ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0728.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: omics data; hierarchical clustering; noise quantification
Online: 29 December 2020 (14:02:28 CET)
Identifying groups that share common features among datasets through clustering analysis is a typical problem in many fields of science, particularly in post-omics and systems biology research. In respect of this, quantifying how a measure can cluster or organize intrinsic groups is important since currently there is no statistical evaluation of how ordered is, or how much noise is embedded in the resulting clustered vector. Many of the literature focuses on how well the clustering algorithm orders the data, with several measures regarding external and internal statistical measures; but none measure has been developed to statistically quantify the noise in an arranged vector posterior a clustering algorithm, i.e., how much of the clustering is due to randomness. Here, we present a quantitative methodology, based on autocorrelation, to assess this problem.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0531.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: cereals; omics; gemomics; transcriptomics; proteomics; metabolomics; phenomics.
Online: 20 April 2021 (11:25:07 CEST)
Omics technologies, viz., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and phenomics, are becoming an integral part of virtually every commercial cereal breeding program because they provide substantial dividends per unit time in both pre-breeding and breeding phases. Continuous advances in cereal-omics promise—in combination with time efficiency—the cost benefits. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the established cereal-omics methods in five major cereals, viz., rice, sorghum, maize, barley, and bread wheat. We cover the evolution of technologies in each omics section independently and concentrate on their use to improve economically important agronomic as well as biotic and abiotic stress-related traits. Advancements in the (1) identification, mapping, and sequencing of molecular/structural variants, (2) high-density transcriptomics data to study gene expression patterns, (3) global and targeted proteome profiling to study protein structure and interaction, (4) metabolomic profiling to quantify organ level small-density metabolites and their composition, and (5) high-resolution high-throughput image-based phenomics approaches are surveyed in this review.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0521.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Data integration; multi-omics; integration strategies; genomics
Online: 25 January 2021 (16:19:31 CET)
Metabolomics deals with multiple and complex chemical reactions within living organisms and how these are influenced by external or internal perturbations. It lies at the heart of omics profiling technologies not only as the underlying biochemical layer that reflects information expressed by the genome, the transcriptome and the proteome, but also as the closest layer to the phenome. The combination of metabolomics data with the information available from genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics offers unprecedented possibilities to enhance current understanding of biological functions, elucidate their underlying mechanisms and uncover hidden associations between omics variables. As a result, a vast array of computational tools have been developed to assist with integrative analysis of metabolomics data with different omics. Here, we review and propose five criteria – hypothesis, data types, strategies, study design and study focus – to classify statistical multi-omics data integration approaches into state-of-the-art classes under which all existing statistical methods fall. The purpose of this review is to look at various aspects that lead the choice of the statistical integrative analysis pipeline in terms of the different classes. We will draw a particular attention to metabolomics and genomics data to assist those new to this field in the choice of the integrative analysis pipeline.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0455.v1
Online: 28 June 2018 (04:41:19 CEST)
Abiotic stresses greatly influenced wheat productivity executed by environmental factors such as drought, salt, water submergence, and heavy metals. The effective management at molecular level is mandatory for thorough understanding of plant response to abiotic stress. The molecular mechanism of stress tolerance is complex and requires information at the omic level to understand it effectively. In this regard, enormous progress has been made in the omics field in the areas of genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics. The emerging field of ionomics is also being employed for investigating abiotic stress tolerance in wheat. Omic approaches generate a huge amount of data, and adequate advancements in computational tools have been achieved for effective analysis. However, the integration of omic-scale information to address complex genetics and physiological questions is still a challenge. In this review, we have described advances in omic tools in the view of conventional and modern approaches being used to dissect abiotic stress tolerance in wheat. Emphasis was given to approaches such as quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and genomic selection (GS). Comparative genomics and candidate gene approaches are also discussed considering identification of potential genomic loci, genes, and biochemical pathways involved in stress tolerance mechanism in wheat. This review also provides a comprehensive catalog of available online omic resources for wheat and its effective utilization. We have also addressed the significance of phenomics in the integrated approaches and recognized high-throughput multi-dimensional phenotyping as a major limiting factor for the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance in wheat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0180.