REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0369.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Law and Psychology; Law and Economics; Behavioral Economics; Behavioral Law and Economics
Online: 23 September 2022 (09:35:18 CEST)
This paper reinterprets, differently from the existing literature, the relationship between law and economics not from the point of view of a lawyer-economist but rather from the point of view of an economist-mathematician, and it raises a methodological issue. To do so, some of the elements of the theory of sets are borrowed to argue that behavioral economics, its application to behavioral law and economics, and behavioral economists have generalized the pioneering work of Judge Calabresi, with reference to the famous books ‘Tragic Choices’ and ‘The Future of Law and Economics – Essays in Reform and Recollection’. Even if the usage of the theory of sets made in this paper is intuitive, some of its basics are reviewed in the appendix.
Online: 20 July 2022 (11:48:51 CEST)
Depression continues to be a glaring global challenge. The most worrisome trend is eating up the youthful generation more than anyone could predict years back. As Addis & Martell (2004) note, these adolescents end up succumbing to conditions that can be traced wholly from depression. Behavioral activation can be a rewarding intervention that will go a long way in cutting down on these cases and ensure the youthful global population's lives are safeguarded if applied and monitored to ensure correct and collective implementation processes and systems. The insights and arguments presented in the research paper will focus on the utility of behavioral activation in reducing depression cases among adolescents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0223.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Behavioral nudges; water conservation; technology; water efficiency
Online: 11 August 2022 (13:37:12 CEST)
Growing water shortages for large regions of the arid regions of the world, are likely to become more recurrent as climate change impacts grow. Countries across the world are facing water security difficulties that stem from population growth, urbanization, and rapid industrialization. The use of behavioral nudges methods implemented to encourage a socially desired behavior at a low to zero cost, has been an effective method at reducing water consumption in places where they have been deployed. For example, studies in California USA, Barcelona Spain, and Australia indicate that adoption of nudges give significant positive results in water consumption reduction. We describe some of the barriers that make it difficult to implement behavioral nudges to address the water crises in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We investigate the literature available in Sub-Saharan Africa and discover that the application of behavioral nudges has been sparingly used for reasons that are not obvious at first glance. Second, we find that the potential impediments to the use of behavioral nudges in SSA to be awareness, inadequate access to science and technology, political systems that are poorly suited for implementing nudging, abundance of multiple ethnic groups that speak different languages, along with other barriers that could challenge implementation of behavioral nudges. In light of those barriers, we present a conceptual model with a potential to address these barriers to behavioral nudging a workable solution in SSA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0089.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Social rhythm; Behavioral rhythm; Well-being; Old adults
Online: 6 May 2021 (14:27:34 CEST)
Social and behavioral rhythms (SBRs) are related to circadian rhythms well known as central points in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorders. The purpose is to verify in elderly people if having functional SBRs correlated with a positive perception of the quality of life (QoL) and health parameters and if there was an association between dysfunctionality of SBRs and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Sample: 141 people aged 65 years (58,9%Female). Each subject was submitted to SBRs Scale (in which higher scores show more dysfunctional SRB); SF-12 for QoL; PHQ-9 for depressive symptoms and underwent blood levels essays including cholesterol and triglyceride. The medical documented lifetime diagnosis including Major Depressive Disorder was taken into account. SBRs Scale score correlated inversely with SF-12 score (r=-0.360, p<0.0001) and positively with PHQ9 (r=0.396, p<0.0001). Lifetime MDD medical diagnosis was associated with a higher score at scale on social rhythms (24.811.9 vs 20.18.0, F=15.848, p<0.0001).The study highlighted, for the first time, that SBRs such as sleep, and nutrition have a role in well-being and that dysregulation of SBRs is related to MDD. Further longitudinal studies with a sufficient number of individuals will have to confirm these data and clarify causal links of the association between QoL and SBRs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0035.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: social relationships; matriliny; patriliny; cooperation; evolution; behavioral ecology
Online: 1 April 2021 (17:36:42 CEST)
Although cooperative social networks are considered key to human evolution, emphasis has most often been placed on the functions of male cooperative networks. As a result, gender differences in social networks are under-studied and remain incompletely theorized. Variation in kinship systems may be leveraged to test and generate hypotheses that explain the causes and effects of variation in gendered social networks. Specifically, by linking socio-ecological drivers to variation in kinship systems, human behavioral ecology provides a framework to anticipate and explain divergent patterns in gendered social networks within different kinship ecologies. In this paper, we test the ‘universal gender differences’ hypothesis positing gender-specific network structures against the ‘gender reversal’ hypothesis that women’s social networks in matriliny will more closely resemble those of men’s in patriliny. We compare these hypotheses using tools from social network analyses and data on men’s and women’s social networks in matrilineal and patrilineal Mosuo communities. In support of the gender reversal hypothesis, we find that women’s networks in matriliny are more similar to men’s in patriliny. Specifically, women in matriliny have higher edge density than do men, and women have higher measures of degree centralization than do men in matriliny whereas patrilineal men have higher measures of centrality than do women. Additionally, we find that geographic proximity and relatedness together predict women’s friendships in patriliny whereas relatedness predominates in matriliny. Finally, we find that friendship predicts ties in other domains of cooperation and social support. These results support the idea that the socio-ecological factors that result in different kinship systems also impact the ways that men and women operate within these systems, underscoring the importance of human flexibility in family making, and challenging the predominant narrative of universal gender differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0461.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: behavioral problems; calcium; child; maternal intake; prebirth cohort
Online: 27 August 2018 (13:32:41 CEST)
In recent years, more attention has been paid to behavioral problems in children. However, for the most part, risk factors for these problems have yet to be determined. The current prebirth cohort study investigated the relationship between maternal calcium consumption during pregnancy and behavioral problems in five-year-old Japanese children. Subjects were 1199 mother-child pairs. Dietary intake was assessed using a diet history questionnaire. Emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity problems, and peer problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for four behavioral problems under study according to the quartile of calcium intake, with the lowest quartile as the reference. Adjustment was made for maternal age, gestation at baseline, region of residence at baseline, number of children at baseline, maternal and paternal education, household income, maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy, maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, maternal smoking during pregnancy, child's age, child's birth weight, postnatal secondhand smoke exposure at home during the first year of life, and breastfeeding duration. Higher maternal calcium intake during pregnancy was independently associated with a decreased risk of childhood emotional and hyperactivity problems; the adjusted ORs between extreme quartiles (95% CIs, P for trend) were 0.46 (0.27–0.79, 0.01) and 0.60 (0.37–0.97, 0.046). No such inverse associations were observed for childhood conduct problems or peer problems. Maternal calcium intake during pregnancy may decrease the risk of childhood emotional and hyperactivity problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0094.v3
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: cue-approach; decision making; behavioral change; preferences; emotion
Online: 23 October 2017 (03:42:21 CEST)
Recent findings show that preferences for food items can be modified without external-reinforcements using the cue-approach task. In the task, the mere association of food item images with a neutral auditory cue and a speeded button press, resulted in enhanced preferences for the associated stimuli. Here, in a series of 10 independent samples with a total of 255 participants, we show we can enhance preferences using this non-reinforced method for faces, fractals and affective images as well as snack foods, using auditory, visual and even aversive cues. This change was highly durable in follow-up sessions performed one to six months after training. Preferences were successfully enhanced for all conditions, except for negative valence items. These findings promote our understanding of non-reinforced change, suggest a boundary condition for the effect and lay the foundation for development of novel applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0428.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Illumina Infinium Methylation EPIC array; rearing; behavioral style; primate
Online: 27 October 2022 (08:49:02 CEST)
