ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0346.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: HPV vaccine; Vaccine awareness; Vaccine hesitancy
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:12:21 CEST)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a widespread sexually transmitted infection linked to various types of cancers. Although vaccination against HPV is available, global HPV vaccination rates remain low. This study aimed to evaluate the awareness and knowledge of the HPV vaccine and to identify predictors associated with vaccine hesitancy among health college students in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to students enrolled in health colleges. The association of vaccine hesitancy with sociodemographic characteristics was examined using logistic regression analysis. The study found that approximately half of the students (49.9%) were aware of the HPV vaccine. Students from the College of Medicine showed the highest level of knowledge. Only a small proportion (5.2%) reported receiving the vaccine. The overall HPV vaccine hesitancy was 59.1% (43.9% for women and 75.9% for men). The most common reasons for vaccine hesitancy was not knowing enough about it. Men were twice as likely as women to believe that they did not need the HPV vaccine. The odds for HPV vaccine hesitancy were greater among men and younger age group compared to women and older age group. In conclusion, the study underscores the importance of awareness campaigns on HPV vaccination, targeting primarily male students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0036.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: influenza vaccine; HIV; vaccine hesitancy; Italy
Online: 4 October 2021 (09:44:35 CEST)
There are scarce data regarding flu vaccination among people with HIV infection (PWHIV). The goal of this explorative study is to assess hesitancy toward influenza vaccination in a group of PWHIV during the pandemic. A questionnaire was administered to 219 patients vaccinated at our clinic during the 2020-2021 campaign. It evaluated subjects’ adherence over the last 3 seasonal vaccination campaigns, vaccine confidence, complacency and convenience, and the effect of the pandemic on the choice to vaccinate. The population was divided into two groups: fully adherent (all 3 campaigns, 117 patients) and non-fully adherent (1 or 2 campaigns, 102 patients). Adherence increased in non-fully adherent group in 2020-2021, but the pandemic did not affect the choice. Misbelieves emerged: influenza vaccine was considered protective SARS-CoV-2 (22.8% of total population); almost half of all patients thought influenza vaccine could improve their CD4+ cell level (57.3% in fully adherent, 40.2% in non-fully adherent, p<0.05). A quarter of the non-fully adherent group would not have vaccinated in a location other than our clinic (24.5% vs 11.9% in fully adherent group, p<0.05). Conclusively, offering a secure and private space for vaccination seems to encourage vaccination; healthcare professionals should improve counselling to increase adherence and correct misbeliefs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0087.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine hesitancy; vaccine freedom
Online: 4 November 2022 (04:12:38 CET)
Despite the availability of effective vaccines that lower mortality and morbidity associated with COVID-19, many countries including Italy adopted strict vaccination policies and mandates to increase the uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine. Such mandates have sparked debates on the freedom to choose whether or not to get vaccinated. In this study, we examined the people’s belief in vaccine choice as a predictor of willingness to get vaccinated among a sample of unvaccinated individuals in Italy. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted in Italy in May 2021. The survey collected data on respondents’ demographics and region of residence, socioeconomic factors, belief in the freedom to choose to be vaccinated or not, risk perception of contracting and transmitting the disease, previous vaccine refusal, opinion on adequacy of government measures to address the pandemic, experience in requesting and being denied government aid during the pandemic, and intent to accept COVID-19 vaccination. The analysis employed binary logistic regression models using a hierarchical model building approach to assess the association between intent to accept vaccination and belief in the freedom to choose to vaccinate, while adjusting for other variables of interest. 984 unvaccinated individuals were included in the study. Respondents who agreed that people should be free to decide whether or not to vaccinate with no restrictions on their personal life had 85% lower odds of vaccine acceptance (OR=0.15 ;95% CI,0.09,0.23) after adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic factors and their risk perception of contracting and transmitting COVID-19. Belief in the freedom to choose whether or not to accept vaccinations was a major predictor of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among a sample of unvaccinated individuals in Italy in May 2021. This understanding of how individuals prioritize personal freedoms and the perceived benefits and risks of vaccines, when making health care decisions can inform the development of public health outreach, educational programs and messaging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0313.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Measles vaccine; Vaccine hesitancy; Measles vaccine uptake; Immunization; Sudan; PACV
Online: 20 December 2021 (13:58:34 CET)
Vaccine uptake is one of the indicators that has been used to guide immunization programs. This study aimed to evaluate whether the measles vaccine uptake is predicted by measles vaccine hesitancy. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in urban districts in Khartoum state in February 2019. Measles vaccine uptake among children was measured as either fully vaccinated or partially/not vaccinated. The Parents Attitude about Childhood Vaccination (PACV) scale was used to measure measles vaccine hesitancy. Multivariate logistic regression was run to identify the predictors of measles vaccination uptake controlling for sociodemographic variables and the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95% CI were calculated. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was performed, besides area under the curve (AUC) for the PACV was computed. Data was collected from 495 participants. We found that measles vaccine hesitancy (PACV scores) predicted the uptake of measles vaccine after controlling other potential social confounders such as mother’s age and the number of children (aOR 1.055, 95% CI 1.028-1.028). Additionally, the ROC for the PACV yielded area under the curve (AUC 0.686 (95% CI 0.620-0.751, P <0.001). Our findings show that measles vaccine hesitancy in Sudan directly influences the uptake of the measles vaccine. Addressing the determinants of vaccine hesitancy through communication strategies will improve vaccine uptake.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0717.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: vaccine hesitancy; vaccine acceptance; anti-vaccination; COVID-19; coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; vaccine rejection
Online: 29 December 2020 (08:46:16 CET)
Utility of vaccine campaigns to control coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is not merely dependent on vaccine efficacy and safety. Vaccine acceptance among the general public and the healthcare workers, appears to have a decisive role for successful control of the pandemic. The aim of this review was to provide an up-to-date assessment of COVID-19 vaccination acceptance rates worldwide. A systematic search of the peer-reviewed English survey literature indexed in PubMed was done on December 25, 2020. Results from 30 studies, met the inclusion criteria and formed the basis for final COVID-19 vaccine acceptance estimates. Results of an additional recent survey from Jordan and Kuwait was considered in this review as well. Survey studies on COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rates were found from 33 different countries. Among adults representing the general public, the highest COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rates were found in Ecuador (97.0%), Malaysia (94.3%), Indonesia (93.3%) and China (91.3%). On the other hand, the lowest COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rates were found in Kuwait (23.6%), Jordan (28.4%), Italy (53.7), Russia (54.9%), Poland (56.3%), US (56.9%), and France (58.9%). Only eight surveys among healthcare workers (doctors, nurses) were found, with vaccine acceptance rates ranging from 27.7% in the Democratic Republic of the Congo to 78.1% in Israel. In a majority of survey studies among the general public (62%), the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination showed a level of ≥ 70%. Low rates of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance were reported in the Middle East, Russia, Africa and several European countries. This could represent a major problem in the global efforts that aim to control the current COVID-19 pandemic. More studies are recommended to address the scope of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Such studies are particularly needed in the Middle East Africa, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Middle and Latin America.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0988.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; Vaccine hesitancy; Implication; Consequences; Economic recovery
Online: 15 May 2023 (07:37:36 CEST)
The phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy is a growing threat to public health with far-reaching implications. The widening gap between the vaccinated and the proportion needed for herd immunity raises two critical research questions that are of interest to practitioners, researchers, and policymakers: (1) What determines one’s decision to be vaccinated? and (2) What is the implication of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy on economic recovery? In this study, we use empirical data in the context of South Africa to investigate factors affecting COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and their implications for economic recovery. Findings reveal key socio-demographic and institutional drivers of COVD-9 vaccine hesitancy, which include age (the youth are more hesitant), inadequate information on the vaccine (those who perceive they have adequate information are vaccinated), trust issues in government institutions, conspiracy beliefs, vaccine-related factors, and perceived side effects associated with the vaccine. Additionally, an individual’s decision to remain hesitant about COVID-19 vaccination has implications for businesses and the economy by limiting movement and trade, increasing unemployment, and causing a resurgence of new variants. Based on the findings, action plans such as information dissemination, convenience vaccination centers, consistency communications, and targeted campaign strategies are recommended for improving vaccine intakes and a positive economic recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0532.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Vaccine access issues; vaccine uptake; vaccine hesitancy; vaccination hesitancy; measles; media-tion analysis
Online: 31 August 2022 (03:53:25 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to evaluate whether measles vaccine uptake can be predicted directly or indirectly by parental perceptions about the availability of measles vaccine services with parental hesitancy towards the measles vaccine as a potential mediator. Methods: This was a community-based cross-sectional study conducted at Omdurman locality in Khartoum state, Sudan in February 2019. The study population included parents/ guardians having at least one child aged 2 -3 years old. Mediation analysis was conducted using two models, the ordinary least squares path analysis and multiple logistic regression. Results: a total of 495 responded and the mean age of the mothers who participated in the study was 31.1 (SD=5.73). A half of the respondents (50.1%) completed university education and nearly three-quarters of the respondents (74.7%) were housewives. After controlling for the other factors, including the mother’s age and the number of children, parental perception about the accessibility and availability of the measles vaccine influences the uptake of the measles vaccine indirectly through the mediation effect of measles vaccine hesitancy. Conclusions: We suggest that intervening in measles vaccine hesitancy in addition to measles vaccination access issues will have positive impact on the uptake and coverage of the measles vaccine in Sudan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0236.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19 Vaccines; Vaccine Hesitancy; Healthcare workers; Vaccine acceptance; Vaccination; Vaccines; Arab Healthcare workers
Online: 9 April 2021 (08:41:36 CEST)
Background: Health Care Workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of acquiring and transmitting COVID-19 infection. Also, they present role models for communities with regards to attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination. Hence, hesitancy of HCWs towards vaccination can crucially affect the efforts aiming to contain the pandemic. Previously published studies paid little attention to HCWs in Arab countries, which has a population of over 440 million. Objectives: to assess the rates of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in Arabic-speaking HCWs residing in and outside the Arab countries, and their perceived barriers towards vaccination. Methods: a cross-sectional study based on an online survey was conducted from 14-Jan 2021 to 29-Jan 2021, targeting Arabic-speaking HCWs from all around the world. Results: the survey recruited 5,708 eligible participants (55.6% males, 44.4% females, age 30.6±10 years) from 21 Arab countries (87.5%) and 54 other countries (12.5%). Our analysis shows a significant rate of vaccine hesitancy among Arabic-speaking HCWs residing in and outside Arab countries (25.8% and 32.8%, respectively). The highest rates of hesitancy were among participants from the west region of the Arab world (Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria). The most cited reasons for hesitancy were concerns about side effects and distrust in vaccine expedited production and healthcare policies. Factors associated with higher hesitancy included age of 30-59, previous or current suspected or confirmed COVID-19, female gender, not knowing the vaccine type authorized in the participant’s country, and not regularly receiving the influenza vaccine. Conclusion: this is the first large-scale, multinational, post-vaccine-availability study on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among HCWs. It reveals high rates of hesitancy among Arab-speaking HCWs. Unless addressed properly, this hesitancy can impede the efforts for achieving widespread vaccination and collective immunity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19 vaccine; vaccine hesitancy; healthcare workers; primary care; general practice; Singapore
Online: 1 March 2022 (03:49:13 CET)
Background: COVID-19 booster uptake remained poor among healthcare workers (HCW) despite evidence of improved immunity against Delta and Omicron variants. While most studies used a questionnaire to assess hesitancy, this study aimed to identify factors affecting true booster hesitancy by examining actual vaccine uptake across time. Method: COVID-19 vaccination database records among HCW working at 7 Singaporean public primary care clinics between January to December 2021 were extracted, with gender, profession, place of practice, vaccination type and dates. Time to booster was calculated from the date of vaccination minus date of eligibility. Chi-square test was used to compare relationship between 1st dose and booster hesitancy, Kaplan-Meier method and Log-rank test were adopted to evaluate differences in cumulative booster uptake. Multivariate cox regression was used to investigate predictors for timely booster vaccination. Vaccination rate was charted across time and corroborated with media releases pertaining to legislative changes. Results: 877 of 891 (98.9%) primary care HCW were fully vaccinated, 73.8% of eligible HCW had taken the booster. HCW were less booster hesitant [median 16 (5-31.3) days] compared to the 1st dose [median 39 (13-119.3) days]. 1st dose hesitant HCW were more likely to be booster hesitant (OR=3.66, 95%CI 2.61-5.14). Adjusting for sex, workplace and time to 1st dose, ancillary (HR=1.53, 95%CI 1.03-2.28), medical (HR=1.8, 95%CI 1.18-2.74) and nursing (HR=1.8, 95%CI 1.18-2.37) received boosters earlier compared with administrative staff. No temporal relationship was observed between booster uptake, legislative changes and COVID-19 infection numbers. Conclusion: Vaccine hesitancy among HCW had improved from booster to 1st dose, with timely booster vaccination among medical and nursing staff. Tailored education, risk messaging and strategic legislation might help to reduce delayed booster vaccination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0415.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; Coronavirus; Vaccine hesitancy; COVID-19 Vaccine; Saudi Arabia
Online: 31 May 2022 (09:22:49 CEST)
On 11th March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 as a pandemic. Vaccination programs have advanced greatly in the global health period, despite widespread anti-vaccination attitudes and misinformation. Vaccine hesitancy of COVID-19 vaccine is currently a major issue in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study was carried out from June 25, 2021 to October 2021 in order to investigate the knowledge levels of acceptance and hesitancy of COVID-19 vaccine among Saudi’s nationals. The data was collected through a close-ended structured questionnaire from a total of 565 respondents. Overall, 78.41% respondents were female, 62.48% having university level education and 61.06% were unemployed. Majority of the participants 82.30% (n=465) think that Pfizer vaccine has the highest efficiency against COVID-19. Our study concludes that majority of the participants have satisfactory knowledge about COVID-19 vaccination. Concerns over vaccine components, effectiveness of vaccine and possible side effects are among the key causes for vaccine hesitancy.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine; vaccine hesitancy; Healthcare Workers; Flu vaccine; Influenza; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:33:15 CEST)
Despite the research conducted worldwide, there is no treatment specific for SARS-CoV-2 infection with efficacy proven by randomized controlled trials. A chance for a breakthrough is vaccinating the majority of the global population. The public opinion surveys on vaccine hesitancy prompted our team to investigate the Polish medical community's attitude towards the SARS-CoV-2 and influenza vaccinations. In-person and online surveys of Healthcare Workers (HCWs): doctors, nurses, medical students, and other allied health professionals (n=419) took place between 14.09.2020 and 5.11.2020. In our study, 68.7% of respondents would like to be vaccinated with the COVID-19 vaccine. The safety and efficacy of vaccination against COVID-19 would persuade 86.3% of hesitant and those who would refuse to be vaccinated. 3.1% of all respondents claimed that no argument would convince them to get vaccinated. 61.6% of respondents declared a willingness to receive an influenza vaccination, of which 83.3% were also inclined to receive the planned COVID-19 vaccination. Although a significant part of respondents - 62.5% (262/419) indicated, they trusted the influenza vaccine more than the COVID-19 vaccine in direct comparison, more respondents intended to get the COVID-19 vaccination than the influenza vaccine in the 2020/2021 season.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1374.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Information; Sources of information; COVID-19; Vaccine hesitancy
Online: 19 May 2023 (04:20:44 CEST)
Vaccine hesitancy remains a public health challenge. It has been argued that the sources of vaccine-related information may serve as important condiments to one’s decision to be vaccinated. However, little empirical attention is given to the subject. We contribute to this debate by assessing the level of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and the role of information explaining hesitancy, using the Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality of South Africa as a case study. Findings confirm high level of vaccine hesitancy, representing 78.8 percent of the respondents (which is above the national level of 41%). Furthermore, findings reveal that vaccination decisions are influenced by family, which is the most trusted among all institutions in the society, especially on sensitive matters and those shrouded by myths and misinformation. Additionally, the majority trusts health care workers and mass media as sources of health-related and general information; however, the use of popular personalities to convey health information is not supported. The findings reveal key socio-demographic and institutional drivers of COVD-9 vaccine hesitancy, such as age, inadequate information on the vaccine, trust issues, conspiracy beliefs, vaccine-related factors, and perceived side effects associated with the vaccine. Recommendations based on the findings are provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0333.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: antibody; BNT162b2; coronavirus disease 2019; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; vaccine hesitancy; vaccine booster
