observed between allelopathic and non-allelopathic weedy rice accessions. Weedy rice accession B2, which was previously reported to have high allelopathy and herbicide tolerance, was genetically distinct from other weedy rice. Results from the study will help leverage weedy rice for rice improvement programs as both rice and weedy rice are closely related, thus having a low breeding barrier.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0183.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: precision agriculture; active crop canopy sensors; proximal remote sensing; variable rate fertilization
Online: 12 October 2021 (12:56:37 CEST)
Variable nitrogen(N) rate fertilization based on remote sensing is challenging for cotton production fields, but active crop canopy sensors (ACS) appear as an alternative to make this practical on farm since they can be used at night as well. The crop spatial variability in inherent in crop production in general, and not on-the-go solutions can be used with this type of active sensing technologies. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of two vegetation indices to identify the N requirement variability for cotton plants and to develop prototype algorithms for topdressing nitrogen variable rate on commercial and experimental areas, using the N-sufficiency methodology based on virtual reference. The concept of virtual reference is to use a histogram to characterize the vegetation index of properly fertilized plants without establishing an N-rich plot as a reference strip. The experiment was conducted in strips with four different N rates (0, 45, 90 and 180 kgN ha-1) during the 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018 crop seasons in partnership with large cotton producers in Mato Grosso and also in experimental area of Embrapa Agrosilvopastoral. Two algorithms for variable rate nitrogen fertilization for cotton were developed, namely: 1) N recommendation algorithm for cotton in commercial production system: N rate (kg.N ha-1) = -234.79 ISN2 + 49,879 ISN + 195.15; R² = 0.97; and 2) for cotton grown in experimental area: N dose (kgN ha-1) = -174.73 ISN2 - 107.21 ISN + 306.78; R² = 0.94.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0033.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: CRISPR interference; CRISPR/dCas9 system; crop improvement; gene silencing; RNAi; transcriptional regulation
Online: 1 February 2021 (13:31:04 CET)
RNA-guided genomic transcriptional regulation tools, namely Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats interference (CRISPRi) and CRISPR-mediated gene activation (CRISPRa), are a powerful technology for the field of functional genomics. Deriving from the CRISPR/Cas9 system, both systems comprise a catalytically dead Cas9 (dCas9) and a single guide RNA (sgRNA). This type of dCas9 is incapable of cleaving DNA but retains its ability to specifically bind to DNA. The binding of the dCas9/sgRNA complex to a target gene results in transcriptional interference. The CRISPR/dCas9 system has been explored as a tool for transcriptional modulation and genome imaging. Despite its potential applications and benefits, the challenges and limitations faced by the CRISPR/dCas9 system include the off-target effects, PAM sequence requirement, efficient delivery methods, and the CRISPR/dCas9-interfered crops being labeled as genetically modified organisms in several countries. This review highlights the progression of CRISPR/dCas9 technology as well as its applications and potential challenges in crop improvement.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Sustainable intensification; crop diversification; COVID-19; food security; nutrition security; water security
Online: 8 September 2020 (10:21:33 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic is adversely impacting food and nutrition security and requires urgent attention from policymakers. Sustainable intensification of agriculture is one strategy that attempts to increase food production without adversely impacting the environment, by shifting from water-intensive crops to other climate-resistant and nutritious crops. This paper focuses on the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh by studying the impact of shifting 20% of the area under paddy and cotton cultivation to other crops like millets and pulses. Using FAO’s CROPWAT model, along with monsoon forecasts and detailed agricultural data, we simulate the crop water requirements across the study area. We simulate a business-as-usual base case and compare it to multiple crop diversification strategies using various parameters – food, calories, protein production, as well as groundwater and energy consumption. Results from this study indicate that reduced paddy cultivation decreases groundwater and energy consumption by around 9-10%., and a calorie deficit between 4-8% - making up this calorie deficit requires a 20-30% improvement in the yields of millets and pulses. We also propose policy interventions to incentivize the cultivation of nutritious and climate-resistant crops as a sustainable strategy towards strengthening food and nutrition security while lowering the environmental footprint of food production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0531.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: ocimum sanctum; alternative livelihoods; crop depredation; out-scaling; tulsi; value chain development
