ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0047.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: horn design; ultrasonic welding; nonwoven fabric; micro-structure; tensile strength
Online: 5 June 2020 (14:01:01 CEST)
Nonwoven fabrics have been widely used in textile manufacturing industry as a sheet or web structure because of soft, water-repellent, recycle, ecological and resilient functions. Ultrasonic welding method has been applied for bonding nonwoven fabrics due to clean, fast and reliable approach. In this work, the ultrasonic stepped horn is designed to generate uniform amplitudes on the working surface by using finite element analysis (FEA) simulation. Chromium carbon steels are utilized to produce ultrasonic horns due to high wear resistant and hardness. Isotactic polypropylene nonwoven fabrics fabricated by spunbond process were bonded by continuous ultrasonic sewing machine. Ultrasonic horn with 70 mm in diameter working at 20 kHz, polypropylene (PP) nonwoven density of 80 gsm and various design of welding joints were applied. A typical image in the case of number one was investigated by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of inter-facial micro-structure. However, welding joints of totally eight roller patterns was test the tensile strength of the ultrasonic welding joints on PP nonwoven fabrics. The tensile strength of the welding joints is proportional to the area ratio between the welding area and cycling area. The results showed that the melted zone without welding defects such as crack or blowhole can be seen. Furthermore, the tensile strength of welding joints in eight cases of roller patterns (No.1-No.8) was described in details. The ultrasonic welding joints with brick structures give higher tensile strength while the solid line in the pattern gave less strength.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0249.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: polymer-metal-hybrid; surface pretreatment; mechanical interlocking; roughness evaluation; interlaminar shear strength; interlaminar tensile strength; fractal geometry; laser structuring
Online: 15 April 2020 (14:21:45 CEST)
The interlaminar strength of mechanically interlocked polymer-metal-interfaces is strongly dependent on the surface structure of the metal component. Therefore, this contribution assesses the suitability of the fractal dimension for quantification of the surface structure as well as interlaminar strength prediction of aluminum/polyamide 6 polymer-metal-hybrids. Seven different surface structures, manufactured by blasting, combined blasting and etching, thermal spraying and laser ablation, are investigated. The experiments are carried out on a novel butt-bonded hollow cylinder testing method that allows shear and tensile strength determination with one specific specimen geometry. The fractal dimension of the metal surfaces is derived from cross-sectional images. For comparison, the surface roughness slope is determined and related to the interlaminar strength. Finally, a fracture analysis is conducted. For the investigated material combination, the experimental results indicate that the fractal dimension is an appropriate measure for predicting the interlaminar strength
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0548.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: asphalt mixture; low-temperature cracking; tensile strength; strength reserve; flexural strength; Uniaxial Tension Stress Test (UTST); Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Test (TSRST); Bending Beam Test (BBT); Semi-Circular Bending Test (SCB);
Online: 27 September 2018 (14:43:05 CEST)
In regions with low-temperature action transverse cracks can appear in asphalt pavements as a result of thermal stresses that exceed the fracture strength of materials used in asphalt layers. To better understand thermal cracking phenomenon, strength properties of different asphalt mixtures were investigated. Four test methods were used to assess the influence of bitumen type and mixture composition on tensile strength properties of asphalt mixtures: tensile strength using the Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Test (TSRST) and the Uniaxial Tension Stress Test (UTST), flexural strength using the Bending Beam Test (BBT) and fracture toughness using the Semi-Circular Bending Test (SCB). The strength reserve behavior of tested asphalt mixtures was assessed as well. The influence of cooling rate on strength reserve was investigated and correlations between results from different test methods were also analyzed and discussed. It was observed that the type of bitumen is a factor of crucial importance to low-temperature properties of the tested asphalt concretes. This conclusion was proved by all test methods that were used. It was also observed that the level of cooling rate influences the strength reserve and, in consequence, resistance to low-temperature cracking. It was concluded that reasonably good correlations were observed between strength results for the UTST, BBT and SCB test methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0298.v1
Online: 13 August 2021 (11:08:40 CEST)
Tendons transmit forces from muscles to bones through joints. Typically, tendons and muscles work together to innovate a particular type of motion. Therefore, in order for the tendons to find attachment to the bones, they are naturally adapted as much thinner strands than the muscles that they serve. Thus, they are often subjected to much higher stresses than the muscles that they actually serve in any given action. As a result, tendons are susceptible to injuries that may lead to a permanent dysfunction in joint mobility due to the fact that the scar tissue that forms after healing does not often have the same mechanical properties of the original tissue. It is, therefore, very important to understand the mechanical response of tendons. This paper examines the performances of two viscoelastic standard nonlinear models in modelling the elastic and plastic behaviour of the tendon in the light of a well-known hyperelastic Yeoh model. The use of the Yeoh model is more for validating the performances of the viscoelastic models within the elastic region rather than for comparison purposes. Yeoh model’s selection was based on its superior performance in modelling the elastic phase of soft tissue as reported in previous studies combined with its simplicity. The results show that the two standard nonlinear solid models perform extremely well both in fitting accuracies and in correlating stress results. The most promising result is the fact that the two standard nonlinear models can model tendon behaviour in the nonlinear plastic region. It is also noted that the two standard nonlinear models are physically insightful since their optimisation parameters can be easily interpreted in terms of tendon elasticity and viscoelastic parameters.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0514.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: tensile strength; ductility; microstructure
Online: 22 July 2020 (11:01:00 CEST)
Aluminium alloys have evolved as suitable materials for automotive and aircraft industries due to their reduced weight, excellent fatigue properties, high-strength to weight ratio, high workability/formability, and corrosion resistance. Recently, the joining of similar and dissimilar metals have achieved huge success in various sectors. The processing of soft metals like aluminium, copper, iron and nickel have been fabricated using friction stir processing. Friction stir processing (FSP) is a microstructural modifying technique that uses the same principles as the friction stir welding technique. In the majority of studies on FSP, the effect of process parameters on the microstructure was characterized after a single pass. However, multiple passes of FSP is another method to further modify the microstructure in aluminium castings. This study is aimed at reviewing the impact of multi-pass friction stir processed joints of aluminium alloys and to identify a knowledge gap. From the literature that is available on multi-pass FSP, it has been observed that the majority of the literature focused on the processing of plates than the joints. There is limited literature reporting on multi-pass friction stir processed joints. This then creates a need to study further on multi-pass friction stir processing on dissimilar aluminium alloys.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0143.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Epoxy; tensile strength; mechanical properties
Online: 10 July 2019 (10:14:48 CEST)
Mechanical response of bisphenol-F based epoxy cured with amine hardener was investigated in tensile testing. Different types of methods were considered in preparing the tensile samples in order to evaluate their effects on the tensile strength of the cured epoxy system. Specifically, four types of preparation methods were discussed to prepare the tensile samples were considered in the study. Further, the effect of different type of tensile samples on tensile strength of specimens was also considered in the analysis. The experimental results showed that the preparation methods affected the tensile strength of the specimens. Starting from the experimental results, an appropriate testing methodology is proposed for epoxy based nanocomposite composite specimens in order to reduce problems that may arise during the test and to optimize procedures for preparation of specimens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0570.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Asphalt concrete; Glass wool fibers; indirect tensile strength; tensile strength ratio; Kim test; Marshall test
Online: 24 September 2020 (08:01:47 CEST)