While low serotonergic activity is often associated with psychological disorders like depression, anxiety, mood and personality disorders, variations in serotonin also contribute to normal personality differences. Here we investigate the role of blood DNA methylation levels at individual CpG sites of two key serotonergic genes (serotonin receptor gene 1A, HTR1A; serotonin transporter gene, SLC6A4) in predicting personality of captive chimpanzees. We find associations between methylation at 9/48 CpG sites with four personality dimensions: Dominance, Reactivity/Dependability, Agreeableness and Openness. Directionality of effects were CpG location-dependent and confirmed a role of serotonergic methylation in reducing anxiety (Dominance) and aggression related personality (Reactivity/Undependability) while simultaneously promoting prosocial (Agreeableness) and exploratory personality (Openness). While early-life adversity has been shown to impact serotonergic methylation patterns in other species, here, atypical early social rearing experiences only had a modest impact on CpG methylation levels in this chimpanzee sample. While the precise environmental factors impacting serotonergic methylation in chimpanzees thus remain to be identified, our study suggests a role in shaping natural variation in animal personality. The results of this study offer a basis for future hypothesis driven testing in additional populations and species to better understand the impact of ecology and evolution on complex behavioral traits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0390.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: COVID-19; vibraimage; behavioral parameters; diagnosis accuracy; ANN; AI
Online: 22 September 2021 (16:28:12 CEST)
The Covid-19 pandemic spreads in waves for a year and a half, despite significant worldwide efforts, the development of biochemical diagnostic methods and population vaccination. One of the reasons for the infection spread is the impossibility of early disease detection through biochemical diagnostics, since biochemical processes slowly develop in a body. At the same time, well known that behavioral characteristics of a person, measured based on reflex movements, are capable for inertialess assessment of psychophysiological parameters. Vibraimage technology is the method of head micromovements video processing by inter-frame difference accumulation and converting spatial and temporal characteristics of the inter-frame difference into behavioral and psychophysiological parameters. Here we shown that behavioral parameters measured by vibraimage changed during COVID-19 infection. The identification of changes signs in behavioral parameters detected by AI trained on patients and controls. The best diagnostic accuracy (higher 94%) obtained using instantaneous values of behavioral parameters measured with the following vibraimage settings: 10Hz frequency of basic measurements; 25 inter-frame difference accumulations and averaging the diagnostic results over period of at least 5 seconds. COVID-19 diagnoses by behavioral parameters showed earlier (5-7 days) detection of the disease compared to symptoms and positive results of biochemical RT-PCR testing. Proposed method for COVID-19 diagnosis indicates infected persons within 5 seconds video processing using standard television cameras (web, IP) and computers, allows mass testing/selftesting and will stop the pandemic spread. We assume that head micromovements analysis for diagnosis of various diseases is possible not only with the help of vibraimage technology. Further research of human head micromovement analysis will help stop the COVID-19 pandemic and will contribute to the development of new contactless and environmentally friendly methods for early diagnosis of diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0583.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Superstar Learning System; Behavioral Intention; An extended TAM; Constructs
Online: 26 July 2021 (14:34:41 CEST)
Superstar Learning System is an interactive information platform, where teachers and students can not only have an easy access to various learning resources, but also interact in the whole teaching and learning process. Although there have been a large number of studies devoted to the use of Superstar Learning System in education, very few of them explored its behavioral intention. In order to deal with this missing link in literature, we adopt a random sampling technique and a questionnaire survey to collect data. This study concludes that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, lecturer influence, peer influence, user innovativeness, interface simplicity, and multiple functions exert a positive influence on behavioral intention to use Superstar Learning System. We form a fit extended technology acceptance model (TAM) by including innovative constructs, i.e. lecturer and peer influences, user innovativeness, interface simplicity, and multiple functions. Interdisciplinary research is needed to explore an extended TAM to use Superstar Learning System in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0136.v1
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; behavioral interventions; prevention; workplace safety; safety protocols
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:54:54 CEST)
Practicing preventive etiquettes such as hand washing, hand disinfection, wearing a face mask, practicing physical distancing, disinfection of surfaces and objects can help curb the transmission of COVID-19 at the workplace. This paper focuses on interventions and behaviors required to curb the spread of COVID-19 at workplaces. We undertook a detailed multi-disciplinary literature search on the following topics: hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, physical distancing, quarantine and isolation, disinfection of objects and surfaces, behavior change, and health crisis communication. We identified interventions that are effective for preventing the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) at workplaces. These findings present very useful non-clinical interventions for preventing COVID-19 in the work environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0135.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: evolution diet; metabolism; australopith; encephalization; hominin; colon; behavioral ecology
Online: 6 October 2020 (15:14:56 CEST)
Thesis Statement: The consumption of externally fermented foods acted as the initial metabolic trigger enabling hominid brain expansion. Because brain tissue is metabolically expensive, it is thought that the evolution of humans’ large brains was only possible through a concomitant reduction in the size of another expensive organ system, the gut. However, this gut reduction must have itself been made possible by dietary changes, the nature of which are still unclear. Here, we propose that the initial metabolic trigger of hominid brain expansion may have been the consumption of externally fermented foods. We define “external fermentation” as occurring outside the body, as opposed to the internal fermentation that occurs through the gut microbiome. This practice could have begun accidentally and with limited understanding, but over time, fermentation technologies may have become increasingly intentional, socially-transmitted, and culturally-reinforced. We detail the mechanisms by which external fermentation can mediate the evolution of increased brain size, as well as a reduction in gut size, by increasing the bioavailability of macro- and micronutrients while reducing digestive energy expenditure. Importantly, we calculate that the reduction in human gut size relative to modern apes is mainly due to a reduction in the colon, the site of internal fermentation. We also discuss the explanatory power of our hypothesis relative to others, including realistic plausibility in hominids with brains roughly the size of modern chimpanzees. Finally, we survey external fermentation practices across human cultures to demonstrate its viability across a huge range of environments, temperatures, and food sources. We close with suggestions for empirical tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0172.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: chronobiology; shiftwork; insomnia; cognitive behavioral therapy, telepsychiatry; occupational health
Online: 19 June 2019 (10:05:50 CEST)
In western societies about one in six employees works in shifts. Shiftwork is associated with a number of poor somatic and psychological health outcomes, especially sleep issues. Higher rates of absenteeism and accidents in the workplace are possible consequences. Still, prevention programs and treatment options that are specifically tailored to shift workers’ needs are rare. We devised a 4-week online sleep intervention (n = 21) and compared treatment outcomes to our outpatient treatment for shift workers (n = 12). Measures included the WHO-5, ISI, and ESS scales as well as sleep diaries. Shift workers reported worse symptoms of insomnia than other participants. Results show significant average increases in sleep efficiency (+ 7%) and total sleep time (+ 25 min.), as well as significant improvements regarding insomnia symptoms and wellbeing in the online sample. Rates of improvement did not differ between the online and outpatient samples. Sleep disorders affect a relevant part of the working population, especially shift workers. Online approaches to treatment of these issues seem feasible and effective. Randomized controlled trials are needed.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0096.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: hypertension; blood pressure; lifestyle; digital health; ehealth; prevention; behavioral change
Online: 7 March 2022 (10:55:20 CET)
Worldwide, it is estimated that at least 1 in 4 adults suffers from hypertension, and this number is expected to increase as populations grow and age. Blood pressure (BP) possesses substantial heritability, but is also heavily modulated by lifestyle factors. As such, digital, lifestyle-based in-terventions are a promising alternative to standard care for hypertension prevention and man-agement. In this study we assessed the prevalence of elevated and high BP in a Dutch general pop-ulation cohort undergoing a health screening, and observed the effects of a subsequent self-initiated, digitally-enabled lifestyle program on BP regulation. Baseline data were available for 348 participants, of which 56 had partaken in a BP-focused lifestyle program and got re-measured 10 months after the intervention. Participants with elevated SBP and DBP at baseline showed a mean decrease of 7.2 mmHg and 5.4 mmHg, respectively. Additionally, 70% and 72.5% of participants showed an improvement in systolic and diastolic BP at remeasurement. These improvements in BP are superior to those seen in other recent studies. The long-term sustainability and the efficacy of this and similar digital lifestyle interventions will need to be estab-lished in additional, larger studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0267.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: response inhibition; behavioral inhibition; psychopathy traits; Go/NoGo task; smokers
Online: 11 February 2021 (13:32:51 CET)