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: endometriosis; multi-omics; expression profile; menstrual blood; MenSCs
Online: 13 September 2022 (12:32:56 CEST)
Given the importance of menstrual blood in the pathogenesis of endometriosis and the multifunctional roles of menstrual mesenchymal stem cells (MenSCs) in regenerative medicine, this issue has gained prominence in the scientific community. Moreover, recent reviews highlight how robust the integrated assessment of omics data is for endometriosis. To our knowledge, no study has applied the multi-omics approaches to endometriosis MenSCs. It is a case-control study at a university-affiliated hospital. MenSCs transcriptome and proteome data were obtained by RNA-seq and UHPLC-MS/MS detection. Among the differentially expressed proteins and genes, we emphasize ATF3, ID1, ID3, FOSB, SNAI1, NR4A1, EGR1, LAMC3, and ZFP36 genes and MT2A, TYMP, COL1A1, COL6A2, and NID2 proteins that were already reported in the endometriosis. Our functional enrichment analysis reveals integrated modulating signaling pathways such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (↑) and PI3K signaling via AKT to mTORC1 (↓in proteome), mTORC1 signaling, TGF beta signaling, TNFA signaling via NFkB, and response to hypoxia via HIF1A targets (↑in transcriptome). Our findings highlight primary changes in the endometriosis MenSCs, suggesting that the chronic inflammatory endometrial microenvironment can modulate these cells, providing opportunities for endometriosis etiopathogenesis. Moreover, they identify challenges for future research leveraging knowledge for regenerative and precision medicine in endometriosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0395.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Deep-Learning; Interpretability; Omics; Biophysics; Drug Synergy; Cancer
Online: 14 April 2021 (17:44:40 CEST)
High-throughput screening technologies continues to produce large amounts of multiomics data from different populations and cell types for various diseases, such as cancer. However, analysis of such data encounters difficulties due to cancer heterogeneity, further exacerbated by human biological complexity and genomic variability. There is a need to redefine the drug discovery development pipeline, bringing an Artificial Intelligence (AI)-powered informational view that integrates relevant biological information and explores new ways to develop effective anticancer approaches. Here, we show SynPred, an interdisciplinary approach that leverages specifically designed ensembles of AI-algorithms, links omics and biophysical traits to predict synergistic anticancer drug synergy. SynPred exhibits state-of-the-art performance metrics: accuracy – 0.85, precision – 0.77, recall – 0.75, AUROC – 0.82, and F1-score - 0.76 in an independent test set. Moreover, data interpretability was achieved by deploying the most current and robust feature importance approaches. A simple web-based application available online at http://www.moreiralab.com/resources/synpred/ was constructed to predict synergistic anticancer drug combinations requiring only the upload of the two drug SMILES to be tested, allowing easy access by non-expert researchers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0227.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cutoff, dichotomization, threshold, -omics, bioinformatics, methods, values distributon
Online: 8 April 2021 (10:13:21 CEST)
Rapid development of high-throughput omics technologies generates an increasing interests in algorithms for cutoff point identification. Existing cutoff methods and tools identify cutoff points based on association of continuous variables with another variable, such as phenotype, disease state or treatment group. These approaches are not applicable for descriptive studies in which continuous variables are reported without known association with any biologically meaningful variables. The most common shape of the ranked distribution of continuous variables in high-throughput descriptive studies corresponds to a biphasic exponential/super-exponential curve, where the first phase includes big number of variables with values slowly growing with rank and the second phase includes smaller number of variables rapidly growing with rank. This study describes an easy algorithm to identify the boundary between these phases to be used as a cutoff point. The major assumption of that approach is that small number of variables with high values dominate biological system and determine its major processes and functions. This approach was tested on three different datasets: genes in the human cerebral cortex, mammalian genes sensitive to chemical exposures, and proteins expressed in human heart. In every case, the described cutoff identification method produced shortlists of variables (genes, proteins) highly relevant for dominant functions/pathways of the analyzed biological systems. Thus, our described method for cutoff identification may be used to prioritize variables for a focused functional analysis, in situations where other methods of dichotomization of data are inaccessible.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0244.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: microbial communities; synergistic interactions; ecosystem processes; multi-omics