Nowadays, in order to improve asphalt pavement performance, durability and reduce environmental pollution caused by asphalt binder, many researchers are studying to modify asphalt concrete (AC) and find alternative paving materials to extend service life of asphalt pavement. One of the successful materials used in a modification of AC are fibers. Different types of fibers have been reinforced in AC mixture and improvements have been observed. This research studies the performance of glass wool fiber reinforced in a dense-graded asphalt mixture. Generally, glass fibers are known to have excellent mechanical properties such as high tensile modulus, 100% elastic recovery and a very high tolerance to heat. The glass wool fibers are commonly used as a thermal insulation material. In this research to evaluate the performance of glass wool fiber in AC, laboratory tests Marshall mix design test, Indirect tensile strength (IDT), Tensile strength ratio (TSR) and Kim test were conducted to determine a proper mix design, tensile properties, moisture susceptibility, rutting and fatigue behaviors. Results show that addition of glass wool fibers does affect the properties of AC mixture. The use of glass wool fibers showed a positive consistence results, in which it improved the moisture susceptibility and rutting resistance of the AC. Also result showed addition of fiber increased tensile strength and toughness which indicates that fibers have a potential to resist distresses that occur on a surface of the road as a result of heavy traffic loading. The overall results showed that addition of glass wool fiber in AC mixture is beneficial in improving properties of AC pavements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0059.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: PLA-Mg; FTIR; DSC; crystallinity; tensile test
Online: 5 September 2022 (12:53:24 CEST)
The effect of Mg particles on PLA's thermal, chemical, physical, and mechanical properties has been studied. The thermal and physical properties have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry, analysing the stability of the α and α’-crystals of the PLA. A colloidal route was used to introduce Mg particles inside the PLA matrix, ensuring a good dispersion of the particles. Materials with Mg contents from 0 to 10 wt.% have been prepared, with additions of polyethyleneimine (PEI) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy has been used to confirm the influence of Mg, PEI, and PEG on PLA properties. The mechanical properties have been measured with a universal tensile test machine on printed filaments via Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), which were naturally aged to stable conditions. Filaments with and without a notch were studied to obtain the materials' tensile strength, elastic modulus, and fracture toughness. Different analytical models to explain the results of the PLA-Mg were studied, in which the interface strength of the PLA-Mg composites was calculated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0009.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: asphalt mixture; low-temperature cracking; Tensile Creep Test (TCT); Bending Beam Creep Test (BBCT); tensile strength; thermal stress;
Online: 1 February 2019 (09:45:08 CET)
Thermal stresses belong to the leading factors that influence low-temperature cracking behavior of asphalt pavements. During winter, when temperature drops to significantly low values, tensile thermal stresses develop as a result of pavement contraction. Creep test methods can be suitable for the assessment of low-temperature properties of asphalt mixtures. To evaluate the influence of creep test methods on the obtained low-temperature properties of asphalt mixtures, three point bending and uniaxial tensile creep tests were applied and the master curves of stiffness modulus were analyzed. On the basis of creep test results, rheological parameters describing elastic and viscous properties of the asphalt mixtures were determined. Thermal stresses were calculated and compared to tensile strength of the material to obtain the failure temperature of the analyzed asphalt mixtures. It was noted that lower strain values of creep curves were obtained for the Tensile Creep Test (TCT) than for the Bending Beam Creep Test (BBCT), especially at lower temperatures. Results of thermal stress calculations indicated that higher reliability was obtained for the viscoelastic Monismith method based on the TCT results than for the simple quasi-elastic solution of Hills and Brien. The highest agreement with the TSRST results was also obtained for the Monismith method based on the TCT results. No clear relationships were noted between the predicted failure temperature and different methods of thermal stress calculations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0566.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Uniaxial testing; tissue mechanics; cardiac mechanics; tensile testing
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:31:57 CEST)
Abstract : This paper presents the investigation of biomechanical behaviour of sheep heart fibre using uniaxial tests in various samples. Non-linear Finite Element models (FEA) that are utilised in understanding mechanisms of different diseases may not be developed without the accurate material properties. This paper presents uniaxial mechanical testing data of the sheep heart fibre. The mechanical uniaxial data of the heart fibre was then used in fitting four constitutive models including the Fung model, Polynomial (Anisotropic), Holzapfel (2005) model, Holzapfel (2000) model and the Four-fibre Family model. Even though the constitutive models for soft tissues including heart myocardium have been presented over several decades, there is still a need for accurate material parameters from reliable hyperelastic constitutive models. Therefore, the aim of this research paper is to select five hyperelastic constitutive models and fit experimental data in the uniaxial experimental data of the sheep heart fibre. A fitting algorithm was made used to optimally fitting and determination of the material parameters based on selected hyperelastic constitutive model. In this study, the evaluation index (EI) was used to measure the performance and capability of each selected anisotropic hyperelatic model. It was observed that the best predictive capability of the mechanical behaviour of sheep heart fibre the Polynomial (anisotropic) model has the EI of 100 and this means that it is the best performance when compared to all the other models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0076.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: AlSi10Mg alloys, solidification, thermal analysis, microstructure, tensile properties.
Online: 2 June 2021 (12:21:46 CEST)
This work explored and contrasted the effect of microstructure on the tensile properties of AlSi10Mg alloys generated by transient directional solidification depending on variations in cooling rate and Magnesium (Mg) content (i.e., 0.45 and 1wt.% Mg), with a focus on understanding the dendritic growth and phases constitution. Optical and Scanning electron (SEM) microscopies, CALPHAD and thermal analysis were used to describe the microstructure, forming phases and resulting tensile properties. The findings showed that the experimental evolution of the primary dendritic spacing is very similar when both directionally solidified (DS) Al-10wt.% Si-0.45wt.% Mg and Al-10wt.% Si-1wt.% Mg alloys samples are compared. The secondary dendritic spacing was lower for the alloy with more Mg, especially considering the range of high growth velocities. Moreover, a greater fraction of (Al+Si+Mg2Si) ternary eutectic islands surrounding the -Al dendritic matrix was noted for the alloy with 1wt.% Mg. As a result of primary dendritic spacings greater than 180 m related to lower cooling rates, slightly higher tensile properties were attained for the Al-10wt.% Si-0.45wt.% Mg alloy. In contrast, combining dendritic refining (< 150 m) and larger Mg2Si fraction, fast solidified DS Al-10wt.% Si-1wt.% Mg samples exhibited higher tensile strength and elongation. The control of cooling rate and fineness of the dendritic array provided a new insight related to the addition of Mg in slightly higher levels than conventional ones, capable of achieving a better balance of tensile properties in AlSi10Mg alloys.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0105.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: mono fiber; concrete strength; tensile strength; kenaf; polypropylene
Online: 5 August 2020 (02:55:35 CEST)
In the past decades, Fiber Reinforced Concrete has been gaining more attention in the concrete research development. There are many advantages of the inclusion of fiber into reinforced concrete structures. It was found that the inclusion of fibers in concrete, be it synthetic or natural, resulted in the improvement of the thermal properties of concrete, as well as its strength to some extent. However, the inclusion of fibers in concrete does affects its thermo-mechanical properties. The objective of this study is to identify the potential of the addition Polypropylene and Kenaf fibers in cement mortar at different compositions (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3%). Eight mixes were analyzed for this purpose. Upon investigating the flow ability, compressive strength, tensile strength, and thermal conductivity of the mortar samples, it was found that the incorporation of PP and Kenaf fibers reduced the flow ability. Cement mortar samples containing 0.1% addition of PP and Kenaf fibers show the highest compressive strength compared to other percentages, while samples containing 0.3% addition of PP and Kenaf fibers show the highest tensile strength compared to other percentages. The thermal conductivity of mortar samples shows reduction when high percentages of both fibers were used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0236.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: NR; MAPE; Teline monspessulana; compounds; tensile properties; coupling
Online: 17 February 2020 (03:03:17 CET)
The effect of the addition of maleated polyethylene (MAPE) to compounds of natural rubber (NR) and Teline monspessulana flour (TMF) previously mercerized was investigated. Two factors were analyzed: A. concentration of MAPE with five levels 2; 4; 6; 8; 10 phr (parts per hundred rubber), B. concentration of TMF with two levels 25 and 40 phr. The effect of MAPE on compatibility between NR and HTM was evaluated by tensile testing the compounds. The mixing was performed in a laboratory scale mill. The test tubes were obtained by cutting or die-cutting crosslinked peroxide sheets, these were obtained during the compression molding process. Analysis indicate that the MAPE coupling agent improved the compatibility between HTM and NR, this effect was evidenced by the values of tensile strength and elongation at break. However, the gel content determination indicates that the addition of 10 phr of MAPE crosslinking decreases due to competition with coupling reaction MAPE - HTM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0234.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Steel; Tensile Test; XRCT; Damage Evolution; Gurson Model