Online: 25 February 2022 (10:01:23 CET)
This was a retrospective cohort study, which aimed to investigate the factors associated with hesitancy to receive the third dose of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine. A paper-based questionnaire survey was administered to all participants. Accordingly, the study included participants who provided answer in the questionnaire whether they have an intent to receive the third dose of vaccine. Data on sex, age, area of residence, adverse reactions after the second vaccination, whether the third vaccination was desired, and reasons to accept or hesitate booster vaccination were retrieved. Among the 2439 participants with mean (±SD) age of 52.6±18.9 years, and median IgG-S antibody titer of 324.9 (AU/mL), 97.9% of participants indicated their intent to accept a third vaccination dose. The logistic regression revealed that younger age (OR=0.98; 95% CI: 0.96-1.00) and higher antibody level (OR=2.52; 95% CI: 1.27-4.99) are positively associated with the third vaccine hesitancy. The efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine and concerns about adverse reactions had significant impact on the third vaccination behavior. A rapid increase in the booster dose rate is needed to control the pandemic, and specific approaches should be taken in these groups that are likely to hesitate the third vaccine, subsequently increasing booster contact rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0123.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Influenza vaccines; Vaccine hesitancy; Healthcare workers (HCWs); South Africa
Online: 8 June 2022 (10:03:21 CEST)
Vaccination attitudes among healthcare workers (HCWs) is a vital factor for measuring their level of vaccination uptake and intention to recommend vaccinations to their patients. To our knowledge, no study has been conducted in South Africa to assess hesitancy to influenza vaccines among HCWs. We used questionnaire adapted from Betsch and colleagues to conduct an online and face-to-face cross-sectional study among HCWs at the start of COVID-19 vaccine roll-out prior to the flu season. Main outcome was influenza vaccine hesitancy. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess predictors of influenza vaccine hesitancy. Of 401 participants, 64.5% were women, 49.2% nurses, and 12.5% physicians. A total of 54.9% were willing to accept vaccination, 20.4% were undecided, and 24.7% intended to refuse. Older participants above 17-25 years and physicians were likely to receive the vaccine. Key predictors of vaccine acceptance were confidence in the effectiveness, consideration of benefits and risks, and willingness to be vaccinated to protect others. Influenza vaccine hesitancy was highest in those who did not trust that influenza vaccines are safe. For future flu seasons, tailored education programs targeting younger HCWs and more information about the composition of flu vaccines would be vital to improve vaccine uptake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1401.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; booster; vaccine uptake
Online: 21 June 2023 (03:53:52 CEST)
Hispanic/Latino communities have suffered a disproportionate burden due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Although Puerto Rico has one of the highest COVID-19 primary series vaccination rates nationwide, this estimate contrasts with the low uptake of booster doses (32.7%). This study aimed to assess health belief correlates of COVID-19 vaccine booster uptake. PR-CEAL recruited 787 participants via an online survey between December 2021 and January 2022. Sociodemographic characteristics and questions framed using the Health Belief Model were assessed. Analyses included adjusted Poisson regression models to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) of booster refusal. Overall, 22% of participants planned (10%) or refused (12%) the vaccine booster. Participants with lower income [PR=1.92; 95%CI=1.30, 2.84], in disagreement with vaccine benefits [PR=4.16; 95%CI=3.06, 5.64], and in agreement with booster concerns [PR=2.93; 95%CI=2.12, 4.04], efficacy [PR=2.76; 95%CI=2.00, 3.82], and safety [PR=2.97; 95%CI=2.15, 4.08] were significantly more likely to refuse the booster. Booster vaccination refusal was associated with lower perceived vaccine benefits and higher barriers among adults in Puerto Rico. Results informed CEAL team intervention strategies for public health campaigns to increase booster vaccine uptake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine hesitancy; children; pediatrics; public health
Online: 1 September 2022 (02:25:22 CEST)
Background: This study describes the attitudes and practices of Brazilian adults regarding the mandatory vaccination for COVID-19 and the hesitancy to children´s vaccination. Methods: The participants answered an online questionnaire disseminated on social networks. An adaptation of the SAGE-WG questionnaire was used to measure the children's vaccination hesitancy. Results: Among 1,007 participants, 677 (67.4%) believed that vaccination for COVID-19 among adults should be mandatory. Just over half of the participants (51.5%) believe that parents and guardians should be free to decide whether their children should be vaccinated against COVID-19, and 9.1% were unsure about this. Younger, non-religious people who have higher self-perceptions of risk for COVID-19, and who evaluate the federal government's performance in combating the disease as bad or very bad, have a higher agreement with mandatory vaccination, a lower agreement that parents and guardians should be free to vaccinate their children, and lower child vaccination hesitancy scores. Conclusion: In Brazil, mandatory COVID-19 vaccination for adults is far from a consensus, and an expressive part of the population believes that parents and guardians should be free to choose whether or not to vaccinate their children. These perceptions and vaccine hesitancy for children are associated with religious and political inclinations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0055.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine hesitancy; young children; parents; health disparities, social determinants
Online: 2 August 2022 (09:22:32 CEST)
On 17 June 2022, the U.S. FDA authorized the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines for emergency use in children ages 6 months – 4 years. Seroprevalence has increased during the current Omicron variant wave for children under 5 years and the burden of hospitalization for this age group is similar or exceeds other pediatric vaccine preventable diseases. Research following the October 2021 approval of vaccines for children 5 – 11 indicates high prevalence of parental vaccine hesitancy and low uptake, underscoring the urgency of understanding attitudes and beliefs driving parental COVID-19 vaccine rejection and acceptance for younger children. One month prior to FDA approval, in the present study 411 U.S. female guardians of children 1 – 4 years from diverse racial/ethnic, economic, and geographic backgrounds participated in a mixed method online survey assessing determinants of COVID-19 pediatric vaccine hesitancy. Only 31.3% of parents intended to vaccinate their child, 22.6% were unsure, and 46.2% intended not to vaccinate. Logistic regression indicated significant barriers to vaccination uptake including: Concerns about immediate and long-term vaccination side effects for young children, the rushed nature of FDA approval and distrust in government and pharmaceutical companies, lack of community and family support for pediatric vaccination, conflicting media messaging, and lower socioeconomic status. Vaccine-resistant and unsure parents were also more likely to believe children were not susceptible to infection and that the vaccine no longer worked against new variants. Findings underscore the need for improved public health messaging and transparency regarding vaccine development and approval, the importance of community outreach, and increased pediatrician attention to parental concerns to better improve COVID vaccine uptake for young children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1441.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Vaccine hesitancy; Vaccination, COVID-19; Predictors; Prevalence; Health workers
Online: 19 May 2023 (11:58:06 CEST)
Introduction: COVID-19 vaccines have been the most effective means in curbing the infection, however, vaccine hesitancy has been seen as a threat to global health. Objective: the study aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among healthcare workers in infectious disease centers in Ghana. Method: A cross-sectional study and proportionate stratified sampling method was used to recruit participants from various infectious disease centers. Result: data from 170 participants were analyzed, revealing a low prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy (11.2%) among healthcare workers. However, only 31.1% of the fully vaccinated participants had taken the booster dose. Factors such as concerns about vaccine safety and side effects from previous doses, indecisiveness, a lack of time to receive the vaccine and lack of access to accurate information, prefered natural immunity were the significant predictors of vaccine hesitancy among healthcare workers. Participants with good perception of the risk posed by COVID-19 was positively correlated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. Conclusion: the study suggests that policies should be enacted to ensure health workers are vaccinated against highly contagious infectious diseases to prevent their spread among the general population. Training and health promotion campaigns should also be organized to encourage healthcare workers to accept and patronize the vaccines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2087.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Influenza; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Green-Pass; Vaccination; Immunization; Vaccine-hesitancy; Pandemic
Online: 29 June 2023 (10:23:58 CEST)
The purpose of this work was to longitudinally investigate the dynamic evolution of vaccine hesitancy towards both COVID-19 and influenza. We followed a cohort of 479 adult patients at Udine Hospital (Italy) having in common a medical history of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020, during the first and most impactful pandemic wave. Vaccine attitude was assessed through standardized telephone interviews performed at 12 and 18 months after the acute illness. The background of the survey was represented by COVID-19 vaccination campaign, started with the approval of the first vaccine in December 2020 and bolstered by the introduction of Green Pass in July 2021, in a context where anti-vaccination beliefs and mistrust in healthcare system were rising. The first interview reported the success of the 2020/21 seasonal influenza immunization with 46.8% (224/479) of the participants showing a positive attitude, especially the elderly and people with comorbidities (p< 0.001). The investigation conducted at 18 months showed a drastic drop in flu shot acceptance (30/166, 18.1%), the reluctance being justified by the feeling of protection regardless of prevention (55.8%) and by concerns regarding vaccines safety and efficacy (23.3%). In parallel, a great increase in vaccinations against SARS-CoV2 occurred after the introduction of Green Pass (72.9% vs 26.7%), although only a minority of the participants identified in the restrictions induced by the certification the leading incentive to get immunized (22.3%). Vaccine hesitancy remains a dynamic and complex phenomenon, which is difficult to overcome with incentive or obligatory strategies alone. The purpose of achieving vaccine compliance should always take into account the social and political context, as well as the role of personal opinions and emotions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0283.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy; Misinformation; Government Actions; Communication
Online: 21 March 2022 (10:29:33 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the adverse consequences created by an infodemic specifically on compliance with public health guidance and vaccine uptake. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is a complex construct that is related to health beliefs, misinformation exposure, and perceptions of governmental institutions. This study draws on theoretical models and current data on the COVID-19 infodemic to explore the association between perceived risk of COVID-19, levels of misinformation endorsement, and opinions about the government response on vaccine uptake. We surveyed a sample of 2,697 respondents from the US, Canada, and Italy using a mobile platform between 21-28 May, 2021. Using multivariate regression, we found that country of residence, risk perception of contracting and spreading COVID-19, perception of government response and transparency, and misinformation endorsement was associated with the odds of vaccine hesitancy. Higher perceived risk was associated with lower odds of hesitancy, while lower perceptions of government response, and higher misinformation endorsement were associated with higher hesitancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0089.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Acceptance; COVID-19; Cross-sectional study; Federal University of Health Sciences Otukpo; Vaccine hesitancy; Nigeria
Online: 3 May 2023 (02:51:50 CEST)
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has had devastating impacts on the global economy and public health. This study aimed to assess the level of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance, hesitancy, and associated factors among staff and students of the Federal University of Health Sciences Otukpo, Benue State, Nigeria. A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted between November 2021 and April 2022, and data were collected and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Of the 150 completed and analyzed questionnaires, the majority of respondents (80.0%) were between 16 and 45 years old. The study found that 58.4% of participants indicated vaccine hesitancy, with skepticism about the vaccine's fast production/rollout and fear of vaccine side effects being the most common reasons for hesitation. Respondents' age, religion, and category were significant factors influencing vaccine acceptance and hesitancy (P < 0.05). The university community has a high level of awareness of COVID-19 but low vaccine acceptance, resulting in high levels of vaccine hesitancy. The study recommends that policymakers and public health officials should prioritize testing and vaccination for job categories with higher risk of exposure to COVID-19. They should provide accurate information about COVID-19 testing and vaccination and implement workplace-based testing and vaccination programs. These interventions can help to increase COVID-19 testing and vaccination uptake among the university community and mitigate the spread of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0911.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: patient acceptance of health care; health knowledge; attitudes; practice; surveys and questionnaires; measles vaccine; parents
Online: 16 October 2023 (09:54:20 CEST)
Measles remains a highly contagious and potentially severe infectious disease, necessitating high vaccine coverage. However, misinformation and measles vaccine hesitancy/resistance posed significant challenges to achieving this goal. The COVID-19 pandemic further exacerbated these challenges, leading to a measles outbreak in Jordan in 2023. This study aimed to investigate the acceptance of the Measles-Rubella (MR) vaccine among parents in Jordan and identify its associated determinants. This cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted using a previously Arabic-validated version of the Parental Attitudes towards Childhood Vaccines (PACV) survey instrument. Data collection took place in October 2023, and the final study sample comprised a total of 391 parents, with mothers representing 69.8% of the participants (n = 273). The majority of participating parents expressed either resistance (n = 169, 43.2%) or hesitancy (n = 168, 43.0%) towards MR vaccination, while only 54 participants (13.8%) expressed MR vaccine acceptance. Multivariate analysis revealed that trust in vaccine safety/efficacy, behavior, and having fewer offspring were significantly associated with MR vaccine acceptance. The current study revealed a concerning level of MR vaccine hesitancy/resistance among parents in Jordan. Urgent and targeted interventions are strongly recommended to address this issue, including mass campaigns aimed at building trust in the MR vaccine safety/efficacy. Additionally, there is an urgent need for effective public health initiatives to ensure sufficient measles vaccine coverage to prevent future outbreaks of this serious disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0033.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: vaccine side effects; inactivated COVID-19 vaccine; sinopharm vaccine; sinovac vaccine; whole attenuated vaccine; COVID-19 vaccination; vaccine hesitancy
Online: 2 September 2022 (05:12:45 CEST)
Vaccination is one of the most effective methods for preventing morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. Vaccine hesitancy has led to a decrease in vaccine uptake; driven by misinformation, fear, and perceptions of vaccine safety. Whole inactivated vaccines have been used in one-fifth of the vaccine recipients in Africa, however there is limited real-world data on their safety. We evaluated the reported side effects and factors associated with reported side effects following vaccination with whole inactivated COVID-19 vaccines - BBiBP-CorV (Sinopharm) and CoronaVac (Sinovac). A quantitative survey evaluating attitudes and side effects from vaccination was administered to 1016 adults presenting at vaccination centers. Two follow-up telephone interviews were conducted to determine side effects after the first and second vaccination dose. Overall, the vaccine was well tolerated; 26.0% and 14.4% reported side effects after the first and second dose respectively. The most frequent local and systemic side effects were pain at the injection site and headaches respectively. Most symptoms were mild, and no participants re-quired hospitalization. Participants who perceived COVID-19 vaccines as safe or had a personal COVID-19 experience were significantly less likely to report side effects. Our findings provide data on the safety and tolerability of whole inactivated COVID-19 vaccines in an African population, providing the necessary data to create effective strategies to increase vaccination and support vaccination campaigns.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0210.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: influenza vaccine; influenza; vaccine; epidemiology; vaccine effectiveness; perceived barriers
Online: 14 October 2021 (10:07:05 CEST)
The reason for this dissertation is to establish the effects of vaccination on the elderly (>65 years old) in Hong Kong in reducing flu infection. Influenza vaccine uptake in the elderly (˃65 years old) in Hong Kong significantly increased in 2003 after the SARS epidemic. The exact impacts of influenza vaccine among the elderly in Hong Kong are a subject of contention. The effectiveness of the influenza vaccine comes from observed studies which may be prejudiced since it is difficult to identify and justify the evidence. A review of various literatures has shown that influenza causes serious illness and death particularly highly vulnerable groups such as adults aged 65 years and above. Therefore, more efforts should be initiated to reduce mortality caused by influenza among the elderly. According to the WHO (2005), vaccination is among the most effective approach for preventing death associated with influenza to vulnerable groups such as the elderly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0009.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: south africa; COVID-19; vaccine acceptancy; vaccine hesitancy; vaccine denial
Online: 1 August 2022 (06:02:11 CEST)
Unprecedented in scale, immense COVID-19 immunization programmes have been rolled out globally. This article explores aspects of hypothetical vaccine acceptability in Soweto, South Africa, shortly before such vaccines became available. Whereas hypothetical acceptance was normative, this has not translated into uptake today, which remains concerningly low in South Africa, especially in Soweto. For that reason, we mobilise anthropological concepts to analyse acceptance, hesitancy, and denial, respectively, to gauge and understand public proclivity to inoculate. We find that COVID-19’s haphazard mediatization generated a ‘field of suspicion’ towards authorities and vaccination, which, amplified by dis- and misinformation, fostered othering, hesitancy, and denial considerably. It remains paramount during vaccination rollouts to unveil and address aspects detrimental to vaccine confidence and selectivity, especially in lower-income groups for underlying, context-specific cultural, spiritual, historical, and socioeconomic reasons. Appropriate mediazation alongside a debunking of counterfactual claims is crucial in driving forward immunization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0350.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Mental stress Covid-19; Covid-19 vaccine dataset; Vaccine sociodemographic; Vaccine acceptance rate; Vaccine perception