Aims: Adolescence is a critical period because the brain is involved in the process of maturation that entails cognitive functions. On the way of maturation, an individual’s inhibitory control undergoes many changes and becomes vulnerable to different thrill-seeking like smoking, drinking, and so on. Smoking is highly prevalent among teenagers that are trying to take control of their behaviors in order to join society. They experience antisocial behavior too which is a trait that can lead adolescents to addiction. This trait is an inevitable part of psychopathy. Inhibitory deficits and psychopathy have been widely reported in addiction studies. The current study tried to investigate the relationship between psychopathic traits and behavioral inhibition between male smokers and non-smoker teenage students.Materials & Methods: Statistical sample of this research is 62 teenage students aged 17 years that are divided into smoker and non-smoker groups. The participants have been chosen through random sampling from the population of 10 high schools. The data have been gathered in Kordkoy and Gorgan in Golestan province. Behavioral bias has been measured by Go/NoGo task and psychopathic traits through youth psychopathic traits inventory. Also, the short form of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale test has been executed and used as a control variable.Findings: A meaningful difference has been found between the performance of smoker and non-smoker groups in Go/No Go task and psychopathic traits that are smokers performed weaker in comparison with non-smokers and psychopathic traits of smokers were meaningfully higher than non-smokers. On the other hand, there was no significant difference between these two groups in their Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale scores.Conclusion: The results have shown that smokers have higher psychopathic traits and lower behavioral inhibition when compared with their non-smoker peers. According to the results of current research, smoking can decline the cognitive functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0166.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Health Belief Model; risk perception; behavioral intentions; lead contamination; mining
Online: 8 October 2020 (09:15:26 CEST)
Understanding the strength of the associations between perceived risk and individuals’ behavioral intentions to protect their health is important for determining appropriate risk communication strategies in communities impacted by lead contamination. We conducted a survey within communities of northern Idaho, USA (n = 306) near a Superfund megasite with legacy mining contamination. We empirically test a theoretical model based on the Health Belief Model. Survey respondents had higher intentions to practice health protective behaviors when they perceived the risk of lead contamination as severe, recognized the benefits of health protective behaviors, and considered the risks of lead contamination. Women reported higher behavioral intentions than men, but age and mining affiliation did not have an association. Survey comments indicated that perceptions about the long-term environmental remediation in the region influenced risk perceptions. Understanding risk perceptions, behavioral intentions, and related factors can aid public health agencies in tailoring risk communication for increasing protective behaviors in mining-impacted communities internationally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0355.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: SDQ; bisphenol A; phthalates; prenatal exposure; birth cohort; behavioral problems
Online: 27 April 2018 (08:27:38 CEST)
Studies reported adverse behavioral development including internalizing and externalizing problems in association with prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, however, findings were not sufficient due to using different assessment tools and child ages among studies. This study aimed to examine associations between maternal serum levels of BPA and phthalate metabolites and behavioral problems at preschool age. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to assess behavioral problems at 5 years of age. BPA and phthalate metabolite levels in the 1st trimester maternal serum was determined by LC-MS/MS for 458 children. Variables used for adjustment were parental ages, maternal cotinine levels, family income during pregnancy, child sex, birth order and age at SDQ completed. The median concentrations of BPA, MnBP, MiBP, MEHP and MECPP were 0.062, 26.0, 7.0, 1.40, and 0.20 ng/ml, respectively. BPA level was associated with increased hyperactivity/inattention risk among girls (OR=1.66, 95% CI: 0.95-2.90) and∑DBPm (MnBP + MiBP) level was associated with decreased total difficulties risk overall and among girls (OR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.20-1.13, OR=0.24, 95% CI: 0.06-1.03, respectively) without significance. MECPP level was associated with increase conduct problems risk (OR=2.78, 95% CI: 1.36-5.68). Our analyses found no significant association between BPA or summation of phthalate metabolite levels and any of the behavioral problems at 5 years of age, however, suggested possible association between MECPP levels and increased risk of conduct problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0261.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: environmental behavior; financial industry; employee survey; behavioral acceptance; intention-behavior-gap
Online: 19 May 2022 (11:39:40 CEST)
The financial sector, too, is developing innovative services and products that have the potential to make a more positive impact on global environmental goals. However, research sheds little light on environmental attitudes and behavioral patterns of employees in this sector. There are multiple factors promoting or inhibiting environmental behavior. Those factors may be rooted in individual or subjective norms, but also social influence and to some extent financial incentives and benefits. A survey concerning the intention to improve and actually show ‘green behavior’ was developed based on widely used acceptance models which differentiate between desirable behavior and the intention to show such behavior. Employees are predominately responsive towards environmental behavior: 20% are convinced of the need to act in a “green” and sustainable manner, only 5% are hard to win over or are not accessible at all. Financial loss or benefits combined with social motives contribute to sustainable living whereas financial benefits alone actually hinder such behavior. The study underlines the existence of a intention-behavior gap: The intention to behave sustainably is built somewhat separately from various influences. There are moderating factors like sex, age and family status that influence the decisions. This then leads to a gap between intention and actual behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0231.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Behavior-Based safety; Critical behavior checklist; Behavioral definition; Intervention; Safe behavior
Online: 18 February 2022 (09:53:30 CET)
Background: It is necessary to apply a behavior-based safety (BBS) program to prevent at-risk behavior. An effective BBS program requires the implementation of not only behavioral definitions and a customized critical behavior checklist (CBC) but also observations of behavior, coupled with customized interventions at power plants. Method: In this study, a customized CBC and behavioral definition were developed through a review of five different sites that previously used a CBC. The rules of observation, flow, and target were established to initiate the observations. Customized interventions were selected to increase safe behaviors. CBC scoring was used to evaluate observed safe behaviors for three years. Recognized safe behaviors were evaluated with a questionnaire that included four items each for conformity and participation behaviors and were then analyzed through a factor analysis and a t-test. The questionnaires were conducted three months before and after the implementation of the BBS program. Results: The customized CBC, behavioral definition, and interventions were effective, such that observed safe behaviors and the levels of workers’ recognized safe behaviors increased. Conclusion: The application of the BBS program was found to increase the observed and recognized safe behaviors. Therefore, the program applied to this site can help increase safe behaviors at other identical or similar sites, as well as prevent an accident, which also corresponds with the results of prior studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0335.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: air quality; extreme weather; MA-MSD method; investor sentiment; behavioral finance
Online: 14 December 2020 (13:13:36 CET)
We investigate the impact of air quality and weather on the equity returns of the Shenzhen Exchange. To capture the air quality and weather effects, we use dummy variables created by employing a moving average and moving standard deviation. The important results are as follows. First, in the whole sample period (2005–2019), we find that high air pollution and extremely high temperature have significant and negative influence on the equity returns. In the sub-period I (2005–2012), the 11-day model and 31-day model show that high air pollution have significant and negative impacts on the Shenzhen stock returns. Second, the results of the quantile regression show that high air pollution have significant and negative effects during bullish market phase, and extremely high temperature have significant and negative effects during bearish market phase. This implies that the air quality and weather effects are asymmetric. Third, the weather effect of the abnormal temperature on the stock returns is greater in severe bearish market. Whereas the effect of the air pollution on the stock returns is greater in the bullish market. Fourth, the least squares method underestimates the air quality and weather effects compared to the quantile regression method, suggesting that the quantile regression method is more suitable in analyzing these effects in a very volatile emerging market such as the Shenzhen stock market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0400.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; behavioral change; public health; Sars-CoV-2; alcohol consumption
Online: 19 October 2020 (16:09:18 CEST)
(1) Background: A global pandemic due to COVID-19 emerged in November 2019 and hit France in early March 2020. It not only resulted in a loss of lives but also in very strict confinement measures. The objective of this study was to understand what the determinants of the change in participants’ behavior and mental state were during the confinement. (2) Methods: An online survey was launched on April 23rd, 2020, and closed on May 7th, 2020. The final sample included 1454 participants from 24 to 65 years old. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were then performed. (3) Results: 28.7% reported having a more balanced diet, against 17.1% with a less balanced diet. 22.7% of respondents reported an increased alcohol consumption, as opposed to only 12.2% declaring a decrease and 11.2% of respondents increased their tobacco consumption, while 6.3% decreased it. 50.6% of the participants reported being more depressed, stressed, or irritable since the beginning of the lockdown. Confinement had a negative effect on every behavior studied in this survey, except for nutrition. We also found that negative mental state changes were strongly associated with nutrition, sleep, physical activity, and alcohol consumption changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0355.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: behavioral factors; fuzzy analysis; gender; employees’ demographics; organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)