Online: 9 February 2021 (16:59:36 CET)
Mining interspecies interactions remain a challenge due to the complex nature of microbial communities and the need for computational power to handle big data. Our meta-analysis indicates that genetic potential alone does not resolve all issues involving mining of microbial interactions. Nevertheless, it can be used to define the building blocks to infer synergistic interspecies interactions and to limit the search space (i.e., number of species and metabolic reactions) to a manageable size. A reduced search space decreases the number of additional experiments necessary to validate the inferred putative interactions. As validation experiments, we examine how multi-omics and state of the art imaging techniques may further improve our understanding of species interactions’ role in ecosystem processes. Finally, we analyze pros and cons from the current methods to infer microbial interactions from genetic potential and propose a new theoretical framework based on: (i) genomic information of key members of a community; (ii) information of ecosystem processes involved with a specific hypothesis or research question; (iii) the ability to identify putative species’ contributions to ecosystem processes of interest; and, (iv) validation of putative microbial interactions through integration of other data sources.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0093.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: bacterial pathogens; host-pathogen interaction; infection biology; omics
Online: 27 August 2017 (11:18:27 CEST)
By providing useful tools to study host-pathogen interactions, next-generation omics has recently enabled the study of gene expression changes in both pathogen and infected host simultaneously. However, since great discriminative power is required to study pathogen and host simultaneously throughout the infection process, the depth of quantitative gene expression profiling has proven to be unsatisfactory when focusing on bacterial pathogens, thus preferentially requiring specific strategies or the development of novel methodologies based on complementary omics approaches. In this review, we focus on the difficulties encountered when making use of omics approaches to study bacterial pathogenesis. Besides, we review different omics strategies (i.e. transcriptomics, proteomics and secretomics) and their applications for studying interactions of pathogens with their host.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0135.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: epigenetics; epigenetic variation; chromatin changes; omics; climate-resilient crops
Online: 6 July 2021 (11:32:11 CEST)
Climate change has had a significant impact on many ecosystems worldwide, prompting native population species to adapt to the current weather patterns eventually. Pre-existing genetic variation in populations explains part of this adaptation. Still, recent studies have shown that new stable phenotypes can be generated through epigenetic modifications in just a few generations, thereby contributing to the stability and survival of plants in their natural habitat as they eventually adjust to the surrounding impacts. The state of chromatin inside plant cells varies, allowing cells to fine-tune their transcriptional profiles to better adapt to stimuli from the external environment. Within a cell, chromatin state changes such as post-transcriptional histone modifications and variations, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNA activity are all examples of chromatin state alterations that may epigenetically dictate certain transcriptional outputs. Recent advances in the field of ‘Omics’ in major crops has made it easier to identify epigenetic changes and their impact on plant responses to environmental stresses. These epigenetic mechanisms thus play an important role in improving crop adaptation and resilience to changing environments. This variation that has emerged can thus be exploited in crop breeding, ultimately leading to the generation of stable climate-resilient genotypes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0331.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: PGPR; Global food security; Sustainable agriculture; Omics techniques; Bioinoculants
Online: 14 May 2021 (12:03:16 CEST)