Online: 23 October 2018 (09:51:17 CEST)
This study assesses the pursued impacts of Tulsi value chain development intervention on the livelihoods of rural poor in Uttarakhand state of India. Tulsi as an alternative livelihood, particularly for the rural poor, is less explored. With increased crop depredation of major cereal crops grown in the district by wild animals and pests, and decreasing availability of water agriculture, attempts were made to improve earnings from Tulsi as an alternative livelihood. Findings suggest that the average households’ gross profit from Tulsi farming increases by more than double within a span of two years. Total crop income of beneficiary farmers’ increases by 0.8 percent for every 1 percent increase in Tulsi income. Intervention helped enhance productivity of Tulsi, thereby enhancing earnings from Tulsi farming. Most importantly, intervention has shown a tremendous adoption rate. Towards the end of the intervention, the value chain work was out-scaled to another 19 villages in Chamoli district, thereby reaching out to more than 400 households.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0331.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: n/a; airborne hyperspectral images, Sentinel-2, k-means, random forest, crop recognition
Online: 20 February 2023 (08:31:21 CET)
This study aimed to investigate the possibility of using one-shot hyperspectral airborne images to recognize crops for an area with many small plots. The results showed that unsupervised clustering methods could classify crops with an accuracy of 80%, which improved to 90% when restricted to only grain crops, using a single airborne hyperspectral recording. However, additional layers such as NDVI, DTM, slope, and aspect did not improve classification accuracy. For comparison, the accuracy of clustering time series Sentinel-2 images with NDVI layers and DTM-derived data yielded an accuracy of: 74% ,Sentinel-2 time series 68% and single one registration before harvest - 39%. The results of the random forest classification were slightly less accurate due to a lack of sufficient reference data. However, it is challenging to verify the reported accuracy of crop recognition in the literature above 90% due to differences in analysis methodologies, reference data selection, pixel/object approaches, metric choice, and calculation formulas used.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0117.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: abiotic stress tolerance; base editing; CRISPR/Cas9; crop production; gene editing; prime editing
Online: 8 September 2022 (03:31:39 CEST)
Abiotic stresses, including drought, salinity, cold, heat, and heavy metals, extensively reduce global agricultural production. Approaches such as conventional breeding and transgenic breeding have been widely used to cope with these environmental stresses. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat- Cas (CRISPR/Cas) based gene-editing tool has revolutionized due to its simplicity, accessibility, adaptability, flexibility, and wide applicability. This system has a great potential to build up crop varieties with enhanced tolerance against abiotic stresses. In this review, we summarize the most recent findings on understanding the mechanism of abiotic stress response in plants and the application of CRISPR/Cas mediated gene-editing system towards enhanced tolerance to drought, salinity, cold, heat, and heavy metals stresses. Furthermore, in this review, we highlighted the recent advancements in prime editing and base editing tools for crop improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0509.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Perilla crop; genetic resources; morphological traits; principal component analysis; SSR marker; genetic variation
Online: 22 July 2021 (08:04:28 CEST)
Using morphological characteristics and SSR markers, we evaluated the morphological and genetic variation of 200 Perilla accessions collected from the five regions of South Korea and other region. In morphological characteristics analysis, particularly, leaf color, stem color, degree of pubescence, leaf size were found to be useful for distinguishing the characteristics of native Perilla accessions cultivated in South Korea. A total of 137 alleles were identified in the 20 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and the number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 13, and the average number of alleles per locus was 6.85. The average gene diversity (GD) was 0.649, with a range of 0.290-0.828. From analysis of SSR markers, accessions from the Jeolla-do and Gyeongsang-do regions showed comparatively high genetic diversity values compared with those from other regions in South Korea. In the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis, the 200 Perilla accessions were found to cluster into three major groups and an outgroup with a genetic similarity of 42%, and did not showed a clear geographic structure from the five regions of South Korea. Therefore, it is believed that landrace Perilla seeds are frequently exchanged by farmers through various routes between the five regions of South Korea. The results of this study are expected to provide useful information for conservation of these genetic resources and selection of useful resources for the development of varieties for seeds and leafy vegetables of cultivated var. frutescens of Perilla crop in South Korea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0584.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: controlled atmosphere (CA) storage; crop load; internal browning disorders; receiver operating characteristic (ROC)