Online: 29 May 2019 (15:44:20 CEST)
This paper aims to investigate impact of employees’ gender on OCB as per the employees’ perception in Jordanian governmental hospitals. A convenient sample of 126 employees working in the three main governmental hospitals in north of Jordan has been taken for the purpose of this study. The collected data includes linguistic terms that suffer from uncertainty which, in turn, cannot be dealt with traditional numerical values. The result prove that gender impact on OCB has shown statistically significant differences at (α=0.05) as far as altruism, courtesy, and civic virtue are concerned; and this variable stands in favor of males with the total score of 0.011%. Similarly, as far as the effect of age factor on OCB is concerned, there have been statistically significant differences at (α=0.05) in relation to courtesy, sportsmanship, and civic virtue with the total score of 0.27%. Finally, the results provide a baseline data for further studies which may contribute more significant in the field of OCB.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0130.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: evolution; consciousness; nervous systems; feelings; reflexes; instincts; amniotes; behavioral decisions; neuronal algorithms
Online: 10 October 2022 (14:49:33 CEST)
Definition: Most multicellular animals have a nervous system that is based on the following three components: 1) Sensory cells gather information and send it to processing units; 2) the processing units use the information to decide on what action to take; and 3) effector neurons activate the appropriate muscles. Due to the importance of making the right decisions, evolution made profound advances in the processing units. I shall review present knowledge regarding the evolution of neurological tools for making decisions, here referred to as strategies or algorithms. Consciousness can be understood as a particularly sophisticated strategy. It may have evolved to allow for the use of feelings as a ‘common currency’ to evaluate behavioral options. The advanced cognitive capacity of species such as humans further improved the usefulness of consciousness, yet in biological terms it does not seem to be an optimal, fitness-enhancing strategy. A model for the gradual evolution of consciousness is presented. There is a somewhat arbitrary cutoff as to which animals have consciousness but based on current information it seems reasonable to restrict the term to amniotes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0264.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: exercise; marriage; sedentary behavior; gender; age groups; behavioral risk factors surveillance system
Online: 15 November 2021 (13:44:23 CET)
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to identify the age and sex-related associations between marital status with PA and TV time. We used data from Vigitel, an annual telephone survey started in 2006 in Brazil. We applied a complex sample logistic regression model to estimate the odds for PA and TV time comparing marital statuses according to age and sex subgroups, independent of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, self-assessed poor health, and smoking. Our sample included 561,837 individuals with a TV time > 3 h/day (prevalence = 25.2%) and PA > 150 min/week (prevalence = 35%). Compared to single individuals, married men and women were less likely to watch TV more than 3 h/day in participants > 30 years old. When compared to single, married participants were less likely to do more than 150 min of PA/week at younger age groups. Married women older than 40 years were more likely to do more than 150 min of PA/week than the single ones, while there were no differences among married men by age group. In conclusion, married individuals are less likely to spend more than 3 hours a day watching TV than single individuals. Single men and women were more likely to do more than 150 min of PA/week at younger age groups and married women older than 40 years were more likely to do 150 min of PA/week than single women.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0680.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: patient activation; patient engagement, behavioral health change; self-administered therapy, oral oncolytic
Online: 28 June 2021 (15:32:14 CEST)
Oncology clinical pharmacists are uniquely positioned to make interventions to increase patient activation and engagement. To accomplish this goal, pharmacists can target health system-related, provider-related, and patient-related factors to help enhance patient-centered care and drive behavioral health changes. Interventions that pharmacists must tackle include educating team members and patients on the medication acquisition process, communicating urgency of treatment, optimizing workflows, facilitating guideline recommendations, preventing, and managing treatment toxicities, and promoting patient self-advocacy through education and shared decision-making. As crucial members of the healthcare team, oncology clinical pharmacists can simplify highly complex treatment regimens to facilitate and optimize patients’ ownership of their care. This review will focus on the example of venetoclax treatment in acute myeloid leukemia to demonstrate the impact that pharmacists provide that leads to behavioral change of patients and clinicians.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0740.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: occupational noise; job; work; behavioral disorders; psychological disorders; annoyance; occupational medicine; prevention.
Online: 30 March 2021 (13:39:23 CEST)
Chronic exposure to noise can cause several extraordinary effects and involve all the systems of the human organism. In addition to cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and immune effects, the data in the literature show alterations in behavioral disturbances, in memory capacity and cognitive performance. Through this systematic review, the authors try to find out which are the main neurobehavioral alterations, in case of occupational exposure to noise. Literature review included articles published in the major databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus), using a combina-tion of some relevant keywords. This online search yielded 4434 references; after selection, the authors analyzed 41 articles (4 narrative reviews and 37 original articles). From this analysis, it appears that main symptoms are related to psychological distress, annoyance, sleep disturbances, cognitive performance. Regarding tasks, the most frequent employments concern school staff, followed by employees from various industrial sectors and office workers. Although the causes are still widely debated, it is essential to protect these workers against chronic exposure to noise. In fact, in addition to a hearing loss, they can manifest many other related discomforts over time and compromise their full working capacity, as well as expose them to a greater risk of accidents or absences from work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: HIV/AIDS; testing; trends; Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System; socio-demographic; Georgia
Online: 5 September 2016 (11:21:36 CEST)
Georgia is ranked fifth highest among states for rates of HIV diagnosis. About 4% of persons living with HIV infection in the United States reside in Georgia, and almost 19% of these people do not know their HIV status. The present study examined the trends and associated factors of HIV testing among adults in Georgia between 2010 and 2014 by analyzing data of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). A total of 30,791 persons aged ≥18 years were identified who responded to the question “Have you ever been tested for HIV?” Overall, there were 11,543 respondents who had been tested for HIV, with a decrease in percentage from 49.4% in 2010 to 43.7% in 2014 (p<0.001). Factors associated with HIV testing were being black (p<0.001), being younger than 55 years (p<0.001), single (p=0.02), attaining education level above high school (P<0.001), engaging in HIV high-risk behaviors (p<0.001), and not having healthcare coverage (p=0.03). Overall in Georgia, there has been a decline in the temporal trend of HIV testing, and more than half of adults have never been tested for HIV. For reducing HIV transmission in Georgia, enhancing access and utilization of HIV testing should be a public health priority.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: educational impacts; emotional impacts; behavioral impacts; psychological impacts; physical impacts; religious impacts
Online: 29 August 2016 (12:24:27 CEST)
Cartoons in the era of digital media are among the most prevalent medium of entertainment for the children, parents also encourage them to view such contents to engage the children which make an area need to be explained exhaustively by adopting new approaches. There are lot of studies in the past conducted to explain the impacts of the cartoons on the children however, it is remarkable fact that there is lack of the studies in the literature which directly address the observation about the above mentioned impacts in view of the teacher’s. This study deals with the educational, emotional, behavioral and Religious etc. impacts of cartoons on kids in view of teachers of the primary schools as they are considered as the one who can observer these impacts in a profound way. of the of Multan. Different areas of impacts have been analyzed in this study by using survey technique and analysis is conducted and presented in the teacher’s views in this study to examine what they feel that how cartoons are effecting the personalities of the children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0209.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: religion; interreligious conflict; science; constative; performative; peacemaking; ethnolinguistics; semiotics; behavioral signals; group behavior
Online: 17 February 2022 (11:02:09 CET)
Building on recent directions in religion-related social and political science, our essay addresses a need for location-specific and religion-specific scientific research that might contribute directly to local and regional interreligious peacemaking. Over the past 11 years, our US-Pakistani research team has conducted research of this kind: a social scientific method for diagnosing the probable near-future behavior of religious stakeholder groups toward other groups. Integrating features of ethnography, linguistics, and semiotics, the method enables researchers to read a range of ethno-linguistic signals that appear uniquely in the discourses of religious groups. Examining the results, we observe, firstly, that our religion and location-specific science identifies features of religious group behavior that are inevident in broader, social scientific studies of religion and conflict; we observe, secondly, that our science integrates constative and performative elements: it seeks facts and it serves a purpose. We conclude that strictly constative, fact-driven sciences may fail to detect certain crucial features of religious stakeholder group behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0449.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: behavioral economics; wearables; consumer sleep technology; Internet of Things; economical survey; expert elicitation