Online: 19 December 2018 (12:14:27 CET)
This paper analyses the evolution of the internal damage in two types of steel that show different fracture behaviours, with one of them being the initial material used for manufacturing prestressing steel wires, which shows a flat fracture surface perpendicular to the loading direction, and the other one being a standard steel used in reinforced concrete structures, which shows the typical cup-cone surface. 3mm-diameter cylindrical specimens are tested with a tensile test carried out in several loading stages and, after each of them, unloaded and analysed with X-ray tomography, which allows detection of internal damage throughout the tensile test. In the steel used for reinforcement, damage is developed progressively in the whole specimen, as predicted by Gurson-type models, while in the steel used for manufacturing prestressing steel-wire damage is developed only in the very last part of the test. In addition to the experimental study, a numerical analysis is carried out by means of the finite element method by using a Gurson model to reproduce the material behaviour.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0581.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: plastic recycling; filament extrusion; tensile property; thermal analysis
Online: 24 October 2018 (16:22:09 CEST)
The recyclability of polystyrene, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, polystyrene and polyvinylchloride waste and using them as a source for 3D printing were studied. Filaments of about 3 mm in diameter were extruded successfully with a small-size extruder. The processed filaments were tested on a broad range of parameters - glass transition temperature, tensile properties and a pyrolysis scenario were obtained. The measured parameters were compared with parameters of virgin counterparts presented in the literature. In order to estimate the toxicity of the recycled material, elemental analysis of the samples was done.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0419.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: carbon nanotubes; nanocomposite sensor; tensile testing; impedance measurement
Online: 23 July 2018 (11:52:09 CEST)
We address Multi-Wall Carbon NanoTubes (MWCNTs) for structural health monitoring in adhesive bonds such as in building structures. MWCNT-loaded composites are employed to sense strain changes under tension load using an AC impedance measurement setup. Different weight percentages of 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 wt.% MWCNT are added to the base epoxy resin using different dispersion times, i.e. 5, 10 and 15 minutes. The equivalent parallel resistance of the specimens is measured by applying an alternating voltage at different frequencies. To determine the mechanical as well as sensory properties, the specimens are subjected to a tensile test with concurrent impedance measurement. Using alternating voltage, a higher sensitivity of the impedance reading can be achieved. Employing these sensors in buildings and combining the readings of a network of such devices can significantly improve the buildings’ safety. Additionally, networks of such sensors can be used to identify necessary maintenance actions and locations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0361.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Poly (Lactic Acid) (PLA); wastes rubber; recycling; tensile properties
Online: 15 March 2021 (08:05:30 CET)
Poly (Lactic Acid) (PLA) / Ground Tire Rubber (GTR) blends using Dicumyl peroxide (DCP) as a crosslinking agent were prepared as a route to recycle wastes rubber from the automotive industry. The GTR were exposed to grinding and exhibited mechanical damage, traduced at the rubber network scale by chains scission and/or chemical cross-links breakage. Such damage is accompanied by a decrease of 80% of the rubber chains network density of the initial tire buffing but found independent on the type of grinding (cryogenic, dry ambient) or on the GTR size (from <400 µm to <63 µm). Moreover, the finest sieved GTR contain the largest the amount of reinforcing elements (carbon black, clay) that can be advantageously used in PLA/GTR blends. The melt-blending of these finest GTR particles obtained by cryo-grinding at an amount of 15 wt.% and in presence of the crosslinking agent (DCP), resulted in an optimum improvement of the ductility, energy at break and impact strength of the PLA/GTR blends as compared to neat PLA, while maintaining its stiffness. The results were attributed to (i) the good dispersion of the fine GTR particles into the PLA matrix, (ii) the partial re-crosslinking of the GTR particles and co-crosslinking at PLA/GTR interface and (iii) the presence of reinforcing carbon black into the GTR particles and clay particles dispersed into the PLA matrix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0361.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; FFF technology; Laser amplified ultrasonography; Tensile testing
Online: 30 January 2020 (11:05:28 CET)
The paper is focused on the examination of the internal quality of joints created in a multi-material - additive manufacturing process. The main part of the work focuses on experimental production and non-destructive testing of restrained joints of modified PLA (polylactic acid) and ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) 3Dprinted on RepRap 3D device that works on the "open source" principle. The article presents the outcomes of non-destructive materials test in the form of the data from the Laser Amplified Ultrasonography, microscopic observations of the joints area and tensile tests of the specially designed samples. The samples with designed joints were additively manufactured of two materials: specially blended PLA (Market name – PLA Tough) and conventionally made ABS. The tests are mainly focused on the determination of the quality of material connection in the joints area. Based on the results obtained, the samples made of two materials were compared in the end to establish which produced material joint is stronger and have a lower amount of defects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0302.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: experimental tests; composite laminates; tensile strength; artificial neural networks
Online: 25 December 2018 (09:32:08 CET)
The objective of this article was to forecast the ultimate failure load laminate stacking sequence combination on bonding joints which are exposed to tensile strength by using artificial neural networks. We have glass fiber composite materials with three different sequence combinations ([0°/90°], [±45°], [0°/90°/±45°]). Various adherend thicknesses and also ductile type adhesive was used in the experiment. The bonding geometry is a single lap and has four types of overlap angles 30°, 45°, 60°, 75° respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that composite laminate stacking sequence profoundly affects the bonding joints of failure load. Taking experimental results into account, Levenberg–Marquardt learning algorithm model was used by preferring a three layer forward on ANN so as to discipline network. In order to procure a precise ANN tool, an integrate methodology of experimental method has been used. The outcomes are used to ensure the experimental data’s to the ANN. The method of ANN permits surveying much adequately the probabilities of composite laminate stacking sequence combination using the prevalent ones which are [0°/90°], [±45°] and [0°/90°/±45°]. Testing data and training results were quite well 0.998, 0.997 and 0.998 in turn. Consequences acquired can be used by engineers who are interested in the composite material design to enhance failure load.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0084.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: textile composite; biaxial tensile; modulus; plain weave fabric (PWF)
Online: 16 November 2016 (13:34:41 CET)
This paper addresses a new micromechanical model to predict biaxial tensile moduli of plain weave fabric (PWF) composites by considering the interaction between the orthogonal interlacing strands. The two orthogonal yarns in micromechanical unit cell (UC) were idealized as the curved beams with a path depicted by using sinusoidal shape functions. The biaxial tensile moduli of PWF composites were derived by means of the minimum total complementary potential energy principle founded on micromechanics. The biaxial tensile tests were respectively conducted on the RTM-made EW220/5284 PWF composites at five biaxial loading ratios of 0, 1, 2, 3 and ∞ to validate the new model. The predictions from the new model were compared with experimental data and good correlation was achieved between the predictions and actual experiments, demonstrating the practical and effective use of the proposed model. Using the new model, the biaxial tensile moduli of plain weave fabric (PWF) composites could be predicted based only on the properties of basic woven fabric.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0059.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: moso bamboo; quasi-static behavior; tensile behavior; size effect on energy absorption; damage pattern of the multiple bamboo columns; macroscopic tensile fracture mode
Online: 17 August 2017 (07:53:23 CEST)
In this paper, quasi-static axial compression tests are performed on the nodal Moso bamboos to study the size effect on energy absorption of the bamboos and the damage pattern of the multiple bamboo columns. Experimental results show that under the same moisture content, growth age and growing environment, the specific energy absorption (SEA) of the test samples increases with the increase of the out-diameter and thickness of the bamboo columns, indicating that size effect exists for energy absorption of the Moso Bamboos. For the multiple bamboo columns, there are mainly three failure modes for the constituent single bamboo columns: splitting above the node, splitting below the node and splitting through the node. Also, the tensile tests are conducted on three kinds of dog-bone shaped bamboo samples to investigate the macroscopic tensile fracture mode in the longitudinal direction of Moso bamboos. Results show that there is no direct relationship between the fracture pattern and moisture content of the bamboos, as well as the growth age of the bamboos. However, the tensile loading rate and the shape of the dog-bone shaped bamboo sample could affect the macroscopic fracture pattern of the bamboos in some cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0697.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: nitrate-alkaline pulp; Black Mustard; Camelina; tensile index; chemical analysis