Increased severity of droughts, due to anthropogenic activities and global warming has imposed a severe threat on agricultural productivity ever before. This has further advanced the need for some eco-friendly approaches to ensure global food security. In this regard, application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can be beneficial. PGPR through various mechanisms viz. osmotic adjustments, increased antioxidant, phytohormone production, regulating stomatal conductivity, increased nutrient uptake, releasing Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and Exo-polysaccharide (EPS) production, etc not only ensures the plant’s survival during drought but also augment its growth. This review, extensively discusses the various mechanisms of PGPR in drought stress tolerance. We have also summarized the recent molecular and omics-based approaches for elucidating the role of drought responsive genes. The manuscript presents an in-depth mechanistic approach to combat the drought stress and also deals with designing PGPR based bioinoculants. Lastly, we present a possible sequence of steps for increasing the success rate of bioinoculants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0264.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Bioethanol; Kluyveromyces marxianus; Omics technologies; gTME, and CRISPR-Cas9
Online: 9 November 2020 (08:38:20 CET)
Bioethanol has been considered as an excellent alternative to fossil fuels since it importantly contributes to the reduced consumption of the crude oil and to the alleviation of environmental pollution . Up to now, the baker yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most common eukaryotic microorganism used in ethanol production. The inability of S. cerevisiae to grow on pentoses, however, hinders its effective growth on plant biomass hydrolysates, which contain large amounts of C5 and C12 sugars. The industrial-scale bioprocessing requires high temperature bioreactors, diverse carbon sources, and the high titer production of volatile compounds . These criteria indicate that the search for alternative microbes possessing useful traits that meet the required standards of bioethanol production is necessary. Compared to other yeasts, Kluyveromyces marxianus has several advantages over the others, e.g. it could grow on a broad spectrum of substrates (C5, C6 and C12 sugars) , tolerate to high temperature, toxin [4,5] and a wide range of pH values , and produce volatile short-chain ester . K. marxianus also shows a high ethanol production rate at high temperature and is a Crabtree-negative species . These attributes make K. marxianus a promise as an industrial host for the biosynthesis of biofuels and other valuable chemicals.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0388.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: proximity labeling; spatial omics; functional proteomics; interactome mapping; electrophile signaling
Online: 30 May 2022 (06:13:07 CEST)
If one considers chemical-biology toolsets that have had the greatest impact on numerous fields of life sciences over the most recent years, proximity-labeling tools, such as APEX, and Bio-ID arguably lead the way. This article reflects upon the current state-of-the-art and discusses key limitations underlying these emerging approaches, in particular, the limited functional knowledge they provide in understanding local proteomes / interactomes. This limitation is directly linked to the use of non-biologically- or non-pharmaceutically-relevant reactive intermediates in the course of covalently labeling the local proteomes. As such, these methods cannot report on specific functions of localized protein players, nor can they scrutinize whether the specific functions of such proteins/interactomes can be directly manipulated by pharmacologically-relevant small-molecule ligands. The latest data hint that precision localized electrophile delivery concept ushers a means to address this limitation with high spatiotemporal resolution, and ultimately, in relevant live animals.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: sequencing; omics; synthetic biology; systems biology; machine learning; biological design
Online: 23 April 2020 (03:47:02 CEST)
The ability to read and quantify nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA using sequencing technologies has revolutionized our understanding of life. With the emergence of synthetic biology, these tools are now being put to work in new ways - enabling de novo biological design. Here, we show how sequencing is supporting the creation of a new wave of biological parts and systems, as well as providing the vast data sets needed for the machine learning of design rules for predictive bioengineering. However, we believe this is only the tip of the iceberg and end by providing an outlook on recent advances that will likely broaden the role of sequencing in synthetic biology and its deployment in real-world environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0365.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Cancer subtype detection; Multi-omics data; Data integration; Autoencoder; Survival analysis
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:09:51 CET)