Online: 28 December 2021 (13:58:14 CET)
Global demand for sleep-tracking wearables, or consumer sleep technologies (CSTs), is steadily increasing. CST marketing campaigns often feature a scientific component, but the scientific relevancy and monetary value of CST features within the sleep research community remains unquantified. Sleep medicine experts were recruited through social media and nonprobability sampling techniques to complete a survey identifying sleep metrics and device features that are most desirable to the scientific community. A hypothetical purchase task (HPT) estimated economic valuation for devices with different features by price. Forty-six (N=46) respondents with an average of 10±6 years’ experience conducting research in real-world settings completed the online survey. Total sleep time was ranked as the most important measure of sleep followed by objective sleep quality while sleep architecture/depth and diagnostic information were ranked as least important. Experts preferred wrist-worn devices that could reliably determine sleep episodes as short as 20 minutes. Economic value was greater for hypothetical devices with longer battery life. These data set a precedent to determine how scientific relevance of a product impacts the potential market value of a CST device. This is the first known attempt to establish consensus opinion or economic valuation for scientifically-desirable CST features and metrics using expert elicitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0338.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: Semantics and meaning; Context representation; Quantum cognition; Subjectivity; Quantum phase; Behavioral modeling; Qubit
Online: 22 December 2020 (11:58:16 CET)
The paper describes an algorithm for semantic representation of behavioral contexts relative to a dichotomic decision alternative. The contexts are represented as quantum qubit states in two-dimensional Hilbert space visualized as points on the Bloch sphere. The azimuthal coordinate of this sphere functions as a one-dimensional semantic space in which the contexts are accommodated according to their subjective relevance to the considered uncertainty. The contexts are processed in triples defined by knowledge of a subject about a binary situational factor. The obtained triads of context representations function as stable cognitive structure at the same time allowing a subject to model probabilistically-variative behavior. The developed algorithm illustrates an approach for quantitative subjectively-semantic modeling of behavior based on conceptual and mathematical apparatus of quantum theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0264.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: price-setting newsvendor, one-shot decision theory, innovative product, scenario, behavioral operations research
Online: 26 August 2019 (12:30:03 CEST)
In this paper, we consider a manufacturer who produces and sells a kind of innovative product in the monopoly market environment. Because the life cycle of innovative product is usually shorter than its procurement lead time, one unique demand quantity (scenario) will occur in the selling season, thus there is only one chance for the manufacturer to determine both optimal production quantity and optimal sale price. Considering this one-time feature of such a decision problem, a price-setting newsvendor model for innovative products is proposed. Different to the existing price-setting newsvendor models, the proposed models determine the optimal production quantity and sale price based on some specific state (scenario) which is most applicable for the manufacturer. The theoretical analysis provides managerial insights into the manufacturers’ behaviors in a monopoly market of an innovative product and several phenomena in the luxury goods market are well explained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: nanoform; nanoparticle; nanoparticles; silver; silver citrate; ageing; behavioral functions; cognitive functions; stress; individual content
Online: 6 December 2022 (01:33:04 CET)
Silver in different forms is used for medical purposes from ancient times. It is not yet well known, which form of silver is more biocompatible and less toxic. Here we considered silver nanoparticles and silver citrate. Also, the relationships of neurotoxicity of silver compaunds with ageing factor is not yet described. To assess the role of nanoform in neurotoxicity of silver and role of ageing a long-term experiment was conducted. We had four control groups of intact mice and four experimental groups which were exposed to silver nanoparticles and silver citrate for two months. Four groups of mice were introduced into the experiment since the age of five months to assess ageing factors. It was shown that the nanoform does play a certain role in neurotoxicity of silver. Silver citrate seems to be a more preferable silver compound. Ageing can be regarded as a positive factor that neutralizes toxic action of silver compounds. It may be due to the development of physiological/cognitive functions with the age as well as adaptation to unnatural content in the individual cages that is definitely stressful for mice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0280.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: animal welfare; animal training; applied animal behavior; behavior analysis; behavioral engineering; environmental enrichment; zoos
Online: 15 November 2022 (07:20:08 CET)
The field of applied behavior analysis has been directly involved in both research and applications of behavioral principles to improve the lives of captive zoo animals. Thirty years ago, Forthman and Ogden (1992) wrote one of the first papers documenting some of these efforts. Since that time, considerable work has been done using behavioral principles and procedures to guide zoo welfare efforts. The current paper re-examines and updates Forthman and Ogden’s original points, with attention to the five categories they detailed: (1) promotion of species-typical behavior, (2) reintroduction and repatriation of endangered species, (3) animal handling, (4) pest control, and (5) animal performances. In addition, we outline three current and future directions for behavior analytic endeavors: (i) experimental analyses of behavior and the zoo, (ii) applied behavior analysis and the zoo, and (iii) within-subject methodology and the zoo. The goal is to provide a framework that can guide future behavioral research in zoos, as well as create applications based on these empirical evaluations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0122.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: structured information control net; process mining; process analyzing; structural analysis; behavioral analysis; process rediscovery
Online: 10 February 2020 (09:37:56 CET)
Process (or business process) management systems fulfill defining, executing, monitoring and managing process models deployed on process-aware enterprises. Accordingly, the functional formation of the systems is made up of three subsystems such as modeling subsystem, enacting subsystem and mining subsystem. In recent times, the mining subsystem has been becoming an essential subsystem. Many enterprises have successfully completed the introduction and application of the process automation technology through the modeling subsystem and the enacting subsystem. According as the time has come to the phase of redesigning and reengineering the deployed process models, from now on it is important for the mining subsystem to cooperate with the analyzing subsystem; the essential cooperation capability is to provide seamless integrations between the designing works with the modeling subsystem and the redesigning work with the mining subsystem. In other words, we need to seamlessly integrate the discovery functionality of the mining subsystem and the analyzing functionality of the modeling subsystem. This integrated approach might be suitable very well when those deployed process models discovered by the mining subsystem are complex and very large-scaled, in particular. In this paper, we propose an integrated approach for seamlessly as well as effectively providing the mining and the analyzing functionalities to the redesigning work on very large-scale and massively parallel process models that are discovered from their enactment event logs. The integrated approach especially aims at analyzing not only their structural complexity and correctness but also their animation-based behavioral properness, and becomes concretized to a sophisticated analyzer. The core function of the analyzer is to discover a very large-scale and massively parallel process model from a process log dataset and to validate the structural complexity and the syntactical and behavioral properness of the discovered process model. Finally, this paper writes up the detailed description of the system architecture with its functional integration of process mining and process analyzing. And more precisely, we excogitate a series of functional algorithms for extracting the structural constructs as well as for visualizing the behavioral properness on those discovered very large-scale and massively parallel process models. As experimental validation, we apply the proposed approach and analyzer to a couple of process enactment event log datasets available on the website of the 4TU.Centre for Research Data.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0073.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: deep behavioral covariates; clinical informatics; predictive modeling; electronic medical records; machine-learning; data-mining
Online: 7 November 2019 (09:25:04 CET)
Deep behavioral covariates (DBCs) introduced in this perspective form a new class of covariates that have the potential to enhance the performance of predictive models and improve analytics in clinical decision support applications. DBCs can measure how engaged a patient tends to be and how he or she tends to respond to events, and they may be highly predictive of the patient’s outcomes for a planned treatment. DBCs may potentially serve as a standard to measure patient engagement and activation and may form highly efficient mechanisms for improving patient outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0236.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Internet addiction; mobile phone addiction; online social network; university students; technological addictions; behavioral addictions
Online: 25 January 2018 (05:10:00 CET)