Online: 18 August 2022 (13:36:16 CEST)
In this study, we surveyed over 600 participants to determine: a) major causes to mental stress during the pandemic and its future impacts, and b) diversity in public perception and acceptance (specifically for children) of Covid-19 vaccination. Statistical results and intelligent clustering outcomes indicate significant relationships between sociodemographic diversity, mental stress causes, vaccination perception, and Covid-19 infections. For instance, statistical results indicate significant dependence between mental stress due to Covid-19 and gender (p = 1.7e-05). Over 25% of males indicated work related stress comparing 35% in females however, females indicated more stressed (17%) due to relationships comparing to males (12%). Around 30% of Asian/Arabic participants don’t feel vaccination being safe as compared to 8% of white-British and 22% of white-European indicating significant dependence (p = 1.8e-08) with ethnicity. More specifically, vaccination acceptance for children is significantly dependent to ethnicity (p = 3.7e-05) where only 47% participants show willingness towards children’s vaccination. Primary dataset in this study along with experimental outcomes identifying sociodemographic information diversity with respect to public perception and acceptance of vaccination to children and potential stress factors might be useful for public and policy makers to be better prepared for future epidemics as well as working globally to combat mental health issues and running more effective vaccination campaigns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0562.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Monkeypox vaccine; vaccine willingness; healthcare workers
Online: 29 December 2022 (14:35:18 CET)
Early experience with Covid-19 shows that vaccines can be the most effective way of preventing the spread of infection. However, vaccine hesitancy is among the most significant hurdles in preventing the spread of novel infections. Monkeypox (MPX) has already been declared a global health emergency by WHO. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand the MPX vaccine willingness in various population groups. In this cross-sectional study, an online survey was conducted among Saudi healthcare workers (HCWs) to understand the monkeypox vaccine willingness in healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia. Saudi has already confirmed multiple MPX cases, and thus it is essential to initiate timely protective measures, including vaccination. The study had 743 respondents. The study found that among Saudi HCWs, 52.7% were willing to receive the MPX vaccine. The study found that sociodemographic factors had a small impact on vaccine willingness. However, early experience with vaccination had a significant impact. Thus, more than 70% who had influenza or COVID-19 vaccine were willing to receive the MPX vaccine. Some of the most significant concerns influencing vaccine acceptability were the safety and efficacy of the vaccine. Hence, it is strongly recommended to focus on disseminating information regarding the safety and efficacy of the MPX vaccine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0338.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine hesitancy; vaccine attitudes; vaccine development; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 15 September 2020 (10:32:28 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic continues to ravage the world, with the United States being highly affected. A vaccine provides the best hope for a permanent solution to controlling the pandemic. However, to be effective, a vaccine must be accepted and used by a large majority of the population. Structural equation modelling was used to analyze the relationships of several factors with attitudes toward potential COVID-19 vaccination. The survey was administered to 316 respondents across the United States by a survey corporation. Prior vaccine usage and attitudes predicted attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination. Assessment of the severity of COVID-19 for the United States was also predictive. Approximately 68% of all respondents were supportive of being vaccinated for COVID-19, but side effects, efficacy, and length of testing remained concerns. Longer testing, increased efficacy and development in the United States were significantly associated with increased vaccine acceptance. Messages promoting COVID-19 vaccination should seek to alleviate the concerns of those who are already vaccine-hesitant. Messaging directed at the benefits of vaccination for the United States as a country would address the second predictive factor. Enough time should be taken to allay concerns about both short and long-term side effects before a vaccine is released.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0702.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine acceptance; vaccine willingness; vaccine hesitancy; quantitative; online survey; Philippines
Online: 27 April 2021 (10:12:47 CEST)
With COVID-19 vaccines slowly being rolled out in many countries, it is important to understand the public’s acceptance of being vaccinated. This study aims to study the willingness and motivations among residents of the cities of Caloocan, Malabon, and Navotas, Philippines to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Based on an online survey of 137 respondents, who willingly participated in the study, 71% will take a COVID-19 vaccine if it becomes available, with similar rates among respondents from Caloocan (82%), Malabon (83 %), and Navotas (81%). If a vaccine is proven safe and effective, more respondents (82%) will take a COVID-19 vaccine. Furthermore, safety against COVID-19 as well as the safety and effectiveness of vaccines are the primary factors why respondents are willing or unwilling to get a vaccine. The results highlight the need for effective messaging that promotes COVID-19 vaccination, with emphasis on the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine, and its benefits to the public, especially that the vaccines that will be delivered in the country in the next few months are not the most preferred brands by the respondents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0576.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine; immunosuppressed; cancer; vaccine efficacy
Online: 31 January 2023 (06:26:20 CET)
The effect of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has been subsided significantly following the rapid development of vaccine. However, patients with cancer and immunosuppressed state, who are more prone to mortality and morbidity due to this infection, were excluded from majority of the vaccine trials. Moreover, suggested dose modification for cancer and immunosuppressed patients are often not followed because of lack of awareness or unavailability of vaccination schedule. This review will try to bridge this knowledge gap by summarizing the current suggestions of dose modification of COVID-19 vaccine for patients with cancer and immunosuppression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0463.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19 vaccines; vaccine effectiveness; BNT162b2 vaccine; mRNA-1273 vaccine; ChAdOx1 vaccine; 19 Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assay; reactogenicity; vaccine-associated symptoms
Online: 26 August 2022 (14:14:39 CEST)
This prospective study provides data on long-term humoral immunogenicity of a heterologous off-label vaccine regimen combining the adenoviral vectored ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 from Astra-Zeneca (ChAd) with the mRNA-1273 vaccine from Moderna (m1273) in comparison to two different homologous mRNA vaccine schedules. Of the 316 COVID-19 naïve adult health care workers (HCW) included to complete a survey on vaccine-associated symptoms (VAS), 197 had received the homologous BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine from Pfizer/BioNTech (BNT/BNT), 76 the homologous m1273/m1273, and 43 the heterologous ChAd/m1273 vaccine regimen. Concentration of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in plasma 5-7 months after the second vaccine dose was higher in the m1273/m1273 and ChAd/m1273 than the BNT/BNT vaccine group. The frequency of systemic VAS after first vaccine dose was 86% after ChAd compared to 35% and 39% after BNT and m1273, respectively (p < 0.0001), and after second vaccine dose highest (89%) in the m1273/m1273 group (p < 0.001). Individuals with systemic VAS achieved higher levels of antibodies irrespective of vaccine regimen. In conclusion, VAS serve as a strong predictor of long-term humoral immune response, and the heterologous ChAd/m1273 vaccine regimen provides an at least equal long-term humoral immune response compared with the standard vaccine regimens used in Denmark.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0552.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID19; vaccine; SARS nCoV-2; information technology; COVID19 vaccine survey; MIT vaccine survey
Online: 20 April 2021 (14:35:05 CEST)
With the onset of the COVID19 pandemic, information technology has played a critical role in healthcare. A broad spectrum of information technology tools and applications played an essential role to create awareness of the COVID19 vaccination drive and its health benefits. We use the COVID-19 Global Beliefs, Behaviors, and Norms Survey for analysis of prevalence and factors associated with vaccination drives among men and women aged 20-80 years in 60 countries worldwide. Our analysis of the global survey offers a unique perspective about the role of information technology associated with vaccination drives involving social norms and human behavior among 437,236 respondents. The international survey was organized using a pre-registered randomized experiment demonstrating the role of technology in reaching out to people based in diverse communities and evaluating their beliefs, behavior, and social norms. The study shows that vaccine acceptance can vary due to descriptive norms. Our analysis shows 65.06% of people all over the globe are willing to get vaccinated and a large proportion of the population thinks that the COVID19 pandemic is a viable threat to the community and preventive measures need to be taken including vaccination drives.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; Vaccine; Vaccine hesitancy; ChatGPT; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 5 April 2023 (11:55:54 CEST)
The global COVID-19 pandemic has affected all spheres of human life, resulting in millions of deaths and overwhelming medical facilities. Moreover, the world has witnessed great financial hardship because of job losses resulting in economic havoc. Many sections of society have contributed in different ways to slow the spread of the virus and protect public health. For example, medical scientists are praised for their efforts to develop COVID-19 vaccines. Clinical trials have shown that the COVID-19 vaccines are highly effective in preventing symptomatic COVID-19 infections. However, many people around the world have been hesitant to get vaccinated. Vaccine misconceptions have emerged and increased due to a combination of factors, including the availability of information on the Internet and the influence of celebrities and opinion leaders. In this context, we have analyzed ChatGPT responses to relevant queries on vaccine misconceptions. The positive responses and supportive opinions provided by the AI chatbot could be instrumental in shaping people’s perceptions of vaccines and in encouraging users to get vaccinated and reduce misconceptions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: influenza; vaccine; adult; vaccine effectiveness; elderly; older adults
Online: 10 October 2022 (10:14:42 CEST)
Older adults (age ≥65) are at high risk of influenza morbidity and mortality. This study evaluated the impact of a hypothetical two-dose influenza vaccine regimen per season to reduce symptomatic flu cases by providing preseason (first dose) and mid-season (second dose) protection to offset waning vaccine effectiveness (VE). The Framework for Reconstructing Epidemiological Dynamics (FRED), an agent-based modeling platform, was used to compare typical one-dose vaccination to a two-dose vaccination strategy. Primary models incorporated waning VE of 10% per month and varied influenza season timing (December through March) to estimate cases and hospitalizations in older adults. Additional scenarios modeled reductions in uptake and VE of the second dose, and overall waning. In seasons with later peaks, two vaccine doses had the largest potential to reduce cases (14.4% with February peak, 18.7% with March peak) and hospitalizations (13.1% with February peak, 16.8% with March peak). Reductions in cases and hospitalizations still resulted but decreased when 30% of individuals failed to receive a second dose, second dose VE was reduced, or overall waning was reduced to 7% per month. Agent-based modeling indicates that two influenza vaccine doses could decrease cases and hospitalizations in older individuals. The highest impact occurred in the more frequently observed late-peak seasons. The beneficial impact of the two-dose regimen persisted despite model scenarios of reduced uptake of the second dose, decreased VE of the second dose, or overall VE waning.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0261.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: childhood vaccinations; mandatory vaccinations; Poland; immunity; MMR vaccine, tuberculosis vaccine, poliomyelitis vaccine, vaccination rate
Online: 3 November 2023 (15:47:16 CET)
Infectious diseases are one of the leading causes of death among children under the age of 5 with 60% of those deaths preventable with prophylaxis. Vaccinations prove to be the most succesfull and effective public health tool of infectious dieases preventions. Poland first implemented a program of mandatory childhood vaccinations in 1960. The program is updated each year and provides parents with a clear schedule to follow. The program includes vaccinations against 12 diseases (tuberculosis, hepatitis B, rotaviral disease, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, poliomyelitis, measles, mumps and rubella) mandatory for all children and funded by the government. It also includes recommended vaccinations which costs are covered by a patient. Immunization rates are monitored nationwide and reported to the Chief Sanitary Inspector. With recent outbreaks of infectious diseases among young children the obligation lies on the government to provide childhood immunizations, and largely on the physicians to provide reliable education about infectious diseases in children and safety of vaccinations to the parents.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0081.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine; Vaccine Uptake; Tetanus; Pregnant Women; Sudan
Online: 6 March 2023 (02:27:52 CET)
Tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination during pregnancy has been proven as an effective preven-tive measure to reduce the incidence of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aimed to assess the determinants of TT vaccine uptake among pregnant women in two public maternity specialized hospitals in Sudan. A hospi-tal-based cross-sectional study was conducted in two public hospitals, Omdurman Ma-ternity and AL-Saudi hospitals in Omdurman, Khartoum State in Sudan, from February to April 2020. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify factors associated with receiving three or more doses of TT vaccine among pregnant women (protected against tetanus), presented as Odds ratios, with p-values <0.05 considered significant (at 95% confidence interval). The study recruited 350 pregnant women, with 313 participants in-cluded in the analysis. This study found that only 40% of the pregnant women received 3 doses or more (protected) of TT vaccine during their current pregnancy. Pregnant women who attended Al Saudi hospital were less likely to be protected against Tetanus (received ≥ 3 doses) compared to those who attended Omdurman hospital [OR= 0.49 (95%C.I 0.29-0.82), p-value <0.05]. Furthermore, the number of children at home was a significant predictor of mothers’ immunization status as those with five children or more were ten times more to be protected against tetanus [OR= 10.54 (95% C.I 4.30-25.86), p-value <0.05]. We conclude that this low rate of TT vaccine uptake found in this study among pregnant women increases the number of newborn babies susceptible to contracting neonatal tetanus. This study provides useful information that can inform the will increase in the probabilities of morbidities and mortalities that result from maternal and neonatal tetanus. The findings of this study should be considered in development of communication strategies targeting and prioritizing at-risk groups to increase TT vaccine uptake among pregnant women in Sudan.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1643.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; vaccine; vaccine efficacy; vaccine effectiveness, vaccine booster; BNT162b2; mRNA1273; Ad26.COV2.S; ChAdOx1-S; SARS-CoV-2 variants
Online: 28 November 2023 (01:41:16 CET)
We study here what can be learned from our experience with COVID-19 vaccination for an initially naïve population, that can inform planning for vaccination against the next novel, highly transmissible pathogen. We focus on the first two pandemic years (wild strain through Delta), because after the Omicron wave in early 2022, few people were still SARS-CoV-2-naïve. Almost all were vaccinated, infected, or often both. We review the evidence on COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness (VE), waning effectiveness over time, and what we should expect about VE and waning from a future pathogen. As a basis for our analysis, we conducted a PRISMA-compliant review of all studies on PubMed through August 15, 2022 reporting VE against four endpoints: any infection, symptomatic infection, hospitalization, and death, for the four principal vaccines used in developed Western countries (BNT162b2, mRNA1273, Ad26.CoV2.S, and ChAdOx1-S). The mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2, mRNA1273) had high initial VE against all endpoints but protection waned after approximately six months, with BNT162b2 declining faster than mRNA1273. Both mRNA vaccines initially outperformed the viral vector vaccines. A third “booster” dose, roughly six months after the primary doses, substantially reduced symptomatic infection, severe disease, and mortality, and in hindsight should be seen as part of the normal vaccination schedule.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0132.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: adults; influenza; cell-cultured vaccine; egg-based vaccine; influenza vaccine; relative vaccine effectiveness; real word evidence; mutation; human / prevention & control*; comparative study
Online: 20 December 2021 (11:00:26 CET)
Avian mutations in vaccine strains obtained from embryonated eggs could impair vaccine effec-tiveness. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the adjusted relative vaccine effectiveness (arVE) of seed cell-cultured influenza vaccines (ccIV) compared to egg-based influ-enza vaccines (eIV) in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza related outcomes (IRO) or IRO by clinical codes, in subjects 18 and over. We completed the literature search in January 2021; ap-plied exclusion criteria, evaluated risk of bias of the evidence, and performed heterogeneity, pub-lication bias, qualitative, quantitative and sensitivity analyses. All estimates were computed us-ing a random approach. International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, CRD42021228290. We identified 12 publications that reported 26 adjusted arVE results. Five publications reported 13 laboratory confirmed arVE and seven reported 13 code-ascertained arVE. Nine publications with 22 results were at low risk of bias. Heterogeneity was explained by season and risk of bias. We found a significant 11% (8 to 14%) adjusted arVE favoring ccIV in preventing any IRO in the 2017-2018 influenza season. The arVE was 3% (-01 to 7%) in the 2018-2019 influenza season. We found moderate evidence of a significant advantage of the ccIV in preventing IRO, compared to eIV, in a well-matched A(H3N2) predominant season.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0051.v1
Online: 5 September 2022 (08:14:56 CEST)