A heterogeneous disease like cancer is activated through multiple pathways and different perturbations. Depending upon the activated pathway(s), patients’ survival vary significantly and show different efficacy to various drugs. Therefore, cancer subtype detection using genomics level data is a significant research problem. Subtype detection is often a complex problem, and in most cases, needs multi-omics data fusion to achieve accurate subtyping. Different data fusion and subtyping approaches have been proposed, such as kernel-based fusion, matrix factorization, and deep learning autoencoders. In this paper, we compared the performance of different deep learning autoencoders for cancer subtype detection. We performed cancer subtype detection on four different cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets using four autoencoder implementations. We also predicted the optimal number of subtypes in a cancer type using the silhouette score. We observed that the detected subtypes exhibit significant differences in survival profiles. Furthermore, we also compared the effect of feature selection and similarity measures for subtype detection. To evaluate the results obtained, we selected the Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) dataset and identified the differentially expressed genes in each of the subtypes identified by the autoencoders; the obtained results coincide well with other genomic studies and can be corroborated with the involved pathways and biological functions. Thus, it shows that the results from the autoencoders, obtained through the interaction of different datatypes of cancer, can be used for the prediction and characterization of patient subgroups and survival profiles.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0250.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: antibiotic discovery; STEM education; biosynthetic gene cluster; molecular networking; multi-omics
Online: 6 November 2020 (16:50:46 CET)
The world faces two seemingly unrelated challenges—a shortfall in the STEM workforce and increasing antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens. We address these two challenges with Tiny Earth, an undergraduate research course that excites students about science and creates a pipeline for antibiotic discovery.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0357.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: data; data paper; omics; metadata; workflow; standards; FAIR principles, MIxS, MINSEQE
Online: 16 September 2020 (11:04:34 CEST)
Data papers have emerged as a powerful instrument for open data publishing, obtaining credit, and establishing priority for datasets generated in scientific experiments. Academic publishing improves data and metadata quality through peer-review and increases the impact of datasets by enhancing their visibility, accessibility, and re-usability. We aimed to establish a new type of article structure and template for omics studies: the omics data paper. To improve data interoperability and further incentivise researchers to publish high-quality data sets, we created a workflow for streamlined import of omics metadata directly into a data paper manuscript. An omics data paper template was designed by defining key article sections which encourage the description of omics datasets and methodologies. The workflow was based on REpresentational State Transfer services and Xpath to extract information from the European Nucleotide Archive, ArrayExpress and BioSamples databases, which follow community-agreed standards. The workflow for automatic import of standard-compliant metadata into an omics data paper manuscript facilitates the authoring process. It demonstrates the importance and potential of creating machine-readable and standard-compliant metadata. The omics data paper structure and workflow to import omics metadata improves the data publishing landscape by providing a novel mechanism for creating high-quality, enhanced metadata records, peer reviewing and publishing of these. It constitutes a powerful addition for distribution, visibility, reproducibility and re-usability of scientific data. We hope that streamlined metadata re-use for scholarly publishing encourages authors to improve the quality of their metadata to achieve a truly FAIR data world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0063.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: beta casein; MAC-T cells; Ile; milk protein synthesis; omics; proteomics
Online: 7 June 2019 (14:55:03 CEST)
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing L-isoleucine (L-Ile) on milk protein synthesis, using an immortalized bovine mammary epithelial (MAC-T) cell line. In this case, the cells were treated with 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5 mM of supplemental Isoleucine (Ile), and the most efficient time for protein synthesis for each amino acid was determined by measuring the cell, medium and total protein at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Confirmatory tests showed that 48h incubation time and 0.6 mM dosage of L-Ile are considered as the optimal time and dosage. The mechanism of milk protein synthesis was elucidated through proteomics analysis to clarify the metabolic pathway. When the L-Ile was supplemented, extracellular protein (medium protein) reached a peak at 48h, whereas in the case of the intracellular cell protein, it was shown to have reached to its peak at 24h in all L-Ile dosage treatments. In total, it is noted that there were 63 upregulated and 52 downregulated proteins. The results of the protein pathway analysis showed that the L-Ile group stimulated insulin/IGF pathway-mitogen activated protein kinase kinase/MAP kinase cascade, insulin/IGF pathway-protein kinase B signaling cascade, p53 pathway, de novo purine biosynthesis, Wnt signaling pathway, glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and ATP synthesis which are pathways involved and related to protein and energy metabolism. Together, these results demonstrate that L-Ile supplementation was effective in stimulating β-casein synthesis by stimulating genes and pathways which are significantly related to protein and energy metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0038.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: progeria; aging; omics; RNA Sequencing; bioinformatics; sun exposure; HGPS; IGFBP2; ACKR4; WNT