1) Background: It has been more than a decade since the concern about addictive use of the Internet and mobile phones was first expressed and its possible inclusion into the lists of mental disorders has been a popular topic of discussion recently, thus it seems to be a fitting moment to investigate the evolution of this issue over time. The aim of the present study was to analyze the evolution of the perception of problematic Internet and smartphone use in young people over the period 2006–2017; 2) Methods: To this end, a questionnaire on Internet use habits and the CERI and CERM questionnaires on negative consequences of Internet and smartphone use were administered to a sample of 792 university students and compared with data from former studies over the period 2006–2017; 3) Results: The perception of problematic Internet and mobile phone use has increased over the last decade, social networks are considered responsible for this increase, and females are the ones perceived to be more affected than males. The degree to which participants agree with the statement “I am addicted to the Internet” can be used as a screening item for problematic use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0518.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: ICT integration; Teachers’ internal expectancy; Behavioral intention to use ICT; Instruction behavior; Higher vocational college
Online: 28 November 2022 (15:50:01 CET)
This study aimed to explore what factors affect teachers’ acceptance and instructional use of ICT in Chinese higher vocational colleges. Grounded in the modified UTAUT model, the current study investigated the direct and indirect effects of teachers’ performance expectancy, effort expectancy, external conditions, and behavioral intentions on using ICT in teaching. A total of 6087 teachers from 219 vocational colleges in 28 provinces in China participated in a large-scale survey. Structural equation modeling revealed that the teachers’ psychological perceptions (including performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and intention to use ICT technology) and the external support conditions (including professional development support, infrastructures, the climate of organizational reform and innovation, and teacher performance assessment mechanisms) significantly directly affect the use of ICT in Chinese higher vocational college teachers’ teaching practice. Moreover, this study confirmed the mediating role of teachers’ intention to use ICT in teaching in the relationship between teachers’ psychological perceptions and ICT instructional usage behavior. However, there were differences in the significance of these variables in the chain effect of teachers’ intention to use ICT. These findings expand our understanding of the factors influencing ICT use in teaching among VET teachers in China and thus provide practical implications for higher vocational college managers to promote teachers’ ICT teaching behaviors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0507.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: sleep education; insomnia; training; circadian rhythms; behavioral sleep medicine, psychotherapy; dissemination; implementation science; mental health
Online: 30 August 2022 (05:07:56 CEST)
Despite the strong links between sleep, circadian rhythms, and mental health, sleep education has been neglected in mental healthcare provider training programs. The current pilot study examined the potential efficacy and acceptability of a sleep education workshop for trainee psychologists, called the Sleep Psychology Workshop. Eleven students completing their Master of Psychology degrees (90% female, 24.4 ± 1.6 years old) attended the Sleep Psychology Workshop as part of their Health Psychology course, delivered as three, two-hour lectures (total six hours). Trainees’ sleep psychology knowledge quiz scores (% correct) demonstrated significant improvement from pre- (M = 60%, SD = .09) to post-workshop (M = 79%, SD = .08), t (6) = -5.18, p = .002. Trainees also reported increased self-efficacy to use common sleep-related assessment instruments and empirically supported interventions to manage sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances, along with increased confidence to manage insomnia disorder in clinical practice (all p<.02). Trainees also endorsed the workshop as an acceptable sleep education program for trainee psychologists via a post-workshop feedback survey, focus group, and six-month follow-up survey. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence for the Sleep Psychology Workshop as an effective and acceptable sleep education program for trainee psychologists.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0174.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Game theory; Plant behavioral ecology; Plant competition; Plant interaction mechanisms; Root foraging strategies; Root methods
Online: 14 February 2022 (11:29:43 CET)
Understanding how plants change their root foraging strategy in the presence of neighbors is of paramount importance for plant ecology and agriculture. The root tragedy of the common (RToC) is a plant behavior predicted by game theory models in which competing plants forage for soil resources inefficiently. The RToC is generally assumed to be induced by non-self root recognition, and researchers consider root overproliferation and reduced fitness with respect to a plant growing solo as the trace left by plants engaging in an RToC in experiments and model results. Herein, I first challenge both notions, and argue that the RToC is a suboptimal phenotypically plastic response of plants that is based in soil resource information exclusively. Second, I discuss how this new perspective carries important implications for the design of experiments investigating the physiological mechanisms underlying observable plant root responses. Finally, I discuss why placing the RToC theory in the context of more general root research is fundamental: The RToC represents a mechanistic foundation for understanding the belowground behavior of plants interacting with neighbors, and a spatially explicit approach to RToC may produce more comprehensive results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0380.v3
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Infodemiology; COVID-19 infodemic; social contagion; collective perceptual bias; collective behavioral propensities; psychological typhoon eye effect
Online: 16 March 2020 (15:12:33 CET)
Less aligned emphasis has been given to the COVID-19 infodemic coordinating with the COVID-19 outbreak. Global profusion of tangled monikers and hashtags has found their ways in daily communication and contributed to backlash against Chinese. Official naming efforts against infodemic should be meet with a fair share of identification. Based on brief critical reviews on previous multifarious naming practices, we punctuate heuristic introspection in scientific conventions and sociocultural paradigms. Infodemiological analysis promises to articulate that people around the globe are divided in their favor stigmatized monikers in the public and scientific communities because of perceptual bias. There is no positive correlation between the degree of infection in their territories and collective perceptual bias to COVID-19. The official portfolio “COVID-19” and “SARS-CoV-2” has not become de facto standard usages, but full-fledged official names are excepted to duly contribute to the resilience of negative perceptual bias and collective behavioral propensities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0036.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: two-factor authentication; online training; biological and behavioral features; mimic control method with sound intensity
Online: 6 June 2017 (09:04:47 CEST)
This study examines the evolution of the two-factor authentication method and its adaptability to the online education system. Two-factor authentication is a security measure used especially in areas where information such as banking is valuable. Parallel to technological developments, it has developed as much as daily. It aims to take security one step forward because it is composed of two phases. Today, banking, IOT devices, public transport tickets and many other areas are used. Two-factor authentication methods against security attacks in the field of information are also being updated. In recent years, new technologies such as biometric (iris pattern, retinal pattern, etc.) or behavioral biometry (location tracking, walking information, touch speed etc.) were studied. Instead of physically studying somewhere like going to a course in modern society, online trainings become more advantageous. Most of these online trainings are given certificates such as participation certificate, success certificate, etc. The main problem here is whether the person who is being certified is true. In the study conducted in line with these details, there is a proposal for the application of the Mimic Control Method with Sound Intensity (MCMSI) method for on-line training by examining the two-factor authentication techniques up to the day.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0049.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: mental accounting; agricultural water fee; behavioral economics; decision making; information processing; representativeness; negative psychological externalities
Online: 25 August 2016 (10:12:08 CEST)
To better understand farmers’ refusal and corresponding negative emotions to pay agricultural water fee under current policy in rural China, this paper applies mental accounting, a behavioral economics framework, to explore how the governmental policies of reform of rural taxes and fees, direct agricultural subsidy programs and agricultural water fee individually influence farmers’ decisions in paying agricultural water fee. Using fieldwork data from 577 farmers and 20 water managers in Sichuan, we explore farmers’ information processing regarding paying agricultural water fee via three sequential mental accounting processes, with the associated underlying principles and measures behind each process. We find that the information processing in three mental accounting scenarios related to the agricultural water fee elucidates farmers’ observed behaviors in rural China. Generally, in the three mental accounting scenarios, two conditional intuitive expectations and nine conditional intuitive preferences are formed, however, the conditions of those expectations or preferences cannot be matched with the facts due to the reform of rural taxes and fees, the direct agricultural subsidy programs and the internal attributes of agricultural water fee, which interpret those negative behaviors in rural China. Additionally, this paper offers a view into how previous policies create negative psychological externalities (such as farmers’ psychological dependence on the government) through mental accounting to negatively influence agents’ subsequent decision making; it highlights the significance of underlying mental factors and information processing of negative behaviors in policymaking for managing or conserving common pool resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0501.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: GABA-A receptors; in vivo electrophysiology; microiontophoresis; vigilance; anxiety; behavioral pharmacology; diterpene alkaloids; picrotoxin; saclofen; songorine