This is a case study of a 55-year-old patient who died four months after receiving the mRNA-vaccine BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) against COVID-19 as a second dose, following an initial vaccination with the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vector vaccine (AstraZeneca) two months earlier. The autopsy diagnosis revealed general atherosclerosis. The histopathologic analyses of cardiac tissue demonstrated the presence of a thrombus occluding the right coronary artery (RCA) without evidence of plaque rupture. As a substitute trigger of clotting, the RCA presented with characteristics of acute lymphocytic vasculitis that extended to vasa vasorum in the adventitia and vessels in adjacent adipose tissue. Microthrombi were occasionally detected in these small vessels. It was obvious that lymphocytic myocarditis had been a chronic ongoing process temporally distinct from acute myocardial infarction. The myocardium contained patchworks of fibrotic areas alongside foci of displaying acute inflammation and fresh myocyte damage. SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein, but not nucleocapsid protein was sporadically detected in vessel walls by immunohistochemical assay. The cause of death was determined to be acute myocardial infarction and lymphocytic myocarditis. These findings indicate that myocarditis, as well as thrombo-embolic events following injection of spike-inducing gene-based vaccines, are causally associated with a injurious immunological response to the encoded agent. Because of the fact that the immune response to a first gene-based vaccination is very low in comparison with the immune response to the second vaccination, the found adverse events has rather to be attributed to the mRNA-based second vaccination as to the initial vector-based one.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0308.v2
Online: 25 August 2022 (03:54:58 CEST)
The current report represents a case of a 77-year-old man with Parkinson’s disease who died three weeks after receiving his third COVID-19 vaccination in January 2022. The patient was first vaccinated in May 2021 with the ChAdOx1 nCov- 19 vector vaccine, followed by two more doses with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in July and December 2021. The family of the deceased requested an autopsy due to the ambivalent clinical features noted before death. The underlying illness (Parkinson’s disease) was confirmed by autopsy. However, no sign of a florid COVID-19 was discovered. Meanwhile, the immunohistochemical staining of the brain and heart revealed previously undiagnosed conditions. The brain, in distinctive, revealed multifocal necrotizing encephalitis with massive inflammatory lymphocyte infiltrates. In addition, the heart showed signs of serious myocarditis. Finally, immunohistochemical staining revealed that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was evident in the tissues investigated. Based on these immunohistochemical findings, it appears that the inflammatory changes in the patient's brain tissues are most likely the result of immunological processes. Concurrently, the absence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid-protein was evidenced, indicating that the detected spike-protein is unrelated to a SARS-CoV-2 infection. If such an infection was the cause of the spike protein, the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein would also be detectable. As a consequence, the confirmed presence of the spike protein had to be attributed to the previous vaccination with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine that the deceased patient had received.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0232.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Monkeypox; Vaccine; Outbreak
Online: 15 July 2022 (12:12:58 CEST)
(1) Background: The monkeypox virus (MPV) is a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the Poxviridae family, Chordopoxvirinae subfamily, and Or-thopoxvirus genu. It was called monkeypox because it was first discovered in monkeys, in a Danish laboratory, in 1958. However, the actual reservoir for MPV is still unknown. (2) Methods & Results: We have reviewed the existing literature on the options for Monkeypox virus. There are three available vaccines for orthopoxviruses: ACAM2000, JYNNEOS, and LC16, with the first being a replicating vaccine and the latter being non or minimally replicating. (3) Conclusions: Smallpox vaccinations previously provided coincidental im-munity to MPV. ACAM2000(a live‐attenuated replicating vaccine) and JYNNEOS (a live‐attenuated, non-replicating vaccine) are two US FDA‐approved vaccines that can prevent monkeypox. However, ACAM2000 may cause serious side effects, including cardiac problems, whereas JYNNEOS is associated with fewer com-plications. The recent outbreaks across the globe have once again highlighted the need for constant monitoring and the development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic modalities. Based on available data, there is still a need to develop an effective and safe new generation of vaccines specific for monkeypox that are killed or mRNA before monkeypox is declared a pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.2009.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Lyme disease vaccine; borrelia burgdorferi; rabies virus; viral vaccine vectors
Online: 30 November 2023 (17:08:25 CET)
Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne illness in the United States, Europe, and Asia. Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete bacterium transmitted by the tick vector Ixodes scapularis, causes Lyme disease in the U.S. If untreated, Lyme arthritis, carditis, and meningitis will occur. Given the absence of a human Lyme disease vaccine, we developed a vaccine using the rabies virus vaccine vector, BNSP333, and an outer surface borrelial protein BBI39. To incorporate BBI39 into the RABV virion, we generated a chimeric BBI39 antigen, BBI39RVG, by fusing it with the final amino acids of the RABV glycoprotein. Here we demonstrated that BBI39RVG antigen was incorporated into the RABV virion, and mice vaccinated with our RABV-BBI39RVG vaccine induced high amounts of BBI39-specific antibodies which are maintained long-term. The BBI39 antibodies neutralized Borrelia in vaccinated mice when challenged with Borrelia burgdorferi by either syringe injection or infected ticks, and reduced Lyme disease pathology.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2234.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; booster vaccine; post-vaccine IgG antibody persistence
Online: 31 May 2023 (11:18:10 CEST)
Our aim was to evaluate the immune response of healthcare workers included in the RIPOVAC study, after receiving a booster dose (third dose), in terms of intensity and persistence of induced antibodies. In the second phase of RIPOVAC study, between December 2021 and January 2022, eight months after the second dose, 389 voluntary, immunocompetent, non-pregnant healthcare workers received a booster dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, and a serum sample was obtained. Two groups of patients were established: with and without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. In order to quantify anti-S1 IgG (AU/mL) we used CMIA (Abbott). All the health workers were anti-S IgG positive 8 months after receiving the booster dose of the vaccine, with a mean of 17040 AU/mL. In 53 patients without previous infection, antibody levels had increased by a mean of 10762 AU/mL. This figure is 7 times higher than the one produced after the second dose (1506 AU/mL). The booster dose produces a robust elevation of the antibody level, which persists at 8 months with levels up to values significantly higher than those reached after the second dose, that allow to predict a persistence of more than one year. The study demonstrates the efficacy of the booster dose of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0650.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 vaccine; cellular and humoral immunogenicity; DNA vaccine
Online: 28 June 2021 (13:40:25 CEST)
The urgent need for effective, safe and equitably accessible vaccines to tackle the ongoing spread of COVID-19 led researchers to generate vaccine candidates targeting varieties of immunogens of SARS-CoV-2. Because of its crucial role in mediating binding and entry to host cell and its proven safety profile, the subunit 1 (S1) of the spike protein represents an attractive immunogen for vaccine development. Here, we developed and assessed the immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine encoding the SARS-CoV-2 S1. Following in vitro confirmation and characterization, the humoral and cellular immune responses of our vaccine candidate (pVAX-S1) was evaluated in BALB/c mice using two different doses, 25 µg and 50 µg. Our data showed high levels of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies in mice immunized with three doses of pVAX-S1. Analysis of the induced IgG subclasses showed a Th1-polarized immune response as demonstrated by the significant elevation of spike-specific IgG2a and IgG2b compared to IgG1. Furthermore, we found that immunization of mice with three doses of 50 µg of pVAX-S1 could elicit significant memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. Taken together, our data indicates that pVAX-S1 is immunogenic and safe in mice and is worthy of further preclinical and clinical evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0246.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Newcastle disease virus; Paramyxovirus; vaccine quality; vaccine stability; heat stability
Online: 10 February 2021 (08:23:38 CET)
Vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND), a devastating viral disease of chicken, is often hampered by thermal inactivation of the live vaccines, in particular in tropical and hot climate conditions. In the past “thermostable” vaccine strains (I-2) have been proposed to overcome this problem. In the current study, we compared the thermal stability of 6 commercially available ND vaccines. Subjected to 37°C as lyophilized preparation, two vaccines containing I-2 strains were more sensitive to inactivation than a third I-2 vaccine or when compared to three other vaccines based on different strains. However, after reconstitution strains proved to have a comparable tenacity. Interestingly, all vaccines retained a sufficient virus dose for protection (106 EID50) after 1 day at 37°C, still. However, experiments exposing ND-vaccines to elevated temperatures of 51°C and 61°C, clearly demonstrated inactivation of all dissolved vaccines within 2 to 4 hours. The data indicate preparation that specific factors may influence thermal stability rather than strain specific characteristics. Regardless of the ND strain used, the appropriate cold chain is mandatory for live ND-vaccines.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0153.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Virus; Vaccine; SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus; Covid-19; Covid-19 vaccine
Online: 7 September 2020 (03:46:59 CEST)
This tutorial is organized into three major sections—viruses, vaccines and the race for a Covid-19 vaccine. The goal is to provide enough background on viruses, history of vaccines, and the science of vaccinology founded on the principles of immunity. The hope is that this will enable us to understand the challenges, methods and prospects for developing a safe and effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. Many important viruses such as smallpox, HIV, HCV and SARS-CoV-2 which is responsible for causing the Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) are presented in detail, which is then followed by a description of different vaccine development methods and strategies. The tutorial then discusses different candidate SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and provides specific details of many of the prospective vaccines on the leader-board which are undergoing clinical trials. The tutorial concludes with a realistic projection for a safe and effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 based on the historical scientific record.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0278.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; vaccine; mRNA vaccine; adenoviral vector vaccine; adverse event; local adverse event; systemic adverse event
Online: 16 February 2023 (08:00:51 CET)
The immunization of healthcare workers in the early stages of the rollout of COVID-19 vaccines was prioritized in order to ensure uninterrupted medical care provision. At the same time the increasing number of available COVID-19 vaccines may trigger hesitancy towards the decision to get vaccinated. Thus, accumulating reliable information on the adverse events following immunization may educate and urge the general population to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. The present study aimed to evaluate the adverse events (AEs) following immunization with any of the available COVID-19 vaccine among Bulgarian healthcare workers (HCWs). A cross-sectional study among HCWs in Plovdiv, Bulgaria was conducted in the period March – September 2021. Through a semi-structured online questionnaire, the participants reported the adverse events following the administration of the first and second dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. A total of 253 respondents, vaccinated with one of the available vaccines against COVID-19 took part in the study. Of them 71.9% were females, and 75.9% received mRNA-based vaccines, while 24.1% received a viral-vector based vaccine. Overall 91.6% and 82.6% of all participants reported at least one local AE after the first and second dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. The share of respondents reporting at least one systemic AE after the first and second dose of a COVID-19 vaccine was 59.7% and 62.4% respectively. The most common local AE was pain at the injection spot (84.0%), while the most common systemic AEs were fatigue (54.9%), chills (43.2%), and headache (41.7%). The mRNA-based vaccines versions seem to cause higher prevalence of local AEs, while the vector-based vaccines were linked with increased prevalence of systemic AEs. Female HCWs and the younger age group were associated with an increased risk of adverse events generally. Our results added more evidence that mRNA-based and viral-vector based vaccines are generally safe. The reported adverse events were mild, although they occurred in a high share of the respondents. No serious AEs attributable to the vaccines were reported.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0402.v1
Online: 22 March 2023 (14:50:00 CET)
Introduction: Adverse events related to vaccines are reactions that can lead to serious complications, in the present that we live at the publication of this article with the need to generate high rates of vaccination have been presented in the case of vaccine agents against COVID-19 adverse events, with thrombotic events being the most important. Case Presentation: This is a 37-year-old female patient who presents 11 days after ChAdOx1-S vaccination against COVID-19 presents with intense headache associated with symptoms of intracranial hypertension, she was initially taken to simple cranial tomography showing presence of cerebral edema and indirect signs of cerebral venous thrombosis, it is proposed to carry out cerebral angiography which showed the presence of thrombosis of both transverse venous sinuses, no hypercoagulability states were found in the laboratories, the immunological tests carried out for antiphospholipid syndrome were negative, the thrombotic event was associated with the ChAdOx1-S vaccine, later the patient was taken to thrombectomy by Neuroradiology, achieving complete channeling of both transverse venous sinuses. Conclusions: Adverse events associated with vaccination have been described with multiple vaccine agents, this component against COVID-19 is also an event to consider, knowing the pathophysiology of these events is essential to be able to reduce these risks and select the least risky agent. Despite this risk, vaccination remains the only cost-effective measure to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0275.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: visceral leishmaniasis; nanotechnology; vaccine
Online: 15 November 2022 (06:15:45 CET)
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL)is a fatal disease caused by the protozoa Leishmania infantum for which dogs are the main reservoirs. A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) could be an important tool in the control of human and CVL by reducing the infection pressure of L. infantum. Despite the CVL vaccine available on the market, the Brazilian Ministry of Health did not implement the use of it in their control programs. In this sense, there is an urgent need to develop more efficient vaccines. In this study, the association between two polymeric nanoformulations, [poly (D, L-lactic) acid (PLA) polymer] loading Leishmania amazonensis antigens, was evaluated as a potential immunobiological agent against VL using golden hamsters as an experimental model. The results indicated that no significant adverse reactions were observed in animals vaccinated with LAPSmP. LAPSmP presented similar levels of total anti-Leishmania IgG as compared to LAPSmG. The LAPSmP and LAPSmG groups showed an intense reduction in liver and spleen parasitic load by qPCR. The LAPSmP and LAPSmG vaccines showed exceptional results, indicating that they may be promising candidates as a VL vaccine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0334.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: schistosomiasis; vaccine; Sm14; FABP
Online: 16 October 2018 (05:02:00 CEST)
Schistosomiasis, a disease historically associated with poverty, lack of sanitation and social inequalities, is a chronic, debilitating parasitic infection, affecting hundreds of millions of people in endemic countries. Although schistosomiasis control approach has shown that chemotherapy is capable of reducing morbidity in humans, rapid re-infection is a reminder that the impact of drug treatment on transmission control or elimination initiatives is marginal. In addition, and regardless of more than two decades of well-executed control activities based on large-scale chemotherapy, the disease is expanding in many areas including Brazil. The development of the Sm14/GLA-SE schistosomiasis vaccine is an emblematic open knowledge innovation that has successfully completed Phase I and Phase IIa clinical trials, with Phase II/III trials underway in the African continent and to be followed in Brazil. Discovery and experimental phases were long term achievements leading to a robust collection of data that are strongly supporting the presently ongoing Clinical Phase. This paper reviews the development of the Sm14 vaccine formulated with GLA-SE (Glucopyranosyl Lipid A), from the earlier experimental developments to clinical trials including the recent status of Phase II studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0333.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Urban; rural; COVID-19; Knowledge; Attitudes; Practices; vaccine acceptability; Vaccine hesitancy; Kenya
Online: 18 August 2022 (07:46:00 CEST)
An important step towards COVID-19 pandemic control is adequate knowledge and adherence to mitigation measures, including vaccination. We assessed the level of COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and practices among residents from an urban informal settlement in the City of Nairobi (Kibera), and a rural community in western Kenya (Asembo). A cross-sectional survey was implemented from April to May 2021 among randomly selected adult residents from a population-based infectious diseases surveillance (PBIDS) cohort in Nairobi and Siaya Counties. Factors associated with the level of COVID-19 KAP, were assessed using multivariable regression methods. COVID-19 vaccine acceptance was 83.6% for the participants from Asembo and 59.8% in Kibera. The reasons cited for vaccine hesitancy in Kibera were safety concerns (34.0%), insufficient information available to decide (18.0%), and a lack of belief in the vaccine (21.0%), while the reasons in Asembo were safety concerns (55.0%), insufficient information to decide (26.0%) and lack of belief in the vaccine (11%). Our study findings suggest the need for continued public education to enhance COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and practices to ensure adherence to mitigation measures. Urban informal settlements require targeted messaging to improve vaccine awareness, acceptability, and uptake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0330.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Tdap; flow cytometry; acellular pertussis vaccine; whole cell pertussis vaccine; plasma cells
Online: 18 November 2021 (14:18:35 CET)
Pertussis is a vaccine-preventable disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Over the past years, the incidence and mortality of pertussis increased significantly. A possible cause is the switch from whole cell to acellular pertussis vaccines, although other factors may also contribute. To develop future vaccines and improve current vaccination strategies, it is critical to understand factors influencing the generation of immunological memory. We applied high-dimensional flow cytometry to investigate changes in B cells in individuals of different ages and distinct priming backgrounds upon administration of an acellular pertussis booster vaccine. These findings were correlated to vaccine-specific plasma cells and serum Ig levels. Expansion and maturation of plasma cells 7 days post-vaccination was the most prominent cellular change in all age groups, and was most pronounced for more mature IgG1+ plasma cells. Cellular responses were stronger in individuals primed with whole cell vaccine than in individuals primed with acellular vaccine. Moreover, IgG1+ plasma cell expansion weakly correlated with Prn- and PT- specific serum IgG levels. Our study points at plasma cells as a potential early cellular marker of an immune response and contributes to understanding differences in immune responses between age groups and priming backgrounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0579.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Reverse vaccinology, Subtractive proteomics, Vaccine candidates, Chimeric vaccine, Druggable targets.