Online: 25 February 2021 (13:45:54 CET)
Physiological storage disorders continue to cause sizable economic losses in a range of commercially important pomefruit cultivars. Given similar storage regimes, the incidence and severity of browning disorders in the apple cultivar ‘Braeburn’ can vary in different years in a way that can be explained by the interaction of preharvest seasonal and orchard factors. Over a three-year period (2016 to 2019) at the Kompetenzzentrum Obstbau-Bodensee (KOB) in Southwest Germany a range of orchard and storage treatments were conducted for: air temperature during cell division for three weeks post petalfall or during four weeks preharvest, calcium orchard sprays, crop load and harvest timings. Following controlled atmosphere (CA) storage, the disorder incidence for internal browning and cavity formation varied markedly over the three different growing seasons. Crop load treatments strongly influenced the expression of browning disorders in all years. Differences in air temperatures (△ +/- 2 °C compared to ambient) during the cell division period showed little effect on browning incidence. Warm night temperatures (>10 °C) prior to harvest can reduce internal browning in ‘Braeburn’ apples during CA storage and shelf-life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0616.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: abiotic stress; crop improvement; drought; nitric oxide; S-nitrosylation; signaling molecule; water deficit
Online: 29 January 2021 (12:14:53 CET)
Water deficit caused by drought is a significant threat to crop growth and production. Nitric oxide (NO), a water- and lipid-soluble free radical, plays an important role in cytoprotection. Apart from a few studies supporting the role of NO in drought responses, little is known about this pivotal molecular amendment in the regulation of abiotic stress signaling. In this review, we highlight the knowledge gaps in NO roles under drought stress and the technical challenges underlying NO detection and measurements, and we provide recommendations regarding potential avenues for future investigation. The modulation of NO production to alleviate abiotic stress disturbances in higher plants highlights the potential of genetic manipulation to influence NO metabolism as a tool with which plant fitness can be improved under adverse growth conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0532.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Biotic stress; Abiotic stress; climate change; Plant Transcription Factors; Food Security; Crop Improvement
Online: 26 October 2020 (14:26:31 CET)
Crop plants should be resilient to climatic factors in order to feed ever-increasing populations. Plants have developed stress-responsive mechanisms by changing their metabolic pathways and switching the stress-responsive genes. The discovery of plant transcriptional factors (TFs) as key regulators of different biotic and abiotic stresses have opened up new horizons for plant scientists. TFs perceive the signal and switch certain stress-responsive genes on and off by binding to different cis-regulatory elements. The above 50 species of plant TFs have been reported in nature. DREB, bZIP, MYB, NAC, Zinc-finger, HSF, Dof, WRKY, and NF-Y are important with respect to biotic and abiotic stresses whereas the role of many TFs is yet to explore. In this review, we summarize the role of different stress-responsive TFs with respect to biotic and abiotic stresses. Further, challenges and future opportunities linked with TFs for developing climate-resilient crops are also elaborated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0134.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Triticum aestivum; carbon dioxide; minerals; protein; starch; baking properties; crop quality; food security
Online: 31 January 2017 (11:49:41 CET)
Elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2) stimulates wheat grain yield, but simultaneously reduces protein (N) concentration. Also other essential nutrients are subject to change. This study is a comprehensive synthesis of wheat experiments with eCO2, estimating effects on N, minerals (B, Ca, Cd, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Zn), and starch. Analysis was made by i) deriving response functions for the relative effect on element concentration in relation to CO2 concentration, ii) meta-analysis to test the magnitude and significance of observed effects, and iii) relating CO2 effects on minerals to effects on N and grain yield. Responses range from zero to strong negative effects of eCO2 on mineral concentration, with largest reductions for the nutritionally important elements N, Fe, S, Zn and Mg. Together with the positive but small and non-significant effect on starch concentration, the large variation in effects suggests that CO2-induced responses cannot be explained by a simple dilution model. To explain the observed pattern, uptake and transport mechanisms may have to be considered, along with the link of different elements to N uptake. Our study shows that eCO2 has a significant effect on wheat grain stoichiometry, with implications for human nutrition in a world of rising CO2.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1207.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: plant butenolides; karrikins; seed germination; plant ecology; crop physiology; plant development; swailing; vegetation restoration