Online: 4 July 2022 (08:10:10 CEST)
Abstract: Since ancient times aging has also been regarded as a disease, and humankind has always strived to extend the natural lifespan. Analyzing the genes involved in aging and disease allows for finding important indicators and biological markers for pathologies and possible therapeutic targets. An example of the use of omics technologies is the research regarding aging and the rare and fatal premature aging syndrome progeria (Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, HGPS). In our study, we focused on the in silico analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in progeria and aging, using a publicly available RNA Seq dataset (GEO dataset GSE113957) and a variety of bioinformatics tools. We identified several genes that appear to be involved both in natural aging and progeria (KRT8, KRT18, ACKR4, CCL2, UCP2, ADAMTS15, ACTN4P1, WNT16, IGFBP2). Further analyzing these genes and the pathways involved confirmed their possible roles in aging, suggesting the need for further in vitro and in vivo research. The graphical abstract illustrates the analysis workflow we used and will introduce in the following as an example to demonstrate the power of omics and bioinformatics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0403.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Endothelium; Endothelium dysfunction; Newer omics technologies; network medicine; biomarkers and therapeutic targets
Online: 29 June 2022 (09:48:20 CEST)
The endothelium has multiple functions from maintaining vascular homeostasis, providing nutrition and oxygen to tissues, to evocating inflammation, under adverse conditions, and determining endo-thelial barrier disruption resulting in dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction represents the typical condition associated with the pathogenesis of all the diseases of cardiovascular system, as well as of diseases of all the other human body’s systems, also including sepsis, acute respiratory distress syn-drome and COVID-19 respiratory distress. Such evidence is leading to identifying potential bi-omarkers and therapeutic targets for preserving, reverting, or restoring endothelium integrity and functionality by early treating its dysfunction. Here, it stresses some strategies for achieving these goals, even if diverse challenges exist and require a significant bench work associated with an in-creased number of clinical studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0256.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Multi-omics; proteomics; transcriptomics; metabolomics; lipidomics; surfaceomics; system biol-ogy; EVs origin
Online: 17 March 2022 (12:31:43 CET)
In the era of multi-omic sciences, dogma on singular cause-effect in physio-pathological processes is overcome and system biology approaches have been providing new perspectives to see through. In this context, extracellular vesicles (EVs) are offering a new level of complexity, given their role in cellular communication and their activity as mediators of specific signals to target cells or tissues. Indeed, their heterogeneity in terms of content, function, origin and potentiality contribute to the cross-interaction of almost every molecular process occurring in a complex system. Such features make EVs proper biological systems being, therefore, optimal targets of omic sciences. Currently, most studies focus on dissecting EVs content in order to either characterize it or to explore its role in various pathogenic processes at transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, lipidomic and genomic levels. Despite valuable results are being provided by individual omic studies, the categorization of EVs biological data might represent a limit to be overcome. For this reason, a multi-omic integrative approach might contribute to explore EVs function, their tissue-specific origin and their potentiality. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art of EVs omic studies, addressing recent research on the integration of EVs multi-level biological data and challenging developments in EVs origin.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0363.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Traditional food crops; Climate change; Food security; Omics; Translational genomics; Gene editing
Online: 14 June 2021 (13:02:24 CEST)