Online: 30 August 2022 (03:45:03 CEST)
Songorine (SON) is a diterpenoid alkaloid from Aconitum plants. Preparations of Aconitum roots have been employed in traditional oriental herbal medicine, however, their mechanisms of action are still unclear. Since GABA-receptors are possible brain targets of SON, we investigated which subtypes of GABA-receptors contribute to the effects of SON, and how SON affects anxiety-like trait behavior and psychomotor cognitive performance of rats. First, we investigated the effects of microiontophoretically applied SON alone and combined with GABA-receptor agents picrotoxin and saclofen on neuronal firing activity in various brain areas. Next, putative anxiolytic effects of SON (1.0-3.0 mg/kg) were tested against the GABA-receptor positive allosteric modulator refer-ence compound diazepam (1.0-5.0 mg/kg) in the elevated zero maze (EOM). Furthermore, basic cognitive effects were assessed in a rodent version of the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). Local application of SON predominantly inhibited the firing activity of neurons. This inhibitory effect of SON was successfully blocked by GABA(A)-receptor antagonist picrotoxin but not by GABA(B)-receptor antagonist saclofen. Similar to GABA(A)-receptor positive allosteric modulator diazepam, SON increased the time spent by animals in the open quadrants of the EOM without any signs of adverse psychomotor and cognitive effects observed in the PVT. We showed that, under in vivo conditions SON acts as a potent GABA(A)-receptor agonist and effectively decreases anxiety without observable side effects. The present findings facilitate the deeper understanding of the mechanism of action and the widespread pharmacological use of diterpene alkaloids in various CNS indications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0156.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: obesity; obesity rehabilitation; weight maintenance; eating disorders; Acceptance and Commitment Therapy; Cognitive Behavioral Therapy; Clinical Psychology
Online: 6 July 2021 (13:38:20 CEST)
The purpose of this Individually Randomized Group Treatment Trial was to compare an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-based (ACT) group intervention and a Cog-nitive Behavioral Therapy-based (CBT) group intervention for weight loss maintenance in a sample of adult patients with obesity seeking treatment for weight loss. 155 over-weight adults (BMI: Kg/m2= 43.8[6.8]) attending a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program for weight loss were randomized into two conditions: ACT and CBT. Demo-graphical, physical, and clinical data were assessed at the beginning of the program (t0), at discharge (t1), and at 6-month follow-up (t2). The following measures were ad-ministered: The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II) and the Clinical Outcome in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM). Generalized linear mixed models were performed to assess differences between groups. Moderation ef-fects for gender and eating disorders (ED) have been considered. From baseline to dis-charge no significant differences between interventions were found, with the only ex-ception of an improvement in the CORE-OM total score and in the CORE-OM subjective well-being subscale for those in the CBT condition. From discharge to follow-up ACT group participants showed significant results in terms of weight loss maintenance, CORE-OM total score, and CORE-OM and AAQ-II’s wellbeing, symptoms, and psy-chological problems subscales. Gender moderated the effects of time and intervention on the CORE-OM’ subscale reporting the risk for self-harm or harm others. The pres-ence of an eating disorder moderated the effect of time and intervention on the CORE-OM total score, on the CORE-Om’ symptoms and psychological problems sub-scales, and on the AAQ-II. Patients who received the ACT intervention were more likely to achieve a ≥5% weight loss from baseline to follow-up and to maintain the weight loss after discharge. The ACT intervention was thus effective in maintaining weight loss over time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0303.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: classical extensional mereology; summative mereology; mereology of quantum chemical systems; mereology of chemical wholes; behavioral mereology
Online: 13 August 2020 (11:28:55 CEST)
This paper examines whether classical extensional mereology is adequate for formalizing the whole-parts relation in quantum chemical systems. Although other philosophers have argued that classical extensional and summative mereology does not adequately formalize whole-parts relation within organic wholes and social wholes, such critiques often assume that summative mereology is appropriate for formalizing the whole-parts relation in inorganic wholes such as atoms and molecules. However, my discussion of atoms and molecules as they are conceptualized in quantum chemistry will establish that standard mereology cannot adequately fulfill this task, since the properties and behavior of such wholes are context-dependent and cannot simply be reduced to the summative properties of their parts. To the extent that philosophers of chemistry have called for the development of an alternative mereology for quantum chemical systems, this paper ends by proposing behavioral mereology as a promising step in that direction. According to behavioral mereology, considerations of what constitutes a part of a whole is dependent upon the observable behavior displayed by these entities. Thus, relationality and context-dependence are stipulated from the outset and this makes behavioral mereology particularly well-suited as a mereology of quantum chemical wholes. The question of which mereology is appropriate for formalizing the whole-parts relation in quantum chemical systems is relevant to contemporary philosophy of chemistry, since this issue is related to the more general question of the reducibility of chemical wholes to their parts and of the reducibility of chemistry to physics, which have been of central importance within the philosophy of chemistry for several decades. More generally, this paper puts contemporary discussions of mereology within the philosophy of chemistry into a broader historical and philosophical context. In doing so, this paper also bridges the gap between formal mereology, conceived as a branch of formal ontology, and ‘applied’ mereology, conceived as a branch of philosophy of science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0002.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: experimental economy; mathematical game theory; experimental game theory; behavioral experiment; business game; shopping centers; property management
Online: 1 August 2018 (06:27:55 CEST)
The managers’ strategic behavior of commercial real estate in a competitive environment is discussed. The means of this research are methods of mathematical and experimental game theory. Illustrates an example of a decision-theoretic game problem with two players engaged in the management of competing shopping centers. The strategies of these players are determined by the costs of the development. Since the number of visitors is constantly and changing the quality of shopping centers, managers actually pull visitors from each other, the game-theoretical formulation of the problem of management of shopping centers corresponds to the zero-sum game. The model example shows that with the help of mathematical modeling it is possible to determine the theoretical expected behavior of agents. The model of the software module created specifically for experimental research is described. The experiments are designed to compare the theoretically predicted behavior with the real actions of people. The novelty is that at significant costs of the Manager for the development and promotion of shopping and entertainment centers, the strategies of managers are resistant to each other's actions, in contrast to changes in the external environment is shown.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0314.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Very mild Traumatic Brain Injury; Animal models (rodents); Post-concussion syndrome; neuro-behavioral changes; “inflammaging”; brain apoptosis
Online: 14 December 2020 (09:33:51 CET)
Post-concussion syndrome, recently recognized as a complication of mild traumatic brain injury, is considered a consequence of the summative effect of multiple concussions received over lifetime. In elderlies, the main mild brain trauma mechanism is fall (low impact force). Many falls are often not reported or noticed but may generate serious medical and medico-legal consequences. Our research question was to find if a single, very mild brain trauma can induce neuro-behavioral consequences in elderlies. One database was queried (PubMed – MeSH terminology) looking for histopathological, neuro-cognitive and behavioral changes that can be generated by sub-concussional trauma in senescent rodents, in comparison with young animals. 41 published research articles were selected. 17 of them used very mild brain trauma in young and senescent animals, in the same experiment (6 rats and 11 mice). 24 articles evaluated the effect of sub-threshold brain trauma in adult animals (no control group). Five trauma models were used (blast models were excluded). Neuro-inflammatory changes were detected immediate after very mild primary impact. In young animals, observed pathology disappeared fast (after 3 to 7 days). Increased apoptosis, mild axonal injury in white matter tracts plus maladaptive astrogliosis and microglial activation was stronger in aged animals, persisted over time (8 months) and significantly altered animals’ cognition and behavior. Associated preexisting pathology (hypertension, tau protein deposits, microbleeds, reactive inflammation) was often responsible for amplification of the primary impact results. As translation of observation is the weak spot of pathology and behavior animal research, further investigation is needed before to conclude that even a single, very mild brain trauma may have medical consequences on human senescent brain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS); Slovak school children; mental health; physical health; Columbia Impairment Scale; Behavioral Problem Index
Online: 7 May 2018 (09:23:27 CEST)