Online: 28 May 2021 (11:32:38 CEST)
To investigate this suitability of Black Mustard (Brassica Nigra L.) and Camelina (Camelina Sativa L.) for pulp manufacturing the nitrate-alkaline method was used. The non-wood plants were characterized by chemical analysis, especially lignin, cellulose, ash, extractives and alpha-, beta-, gamma-cellulose. The pulp was cooked in 6% nitric acid and then underwent the extraction by 5% sodium-hydroxide and neutralized by 1% acetic acid. The cooked pulp was characterized by delignification degree – Kappa number. The laboratory sheets were made from this cooked pulp and they were characterized by tensile index, breaking length, smoothness and compared with commonly available papers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0019.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: metal additive manufacturing; sintering; tensile; mechanical analysis; metal material extrusion
Online: 2 August 2020 (11:50:12 CEST)
Metal additive manufacturing (AM) has gained much attentions in recent years due to its advantages including geometric freedom and design complexity, appropriate to a wide range of potential industrial applications. However, conventional metal AM methods have high-cost barriers due to the initial cost of the capital equipment, support and maintenance, etc. This study presents a unique low-cost metal material extrusion (MME) technology. The filaments used have polylactic acid (PLA) as the matrix and metal powders (copper, bronze, stainless steel, high carbon iron, and aluminum) as reinforcements. Using the proposed fabrication technology, test specimens were built by extruding polymer/metal composite filaments, which were then sintered in an open-air furnace to produce solid metallic parts. In this research, the mechanical and thermal properties of the built parts are examined using tensile tests, thermogravimetric-, thermomechanical- and microstructural analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0229.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: extensometer; tensile strain; shear strain; calibration; elastic deformation; combined loads
Online: 19 November 2019 (10:10:14 CET)
The paper presents an extensometer designed to measure two mechanical strains at the same time—one from tensile load and the other from torsion load. Strain transducers provide different electric signals, which, after calibration, lead to the simultaneous measurement of linear (ε) and angular (γ) strains. Each of these two signals depends on the measured process and is not influenced by the other strain process. This extensometer is designed to be easily mounted on the sample with only two mounting points and can be used to measure the combined cyclical fatigue of tensile and torsional loadings. This extensometer has two bars—one rigid, reported at the resulting stress points, and one elastic and deformable. The elastic deformable bar has two beams with different orientations. When the sample is deformed, both beams are loaded by two bending moments (perpendicular to each other and both perpendicular on the longitudinal axis of the bars).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0279.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: corrosion; ductility; mechanical properties; reinforced concrete; tensile strength; equivalent steel
Online: 28 January 2019 (12:15:09 CET)
In this work 144 reinforcing bars of high-ductility steel named B500SD were subjected to an accelerated corrosion treatment and then tested under tension at different loading speeds in order to assess the effect of corrosion on the ductility properties of the rebars. Results showed that the bars with a corrosion level as low as the one reducing the steel mass by 1% gave rise to a significant degradation on the ductility properties with strain-stress curves losing the yield plateau and behaving practically as cold deformed steel bars. This effect took place at every tested loading speed. Thus, the research significance relies on the assessment of the influence of the loading speed at which the tensile test is performed given that it affects the ductility properties of the reinforcement bars.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0359.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Inconel; high temperature; tensile test; creep; serrated; dynamic strain aging
Online: 31 December 2018 (09:41:56 CET)
Abstract: The Inconel 625 is a nickel-based alloy has been widely used in the high-temperature application. The Inconel 625 exhibits unstable plastic flow at elevated temperature characterized by serrated yielding, known as Portevin-Le Chatelier effect. The aim of this work is to evaluate the mechanical properties at high temperatures of the Inconel 625. The tensile tests were performed in the temperature range of room temperature until 1000 °C and strain rate of 2x10^-4 to 2x10^-3 s^-1. The creep tests were performed in the temperature range of 600-700 °C, in the stress range of 500-600 MPa in a constant load mode. The surface fracture was observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Serrated stress-strain behavior was observed in the curves obtained at 200 to 700 °C, which was associated with the dynamic strain aging effect. The yield strength and the elongation values show an anomalous behavior as a function of the test temperature. An intergranular cracking was observed specimen tensile tested at 500 °C that can be attributed to the decohesion of the carbides along the grain boundaries. The fracture surface of the specimen tensile tested at 700 °C showed the predominance of transgranular cracking with tear dimples with a parabolic shape.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0503.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: microdevice; tensile stimulation; adipose-derived stem cells; self-renewal; differentiation
Online: 26 September 2018 (08:33:37 CEST)
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were suggested for treating degenerative osteoarthritis, suppressing inflammatory responses, and repairing damaged soft tissues. Moreover, the ADSCs have the potential to undergo self-renewal and differentiate into bone, tendon, cartilage, and ligament. Recently, investigation of the self-renewal and differentiation of the ADSCs becomes an attractive area. In this work, a pneumatic microdevice has been developed to study the gene expression of the ADSCs after the stimulation of multi-axial tensile strain. The ADSCs were cultured on the microdevice and experienced multi-axial tensile strain during a 3-day culture course. Self-renewal and differentiation abilities were investigated by mRNA expressions of NANOG, SOX2, OCT4, SOX9, PPAR-γ, and RUNX2. The result showed that the genes related self-renewal were significantly up-regulated after the tensile stimulation. Higher proliferation ratio of the ADSCs was also shown by cell viability assay. The microdevice provides a promising platform for cell-based study under mechanical tensile stimulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0203.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: lignin; nanocomposite; nanofiber; optimization; percent elongation; starch; tensile strength; Young’s modulus
Online: 14 July 2022 (03:50:51 CEST)
The optimization of production of lignin-nanofiber-filled thermoplastic starch composite film for potential application in food packaging was carried using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), through the adoption of the Box-Wilson Central Composite Design (CCD) with 1 center point. The effects of filler loading on moisture absorption (MAB), tensile strength [TS], percent elongation [PE] and Young’s modulus [YM]) of the films were investigated in order to construct the desirability indices of the composite. The quality of the fitting model was expressed by the coefficient of determination, R2 and the adjusted R2. Results showed that the nanocomposite films were best fitted by a quadratic regression model with a high coefficient of determination (?2) value. The selected film has desirability of 76.80%, close to the objective function, and contained 4.81% lignin and 5.00% nanofibre. The MAB, TS, YM and PE of the selected film were 17.80 %, 21.51 MPa, 25.76 MPa and 48.81%, respectively. The addition of lignin and nanofiber to starch composite reduced the moisture absorption tendency but increased the mechanical properties of the films due to the good filler/matrix interfacial adhesion. Conclusively, results suggested that these films would be suitable for packaging application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0382.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: CFRP; vacuum infusion; water absorption; tensile test; bending test; compressive test
Online: 29 March 2022 (12:22:53 CEST)
This research aims to investigate the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) when subjected to tensile, bending, and compression. Half of the specimens are also subjected to water to find out how water influences. The CFRP is created using a combination of carbon fiber layers and epoxy resin Bisphenol A Epichlorohydrin with hardener and is formed using the vacuum infusion method. From the water absorption test, it was found that the average weight gain of the specimens was 2.9% and the lowest value was at 0.6%, it was concluded that the increase in wet specimen weight was not too significant and water absorption tended to be slow. Mechanical testing ob-tained the highest average tensile stress, bending stress, compressive stress, and modulus of elasticity of 195 MPa, 295 MPa, 96 MPa, and 8914 MPa were from dry specimens while the lowest average values were 146 MPa, 286 MPa, 81 MPa, and 6160 MPa from wet specimens. The results of micro-photo observations on the tensile test fracture show that the specimen has a XGM fracture character with delamination and splitting fractures happening in multiple areas. In the bending test, the specimens experienced buckling fracture due to the fiber breaking and the inability of the matrix to withstand the additional stress. Shear fracture happened during the compressive test. In conclusion, water absorption has a bad impact towards the composite strength.