Online: 17 August 2023 (03:13:14 CEST)
Fire-related cues could alter vegetation community composition by promoting or excluding different types of plants. Smoke-derived compounds have been a hot topic in plant and crop physiology. There are some fire-prone areas in Australia, both Americas, some Mediterranean countries and regions with extensive prescribed or illegal burning like central European, which are subjected to a direct impact of fire (heat, minerals accumulation from the burning matter) and/or the indirect one (smoke) and undergo compositional and structural changes. This review first updates information about the effect of the compounds on plants' kingdoms and focuses on the research advances in the field of smoke compounds and attempts to gather and summarize the recent state of research and opinions on the role of smoke-derived compounds in plants' lives. We finish our review by discussing major research gaps, which include: Why plants respond to smoke chemicals? Is the response of seeds to smoke and smoke compounds an evolutionary-driven trait allowing plants to adapt to local environment?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0292.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: crop production; agricultural production; time series forecasting; artificial intelligence; transformer; machine learning; deep learning
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:34:48 CEST)
Accurate prediction of crop production is essential in effectively managing agricultural countries' food security and economic resilience. This study evaluates the performance of statistical and machine learning-based methods for large-scale crop production forecasting. We predict the quarterly production of 325 crops (including fruits, vegetables, cereals, non-food, and industrial crops) across 83 provinces in the Philippines. Using a comprehensive dataset of 10,949 time series over 13 years, we demonstrate that a global forecasting approach using a state-of-the-art deep learning architecture, the transformer, significantly outperforms traditional local forecasting approaches built on statistical and baseline methods. By leveraging cross-series information, our proposed way is scalable and works well even with time series that are short, sparse, intermittent, or exhibit structural breaks/regime shifts. The results of this study further advance the field of applied forecasting in agricultural production and provide a practical and effective decision-support tool for policymakers that oversee the farm sector on a national scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0097.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: orphan crop; genotyping-by-sequencing; inbreeding; pre-breeding; population genetics; DArTseq; isolation by distance
Online: 4 September 2020 (11:11:37 CEST)
Kersting’s groundnut is an important source of protein and essential nutrients that contribute to food security in West Africa. However, the crop is still underexploited by the populations and under-researched by the scientific community. This study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of 217 Kersting’s groundnut accessions from five origins using 886 DArTseq markers. Gene diversity was low and ranged from 0.049 to 0.064. The number of private alleles greatly varied among populations (42–192) and morphotypes (40–339). Moderate to very high levels of selfing and inbreeding were observed among populations (s=56–85%, FIS=0.389–0.736) and morphotypes (s=57–82%, FIS=0.400–0.691). Moreover, little to very high genetic differentiations were observed among populations (0.006≤FIS≤0.371) and morphotypes (0.029≤FIS≤0.307). Analysis of molecular variance partitioned 38.5% of the genetic variation among and 48.7% within populations (P<0.001). Significant isolations by distance were detected between populations (R2=0.612, P=0.011) and accessions (R2=0.499, P<0.001). Discriminant analysis of principal components and neighbour joining consistently distinguished eight distinct clusters. These data provide a global picture of the existing genetic diversity for Kersting’s groundnut and will guide the choice of breeding strategies to increase production.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Hybrid machine learning; artificial neural networks; imperialist competitive algorithm; gray wolf optimization; crop yield
Online: 24 February 2020 (14:00:43 CET)
Prediction of crop yield is essential for food security policymaking, planning, and trade. The objective of the current study is to propose novel crop yield prediction models based on hybrid machine learning methods. In this study, the performance of artificial neural networks-imperialist competitive algorithm (ANN-ICA) and artificial neural networks-gray wolf optimizer (ANN-GWO) models for the crop yield prediction is evaluated. According to the results, ANNGWO, with R of 0.48, RMSE of 3.19, and MEA of 26.65, proved a better performance in the crop yield prediction compared to the ANN-ICA model. The results can be used by either practitioners, researchers or policymakers for food security.