The indigenous communities across the globe especially in the rural areas consume locally available plants known as Traditional Food Plants (TFPs) for their nutritional and health-related needs. Recent research shows that many of the traditional food plants are highly nutritious as they contain health beneficial metabolites, vitamins, mineral elements and other nutrients. Excessive reliance on the mainstream staple crops has its own disadvantages. TFPs are nowadays considered important crops of the future and can act as supplementary foods for the burgeoning global population. They can also act as emergency foods in times of pandemics and other situations like COVID-19. The current situation necessitates locally available alternative nutritious TFPs for sustainable food production. To increase the cultivation or improve the traits in TFPs, it is essential to understand the molecular basis of the genes that regulate some important traits such as nutritional components and resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses. The integrated use of modern omics and gene editing technologies provide great opportunities to better understand the genetic and molecular basis of superior nutrient content, climate-resilient traits and adaptation to local agroclimatic zones. Recently, realising the importance and benefits of TFPs, scientists have shown interest in the prospection and sequencing of traditional food plants for their improvements, further cultivation and mainstreaming. Integrated omics such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and ionomics are successfully used in plants and have provided a comprehensive understanding of gene-protein-metabolite networks. Combined use of omics and editing tools has led to successful editing of beneficial traits in few TFPs. This suggests that there is ample scope of integrated use of modern omics and editing tools/techniques for improvement of TFPs and their use for sustainable food production. In this article, we highlight the importance, scope and progress towards improvement of TFPs for valuable traits by integrated use of omics and gene editing techniques.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0401.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: benzo[a]pyrene; biodegradation; co-metabolism; bioaugmentation; catabolic pathways; omics; functional metagenomics.
Online: 16 November 2020 (08:53:39 CET)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which consist of low-molecular-weight PAHs (LMW-PAHs) and high-molecular-weight PAHs (HMW-PAHs), form an important class of pollutants. Pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are the main pollutants belonging to HMW-PAHs, and their degradation by microorganisms remains an important strategy for their removal from the environments. Extensive studies have been carried out on the isolation and characterisation of microorganisms that actively degrade LMW-PAHs, and to a certain extent, the HMW-PAH pyrene. However, so far, limited work has been carried out on BaP biodegradation. BaP consists of five fused aromatic rings, which confers this compound a high stability, rendering it less amenable to biodegradation. The current review summarizes the emerging reports on BaP biodegradation. More specifically, work carried out on BaP bacterial degradation and current knowledge gaps that limit our understanding of BaP degradation are highlighted. Moreover, new avenues of research on BaP degradation are proposed, specifically in the context of the development of “omics” approaches
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0193.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: metabolomics; plant biology; metabolomics databases; data analysis; metabolomics software tools; mass spectrometry; omics
Online: 8 July 2021 (10:46:55 CEST)
Metabolomics is now considered to be a wide-ranging, sensitive and practical approach to acquire useful information on the composition of a metabolite pool present in any organism, including plants. Investigating metabolomic regulation in plants is essential to understand their adaptation, acclimation and defense response to environmental stresses through the production of numerous metabolites. Moreover, metabolomics can be easily applied for the phenotyping of plants; and thus, it has great potential to be used in molecular breeding and genome editing programs to develop superior next generation crops. This review describes the recent analytical tools and techniques available to study plants metabolome, along with their significance of sample preparation using targeted and non-targeted method. Advanced analytical tools, like gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography mass-spectroscopy (LC-MS), capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS), fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) have speed up metabolic profiling in plants. Further, we deliver a complete overview of bioinformatics tools and plant metabolome database that can be utilized to advance our knowledge to plant biology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0514.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: virus-host interaction; human immunodeficiency virus; protein-protein interactions; OMICs; transcriptomics; network analysis
Online: 30 April 2020 (03:07:05 CEST)