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: additive technology; titanium alloy; TiAl6V4; microstructure; tensile strength; Laser Metal Deposition
Online: 30 September 2020 (16:42:06 CEST)
: TiAl6V4 alloy is widely used in selective laser melting and direct laser melting. In turn, works devoted to the issue of how the track stacking scheme affects the value of mechanical properties is not enough. The influence of the Ti6Al4V alloy track trajectories on the microstructure and mechanical properties during direct laser deposition is studied in this article for the first time. The results were obtained on the influence of «parallel» and «perpendicular» technique of laying tracks in direct laser synthesis. All studied samples have a microstructure typical of the hardened two-phase condition titanium. It is shown that the method of laying tracks and the direction of load application during compression testing relative to the location of the tracks leads to a change in the ultimate strength of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy from 1794 to 1910 MPa. The plasticity of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy obtained by direct laser alloying can vary from 21.3 to 33.0% depending on the direction of laying the tracks and the direction of the compression test. The hardness of alloys varies in the range from 409 to 511 HV and depends on the method of laying the tracks and the direction of hardness measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0309.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: quartz fiber; Al2O3 coating; plasma electrolysis spraying; tensile strength; thermal conductivity
Online: 23 December 2019 (13:10:46 CET)
The manuscript reported the synthesis of Al2O3 nano-coating onto quartz fiber by plasma electrolysis spray for enhanced thermal conductivity and stability. The nano- and micro-sized clusters were partially observed on the coating, while most coating was relatively smooth. It was suggested that the formation of a ceramic coating was followed as the nucleation-growth raw, that is, the formation of the coating clusters was dependent on the fast grow-up partially, implying the inhomogeneous energy distribution in the electrolysis plasma. The deposition of the Al2O3 coating increased the annealing tensile strength from 19.2 MPa to 58.1 MPa. The thermal conductivity of the coated quartz fiber was measured to be 1.17 W m-1 K-1, increased by ~45% compared to the bare fiber. The formation mechanism of the Al2O3 coating was preliminarily discussed. We believe that the thermally conductive quartz fiber with high thermal stability by plasma electrolysis spray will find a wide range of applications in industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0156.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: tensile strength; flexural strength; friction stir welding; microstructure; dissimilar aluminium alloys
Online: 12 December 2019 (01:58:14 CET)
Welding of dissimilar aluminium alloys has been a challenge for a long period until the discovery of the solid state welding technique called friction stir welding (FSW). The discovery of this technique encouraged different research interests revolving around the optimization of this technique. This involves the welding parameters optimization and this optimization is categorized into two classes i.e. similar alloys and dissimilar alloys. This paper reports about the mechanical properties of the friction stir welded dissimilar AA1050-H14 and AA5083-H111 joint. The main focus is to compare the mechanical properties of specimens extracted from different locations of the welds i.e. the beginning, middle and the end of the weld. The specimen extracted at the beginning of the weld showed low tensile properties compared to specimens extracted from different locations of the weld. There was no certain trend noted through the bending results. All three specimens showed dimpled fracture which is the characterization of the ductile fracture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0155.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: cellulosic cotton residual; sanding textile process; fiber-cement composites; tensile strength
Online: 14 November 2019 (09:34:04 CET)
Fiber-cement composites were prepared from cellulosic cotton residue (CCR) arise from sanding process (emerizing). The effect of different concentrations: 0.5% and 1%, and granulometry: thick (retained in a14 mesh sieve) and thin (retained in a 48 mesh sieve) of this residue were evaluated on tensile strength of cement slurries with seven (07) curing days. To characterize the CCR, TGA, FT-IR, SEM and XRD analysis were performed and the residue resistance in an alkaline environment was also evaluated. Splitting tensile strength test, known as Brazilian Test, was used to assess effects of the fibers on the mechanical behavior of cement matrix. Analyzing the results, the CCR proved to be resistant in an alkaline environment, meaning that it can withstand the alkaline environment of cement matrix. The results showed an improvement superior to 17% in tensile strength for 1% of CCR. Therefore, the CCR presents a great application potential in cement pastes used for oil well cementing that requires to increase its tensile strength, once a significant improvement was achieved with a low-residue employee.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0005.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Soy protein isolate; Microcrystalline cellulose; Metal nanoclusters; Nanocomposite film; Tensile strength
Online: 3 April 2017 (16:42:12 CEST)
Soy protein isolate (SPI) based materials are abundant, biocompatible, renewable, and biodegradable. In order to improve the tensile strength (TS) of SPI films, we prepared a novel composite film modified with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and metal nanoclusters (NCs) in this research. The effects of the modification of MCC on the properties of SPI-Cu NCs and Zn NCs films were investigated. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy analyses and X-ray diffraction patterns characterized the strong interactions and reduction of the crystalline structure of the composite films. Scanning electron microscope showed the enhanced cross-linked and entangled structure of modified films. Compared with untreated SPI film, the tensile strength of the SPI-MCC-Cu and SPI-MCC-Zn films increased from 2.91 MPa to 13.95 and 6.52 MPa, respectively. Moreover, the results also indicated their favorable water resistance with higher water contact angle. Meanwhile, the composite films exhibited increased initial degradation temperatures, demonstrating their higher thermostability. The results suggested that MCC could effectively improve the performance of SPI-NCs films, which would provide a novel preparation method for environmentally friendly SPI-based films in the applications of packaging materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0232.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: concrete tensile fatigue; neural networks; Bayesian regularization; parameter assessment; fatigue life prediction
Online: 17 May 2022 (13:53:48 CEST)
The fatigue life of concrete is affected by many interwoven factors whose effect is nonlinear. Be-cause of its unique self-learning ability and strong generalization capability, the Bayesian regu-larized backpropagation neural network (BR-BPNN) is proposed to predict concrete behavior in tensile fatigue. The optimal model was determined through various combinations of network parameters. The average relative impact value (ARIV) was constructed to evaluate the correla-tion between fatigue life and its influencing parameters (maximum stress level Smax, stress ratio R, static strength f, failure probability P). ARIV results were also compared with other factor as-sessment methods (weight equation and multiple linear regression analyses). Using BR-BPNN, S-N curves were then obtained for the combinations of R=0.1, 0.2, 0.5; f=5, 6, 7MPa; P=5%, 50%, 95%. The tensile fatigue results under different testing conditions were finally compared for compatibility. It was concluded that Smax has the most significant negative effect on fatigue life; the degree of influence of R, P, and f, which positively correlate with fatigue life, decreases suc-cessively. ARIV is confirmed as a feasible way to analyze the importance of parameters and could be recommended for future applications. The tensile fatigue performance of plain concrete under different stress states (flexural tension, axial tension, splitting tension) does not differ sig-nificantly. Besides utilizing the valuable fatigue test data scattered in the literature, insights gained from this work could provide a reference for subsequent fatigue test program design and fatigue evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0328.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Charpy test; PA6; PP; EPDM; simulation; FE analysis; constitutive model; tensile test
Online: 12 November 2020 (08:30:48 CET)
This paper presents results from numerical and experimental investigation on Charpy tests in order to point out failure mechanisms and to evaluate new polymeric blends PP+PA6+EPDM. Charpy tests were done for initial velocity of the impactor of 0.96 m/s and its mass of 3.219 kg and these data were also introduced in the finite element model. The proposed model take into account the system of four balls, including support and the ring of fixing the three balls and it has a finer discretization of the impact area to highlight the mechanisms of failure and their development in time. The constitutive models for four materials (polypropylene with 1% Kritilen, two blends PP+PA6+EPDM and a blend PA6+EPDM) were derived from tensile tests. Running simulations for each constitutive model of material makes possible to differentiate the destruction mechanisms according to the material introduced in the simulation, including the initiation and the development of the crack(s), based on equivalent plastic strain at break (EPS) for each material. The validation of the model and the simulation results was done qualitatively, analysing the shape of broken surfaces and comparing them to SEM images and quantitatively by comparing the impact duration, energy absorbed by the sample, the value of maximum force during impact. The duration of the destruction of the specimen is longer than the actual one, explainable by the fact that the material model does not take into account the influence of the material deformation speed in Charpy test, the model being designed with the help of tests done at 0.016 m/s (1000 mm/min) (maximum strain rate for the tensile tests). Experimental results are encouraging for recommending the blends 20% PP+42% PA6+28% EPDM and 60% PA6+ 40%EPDM as materials for impact protection at low velocity (1m/s). Simulation results are closer to the experimental ones for the more brittle tested materials (with less content of PA6 and EPDM) and more distanced for the more ductile materials (with higher content of PA6 and EPDM).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0035.v4
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: PVA-ECC; vehicle-induced vibrations; setting periods; tensile performance; grey correlation analysis
Online: 7 August 2019 (03:35:46 CEST)
Polyvinyl alcohol-engineering cementitious composites (PVA-ECC) has been widely applied in bridge deck repairing or widening, the common practice for doing this is that a portion of a bridge is left open to traffic while the closed portion is constructed, which expose the early age PVA-ECC to the vehicle-induced vibrations. However, whether vehicle-induced vibrations affect the tensile performance of early age PVA-ECC remains unknow. The purpose of this study was to conduct laboratory test programs on how much vehicle-induced vibrations during early ages affected the tensile performance of PVA-ECC. A self-improved device was used to simulate the vehicle-induced vibrations, and after vibrating with the designed variables, both a uniaxial tensile test and a grey correlation analysis were performed. The results indicated that: the effects of vehicle-induced vibrations on the tensile performance of early age PVA-ECC were significant, and they generally tended to be negative in this investigation. In particular, for all of the vibrated PVA-ECC specimens, the most negative age when vibrated occurred during the period between the initial set and the final set. We concluded that although vehicle-induced vibrations during the setting periods had no substantial effects on the inherent strain-hardening characteristics of PVA-ECC, the effects should not be ignored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0015.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: packaging design; product design; mechanical properties, thermoforming, tensile test, 3D printing, simulation
Online: 3 January 2019 (12:17:27 CET)
The increased consumption of food requiring thermoformed packaging means that the packaging industry demands customized solutions in terms of shapes and sizes to make the packaging unique. In particular, the food industry increasingly requires more transparent packaging, with greater clarity and a better presentation of the product features they contain. However, in turn, the differentiation of products is sought through the geometry and final finish of the product, as well as the arrangement of food inside the packaging. In addition, these types of packaging usually include ribs in the walls to improve physical properties, however they also affect the final aesthetics of the product. In accordance with this, this research study analyses by studying the mechanical properties of different relief geometries that can affect not only the aesthetics but also their strength. For this purpose, tensile and compression tests have been carried out. The results provide comparative data on the reliefs studied and show that there are different shapes, sizes and layout.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0303.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: RS-333 alloy; SLM 3DP; in situ SEM tensile testing; DIC analysis; Ncorr
Online: 12 February 2021 (12:17:22 CET)
3D-printed aluminium alloy fabrications made by selective laser melting (SLM) offer a promising route for the production of small series of custom-designed heat exchangers with complex geometry and shape and miniature size. Alloy composition and printing parameters need to be optimized to mitigate fabrication defects (pores and microcracks) and enhance the part performance. The deformation response needs to be studied with adequate characterization techniques at relevant dimensional scale capturing the peculiarities of micro-mechanical behavior relevant to the particular article and specimen dimensions. Purposefully designed Al-Si-Mg 3D-printable RS-333 alloy was investigated with a number of microscopy techniques including in situ mechanical testing with a Deben Microtest 1 kN stage integrated and synchronized with Tescan Vega3 SEM to acquire high resolution image datasets for Digital Image Correlation (DIC) analysis. Dog bone specimens were 3D-printed in different orientation of gauge zone cross-section with respect to the fast laser beam scanning and growth directions. This corresponds to varying local conditions of metal solidification and cooling. Specimens show variation in mechanical properties, namely, Young’s modulus (65…78 GPa), yield stress (80–150 MPa), ultimate tensile strength (115–225 MPa) and elongation at break (0,75–1,4 %). Furthermore, the failure localization and character was altered with the change of gauge cross-section orientation. DIC analysis allowed correct strain evaluation that overcame the load frame compliance effect and helped to identify the unevenness of deformation distribution (plasticity waves) that ultimately resulted in exceptionally high strain localization near the ultimate failure crack position.