Online: 25 February 2021 (12:06:13 CET)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a critical healthcare challenge due to its ability to cause persistent infections and the acquisition of antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Lack of preventive vaccines and rampant drug resistance phenomenon has rendered patients vulnerable. As new antimicrobials are in the preclinical stages of development, mining for the unexploited drug targets is also crucial. Here, we designed a chimeric vaccine against P. aeruginosa using a subtractive proteomics approach and identified nine unique enzymes as novel drug targets in PAO1 proteome. A total of five unique proteins were selected as potential vaccine candidates based on essentiality, extracellular localization, virulence, antigenicity, pathway association, protein-protein interaction analysis, hydrophilicity, and low molecular weight. These include two outer membrane porins OprF (P13794) and OprD (P32722), a protein activator precursor pra (G3XDA9), a probable outer membrane protein precursor PA1288 (Q9I456), and a conserved hypothetical protein PA4874 (Q9HUT9). These proteins were further analyzed using a reverse vaccinology approach to identify immunogenic and antigenic T cell and B cell epitopes. The best scoring epitopes qualifying for all set criteria were then further subjected to the construction of a polypeptide multi-epitope vaccine construct with cholera toxin B (CtxB) subunit as an adjuvant. The identified drug targets qualifying the screening criteria were: UDP-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucuronic acid 3-dehydrogenase WbpB (G3XD23), aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (Q51344), 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-hydroxymethyldihydropteridine pyrophosphokinase (Q9HV71), 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic-acid transferase (Q9HUH7), glycyl-tRNA synthetase alpha chain (Q9I7B7), riboflavin kinase/FAD synthase (Q9HVM3), aconitate hydratase 2 (Q9I2V5), probable glycosyltransferase WbpH (G3XD85) and UDP-3-O-[3-hydroxylauroyl] glucosamine N-acyltransferase (Q9HXY6). For druggability and pocketome analysis crystal and homology structures of these proteins were retrieved and developed. A sequence-based search was performed in different databases (ChEMBL, Drug Bank, PubChem and Pseudomonas database) for the availability of reported ligands and tested drugs for the screened targets. These predicted targets may provide a basis for the development of reliable antibacterial preventive and therapeutic options against P. aeruginosa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0671.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Dengue; Dengue vaccine trials; vaccine efficacy; cross-protection; serotypes; serostatus; Bayesian approach
Online: 27 September 2020 (08:37:14 CEST)
There is a growing public health need for effective preventive interventions against dengue, and a safe, effective and affordable dengue vaccine against the four serotypes would be a significant achievement for disease prevention and control. Two tetravalent dengue vaccines, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur) and DENVax (Takeda Pharmaceutical Company), have now completed phase 3 clinical trials. While Dengvaxia resulted in serious adverse events and is restricted to individuals with prior dengue infections, DENVax has shown, at first glance, some encouraging results. Using the available data for the TAK 003 trial, we estimate, via the Bayesian approach, vaccine efficacy (VE) of the post-vaccination surveillance periods. Although better measurement over long time was expected for the second part of the post-vaccination surveillance, variation in serotype-specific efficacy needs careful consideration. Besides observing that individual serostatus prior to vaccination is determinant of DENVax vaccine efficacy, we also compare the VE estimations for 12 and 18 months and we observe that the efficacy is decreasing over time. The comparison of efficacies over time is informative and very important, bring up the discussion of the role of temporary cross-immunity in dengue vaccine trials and the impact of serostatus prior to vaccination in the context of dengue fever epidemiology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0477.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: respiratory syncytial virus vaccine; clinical trial; safety and immunogenicity; RSV promising vaccine
Online: 31 May 2020 (16:07:57 CEST)
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of acute lower respiratory infection globally. There are vaccines in pipeline to prevent it but a systematic review on immunogenicity and safety of vaccine is lacking. Methods: This systematic review of RSV vaccine clinical trials was undertaken using 4 databases. Searches were conducted using both controlled vocabulary terms such as ‘Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human’, ‘Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections’, ‘Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines’, ‘Immunization’, ‘Immunization Programs’ and ‘Vaccines’ and corresponding text word terms. The searches for published papers were limited to clinical trials published from January 2000 to August 6th, 2018. RSV infection case was defined as RSV associated medically attended acute respiratory illness (MAARI) or RSV infection by serologically-confirmed test (Western Blot) during the RSV surveillance period. We calculated the relative risk of each vaccine trial with RSV infection case. Results: Of 4395 publications, 24 were included and data were extracted covering 4 major types of RSV vaccine candidates, these being live-attenuated/chimeric (n=9), recombinant-vector (n=10), subunit (n=1) and nanoparticle vaccines (n=4). For RSV infection cases, 7 trials were involved and none of them showed a vaccine-related increased MAARI during RSV surveillance season. Conclusion: LID ∆M2-2, MEDI M2-2, and RSVcps2 (live-attenuated) were considered the most promising vaccine candidates in infant and children. In the elderly, a nanoparticle F vaccine candidate was considered as a potential effective vaccine. Although no promising vaccine was identified from pregnant-women test, RSV F-024 subunit vaccine candidate and an RSV F nanoparticle vaccine showed encouraging results in healthy non-pregnant women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0433.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: adjuvant; COVID-19; immunogenic epitopes; peptide vaccine; subunit vaccine; molecular dynamics simulation
Online: 29 March 2020 (11:14:42 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease that was first reported in Wuhan, China and has subsequently spread worldwide. In the absence of any antiviral or immunomodulatory therapies, the disease is spreading at an alarming rate. 5 to 10% of recovered patients in Wuhan test positive again; this suggest that for controlling COVID-19, vaccines may be better option than drugs. A clinical trial to evaluate an anti-COVID-19 vaccine has started recently. However, its efficacy and potency have to be evaluated and validated. As an alternative, we are presenting a first-of-its-kind, designed multi-peptide subunit based epitope vaccine against COVID-19. The vaccine construct comprise an adjuvant, CTL, HTL, and B-cell epitopes joined by linkers. The vaccine is non-toxic, non-allergenic, thermostable and immunogenic with the capability to elicit a humoral and cell-mediated immune response. The findings are validated with high-end computation-based methods. This unique vaccine is made up of 33 highly antigenic epitopes from three proteins that have a prominent role in host receptor recognition, viral entry, and pathogenicity. We advocate this vaccine must be synthesized and tested urgently as public health priority.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0353.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: inactivated vaccine; vaccine matching; composition; deep sequencing; degraded RNA; FMDV; whole genome
Online: 28 November 2019 (04:03:46 CET)
Appropriate vaccine selection is crucial in the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Vaccination can prevent clinical disease and reduces viral shedding, but there is a lack of cross-protection between the seven serotypes and their sublineages, making the selection of an adequately protective vaccine difficult. Since the exact composition of their vaccines is not consistently disclosed by all manufacturers, incompatibility of the strains used for vaccination with regionally circulating strains can cause vaccination campaigns to fail. Here, we present a deep sequencing approach for polyvalent inactivated FMD vaccines that can identify all component strains by their genome sequences. The genomes of all strains of a commercial pentavalent FMD vaccine were de-novo assembled and the vaccine composition determined semi-quantitatively. The genome assembly required high stringency parameters to prevent misassemblies caused by conserved regions of the genome shared by related strains. In contrast, reference-guided assembly is only recommended in cases where the number of strains is previously known and appropriate reference sequences are available. The presented approach can be applied not only to any inactivated whole-virus FMD vaccine, but also to vaccine quality testing in general and allows for better decision-making for vaccines with unknown composition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0046.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: COVID-19 vaccines; seroconversion; inactivated SARS-CoV2 vaccine; BNT162 Vaccine; COVID-19 vaccine booster shot; heterologous vaccination; mixed vaccination; vaccination strategy
Online: 2 March 2022 (12:05:03 CET)
This study aimed to evaluate the mixed and homogeneous application of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine CoronaVac (CV) and the mRNA vaccine BNT162b2 (BNT). This prospective cohort study included 235 health care workers, who had received two prime shots with CoronaVac. They were divided into three cohorts after the third month: Cohort-I (CV/CV); Cohort-II (CV/CV/CV) and Cohort-III (CV/CV/BNT). Anti-S-RBD-IgG and total an-ti-spike/anti-nucleocapsid-IgG antibody concentrations were examined in vaccinated health workers at the 1st, 3rd and 6th months following the second dose of the vaccination. The mean age of 235 health care workers who participated in the project was 39.51±10.39 (min-max: 22-64). At the end of the 6th month, no antibodies were detected in 16.7% of Cohort-I participants, and anti-S-RDB IgG levels showed a decrease of 60% compared to the levels of the 3rd month. The antibody concentrations of the 6th month were found to have increased by an average of 5.13 times compared to the 3rd-month levels in the Cohort-II and 20.4 times in Cohort-III. The heterologous vaccination strategy “CoronaVac and BNT162b2 regimen” is able to induce a stronger immunity and it will help remove inequalities in the developing world where CoronaVac was the initial prime.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0277.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: influenza vaccine; seasonal influenza; pandemic influenza; adjuvant; subunit vaccine; SARS-CoV-2; betulin
Online: 5 December 2023 (15:29:12 CET)
Influenza is well-known to have a considerable influence on healthcare system, therefore, vaccination plays a significant role in dealing with severe consequences. Close attention is paid to the development of tetravalent adjuvanted vaccines, containing antigens of two influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H3N2) and two influenza B subtypes (Victoria, Yamagata) to increase the effectiveness of influenza prevention. In this work we present the results of pre-clinical study of innovative subunit tetravalent candidate influenza vaccine, with addition of betulin as adjuvant, TetraFluBet. The study was conducted using female BALB/c mice, male and female mongrel rats and guinea pigs. TetraFluBet and commercially available vaccines were injected intraperitoneally twice in a 14-day interval after intranasal infection with 5LD50 and 10LD50. Chronic toxicity was assessed by immunohistochemistry of extracted organs and by hematological and biochemical blood parameters. Protectivity and immunogenicity were evaluated using hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization with MDCK assays. Chronic toxicity study did not reveal any side effects of candidate TetraFluBet vaccine on both rats and guinea pigs. One vaccination dose of TetraFluBet provided 100% protectivity against all 4 influenza subtypes and significantly increased neutralizing antibody activity in response to immunization of influenza subtypes. Pre-clinical candidate vaccine TetraFluBet confirmed its safety along with specific activity, showed high immunogenicity and can be recommended for further clinical studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1496.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease; IBD; Crohn’s disease; Ulcerative colitis; vaccine, vaccination; vaccine hesitancy; VZV
Online: 21 July 2023 (11:35:22 CEST)
Abstract: Background: The vaccination status of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) should be investigated before starting any treatment, and patients eventually vaccinated against vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). Vaccination rates in patients with IBD are known to be suboptimal. The aim of this study was to investigate the vaccination coverage, attitude towards vaccinations and its possible determinants among a national cohort of IBD patients. Methods: An anonymous web-based questionnaire was sent by the Italian IBD patients’ association (AMICI) in February 2021. Previous vaccination status and patients’ attitude towards vaccinations were rec-orded. The factors influencing their attitudes were examined using crude and adjusted odds ratios (AdjORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Among 4039 patients invited, 1252 patients (including 729 women, median age 47.7 [37–58]) completed the questionnaire, a response rate of 25.3%. Patients declared being vaccinated against: 74.1% tetanus, 67.7% flu (last season), 43.3% MMR, 37.1% HBV, 29.1% pneumococcus, 20% meningitis, 16% HAV, 15.3% VZV, 7.6% HPV. Two hundred and fifty-nine (20.7%) did not remember every previous vaccination. One thousand one hundred and twelve (88.8%) expressed a positive attitude towards vaccination, 91 (7.3%) were indifferent, 49 (3.9%) reported being opposed to vaccinations. The belief of possible return of VPDs with decline of vaccination coverage rates was the factor most strongly related to a positive at-titude towards vaccinations (AdjOR 5.67, 95% CI 3.45-9.30, p-value <0.001). Conclusions: A low vaccination rate against some VPDs was found among a national cohort of patients with IBD, despite a generally positive attitude towards vaccinations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine; COVID-19 vaccine; cardiovascular effects; myocarditis; adolescents; Thailand
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:40:23 CEST)
This study focuses on cardiovascular effects, particularly myocarditis and pericarditis events, after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine injection in Thai adolescents. This prospective cohort study enrolled students from two schools aged 13–18 years who received the second dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Data including demographics, symptoms, vital signs, ECG, echocardiography and cardiac enzymes were collected at baseline, Day 3, Day 7, and Day 14 (optional) using case record forms.We enrolled 314 participants; of these, 13 participants were lost to follow up, leaving 301 participants for analysis. The most common cardiovascular effects were tachycardia (7.64%), shortness of breath (6.64%), palpitation (4.32%), chest pain (4.32%), and hypertension (3.99%). Seven participants (2.33%) exhibited at least one elevated cardiac biomarker or positive lab assessments. Cardiovascular effects were found in 29.24% of patients, ranging from tachycardia, palpitation, and myopericarditis. Myopericarditis was confirmed in one patient after vaccination. Two patients had suspected pericarditis and four patients had suspected subclinical myocarditis. Conclusion: Cardiovascular effects in adolescents after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination included tachycardia, palpitation, and myocarditis. The clinical presentation of myopericarditis after vaccination was usually mild, with all cases fully recovering within 14 days. Hence, adolescents receiving mRNA vaccines should be monitored for side effects. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT05288231
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0051.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: African swine fever; vaccination; efficacy; domestic pigs; wild boar; oral vaccine; intramuscular vaccine
Online: 2 August 2022 (08:36:03 CEST)
African swine fever (ASF) is a pandemic threat to the global pig industry and wild suids. A safe and efficacious vaccine could monumentally assist in disease eradication. In the past years, promising live attenuated vaccine candidates emerged in proof-of-concept experiments, among them, “ASFV-G-∆MGF”. In our study, we tested the vaccine candidate in three animal experiments intramuscularly in domestic pigs one orally in wild boar. Further, a macrophage-grown vaccine virus and a virus grown on permanent cells could be employed. Irrespective of the production system of vaccine virus, a two-dose intramuscular immunization could induce close to sterile immunity with full clinical protection against challenge infection. After oral immunization, 50% of the vaccinees seroconverted and all responders were completely protected against subsequent challenge. All non-responders developed ASF upon challenge with two acute lethal infections and two mild and transient courses. The latter results show a lower efficiency after oral administration that would have to be taken into consideration when designing vaccination-based control measures. Our findings suggest that “ASFV-G-∆MGF” could help to contain the disease under an appropriate vaccination campaign. Further research is needed to characterize safety aspects and define possible improvements of oral efficiency.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0578.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: HPV, HPV vaccine; Social Media; Mobile Technology; HPV vaccine intervention; RE-AIM Framework
Online: 28 January 2021 (08:15:38 CET)
Social media HPV vaccination interventions show promise for increasing HPV vaccination rates. An important consideration for the implementation of effective interventions into real-world practice in the translation potential, or external validity, of the intervention. To this end, we conducted a systematic literature review to describe the current body of evidence regarding the external validity of social media HPV vaccination-related interventions. Constructs related to external validity were based on the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance) framework. Seventeen articles published between 2006 and 2020 met inclusion criteria. Three researchers independently coded each article using a validated RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness/efficacy, adoption, implementation, maintenance) framework. Discrepant codes were discussed with a fourth reviewer to gain consensus. Of these 17 studies, three were pilot efficacy studies, 10 were RCTs to evaluate effectiveness, one was a population-based study, and three did not explicitly state which type of study was conducted. Reflecting this distribution of study types, across all studies the mean level of reporting RE-AIM dimensions varied with reach recording 90.8%, effectiveness (72.1%), adoption (40.3%), implementation (45.6%), and maintenance (26.5%). This review suggests that while the current HPV vaccination social media-driven interventions provide sufficient information on internal validity (reach and effectiveness), few have aimed to gather data on external validity needed to translate the interventions into real world implementation. Our data suggest that implementation research is needed to move HPV vaccination-related interventions into practice. Included in this review are recommendations for enhancing the design and reporting of these HPV vaccination social media-related interventions.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0141.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; pneumococcal vaccine; vaccination; cross-reactivity; protection; molecular mimicry; CRM197; rubella vaccine
Online: 4 September 2020 (10:45:26 CEST)
Various studies indicate that vaccination, especially with pneumococcal vaccines, protects against symptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and death. This paper explores the possibility that pneumococcal vaccines in particular, but perhaps other vaccines as well, contain antigens that might be cross-reactive with SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Comparison of the glycosylation structures of SARS-CoV-2 with the polysaccharide structures of pneumococcal vaccines yielded no obvious similarities. However, while pneumococcal vaccines are primarily composed of capsular polysaccharides, some are conjugated to CRM197, a modified diphtheria toxin, and all contain about three percent protein contaminants, including the pneumococcal surface proteins PsaA, PspA and probably PspC. All of these proteins have very high degrees of similarity, using very stringent criteria, with several SARS-CoV-2 proteins including the spike protein, membrane protein and replicase 1a. CRM197 is also present in Hib and meningitis vaccines. Equivalent similarities were found at lower rates, or were completely absent, among the proteins in diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, and poliovirus vaccines. Notably, PspA and PspC are highly antigenic and new pneumococcal vaccines based on them are currently in human clinical trials so that their effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 disease is easily testable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0739.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Newcastle Disease virus; adenovirus vaccine; vaccine manufacturing; intranasal vaccination; mucosal protection; HEK293 suspension cells; bioreactor production; downstream processing; veterinary vaccine production platform
Online: 13 November 2023 (14:21:24 CET)
Newcastle Disease (ND) remains a critical disease affecting poultry in sub-Saharan Africa. In some countries, repeated outbreaks have a major impact on local economies and food security. Recently, we developed an adenovirus-vectored vaccine encoding the Fusion protein from an Ethiopian isolate of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV). The adenoviral vector was designed and a manufacturing process developed in the context of the Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund initia-tive funded by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada. The industrial-ly-relevant recombinant vaccine technology platform is being transferred to the National Veteri-nary Institute (Ethiopia) for veterinary applications. Here, we demonstrate that the instillation of the adenoviral vector through the nasal cavity can confer protection to chickens against a lethal challenge with NDV. A manufacturing process using HEK293 suspension cells cultured in stirred-tank bioreactor for the vaccine production is proposed. Taking into consideration supply chain limitations, options for serum-free media selection have been evaluated. A streamlined downstream process including a filtration, an ultrafiltration and a concentration step was de-veloped. With high volumetric yields (infectious titers up to 5 x 109 TCID50/mL) in the culture su-pernatant, the final formulations were prepared at 1010 TCID50/mL, either in liquid or lyophi-lized forms. The liquid formulation was suitable and safe for mucosal vaccination and was sta-ble for 1 week at 37˚C. Both liquid and lyophilized formulations were stable after 6 months of storage at 4˚C. Overall, a manufacturing process for adenovirus vectored vaccine was developed and protective doses were determined using a convenient route of delivery. Formulation and storage conditions were established, and quality control protocols were implemented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1465.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; influenza; vaccine hesitancy