The interaction of human immunodeficiency virus with human cells is responsible for all stages of the viral life cycle, from the infection of CD4+ cells to reverse transcription, integration, and the assembly of new viral particles. To date, a large amount of OMICs data as well as information from functional genomics screenings regarding the HIV-1-host interaction has been accumulated in the literature and in public databases. We processed databases containing HIV-host interactions and found 2910 HIV-1-human protein-protein interactions, mostly related to viral group M subtype B, 137 interactions between human and HIV-1 coding and non-coding RNAs, essential for viral lifecycle and cell defense mechanisms, 232 transcriptomics, 27 proteomics, and 34 epigenomics HIV-related experiments. Numerous studies regarding network-based analysis of corresponding OMICs data have been published in recent years. We overview various types of molecular networks, which can be created using OMICs data, including HIV-human protein-protein interaction networks, co-expression networks, gene regulatory and signaling networks, and approaches for the analysis of their topology and dynamics. The network-based analysis can be used to determine the critical pathways and key proteins involved in the HIV life cycle, cellular and immune responses to infection, viral escape from host defense mechanisms, and mechanisms mediating different susceptibility of humans to infection. The proteins and pathways identified in these studies may represent a basis for developing new anti-HIV therapeutic strategies such as new small-molecule drugs preventing infection of CD4+ cells and viral replication, effective vaccines, "shock and kill" and "block and lock" approaches to cure latent infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0154.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Genome selection; Rice breeding; Genetic analysis; Omics assisted markers; Nutritional quality; Genomics and pangenomics; Biofortification
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:53:16 CEST)
The primary considerations while producing rice (Oryza sativa L.) include improving its nutritional quality and production. To tackle widespread hunger globally, better nutritional, high-yielding rice cultivars need to be developed. The conventional ways are to increase the production of rice and add balanced nutrients in the daily diet to fulfill the need of yield and nutrient quality. This article focuses on nutritional strategies for rice and illustrates the availability of omics technologies. Current advancements providing many methodologies and approaches for exploring genetic resources and for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in trait formation have been highlighted. Studying the genetic influences of various characteristics has been proven to expedite crop breeding processes. In this perspective, genome-wide association research, genome selection (GS), and QTL mapping are all genetic analysis that helps in increasing the nutritional content of rice. Implementation of several omic techniques are effective approaches to enhance and regulate the nutritional quality of rice cultivars. Advancements in different types of omics including genomics and pangenomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, nutrigenomics, and proteomics are also relevant to rice development initiatives. This review article compiles genes, locus, mutants and all omic approaches for rice enhancement. This knowledge will be very useful for now and for the future regarding rice studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0393.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Parkinson's disease; Huntington's disease; Integration; Shared patterns; Neurodegeneration; Multi-Omics; Alzheimer's Disease; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Online: 19 October 2020 (15:44:47 CEST)
Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis are heterogeneous, progressive diseases with frequently overlapping symptoms characterized by a loss of neurons. Studies suggested relations between neurodegenerative diseases for many years, e.g., regarding the aggregation of toxic proteins or triggering endogenous cell death pathways. Within this study, publicly available genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic data were gathered from 188 studies and more than one million patients to detect shared genetic patterns between the neurodegenerative diseases and the analyzed omics-layers within conditions. The results show a remarkably high number of shared genes between the transcriptomic and proteomic levels for all diseases while showing a significant relation between genomic and proteomic data only in some cases. A set of 139 genes was found to be differentially expressed in several transcriptomic experiments of all four diseases. These 139 genes showed overrepresented GO-Terms and pathways mainly involved in stress response, cell development, cell adhesion, and the cytoskeleton. Furthermore, the overlap of two and three omics-layers per disease were used to search for overrepresented pathways and GO-Terms. Taken together, we could confirm the existence of many relations between Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis on the transcriptomic and proteomic level by analyzing the pathways and GO-Terms arising in these intersections. The significance of the connection between the transcriptomic and proteomic data for all four analyzed neurodegenerative diseases showed that exploring these omics-layers simultaneously holds new insights that do not emerge from analyzing these omics-layers separately. Our data therefore suggests addressing human patients with neurodegenerative diseases as complex biological systems by integrating multiple underlying data sources.