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Laser welding; Dual phase steel; Similar/dissimilar welded joints; Microhardness; Tensile properties; Fatigue
Online: 31 December 2020 (12:49:00 CET)
The aim of this work was to investigate the microstructure and the mechanical properties of la-ser-welded joints combined of DP800 and DP1000 high strength thin steel sheets. The welded joints (WJ) comprised of similar/dissimilar steels with similar/dissimilar thickness were consisted of different zones and exhibited similar microstructural characteristics. The trend of microhard-ness for all WJs was consistent, characterized of the highest value at hardening zone (HZ) and lowest at softening zone (SZ). The degree of softening was more severe and the size of SZ was wider in the WJ combinations of DP1000 than DP800. The tensile test fractures were located at the base material (BM) for all DP800 weldments, while the fractures occurred at the fusion zone (FZ) for the weldments with DP1000 and those with dissimilar sheet thicknesses. The DP800-DP1000 weldment presented similar yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) values but lower elongation (EI) in comparison with the DP800-DP800 weldment, which showed similar strength properties as the BM of DP800. However, the EI of DP1000-DP1000 weldment was much lower in comparison with the BM of DP1000. The DP800-DP1000 weldment with dissimilar thicknesses showed the highest YS and UTS values compared with the other weldments, but with the lowest EI. The fatigue fractures occurred at the WJ for all types of weldments. The DP800-DP800 weldment had the highest fatigue limit and DP800-DP1000 with dissimilar thick-nesses had the lowest fatigue limit. The fatigue crack initiated from the weld surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0733.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; Polylactic acid (PLA); Fused deposition modelling (FDM); Laser joining; Tensile strength.
Online: 30 September 2020 (10:07:28 CEST)
The development of high complexity geometry parts is one of the main goals of the additive manufacturing technology. However, the failure of printed structures and the joining of different parts to create complex assemblies represents a real challenge in the research of efficient and sustainability techniques for the permanent assembly of polymers. Laser welding processes have been used as a single step method to join metals until years ago. Nowadays, the growing trend in the use of thermoplastics for additive manufacturing has led to the need to adapt this technique to materials with a very specific nature and more sensitive to thermal effects. Also, the possibility of transmitting the laser beam through transparent polymer layers allows to focus the energy supply on internal sections of the assembled components. In this research, an infrared laser marking system was used to join two different samples of polylactic acid manufactured by fused deposited modeling technology. In order to increase the effectiveness of the bonding process, a transparent and a dark sample have been used as assembly material, focusing the laser beam on the interface area of the two parts. By means of tensile tests, dimensional measurement and the use of optical microscopy techniques, a basis was established that links the supplied energy by laser to the joining performance.
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: electroplastic effect; pulsed current; duplex stainless steel; electropulsing traetment; residual stress; tensile test
Online: 25 March 2020 (09:00:25 CET)
Prestrained at 5% and 15% duplex stainless steel UNS S32750 specimens have been subjected to electropulsing treatments with current density of 100 A/mm2 and 200 A/mm2 and 100 and 500 pulses for each current density value. Corrosion tests, X-ray diffraction, microhardness and residual stresses were collected before and after the electropulsing treatments. Tensile tests were performed after the electropulsing treatments in order to compare the mechanical response to the reference tensile tests performed before the pulsing treatments. Increase in fracture strain was observed after the pulsing treatment in comparison to the reference tensile tests. A decrease in microhardness was also observed after the electropulsing treatments for both degrees of prestrain. Electropulsing treatment almost eliminates the work-hardened state in the 5% prestrained specimens while partially recovered the 15% prestrained material increasing both uniform and fracture strain. The bulk temperature of the samples remained the same for all the duration of the treatments. The effect are to be addressed to a combined effect of the increase in atomic flux due to the electrical current and local joule heating in correspondence of crystal defects. Electropulsing treatment applied to metallic alloys is a promising technique to reduce the work hardening state without the need of annealing treatments in a dedicated furnace.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0051.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: additive manufacturing; machine learning; tensile modulus; predictive modeling; mechanical properties; polyamide 2200; PA12
Online: 5 March 2019 (05:21:43 CET)
Additive manufacturing (AM) is an attractive technology for manufacturing industry due to flexibility in design and functionality, but inconsistency in quality is one of the major limitations that does not allow utilizing this technology for production of end-use parts. Prediction of mechanical properties can be one of the possible ways to improve the repeatability of the results. The part placement, part orientation, and STL model properties (number of mesh triangles, surface, and volume) are used to predict tensile modulus, nominal stress and elongation at break for polyamide 2200 (also known as PA12). EOS P395 polymer powder bed fusion system was used to fabricate 217 specimens in two identical builds (434 specimens in total). Prediction is performed for XYZ, XZY, ZYX, and Angle orientations separately, and all orientations together. The different non-linear models based on machine learning methods have higher prediction accuracy compared with linear regression models. Linear regression models have prediction accuracy higher than 80% only for Tensile Modulus and Elongation at break in Angle orientation. Since orientation-based modeling has low prediction accuracy due to a small number of data points and lack of information about material properties, these models need to be improved in the future based on additional experimental work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0224.v1
Subject: Keywords: Cobalt-chromium alloy; Additive manufacturing; Selective laser melting; Microstructure; Tensile properties; Heat-treatment
Online: 10 October 2018 (17:00:23 CEST)
The limitations of investment casting of cobalt-based alloys are claimed to be less problematic with significant improvements in metal additive manufacturing by selective laser melting (SLM). Despite these advantages, the metallic devices are likely to display mechanical anisotropy in relation to build orientations, which could consequently affect their performance ‘in vivo’. In addition, there are inconclusive evidence concerning the requisite composition and post-processing steps (e.g. heat-treatment to relieve stress) that must be completed prior to the devices being used. In the current paper, we evaluate the microstructure of ternary cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) and cobalt-chromium-tungsten (Co-Cr-W) alloys built with Direct Metal Printing and LaserCUSING SLM systems respectively at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° inclinations (Φ) in as-built (AB) and heat-treated (HT) conditions. The study also examines the tensile properties (Young's modulus, E; yield strength, RP0.2; elongation at failure, At and ultimate tensile strength, Rm), relative density (RD), and micro-hardness (HV5) and macro-hardness (HV20) as relevant physico-mechanical properties of the alloys. Data obtained indicate improved tensile properties and HV values after short and cost-effective heat-treatment cycle of Co-Cr-Mo alloy; however, the process did not homogenize the microstructure of the alloy. Annealing heat-treatment of Co-Cr-W led to significant isotropic characteristics with increased E and At (except for Φ = 90º) in contrast to decreased RP0.2, Rm and HV values, compared to the AB form. Similarly, the interlaced weld-bead structures in AB Co-Cr-W were removed during heat-treatment, which led to a complete recrystallization in the microstructure. Both alloys exhibited defect-free microstructures with RD exceeding 99.5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0189.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: micro/nano-structured alloy; mechanical properties; in-situ tensile; deformation mechanism; research progress
Online: 27 December 2017 (06:39:22 CET)
Metal and alloy toughening was the core and long-term research direction in materials filed. As grain size had bimodal distribution, micro/nano-structured alloys presented excellent comprehensive mechanical properties, and this had become one of the research hotspots and developing trends in the field of nanotechnology. In-situ tensile test was a direct and effective method to study the deformation mechanism of materials, which revealed the multiple mechanisms responding to feature grain sizes and provided reliable experimental means and research technique. Research on development of in-situ technique and its applications in mechanical properties was reviewed in this paper according to the recent advances on the modern mechanical properties for high strength and high plasticity alloy at home and abroad. The disadvantages of the present study of preparation methods and investigation techniques for high-performance alloy had been concluded. Finally, the development prospects of high strength and high plasticity alloy materials were analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0067.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Tensile Strength; Hardness; Microstructure; Grain Morphology; Epitaxial Grain Growth; Scan Strategy; Directional Dependencies