Online: 21 September 2023 (10:34:49 CEST)
Vaccine hesitancy substantially impacts global vaccination rates. During the COVID-19 pandem-ic in Germany, vaccination uptake exhibited considerable regional disparities. To assess the fac-tors contributing to this variation, we examined the influence of sociodemographic variables on COVID-19, COVID-19 booster, and influenza vaccinations within a cohort of 37,078 participants from 13 German federal states in the digital health cohort study, DigiHero. Our findings re-vealed variations in vaccination rates based on sociodemographic factors. However, these fac-tors had limited explanatory power regarding regional differences in vaccine uptake. In contrast, we found substantial correlations between regional support of specific parties during last local elections and the vaccination uptake at Landkreis-level. In conclusion, sociodemographic factors alone did not suffice to explain the regional disparities in vaccine uptake. Political stances can play a major role, but the current investigation did not assess the individual political orienta-tion, but used only ecological approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1243.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Vaccine; Antigen-delivery; ZIKV; Yeast
Online: 17 May 2023 (11:00:56 CEST)
Improving antigen presentation is crucial for the success of immunization strategies. Yeasts are classically used as biofactories to produce recombinant proteins and are efficient vehicles for the delivery of vaccine antigens, besides present adjuvants properties. Despite the absence of epidemic outbreaks, several vaccine approaches continue to be developed for Zika virus infection. These prophylactic strategies are fundamental given the severity of clinical manifestations, mainly due to viral neurotropism. The present study aimed to evaluate in vivo the immune response induced by P. pastoris recombinant strains displaying epitopes of the Envelope (ENV) and NS1 ZIKV proteins. Intramuscular immunization with heat-attenuated yeast enhanced the secretion of IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ, besides activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, in BALB/c mice. P. pastoris displaying ENV epitopes induced a more robust immune response, increasing immunoglobulin production, especially IgG isotypes. Both proposed vaccines showed the potential to induce immune responses without adverse effects, confirming the safety of administering P. pastoris as a vaccine vehicle. Here we demonstrated, for the first time, the evaluation of a vaccine against ZIKV based on a multiepitope construct, using yeast as a vehicle, reinforcing the applicability of P. pastoris as a whole yeast cell vaccine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0098.v1
Online: 7 June 2022 (09:00:26 CEST)
Despite the remarkable success of SARS CoV-2 vaccines, the rise of variants, some of which are more resistant to the effects of vaccination, highlights the potential need for additional COVID-19 vaccines. We used the Multiple Antigen Presenting System (MAPS) technology, in which proteins are presented on a polysaccharide polymer to induce antibody, Th1, Th17 and CD8+ T cell responses, to engineer a novel vaccine targeting SARS CoV-2. This vaccine contains a fragment of the spike (S) protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) sequence of the original D614G strain and was used to immunize nonhuman primates (NHP) for assessment of immunological responses and protection against SARS CoV-2 challenge. The SARS CoV-2 MAPS vaccine generated robust neutralizing antibodies as well as Th1, Th17 and cytotoxic CD8 T-cell responses in NHPs. Furthermore, MAPS-immunized NHPs had significantly lower viral loads in the nasopharynx and lung compared to control animals. Taken together, these findings support the use of the MAPS platform to make a SARS CoV-2 vaccine. The nature of the platform also could enable its use for the inclusion of different variants in a single vaccine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2135.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Influenza vaccine; Grippol® Plus; asthma; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; vaccine efficacy; cytokines; CRP
Online: 30 September 2023 (08:27:03 CEST)
Background: Influenza vaccine is a tool for preventing infection and reducing exacerbations in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Purpose of this study is to investigate dynamics of CRP and serum cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17) in patients with asthma and COPD, as well as to perform a correlation analysis with the clinical parameters of the disease manifestation. Methods: The study included 34 patients with asthma, 20 patients with COPD vaccinated against influenza during a period of remission from 2 to 4 weeks, both groups being under a basic maintenance therapy, and 26 healthy individuals vaccinated with the trivalent polymer-subunit vaccine Grippol® Plus, containing 5 µg of influenza virus strains and 500 µg of azoximer bromide. Results: Observing patients with asthma and COPD, during a year after the vaccination, has revealed a significant reduction in exacerbations frequency (p < 0.05) and duration (p < 0.05) of the bronchial obstructive syndrome (BF). Before the vaccination the IL-6 level in patients with asthma had a direct moderate correlation with duration of exacerbations of the underlying disease (p < 0.05), along with the number of systemic corticosteroids courses during exacerbations (p < 0.05). In 12 months after the vaccination, while assessing cytokine profile of all study groups, a significant reduction in the level of IL-6 was observed, compared to the baseline values (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Conducted analysis of immunological, clinical, and functional parameters of patients with asthma and COPD has proven for influenza vaccine to be effective in BF patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1737.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Monkeypox virus; mpox; knowledge; attitude; vaccine acceptance; vaccine hesitancy; healthcare workers; doctors; nurses; pharmacists
Online: 8 September 2023 (13:09:12 CEST)
Abstract: Educating healthcare workers (HCWs) to take action against monkeypox (mpox) is an important part of public health prevention efforts. The study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and willingness to vaccinate against mpox among HCWs in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. This study utilized an online cross-sectional survey that was disseminated via Google Forms between November, 1, 2022 and January, 15, 2023, employing a convenience sampling method. The researchers utilized logistic regression to ascertain the factors associated with knowledge, attitude and willingness to vaccinate. A total of 637 HCWs were included in the analysis (ages ranged between 21 and 51 years old). The mean overall score and standard deviation of the knowledge, attitude, and willingness assessment on mpox were 8.18±3.37 out of (0–16), 3.40±1.37 out of (0–5), 2.41±1.25 out of (0–5), respectively. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that HCWs who heard about mpox before 2022 had a higher level of knowledge (AOR: 4.85; 95% CI: 2.81-8.36; p < 0.001). In addition, those who had less than 1 year of practice had a positive attitude about mpox (AOR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.20-0.59; p < 0.01). Finally, none of the variable groups had the capacity to predict willingness to be vaccinated against mpox. The research revealed that HCWs exhibit a relatively low level of knowledge and attitude towards mpox, as well as a low level of willingness to receive mpox vaccinations. Further, there is an urgent need to increase their knowledge and attitude, as the success of efforts to control the global epidemic depends on them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1653.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19; Vaccine uptake; reduction of barriers to vaccination; health misinformation; vaccine hesitancy; Kenya
Online: 24 August 2023 (03:35:18 CEST)
Ever since the tremendous success of the rapid vaccine development against COVID‑19, its availa-bility, distribution, and deployment have been a significant concern; however, evidence suggests that vaccine hesitancy has become a greater problem. Therefore, trust in vaccines is crucial and critically dependent on regimes' ability to communicate the benefits of immunization. This study investigated ideas on ways to reduce barriers to COVID-19 vaccination uptake. It explores methods to overcome COVID-19 vaccine barriers through qualitative research: interviews and group discussions involving healthcare providers, administration personnel, teachers, and individuals with chronic conditions across urban (Mombasa) and rural (Kilifi) Kenya. Audio-recorded discussions were transcribed and thematically analyzed across locations. Five themes emerged in our results regarding how to reduce barriers to the COVID vaccine in the context of Kenya, including awareness campaigns, engaging diverse stakeholders, using various communication techniques, capacity building to increase vac-cination centers and trained staff, and lastly, revising relevant government health policies and guidelines. These results indicate the importance of adopting multiple approaches, as no single strategy could boost vaccine acceptance. Moreover, this study provides recommendations for con-ceiving actionable interventions to potentially boost vaccine demand and maintain routine immun-ization in Kenya.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0010.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: DTP vaccine,; Africa; COVID-19; Vaccine coverage; Joinpoint regression; Health care system; Vaccination rates
Online: 1 May 2023 (03:49:11 CEST)
: Background: Vaccine-related death is one of the leading causes of death among African Children. Vaccine coverage is a very important measure to decrease infant mortality. Covid-19 Pandemic has affected the healthcare system and may have disrupted vaccine coverage. Methods: DTP third doses (DTP3) Vaccine Coverage was extracted from UNICEF databases from 2012 to 2021( the last available date). Joinpoint regression was performed to detect the point where the trend changed. The annual percentage change (APC) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) was calculated for Africa and the regions. We compared DTP3 vaccination coverage in 2019 with 2021 in each country to verify compliance with WHO targets. Result: During the whole period, the vaccine coverage in Africa has increased with an Annual Percent change of 1.2% (IC 95% 0.9-1.5): We detected one Joint point in 2019. In 2019-2021, there was a decrease in DTP3 coverage with an APC of -3.5(95% -6.0;-0,9). (P< 0.001). Vaccination rates have decreased in many regions and countries during the last two years. Conclusions. COVID-19 has disrupted vaccine coverage, decreasing it all over Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: SARS-CoV2; inactivated vaccine; mRNA vaccine; COVID-19; homologous vaccination; heterolo-gous vaccination; protectivity
Online: 8 June 2022 (05:39:30 CEST)
This prospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccine schemes, ho-mologous versus heterologous vaccine strategies, and vaccine-induced anti-S-RBD-IgG antibody response in preventing COVID-19 among 942 healthcare workers one year after vaccination with the inactivated and/or mRNA vaccines. All participants received the first two primary doses of vaccines, 13.6% of them lacked the dose-3, 50.5% the dose-4, and 90.3% the dose-5. Antibody lev-els increased with the increase in number of vaccine doses and also in heterologous vaccine regi-mens. In both inactive and mRNA vaccines, infection rates were significantly higher in 2-dose-receivers, but lower in 4- or 5-dose receivers and increasing the total number of vaccine doses resulted in more protection against infection: the 3-dose regimen yielded 4.71 times more protection, the 4-dose 11.76 times and 5-dose 38.46 times more protection from COVID-19 infec-tion, compared to any 2-dose vaccination regimens. Antibody levels at the end of the first year of 4- or 5-dose-receivers were significantly higher than 2- or 3-dose-receivers. To conclude; increased number of total vaccine doses and anti-S-RBD antibody levels increased the protection from COVID-19 infection. Therefore, four or more doses are recommended in one year, for effective protection, especially in risk groups.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: heterologous vaccine; receptor-binding domain; subunit vaccine; coronavirus; COVID-19; SARS; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 4 March 2020 (05:19:16 CET)
A SARS-CoV receptor-binding domain (RBD) recombinant protein was developed and manufactured under current good manufacturing practices in 2016. The protein known as RBD219-N1 when formulated on Alhydrogel®, induced high-level neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity with minimal immunopathology in mice after a homologous virus challenge with SARS-CoV (MA15 strain). In this report, we examined published evidence in support of whether the SARS-CoV RBD219-N1 could be repurposed as a heterologous vaccine against Coronavirus Infectious Disease (COVID)-19. Our findings include evidence that convalescent serum from SARS-CoV patients can neutralize SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, a review of published studies using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against SARS-CoV RBD and that neutralize the SARS-CoV virus in vitro, finds that some of these mAbs bind to the receptor-binding motif (RBM) within the RBD, while others bind to domains outside this region within RBD. This information is relevant and supports the possibility of developing a heterologous SARS-CoV RBD vaccine against COVID-19, especially due to the finding that the overall high amino acid similarity (82%) between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 spike and RBD domains is not reflected in RBM region (59%). However, the high similarity (94%) in the region outside of RBM offers the potential of conserved neutralizing epitopes between both viruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0071.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: 2019-nCoV; novel corona virus; Wuhan virus; drug; vaccine; spike protein; epitope; vaccine design
Online: 5 February 2020 (15:34:15 CET)
The recent outbreak of the new virus in Wuhan city, China from the sea food market has led to the identification of a new strain called the corona virus and named as novel corona virus (2019-nCoV) belonging to Coronaviridae family. This has created major havoc and concern due to the mortality of 250 persons and affecting more than 10,000 people. This virus causes sudden fever, pneumonia and also kidney failure. In this study a computational approach is proposed for drug and vaccine design. The spike protein sequences were collected from a protein database and analysed with various bioinformatics tools to identify suitable natural inhibitors for the N-terminal receptor binding domain of spike protein. Also, it is attempted to identify suitable vaccine candidates by identifying B-Cell and T-cell epitopes. In the drug design, the tanshinone Iia and methyl Tanshinonate were identified as natural inhibitors based on the docking score. In the vaccine design, B-cell epitope VLLPLVSSQCVNLTTRTQLPPAYTN was found to have the highest antigenicity. FVFLVLLPL of MHC class-I allele and FVFLVLLPL of MHC class-II allele were identified as best peptides based on a number of alleles and antigencity scores. The present study identifies natural inhibitors and putative antigenic epitopes which may be useful as effective drug and vaccine candidates for the eradication of novel corona virus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0317.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: universal influenza vaccine; chimeric hemagglutinin; nucleoprotein; live attenuated influenza vaccine; sequential immunization; ferret model
Online: 27 December 2018 (10:14:21 CET)
The development of universal influenza vaccines, i.e. vaccines that can provide broad protection against seasonal and potentially pandemic influenza viruses, has been a priority for more than 20 years. Several approaches have been proposed that redirect the adaptive immune responses from immunodominant hypervariable regions to low-immunogenic but highly conserved regions of viral proteins. Here we induced broadly reactive anti-hemagglutinin (HA) stalk antibody by sequential immunizations with live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) expressing chimeric HA (cHA). These vaccines contained the HA stalk domain from H1N1pdm09 virus but antigenically unrelated globular head domains from avian influenza viruses H5N1, H8N4 and H9N2. In addition, the source of the viral nucleoprotein (NP) of the LAIV strains was changed from A/Leningrad/17 master donor virus (MDV) to wild-type (WT) H1N1pdm09 virus, in order to induce CD8 T-cell immune responses more relevant to current infections. To avoid any difference in protective effect of the various anti-neuraminidase (NA) antibodies, all LAIVs were engineered to contain the NA gene of Len/17 MDV. Naïve ferrets were immunized with three doses of (i) classical LAIVs containing non-chimeric HA and NP from MDV (LAIVs (NP-MDV)); (ii) cHA-based LAIVs containing NP from MDV (cHA LAIVs (NP-MDV)); and (iii) cHA-based LAIVs containing NP from H1N1pdm09 virus (cHA LAIVs (NP-WT)). A high-dose challenge with H1N1pdm09 virus induced significant pathology in the control, non-immunized ferrets, including high virus titers in respiratory tissues, clinical signs of disease and histopathological changes in nasal turbinates and lung tissues. All three vaccination regimens protected animals from clinical manifestations of disease: immunized ferrets did not lose weight or show clinical symptoms, and their fever was significantly lower than in the control group. Further analysis of virological and pathological data revealed the following hierarchy in the cross-protective efficacy of the vaccines: cHA LAIVs (NP-WT) > cHA LAIVs (NP-MDV) > LAIVs (NP-MDV). This ferret study showed that prototype universal LAIVs that combine the two approaches of inducing anti-HA stalk antibody and more relevant CD8 T-cell immune responses are highly promising candidates for further clinical development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1341.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: vaccine adaption; product life cycle; nanocarrier; mRNA vaccines; vaccine market; protein structure prediction; digital twin
Online: 20 July 2023 (02:34:07 CEST)
In light of the recent pandemic, several COVID-19 vaccines were developed, tested and approved in a very short time, a process that otherwise takes many years. Above all, these efforts have also unmistakably revealed the capacity limits and potential for improvement in vaccine production. This review aims to emphasize recent approaches for targeted rapid adaptation and production of vaccines from an interdisciplinary multifaceted perspective. Using literature research, stakeholder analysis and a value proposition canvas, we reviewed technological innovations on the pharmacological level, formulation, validation and resilient vaccine production to supply bottlenecks and logistic networks. We identified four main drivers to accelerate the vaccine product life cycle: computerized candidate screening, modular production, digitized quality management and a resilient business model with corresponding transparent supply chains. In summary, the results presented here can serve as a guide and implementation tool for flexible, scalable vaccine production to respond swiftly to pandemic situations in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0725.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: mRNA vaccine; viral vector vaccine; Spike protein; antigen presentation; polyethylene glycol; platelet factor 4; thrombosis
Online: 30 June 2021 (09:46:15 CEST)
Infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has reached pandemic proportions. A number of effective vaccines have been produced, including mRNA vaccines and viral vector vaccines, which are now being implemented on a large scale in order to control the pandemic. The mRNA vaccines are composed of the Spike S1 protein encoding mRNA, incorporated in a lipid nanoparticle, stabilized by polyethylene glycol (PEG). mRNA vaccines are novel in many respects, including cellular uptake, the intracellular routing, processing, and secretion of the viral protein. Viral vector vaccines have incorporated DNA sequences encoding the SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 protein into (attenuated) adenoviruses. The antigen presentation routes in MHC class I and class II, in relation to induction of virus neutralizing antibodies and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes will be reviewed. In rare cases, mRNA vaccines induce unwanted immune mediated side effects. mRNA based vaccines may lead to an anaphylactic reaction. This reaction may be triggered by PEG. The intracellular routing of PEG, and potential presentation in the context of CD1 will be discussed. Adenovirus vector based vaccines have been associated with thrombocytopenic thrombosis events. The anti-platelet factor 4 antibodies found in these patients could be generated due to conformational changes of relevant epitopes presented to the immune system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0558.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Adjuvants; Vaccine Production; Vaccine Delivery; Clinical Trials; Neutralizing Antibodies; Th1
Online: 22 November 2020 (11:57:51 CET)
With the COVID-19 pandemic now ongoing for close to a year, people all over the world are still waiting for a vaccine to become available. The initial focus of accelerated global research and development efforts to bring a vaccine to market as soon as possible was on novel platform technologies that promised speed but had limited history in the clinic. In contrast, recombinant protein vaccines, with numerous examples in the clinic for many years, missed out on the early wave of investments from government and industry. Emerging data are now surfacing suggesting that recombinant protein vaccines indeed might offer an advantage or complement to the nucleic acid or viral vector vaccines that will likely reach the clinic faster. Here, we summarize the current public information on the nature and on the development status of recombinant subunit antigens and adjuvants targeting SARS-CoV-2 infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0132.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: children; influenza; co-infections; risks; vaccine.