ETS exposure has been shown as an important environmental risk factor in vulnerable population groups. The aim of the project is to analyze the relationships among the ETS and behavior and health in 6−15-year-old children in Slovakia. The status of physical and mental health of children in relation to exposure to tobacco smoke was examined in the representative group of 1478 school children. The methods used, included anonymous questionnaires ﬁlled in by parents, Columbia Impairment Scale (CIS), Behavior Problem Index (BPI) and anthropometry. The prevalence of passive smoking is the highest in the capital (27%) and southern cities. Significant relationships have been confirmed between ETS and the age, socio-economic status, the incompleteness of the family, the level of mother's education and the significantly higher prevalence of respiratory diseases (26.7%).The relationships of ETS with emotional (CIS scores ≥16) and behavioral functions (BPI score ≥14) were significant in children exposed to mother‘s and father‘s smoking at home. In the multivariate analysis this association was not significant; the factors such as income and completeness of the family were dominant. The results confirmed the impact of ETS and social factors on health state and health behavior and could be the argumentation for legislative changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0177.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: public health decision making; COVID-19; behavioral economic; experimental economics; first-order stochastic dominance; bounded rationality; decision trees
Online: 7 June 2021 (12:46:27 CEST)
Results from a behavioral economic laboratory experiment are used to enhance our understanding of public health decisions made during the COVID-19 pandemic. The identification of systematic biases from optimal decision theory found in controlled experiments could help inform public policy design for future public health crises. The laboratory and the shelter-in-place decisions made during COVID-19 included elements of risk, uncertainty and ambiguity. The lab findings found individuals adopt different decision rules depending on both personal attributes and on the context and environment in which the decision task is conducted. Key observations to consider in the context of the COVID-19 decision environment include the importance of past experience, the ability to understand and calculate the odds of each action, the size and differences in economic payoffs given the choice, the value of information received, and how past statistical independent outcomes influence future decisions. The academic space encompassing both public health and behavioral economics is small, yet important, particularly in the current crisis. The objective of continued research in this area would be to develop a more representative model of decision-making processes, particularly during crisis, that would serve to enhance future public health policy design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0310.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: behavioral analysis; COVID-19; governmental intervention; mask adoption; movement change; vaccine participation; non-pharmaceutical interventions; policy recommendations; social physics; social behavior
Online: 20 October 2022 (11:41:27 CEST)
Since its emergence, COVID-19 has caused a great impact in health and social terms. Governments and health authorities have attempted to minimize this impact by enforcing different mandates. Recent studies have addressed the relationship between various socioeconomic variables and compliance level to these interventions. However, little attention has been paid to what constitutes people's response and whether people behave differently when faced with different interventions. Data collected from different sources show very significant regional differences across the United States. In this paper, we attempted to shed light on the fact that a response may be different depending on the health system capacity and each individuals’ social status. For that, we analyzed the correlation between different societal variables (i.e. education, income levels, population density, etc.) along with healthcare capacity related variables (i.e. hospital occupancy rates, percentage of essential workers, etc.) with regards to people's level of compliance with three main governmental mandates in the United States: mobility restrictions, mask adoption, and vaccine participation. Our aim was to isolate the most influential variables impacting behavior in response to these policies. We found that there was a strong relationship between individuals' educational levels and political preferences with respect to compliance with each of these mandates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0548.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: nest-building; social behavior; behavioral monitoring, animal welfare, 3xTg-AD mice; Alzheimer's disease; gender medicine; early-life events; early-life interventions; long-term effects
Online: 22 March 2021 (15:46:24 CET)
The assessment of welfare and disease progression in animal models is critical. Most tools rely on evaluating individual subjects, whereas social behaviors, also sensitive to acute illness, chronic diseases, or mental health, are scarcely monitored because of their complexity, are invasive, and time-consuming. We propose the evaluation of social nesting, a species-typical behavior naturally occurring in standard housing conditions, for such behavioral monitoring. We provide an example of its use to evaluate social deficits and the long-term effects of neonatal sensorial stimulation in male and female adult 3xTg-AD mice for Alzheimer's disease compared to sex- and age-matched NTg counterparts with normal aging. Social nesting was sensitive to genotype (worse in 3xTg-AD mice), sex (worse in males), profile, and treatment (distinct temporal patterns, time to observe the maximum score and incidence of the perfect nest). Since social nesting can be easily included in housing routines, this neuroethological approach can be useful for animal's welfare, monitoring the disease's progress, and evaluating potential risk factors and effects of preventive/therapeutical strategies. Finally, the non-invasive, painless, simple, short time and low-cost features of this home-cage monitoring are advantages that make social nesting feasible to be successfully implemented in most animal department settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0504.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, attitudinal loyalty, behavioral loyalty, relationship between satisfaction and loyalty, communication, trust, commitment, perceived value, value co-creation, veterinarian, veterinary medicine, pet-owner
Online: 26 September 2018 (09:27:13 CEST)
Loyalty is one of the greatest intangible assets that any organization can possess and improving client loyalty is a primary marketing goal that can have a significant financial impact on any business. This quantitative study examined the mediating role of communication on the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty (attitudinal and behavioral) in veterinary clinics, along with the moderating roles of trust, commitment, perceived value, and relational characteristics. Responses collected from 351 pet-owners through social media were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that attitudinal loyalty (AL) has a strong positive relationship with communication at multiple points in a veterinary clinic whereas the relationship with behavioral loyalty was not as clear. Additional findings suggest that AL, which is influenced by trust in the veterinarian, communication from staff members and commitment, has a strong positive relationship with behavioral intentions, increases the number of products and services that a pet-owner consumes at his or her primary veterinary clinic, and attenuates the role of cost in receiving veterinary care. These findings can help veterinary clinic owners and managers in developing and implementing relationship strategies that improve pet-owner loyalty. The article that follows is a synopsis of the author’s dissertation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0403.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: behavioral change prediction; learned features; deep feature learning; handcrafted features; bidirectional long-short term memory; autoencoders; temporal convolutional neural network; clinical decision support system; multisensory stimulation therapy; physiological signals.
Online: 31 March 2022 (08:38:58 CEST)
Predicting change from multivariate time series has relevant applications ranging from medical to engineering fields. Multisensory stimulation therapy in patients with dementia aims to change the patient’s behavioral state. For example, patients who exhibit a baseline of agitation may be paced to change their behavioral state to relaxed. This study aims to predict changes in behavioral state from the analysis of the physiological and neurovegetative parameters to support the therapist during the stimulation session. In order to extract valuable indicators for predicting changes, both handcrafted and learned features were evaluated and compared. The handcrafted features were defined starting from the CATCH22 feature collection, while the learned ones were extracted using a Temporal Convolutional Network, and the behavioral state was predicted through Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory Auto-Encoder, operating jointly. From the comparison with the state-of-the-art, the learned features-based approach exhibits superior performance with accuracy rates of up to 99.42% with a time window of 70 seconds and up to 98.44% with a time window of 10 seconds.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0500.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; impact on society during COVID-19; behavioral impact of COVID-19; government policies against COVID-19; measures adopted by the government; COVID-19 Statistics; Infection rate and Data analysis
Online: 21 September 2020 (11:09:11 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 pandemic has pulled us all a few steps back, were we never shake hands or hug each other when we meet our friends and family after a gap, but instead we greet them by saying Namaste and joining our hands together. As we all know, COVID-19 spreads through air and the only way to shield ourselves is by maintaining a safe distance from one another. Methodology: In order to conduct a meta-analysis on the number of COVID-19 cases in Kerala and India, the data was retrieved from various sites hosted by the government bodies. The data for analysis was collected from May 2020 to July 2020. The average number of days required to reach every 5000 fresh cases were also calculated using this data. COVID-19 has affected all the economy holistically regardless of financial, behavioral, or societal aspects. Conclusion: Lifting of the lockdown in a step by step process keeping in mind the necessities for the nation was a thoughtful act, but the people who mistook this opportunity and did not remain in quarantine after coming from abroad was recognized as the reasons behind the sudden and uncontrolled rise in the number of COVID-19 cases in Kerala, India. The government authorities had no other option but to lift the restrictions to reduce the economic burdens that had already affected the daily wage worker and farmers prompting them to give up their lives.