Online: 18 August 2017 (16:05:46 CEST)
The thorough description of the peculiarities of additively manufactured structures represents a current challenge for aspiring freeform fabrication methods, such as the selective laser melting (SLM). All of which have an immense advantage in the fast fabrication (no special tooling or moulds required), the geometrical flexibility in the design of components, and their efficiency when only low quantities are required. However, designs demand the precise knowledge of the material properties, which in case of additively manufactured structures are anisotropic and, under certain circumstances, in addition of an inhomogeneous nature. Furthermore, these characteristics are highly dependent on the fabrication settings. Within this study, the anisotropic tensile properties of selective laser melted stainless steel (1.4404, 316L) are investigated: The Young’s modulus ranged from 148 GPa to 227 GPa, the ultimate tensile strength from 512 MPa to 699 MPa and the breaking elongation ranged, respectively, from 12% to 43%. The results were compared to related studies, in order to classify the influence of the fabrication settings. Furthermore, the influence of the chosen raw material was addressed by comparing deviations on the directional dependencies reasoned by differing microstructural developments during manufacture. Stainless steel was found to possess its maximum strength at a 45° layer versus loading offset, which is precisely where AlSi10Mg was previously reported to be at its weakest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0304.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Banana stem fiber; tensile strength; morphology; crystalline properties; functional groups; light weight; environmentally friendly
Online: 17 August 2022 (05:48:26 CEST)
This study aims to investigate the effect of banana stem fibers (BSFs) treatment with liquid smoke on changes in the micro-mechanics properties of BSFs, the tensile strength of single fibers, mor-phology, crystalline properties, and functional groups. The research used four model specimen variations, namely fiber without treatment and immersion in liquid smoke for 1, 2, and 3 hours. The BSFs with treatment was dried in an oven with a temperature of 40ºC for 30 minutes. Several tests were conducted, including a tensile test of single fiber capacity of 50N standard ASTM 3379-02, SEM observation, XRD, and FTIR test. The results showed that the highest increase in fiber strength was P2J, which was 264.21 MPa, and the lowest was TP fiber at 148.54 MPa. Fibers treatment with liquid smoke can form strong C-C elemental bonds caused by the H2O degradation process in BSFs, hence carbon atoms (C) are dense, and in conditions of excessive H2O degradation, the fiber strength will become brittle and the liquid smoke can increase the tensile strength of the fiber. The morphology of the fiber changed where the untreated fiber was covered with lignin, while the treated fiber had an elongated rectangular line pattern, porous, and the lignin was eroded. Crystalline properties in the X-ray diffractogram pattern differ between untreated and treated fibers. At an angle of 2ϴ, the lowest diffraction peak is around 160 in untreated wool, and the highest is 230 in treated fiber. The functional group of the fiber has changed where there is a difference in the wave crest between untreated and treatment fiber. The longer immersion time, the element of Carbon (C) will increase. In conclusion, treating BSFs with liquid smoke can change the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties, hence becoming a choice of composite reinforcement material in the future which is lightweight and environmentally friendly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0076.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Limit analysis of domes; Concrete caps; experiment comparison; Not Tensile Resistant Materials; Finite element
Online: 3 August 2022 (07:20:00 CEST)
The calculation of the collapse load of spherical domes is addressed using a semi-analytical approach under the hypotheses of small displacements and perfect plasticity. The procedure is based on the numerical approximation of the self-stress that represents the projection of the balance equilibrium null space on a finite dimensional manifold. The so obtained self-equilibrated stress span is superimposed to a finite element linear elastic solution to the prescribed loads yielding to the statically admissible set accordingly to Melan’s theorem. The compatibility of the stress with the constitutive law of the material has been enforced using linearized limit domain in terms of generalized stress, namely axial force and bending moment along the local spherical curvilinear coordinates. The procedure has been tested with reference to numerical and experimental data from the literature confirming the accuracy of the proposed method. The comparison with the literature confirms that the buckling load is much greater than the plastic collapse loads both calculated through the proposed procedure and reported in the quoted literature.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: fracture behaviour; fibre reinforced concrete; high temperature; melting point; flexural tensile strength; polyolefin fibres
Online: 7 December 2020 (12:05:10 CET)
Concrete has become the most common construction material showing among other advantages good behaviour when subjected to high temperatures. Nevertheless, concrete is usually reinforced with elements of other materials such as steel in the form of rebars or fibres. Thus, the behaviour under high temperatures of these other materials can be critical for structural elements. In addition, concrete spalling occurs when concrete is subjected to high temperature due to internal pressures. Micro polypropylene fibres (PP) have shown to be effective for reducing such spalling although this type of fibres barely improve any of the mechanical properties of the element. Hence, a combination of PP with steel rebars or fibres can be effective for the structural design of elements exposed to high temperatures. New polyolefin fibres (PF) have become an alternative to steel fibres. PF meet the requirements of the standards to consider the contributions of the fibres in the structural design. However, there is a lack of evidence about the behaviour of PF and elements made of polyolefin fibre reinforced concrete (PFRC) subjected to high temperatures. Given that these polymer fibres would be melt above 250 °C, the behaviour in the intermediate temperatures was assessed in this study. Uni-axial tests on individual fibres and three-point bending tests of PFRC specimens were performed. The results have shown that the residual load-bearing capacity of the material is gradually lost up to 200 °C, though the PFRC showed structural performance up to 185°C.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0234.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: fiber reinforced concrete; direct tensile test; push-off test; polyolefin fiber; digital image correlation
Online: 19 June 2020 (04:24:48 CEST)
This work proposes a novel methodology for the complete characterization of fiber reinforced concrete (FRC). The method includes bending tests of prismatic notched specimens, based on the Standards for FRC, tensile and pure shear tests. The values adopted by the standards for designing FRC are the obtained from bending tests, typically fR3, even for shear and pure tension loading. This paper shows that the remaining strength of FRC, supplied by the fibers, depends on the type of loading. In the case of shear and tensile loading the prescriptions of the standards may be unsafe. In this work, the remaining halves of specimens subjected to bending test are prepared and used for shear and tension tests. This means significant savings in specimen preparation and a greater amount of information for structural use of FRC. The results provide relevant information for the design of structural elements of FRC compared with the only use of data supplied by bending tests. In addition, a video-extensometry system was used to analyze the crack generation and cracking patterns. The video-extensometry applied to shear tests allowed the assessment of the sliding values and crack opening values at the crack discontinuity. These values may be quite relevant for the study of the FRC behavior when subjected to shear according to the shear-friction model theories.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0028.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Fe-Mn-Si alloy; isothermal holding time; powder sintering; density; weight loss; tensile properties
Online: 9 February 2017 (07:06:14 CET)
This work investigated the isothermal holding time dependence of the densification, microstructure, weight loss and tensile properties of Fe-Mn-Si powder compacts. Elemental Fe, Mn and Si powder mixtures with a nominal composition of Fe-28Mn-3Si (in weight percent) were ball milled for 5h and subsequently pressed under a uniaxial pressure of 400 MPa. The compacted Fe-Mn-Si powder mixtures were sintered at 1200 ℃ for 0, 1, 2 and 3 h, respectively. In general, the density, weight loss and tensile properties increased with the increase of isothermal holding time. A significant increase in density, weight loss and tensile properties occurred in the compacts isothermally holding for 1 h, as compared to those with no isothermal holding. However, further extension of isothermal holding time (2 and 3 h) only played a limited role in promoting the density and tensile properties. The weight loss of the sintered compacts was mianly caused by the sublimation of Mn in Mn depletion region on the surface layer of the sintered Fe-Mn-Si compacts. The length of the Mn depletion region increased as isothermal holding time increased. A single α-Fe phase was detected on the surface of all the sintered compacts, and the locations beyond the Mn depletion region were comprised of a dual dominant γ-austenite and minor ε-martensite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0019.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: corrugated cardboard; edge crush test; orthotropic elasticity; digital image correlation, tensile stiffness, compressive stiffness, sandwich panel