Online: 4 September 2023 (07:13:17 CEST)
The 2022-2023 influenza season in Romania was characterized by high pediatric hospitalization rates, predominated by influenza A subtypes H1N1 and H3N2. Lowered population immunity to influenza after the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and subsequent stoppage of influenza circulation, particularly in children who had limited pre-pandemic exposures, influenced hospitalization among children immunosuppressed, and patients with concurrent medical conditions who are at increased risk for developing severe forms of influenza. This study focused on the characteristics of influenza issues among paediatric patients, as well as the relationship between different influenza virus types and viral and bacterial coinfections and illness severity in the 2022-2023 season after the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We conducted a retrospective clinical analysis on 301 cases of influenza in pediatric inpatients (age ≤ 18 years), hospitalized at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases "Prof. Dr. Matei Balș" IX Pediatric Infectious Diseases Clinical Section between October 2022 and February 2023. The most significant age group was 57.8% representing children between one to four years old and female. The average clinical forms were found in 61.7%, whereas severe versions represented 18.2% of cases. Most of the complications were respiratory (acute interstitial pneumonia, 76.1%), hematological (72.1%), represented by intra-infectious and deficiency anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia), 33.6% were digestive, such as diarrheal disease, liver cytolysis syndrome, and the acute dehydration syndrome associated with electrolyte imbalance (71.4%). Severe complications were associated with a risk of unfavorable evolution: acute respiratory failure and neurological complications (convulsions, encephalitis). No deaths were reported. We noticed that the flu season 2022-2023 was characterized by the association of co-infections (viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic) more frequent than in previous years (26.2% vs. 16%), which evolved more severely, with prolonged hospitalization and more complications (p<0.05), and time of use of oxygen therapy was statistically significant (p > 0.05); influenza vaccination in this group was zero. In conclusion, coinfections with respiratory viruses increase the severity of the pediatric population's immunity to influenza, especially among young children who are more vulnerable to developing a serious illness. All people above the age of six months should get vaccinated against influenza to prevent the illness and its severe complications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0142.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: vaccine; mRNA; COVID 19; lipid nanoparticles
Online: 8 February 2023 (09:55:30 CET)
In the recent days, lipid nanoparticles have been successfully emerged as one of the most advanced technology for highly efficient in vivo delivery of exogenous mRNA, especially for delivery of COVID-19 vaccines. For the vaccines to be successful or protective, they require highly efficient mRNA delivery systems. However, developing effective, translatable vaccines with better safety against some of the SARS‐CoV‐2 variants is still a challenge. Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are composed of four different types of lipids including ionizable lipids, helper or neutral lipids, cholesterol and polyethylene glycol (PEG) attached lipids. In this review, we present recent advancements and insights in designing the advanced LNPs and their composition and properties, with a subsequent discussion on the development of COVID-19 vaccines. In particular, as the ionizable lipids are most important drivers for complexing the mRNA and in vivo delivery, the role of ionizable lipids in mRNA vaccines discussed in detail. Furthermore, the use of LNPs as effective delivery vehicles for vaccination, genome editing, and protein replacement therapy were discussed. Finally, expert opinion of LNPs for mRNA vaccines were discussed which might address the future challenges in the development of mRNA vaccines employing highly efficient LNPs using novel set of ionizable lipids.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0192.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: malaria vaccine; patents; stage of development
Online: 11 January 2023 (03:08:51 CET)
Malaria is a parasitic infection that is a great public health concern and is responsible for high mortality rates worldwide. Different strategies have been employed to improve disease control, demonstrating the ineffectiveness of controlling vectors, and parasite resistance to antimalarial drugs requires the development of an effective preventive vaccine. There are countless challenges to the development of such a vaccine directly related to the parasite's complex life cycle. After more than four decades of basic research and clinical trials, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the pre-erythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum (RTS, S) malaria vaccine for widespread use among children living in malaria-endemic areas. However, there is a consensus that major improvements are needed to develop a vaccine with a greater epidemiological impact in endemic areas. This review discusses novel strategies for malaria vaccine design taking the target stages within the parasite cycle into account. The design of the multi-component vaccine shows considerable potential, especially as it involves transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) that eliminate the parasite's replication towards sporozoite stage parasites during a blood meal of female anopheline mosquitoes. Significant improvements have been made but additional efforts to achieve an efficient vaccine are required to improve control measures. Different strategies have been employed, thus demonstrating the ineffectiveness in controlling vectors, and parasite resistance to antimalarial drugs requires the development of a preventive vaccine. Despite having a vaccine in an advanced stage of development, such as the RTS, S malaria vaccine, the search for an effective vaccine against malaria is far from over. This review discusses novel strategies for malaria vaccine design taking into account the target stages within the parasite’s life cycle.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0330.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: ALDH2; rs671; COVID-19; vaccine; immunogenicity
Online: 24 May 2022 (10:08:35 CEST)
Uncovering the predictors of vaccine immunogenicity is essential for infection control. We have reported that the most prevalent polymorphism of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene, rs671, may be associated with an attenuated immune system. To test the inverse relation between rs671 and antibody production after COVID-19 vaccination, the levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein S1 subunit (S1) IgG were repeatedly measured for four months before and after vaccination with BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273, in 88 Japanese workers and students (including 45 females, aged 21–56 years, with an rs671 variant allele frequency of 0.3). The mixed model including fixed effects of the vaccine type, weeks post vaccination (categorical variable), sex, age, body height, smoking status, ethanol intake, exercise habit, perceived stress, steroid use, allergic diseases, and dyslipidemia, indicated an inverse association between log-transformed anti-S1 IgG levels and the number of rs671 variant alleles (partial regression coefficient = -0.15, p = 0.002). Our study indicated for the first time that the variant allele of ALDH2, rs671, is associated with the attenuated immunogenicity of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Our finding may provide a basis for personalized disease prevention based on a genetic polymorphism that is prevalent among East Asians.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0245.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Age; Antibody titers; Diphtheria; Immunosenescence; Vaccine
Online: 12 July 2021 (11:33:20 CEST)
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the antibody responses in two adult age groups after diphtheria vaccination. Study Design: An observational analytic study was carried out to determine the difference in serum titer of anti-diphtheria antibody. Methods: Serum antibody titers were measured just before and 3 months after injection of Diphtheria toxoid vaccine. Vaccine was given to two adult age groups of health care personnel in hospital: the young (< 40 years) and the middle-aged (≥ 40 years). Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test (p < 0.05). Results: Significant increase in serum anti-diphtheria antibody titers were recorded after vaccination in both age group (p < 0.001 in young adult and p = 0.001 in middle-aged adult, respectively). There were no substantial differences between the two groups in terms of antibody titer before vaccination (p = 0.741), 3 months after vaccination (p = 0.317) and in the increase of antibody titer (p = 0.479). Conclusions: This study showed that there was no significant difference in the increase of anti-diphtheria antibody titers between the two age groups, proving that both young and middle-aged adults had an equal immune response to a given diphtheria vaccine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0304.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Influenza B; LAIV; PB1; vaccine stability
Online: 11 June 2021 (08:41:04 CEST)
Influenza B virus (IBV) is a major respiratory pathogen of humans, particularly in the elderly and children and vaccines are the most effective way to control it. In previous work, incorporation of two mutations (E580G, S660A) along with the addition of a HA epitope tag in the PB1 segment of B/Brisbane/60/2008 (B/Bris) resulted in an attenuated strain that was safe and effective as a live attenuated vaccine. A third attempted mutation (K391E) in PB1 was not always stable. Interestingly, viruses that maintained the K391E mutation were associated with the mutation E48K. To explore the contribution of the E48K mutation for stability of the K391E mutation, a vaccine candidate was generated by inserting both mutations along with attenuating mutations E580G and S660A in PB1 of B/Bris (B/Bris PB1att 4M). Serial passage of the B/Bris PB1att 4M vaccine candidate in eggs and MDCK indicated high stability. In silico structural analysis revealed a potential interaction between amino acids at positions 48 and 391. In mice, B/Bris PB1att 4M was safe and provided complete protection against homologous challenge. These results confirm the compensatory effect of mutation E48K to stabilize the K391E mutation, resulting in a safer, yet still protective, IBV LAIV vaccine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Human papillomavirus; vaccine; pregnancy; attitudes; knowledge
Online: 2 March 2021 (10:47:19 CET)
We aimed to assess awareness, knowledge, and attitudes of healthy pregnant women towards human papillomavirus (HPV), to estimate factors associated with a positive attitude towards HPV immunization and to assess the uptake of the vaccine among their children. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the University Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Belgrade, Serbia among pregnant women attending their regular gynecological check-ups at the 12th gestational week. Knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccine was assessed using a specifically designed 12-item and 5-item questionnaires. Out of total 265 included women, 79.3% had heard of HPV, and 37.5% knew that HPV vaccine exists. HPV vaccine knowledge score was associated with higher odds for a positive attitude towards vaccination of both female (OR = 4.10, 95% CI 1.50-11.29) and male (OR = 3.71, 95% CI 1.52-9.01) child. The number of children (OR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.04-1.67) and high vaccine knowledge score (OR = 1.64 95% CI 1.13-2.39) were independent predictors associated with willingness to vaccinate child against HPV. The gynecologist was the preferable point of reference for information seeking about the HPV vaccine. Despite relatively high HPV awareness and knowledge among pregnant women in Serbia, about one-third of them are HPV vaccine aware, and are willing to vaccinate their children against HPV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0024.v1
Online: 4 June 2020 (05:50:09 CEST)
COVID-19 pandemic has caused a large-scale havoc in almost every country across the globe, putting major challenges for the healthcare system in many parts of the world. Several of the laboratories are running in the race with undying efforts for developing potential vaccine, drugs or therapeutics to treat or prevent the infection. However, with the limited time window and high rate of infection, the task is very big for humanity to find a cure. With hundreds of genomic data of SARS-CoV-2 virus isolates from humans are being submitted almost every day, it is coming into knowledge that virus is mutating, slower in countries with sporadic cases, but higher in countries experiencing large outbreak. These types of mutations in virus may bring challenges in vaccine or therapeutic development for use in each and every country, as each hotspot region may have their own pattern of mutations in virus with ongoing outbreak. In our current study, we retrieved non-synonymous mutation data of around 12,225 SARS-CoV-2 virus samples isolated from humans globally, and discovered all mutations that are collectively happening in antibody epitope regions of the virus country-wise. We found a few numbers of epitope regions in SARS-CoV-2 that are highly conserved collectively in all variants and may be used for epitope-based vaccine development for whole world. We also found epitope regions that are conserved collectively in SARS-CoV-2 variants country-wise and can be used for customized epitope-based vaccine development in each different country.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Dengue virus; multiple serovars; Epitopes; Vaccine
Online: 31 May 2020 (18:28:15 CEST)
Dengue is one of the life-threatening common neglected tropical diseases of the world, yet to develop any therapeutic for its treatment and prevention. Although there is a licensed vaccine reported, but becomes less efficacious due to the presence of multiple serovars of the dengue virus (DENV). Thus, an efficacious dengue vaccine potent to work against all the serovars is very crucial and time-demanding. Here we used a comprehensive hierarchical reverse vaccinology approach to design an epitope-based vaccine, targeted against multiple serovars of the DENV. Conservancy and population coverage analysis of the promiscuous epitopes revealed the robust immune response against multiple serovars of the DENV and various ethnicities. Final vaccine constructs comprising of B and T-cell epitopes, Universal pan-HLA DR or PADRE (AKFVAAWTLKAAA) sequence, and an adjuvant (β-defensin) at N-terminal of the construct with suitable linkers. Physiochemical properties and secondary structure profiling of the vaccine protein secured its hydrophilic, thermostable, and other structural nature. Molecular docking analysis indicates the deep binding of the proposed vaccine in the binding groove of the human immune TLR4 receptor present on the dendritic cell. In addition, disulfide engineering was coped to extend its stability. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulation of the modeled vaccine-TLR8 complex showed minimum deformability. Finally, in silico cloning approach of the vaccine construct within an expression vector (pET28a+) assure good expression. Proposed vaccine may give novel insights for treatment of dengue patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0359.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: novel coronavirus; Wuhan; vaccine; epitopes; peptide
Online: 25 February 2020 (05:18:22 CET)
During December 2019, a novel coronavirus named as 2019-nCoV, has emerged in Wuhan, China. The human to human transmission of this virus has also been established. Untill now the virus has infected more than seven thousand people and has spread to fifteen countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared 2019-nCoV as global health emergency due to its outburst well beyond China. There is need to develop some vaccines or therapeutics to control or prevent 2019-nCoV infections. The bottleneck with current conventional approaches is that these require longer time for vaccine development. However, computer assisted approaches help us to produce effective vaccine in short time compared with conventional methods. In this study, bioinformatics analysis was used to predict B cell and T cell epitopes of surface glycoprotein of 2019-nCoV that could be suitable to trigger significant immune response. The sequence of surface glycoprotein was collected from the database and analyzed to identify the immunogenic epitope. Both B cell and T cell epitopes were analyzed so the predicted epitopes can stimulate both cellular and humoral immune responses. We predicted 13 B cell and 05 T cell epitopes that later on were joined with GPGPG linker to make a single peptide. This computational approach to design a multi epitope peptide vaccine against emerging 2019-nCoV allows us to find novel immunogenic epitopes against the antigen targets of surface 2019-nCoV surface glycoprotein. This multi epitope peptide vaccine may prove effective to combat 2019-nCoV infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0240.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: artifacts; confounders; infant mortality rate; linear regression analysis; vaccination rates; vaccines; vaccine doses; hepatitis B vaccine
Online: 16 June 2022 (11:00:46 CEST)
Background—In 2011, Miller and Goldman published a study in Human and Experimental Toxicology that found a counterintuitive, positive correlation, r = 0.70 (r2 = 0.49, p < .0001), demonstrating that as nations require more vaccine doses for their infants, infant mortality rates (IMRs) tend to increase (worsen). The dataset (n = 30) included the United States, a nation that required the most vaccines for their infants, and all nations with better IMRs than the United States. Dr. E. Bailey, a professor at BYU, and her students, recently read the Miller-Goldman study and found it "troublesome that this manuscript is in the top 5% of all research outputs" and falsely claimed that its findings were due to "inappropriate data exclusion," i.e., failure to analyze the "full dataset" of all 185 nations. The "Bailey reanalysis," titled Infant vaccination does not predict increased infant mortality rate: correcting past misinformation, was posted to the medRxiv preprint server on September 10, 2021 (version 1) and October 5, 2021 (version 3) and Europe PMC preprint server on September 10, 2021. Objective—This present study examines the various claims postulated by the Bailey reanalysis and assesses the robustness of their methodology, analyses, and reported results and conclusions. Methods—Data discussed in this paper are based on the previously mentioned study by Miller and Goldman and the Bailey reanalysis. Results—Linear regression analysis of IMR and the number of vaccine doses for each country yield a statistically significant positive correlation of r = 0.70 (p < .0001) for the top nations (n = 30) chosen by Miller-Goldman and r = 0.16 (p < .04) for the "entire dataset" chosen by Bailey et al (n = 185). Bailey also conducted linear regression analyses (for the year 2019) of IMRs as a function of vaccination rates for each of eight different vaccines and reported statistically significant inverse correlations for 7 of 8 vaccines over the entire range of vaccination rates. However, Miller and Goldman reanalyzed the Bailey analyses for nations with vaccination rates below 60% and found no statistically significant correlation for six vaccines (DPT, Hib, hepatitis B, polio, rotavirus, and measles) and statistically significant positive correlations for tuberculosis (r = 0.8, p < .005) and pneumococcal (r = 0.6 p < .023) vaccines. Conclusions—Bailey’s reanalysis corroborates a statistically significant positive correlation originally reported by Miller and Goldman. However, Bailey’s reported correlation (r = +0.16, p < .04) is small, likely due to poor methodology (failing to account for covariates, i.e., disparities among numerous socioeconomic factors that add uncertainty to their conclusion). The r-value reported by the Bailey reanalysis demonstrates an effect size that is about one-fourth (0.16/0.70) that reported by Miller-Goldman—underscoring how critically important it is for Bailey's reanalysis to eliminate confounding variables. Moreover, Bailey’s linear regression analyses of IMR as a function of vaccination rates for each of eight different vaccines demonstrate that some countries with low vaccination rates have low IMRs, while other countries with high vaccination rates have high IMRs. Rather than supporting a strong inverse correlation, the Bailey reanalysis demonstrates high vaccination rates are neither necessary nor sufficient to cause low IMR.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0078.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine; vaccine development; vaccine discovery; systems biology; machine learning; platform technologies; adjuvants; smart clinical trials; human genetics; regulatory convergence; real world evidence; vaccines safety
Online: 7 June 2020 (10:11:02 CEST)
The urgency to develop vaccines against Covid-19 is putting pressure on the long and expensive development timelines which are normally required for development of lifesaving vaccines. There is a unique opportunity to take advantage of new technologies, smart and flexible design of clinical trials, and evolving regulatory science to speed up vaccine development against Covid-19 and transform vaccine development altogether.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1882.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: poxvirus; recombinant vaccine; preclinical model; vaccination elderly
Online: 29 November 2023 (12:19:37 CET)
Aging is associated with a decline in immune system functionality. So-called immunosenescence may impair successful vaccination of elderly people. Thus, improved vaccination strategies specifically adapted to an aged immune system are required. We characterized a recombinant MVA expressing a stabilized version of SARS-CoV-2 S protein (MVA-ST) in an aged-hamster model for COVID-19. Intramuscular MVA-ST immunization resulted in protection from disease and severe lung pathology. Importantly, protection correlated with potent activation of SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cells and neutralizing antibodies. Our results suggest that MVA vector vaccines merit further evaluation as clinical candidate vaccines in elderly people to overcome limitations of age-dependent immunosenescence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0656.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: COVID-19; AI-based approach; vaccine development
Online: 9 November 2023 (14:51:09 CET)
AI-based approaches are increasingly being used to revolutionize vaccine development for COVID-19. Small molecules, peptides, and epitopes are being collected for therapy discovery, which could also direct AI-based models, screening, or generation . AI-based models are being used for drug discovery and vaccine development, and pre-existing data is being leveraged through machine learning approaches for COVID-19 drug discovery and vaccine development . The best candidate targets for future treatment development are being identified and evaluated using AI-based models . AI-based approaches can be used to overcome challenges in manufacturing, storage, logistics, and safety and efficacy issues related to different vaccine candidates for COVID-19 . AI algorithms can help identify the best vaccine candidates for COVID-19 while considering the efficiency of antigenic peptides for immune response generation . The presentation of antigenic peptides by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules is the first step after COVID-19 vaccine administration for any vaccine-induced immune response . Thus, AI-based models are being used to identify the best vaccine candidates for COVID-19 and to ensure that the vaccine-induced immune response is efficient and safe. The utilization of AI-based methods to address logistical, manufacturing, storage, safety, and efficacy issues regarding several COVID-19 vaccine candidates will be examined in this study. Additionally, while considering the effectiveness of antigenic peptides for the induction of an immune response, we will determine the best potential targets for the next treatment development and assess how AI-based models can help discover the best vaccine candidates for COVID-19. This research ultimately intends to offer insights into how AI-based techniques can transform COVID-19 vaccine development and how they can be applied to address vaccine development issues. In this paper, we focus on recent advances in using artificial intelligence to develop COVID-19 drugs and vaccines, as well as the potential of intelligent training in discovering COVID-19 therapeutics, highlighting potential challenges and solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1439.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: tuberculosis; electroporation; vaccine; DNA-hsp65; nonhuman primate
Online: 23 October 2023 (11:15:50 CEST)
A Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is still the only licensed vaccine for the prevention of tuberculosis, providing limited protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in adulthood. New advances in delivery of DNA vaccines by electroporation have been made in the past decade. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of DNA-hsp65 vaccine administered by intramuscular electroporation (EP) in cynomolgus macaques. Animals received three doses of DNA-hsp65 at 30-days intervals. We demonstrated that intramuscular electroporated DNA-hsp65 vaccine immunization of cynomolgus macaques was safe, and there were no vaccine-related effects on hematological, renal, or hepatic profiles, compared to the pre-vaccination parameters. No tuberculin skin test conversion nor lung X-ray alteration was identified. Further, low, and transient peripheral cellular immune response and cytokine expression were observed, primarily after the third dose of the DNA-hsp65 vaccine. Electroporated DNA-hsp65 vaccination is safe but provided limited enhancement of peripheral cellular immune responses. Preclinical vaccine trials with DNA-hsp65 delivered via EP may include a combination of plasmid cytokine adjuvant and/or protein prime-boost regimen, to help the induction of a stronger cellular immune response.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0919.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; mRNA-based vaccine; systemic sclerosis
Online: 16 October 2023 (03:45:06 CEST)
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a respiratory tract infection caused by the new virus SARS-CoV-2. In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a worldwide COVID-19 pandemic. Since then, there has been a rush to find preventative or curative treatment. This arrived with the appearance of the COVID-19 vaccine, months after the declaration of the pandemic. In the setting of global COVID-19 immunization, there have been reports of rare skin immune-mediated diseases (IMD) after COVID-19 vaccination, particularly systemic sclerosis. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is the most reported new onset IMD following messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccination. The pathogenesis of SSc is not fully understood, and the diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms. We report a 54-year-old male, with no prior history of autoimmune disorder, with rapid and progressive skin thickening (Modified Rodnan skin score 30/51), weeks after his mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) showed a strongly positive nuclear fine-speckled pattern, but no SSc autoantibodies were found. The patient was diagnosed with SSc based on the persistence of autoantibodies and the clinical criteria according to the 2013 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism classification. Due to the proximity of the two events, we hypothesized a cross-reaction between COVID-19 vaccination and, in genetically predisposed patients, an emergence of systemic sclerosis. Our case suggests a potential relationship between the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine and new-onset autoimmune diseases. Physicians should be aware of this possible association.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0799.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: prime-protein booster; recombinant BCG; vaccine; tuberculosis
Online: 13 October 2023 (02:55:37 CEST)
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only widely used prophylactic tuberculosis (TB) vaccine that can prevent severe TB in infants. However, it provides poor protection in adults, and therefore, there in ongoing research on new TB vaccines and immunization strategies with more durable immune effects. The recombinant BCG and BCG prime-protein booster are two important vaccine strategies that have recently been developed based on BCG and could improve immune responses. In this study, three immune strategies based on four protective antigens, namely, ESAT-6, CFP-10, nPPE18, and nPstS1, were applied to construct recombinant rBCG-EPCP009, EPCP009 subunit protein, and BCG prime-EPCP009 booster vaccine candidates. The short- and long-term immune effects after vaccination in Balb/c mice were evaluated based on humoral immunity, cellular immunity, and the ability of spleen cells to inhibit in vitro mycobacterial growth. At 8 and 12 weeks after the initial immunization, splenocytes from mice inoculated with the BCG prime-EPCP009 protein booster secreted higher levels of PPD- and EPCP009-specific IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, IL-17, GM-CSF, and IL-12 and had a higher IFN-γ+CD4+ TEM:IL-2+CD8+ TCM cell ratio than splenocytes from mice inoculated with the rBCG-EPCP009 and EPCP009 proteins. In addition, the EPCPE009-specific IgG2a/IgG1 ratio was slightly higher in the BCG prime-EPCP009 protein booster group than in the other two groups. The in vitro mycobacterial inhibition assay showed that the splenocytes of mice from the BCG prime-EPCP009 protein booster group exhibited stronger inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis （M. tuberculosis）growth than the splenocytes of mice from the other two groups. These results indicate that the BCG prime-EPCP009 protein booster exhibited superior immunogenicity and M. tuberculosis growth inhibition to the parental BCG, rBCG-EPCP009, and EPCP009 proteins under in vitro conditions. Thus, the BCG prime-EPCP009 protein booster may be important for the development of a more effective adult TB vaccine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0829.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; seroprevalence; vaccine; spatial distribution
Online: 13 September 2023 (16:13:52 CEST)
Incidence of COVID-19 has been associated with sociodemographic factors. We investigated variations in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence at sub-national levels in the Dominican Republic and assessed potential factors influencing variation in regional-level seroprevalence. Data were collected in a three-stage cross-sectional national serosurvey from June to October 2021. Seroprevalence of antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (anti-S) was estimated and adjusted for selection probability, age, and sex. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of covariates on seropositivity for anti-S and correlates of 80% protection (PT80) against symptomatic infection for ancestral and Delta strains. A total of 6,683 participants from 134 clusters in all 10 regions were enrolled. Anti-S, PT80 for ancestral and Delta strains odds ratio varied across regions, Enriquillo presented significant higher odds for all outcomes compared with Yuma. Compared to unvaccinated, receiving ≥2doses of COVID-19 vaccine was associated with a significantly higher odds of anti-S positivity (OR 85.94, [10.95-674.33]), and PT80 for ancestral (OR 4.78, [2.15-10.62]) and Delta strains (OR 3.08, [1.57-9.65]) nationally, and also for each region. Our results can help inform regional-level public health response, such as strategies to increase vaccination coverage in areas with low population immunity against currently circulating strains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0172.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: COVID-19; vaccination; mRNA vaccine; thrombotic events
Online: 5 September 2023 (03:55:17 CEST)
Introduction: Real-world safety studies can provide important evidence on the thromboembolic risk associated with COVID-19 vaccines, considering that millions of people have been already vaccinated against COVID-19. In this study, we aimed to estimate the incidence of thromboembolic events after COVID-19 vaccination and to compare the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine with other COVID-19 vaccines. Methods: We conducted a retrospective real-world safety study using data from two different data sources: the Italian Pharmacovigilance database (Rete Nazionale di Farmacovigilanza, RNF) and the Campania Region Health system (Sistema INFOrmativo saNità CampanIA, SINFONIA). From the start date of the COVID-19 vaccination campaign (December 27th, 2021) to September 27th, 2022, information on COVID-19 vaccinations and thromboembolic evets were extracted from the two databases. The reporting rate (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (95%CI) of thromboembolic events for 10,000 doses was calculated for each COVID-19 vaccine. Moreover, the odds of being vaccinated with the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine vs. the other COVID-19 vaccines in cases with thromboembolic events vs. controls without thromboembolic events were computed. Results: A total of 12,692,852 vaccine doses were administered in Campania Region, of which 6,509,475 (51.28%) were in female and mostly related to the Pfizer-BioNtech vaccine (65.05%), followed by Moderna (24.31%), Oxford–AstraZeneca (9.71%), Janssen (0.91%), and Novavax (0.02%) vaccines. A total of 641 ICSRs with a COVID-19 vaccines and a vascular events were retrieved from the RNF for the Campania Region, of which 453 (70.67%) were in female. Most ICSRs reported the Pfizer-BioNtech vaccine (65.05%), followed by Oxford–AstraZeneca (9.71%), Moderna (24.31%), and Janssen (0.91%). A total of 2,451 events were reported in the ICSRs (3.8 events for ICSRs) of which 292 were thromboembolic events. The highe RRs of thromboembolic events were found with the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine (RR: 4.62, 95%CI: 3.50-5.99) and Janssen vaccine (RR: 3.45, 95%CI: 0.94-8.82). Thromboembolic events were associated with a higher likelihood of exposure to the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine compared to Pfizer-BioNtech (OR: 6.06; 95%CI: 4.22-8.68) and Moderna vaccines (OR: 6.46; 95%CI: 4.00-10.80). Conclusion: We observed a higher reporting of thromboembolic events with viral-vector based vaccines (Oxford–AstraZeneca and Janssen) and an increased likelihood of being exposed to the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine compared to the mRNA vaccines (Pfizer-BioNtech and Moderna) among thromboembolic cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1551.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: pregnancy; vaccine; health literacy; prenatal education classes
Online: 22 August 2023 (09:43:00 CEST)
Childbirth education classes represent an antenatal tool for supporting pregnant women and couples in increasing knowledge on pregnancy, delivery, breastfeeding, and newborn care. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the additional lesson to the prenatal course regarding the advantage of the vaccination on mitigation of maternal anxiety. An observational study was designed including participants in childbirth education classes, comparing courses enhanced by the extra lesson on vaccination during pregnancy versus those lacking it. Assessment of the impact of prenatal educational on vaccine was measured by using validated questionnaires (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAI; Perceived Stress Scale, PSS; World Health Organization- Five Well-Being Index, WHO-5). A total of 145 pregnant women participated to the investigation by answering to the online survey. Of them, 33 patients (22.8%) belong to the course without lesson on vaccine, while 112 (77.2%) participated to online prenatal education inclusive of additional meeting on usefulness to get vaccinated during pregnancy. No statistical differences were found between study groups in demographics and perinatal outcomes. Participants to enriched course reported lower basal anxiety levels than those without lesson on vaccine (STAI-State, normal score <40, 30 vs. 19%, p-value 0.041; STAI-State, mild score 40-50, 78 vs 67%, p-value 0.037). With reference to the last two weeks, maternal wellbeing level was improved by the added class (score >13 as measurement of wellbeing: 62% vs 80%, p-value<0.05). Moderate perceived stress assessed by PSS was found in those pregnant women without prenatal education on vaccine (64 vs 50%, p-value 0.042). The introduction of a lesson regarding on vaccination during pregnancy in the program of prenatal education courses improves maternal anxiety levels and wellbeing, in addition to reducing perceived stress.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1127.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: tropism; henipavirus; rna virus; vaccine; animal models
Online: 15 August 2023 (11:49:25 CEST)
Henipaviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses that have been shown to be virulent in several species including humans, pigs, horses, and rodents. Isolated nearly 30 years ago, these viruses have been shown to be of particular concern to public health, as at least two members (Nipah and Hendra viruses) are highly virulent, as well as zoonotic, and are thus classified as BSL4 pathogens. Although only 5 members of this genus have been isolated and characterized, metagenomics analysis using animal fluids and tissues has demonstrated the existence of other novel henipaviruses, suggesting a far greater degree of phylogenetic diversity than currently known. Using a variety of molecular biology techniques, it has been shown that these viruses exhibit varying degrees of tropism, on a species, organ/tissue, and cellular level. This review will attempt to provide a general overview of our current understanding of henipaviruses, with particular emphasis on viral tropism.