Online: 1 September 2021 (14:20:05 CEST)
The standard edge crush test (ECT) allows to determine the crushing strength of the corrugated cardboard. Unfortunately, this test cannot be used to estimate the compressive stiffness, which is an equally important parameter. It is because, any attempt to determine this parameter using current lab equipment quickly ends in a fiasco. The biggest obstacle is obtaining a reliable measurement of displacements and strains in the corrugated cardboard sample. In this paper, we present a method that not only allows to reliably identify the stiffness in the loaded direction of orthotropy in the corrugated board sample, but also the full orthotropic material stiffness matrix. The proposed method uses two samples: (a) traditional, cut crosswise to the wave direction of the corrugated core, and (b) cut at an angle of 45 degrees. Additionally, in both cases, an optical system with digital image correlation (DIC) is used to measure the displacements and strains on the outer surface of samples. The use of a non-contact measuring system allows to avoid using the measurement of displacements from the crosshead, which is burdened with a large error. Apart from the new experimental configuration, the article also proposes a simple algorithm to quickly characterize all sought stiffness parameters. The obtained results are finally compared with the results obtained in the homogenization procedure of the cross-section of the corrugated board. The results were consistent in both cases.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: virus infection; mechanobiology; cytoskeleton; mechanosensors; shear stress; tensile or compressive forces; topography; organ-on-a-chip
Online: 14 May 2021 (14:48:03 CEST)
Pandemics caused by viruses have threatened lives of thousands of people. Viral infection is a complex and diverse process, and substantial studies have been complemented in understanding the biochemical and molecular interactions between viruses and hosts. However, the physical microenvironment where infections implement is often less carefully considered, and the role of mechanobiology in viral infection remains elusive. Mechanobiology focuses on sensation, transduction and response to intracellular and extracellular physical factors by tissues, cells and extracellular matrix. The intracellular cytoskeleton and mechanosensors have been proved to be extensively involved in virus life cycle. Furthermore, innovative methods in vivo and in vitro are being utilized to elucidate how extracellular factors including stiffness, forces and topography in regulating viral infection. Our current review covers how physical factors from different sources coordinate virus infection. We further discuss how this knowledge can be harnessed in future research on cross-fields of mechanobiology and virology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0158.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; 3D printing; fused filament fabrication; Young's module; tensile strength; Timberfill; PLA; wood-PLA composite
Online: 16 January 2020 (07:38:26 CET)
The present study evaluates the manufacturing parameters effects on the tensile properties of material composed by polylactic acid (PLA) with wood fibers known as Timberfill. The specimens were built through fused filament fabrication (FFF). The influence of four printing parameters (Layer height, Fill density, Printing velocity, and Orientation) are considered through a L27 Taguchi orthogonal array in order to reduce experimental runs. Tensile test is applied to obtain the response variable used as output results to perform the ANOVA calculations. Fill density is the most influential parameter on the tensile strength, followed by building orientation and layer height, whereas the printing velocity shows no significant influence. The optimal set of parameters and levels is found, being 75% fill density, 0○Z-axis orientation, 0.4 mm layer height, and 40 mm/s velocity as the best combination. Applying this combination showed 9.37 MPa in maximum tension. Lastly, five solid Timberfill specimens manufactured via injection molding technology were also tested and the results compared to the printed samples. The values of the elastic modulus, elastic limit, and maximum tension of the injected samples were almost twofold of those were obtained for the FFF samples, but the maximum elongation of injected specimens was fell sharply.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0185.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: MEMS S&A device; threshold-value judging mechanism; fabrication process; tensile test; theoretical, simulationand experimentalanalysis; parametric design method
Online: 24 March 2017 (10:12:13 CET)
In order to meet the military requirements of the fuze, such as precision strike, efficient mutilates ability and low collateral damages, the microminiaturization is an inevitable trend of secure system. Based on the silicon-based MEMS S&A device designed by our term, the design principles of each module and fabrication process are introduced. The average fracture strength and Young's modulus of the silicon are 726 MPa and 175 GPa from the tensile test, respectively. From Hopkinson impact experiment, we can get the threshold-value judging mechanism being safety under the impact overload of 20526 g, and this value is much more than the standard of the drop overload 12000g; the arming value under the centrifugal overload obtained from theory, simulation and experiment is at the range of 28200 g and 32000 g, it shows that the threshold-value judging mechanism can be arming compared with the value 35951g of design principle. Therefore, the threshold-value judging mechanism can meet the design requirements of overload. Furthermore, the relationship of fracture threshold-values obtained by different theories is found out through parametric design method, as shown in Figure 14, it provides the theory evidence to the follow parametric design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0425.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: road pavement design; design based on materials science; material mineralogy; New-age (Nano) Modified Emulsions (NME); naturally available materials; material stabilisation; basic engineering requirements; Unconfined Compressive Strengths (UCS); Indirect Tensile Strengths (ITS); Retained Compressive Strengths (RCT) and; Retained Tensile Strengths (RTS)
Online: 23 August 2021 (10:38:52 CEST)
The use of naturally available materials not conforming to traditional specifications or standards, in the base and sub-base layers of road pavement structures, stabilised with New-age (Nano) Modified Emulsions (NME), have been tested, implemented and successfully verified through Accelerated Pavement Testing (APT) in South Africa. This was made possible through the development and use of a design procedure addressing fundamental principles and based on scientific concepts, which are universally applicable. The understanding of and incorporation of the chemical interaction between the mineralogy of the materials and a NME stabilising agent (compatibility between the chemistry of the reactive agents and material mineralogy) into the design approach is key to achieving the required engineering properties. Stabilised materials evaluation is done using tests indicative of the basic engineering properties (physics) of compressive strengths, tensile strengths and durability. This article describes the basic materials design approach developed to ensure that organofunctional nano-silane modified emulsions can successfully be used for pavement layer construction utilising naturally available materials, at a low risk. The enablement of the use of naturally available materials in all pavement layers can have a considerable impact on the unit cost and life-cycle costs of road transportation infrastructure. TRANSLATE with x English ArabicHebrewPolish BulgarianHindiPortuguese CatalanHmong DawRomanian Chinese SimplifiedHungarianRussian Chinese TraditionalIndonesianSlovak CzechItalianSlovenian DanishJapaneseSpanish DutchKlingonSwedish EnglishKoreanThai EstonianLatvianTurkish FinnishLithuanianUkrainian FrenchMalayUrdu GermanMalteseVietnamese GreekNorwegianWelsh Haitian CreolePersian TRANSLATE with COPY THE URL BELOW Back EMBED THE SNIPPET BELOW IN YOUR SITE Enable collaborative features and customize widget: Bing Webmaster Portal Back
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0261.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: composite; waste plastic; distributed recycling; LDPE; low density polyethylene; plastic sand composites; tensile strength; compressive strength; West Africa; economic development
Online: 19 September 2022 (05:27:25 CEST)
In many developing countries, plastic waste management is left to citizens. This usually results in hazardous landfilling or open-air burning, leading to emissions that are harmful to human health and the environment. An easy, profitable, and clean method of processing and transforming the waste into value is required. In this context, this study provides an open-source methodology to transform low-density polyethylene drinking water sachets, into pavement blocks by using a streamlined do-it-yourself approach that requires only modest capital. Two different materials, sand, and ashes are evaluated as additives in plastic composites and the mechanical strength of the resulting blocks are tested for different proportion mix of plastic, sand, and ash. The best composite had an elastic modulus of 169MPa, a compressive strength of 29MPa, and a water absorptivity of 2.2%. The composite pavers can be sold at 100% profit while employing workers at 1.5X the minimum wage. In the West African region, this technology has the potential to produce 19 million pavement tiles from 28,000 tons of plastic water sachets annually in Ghana, Nigeria, and Liberia. This can contribute to waste management in the region while generating a gross revenue of 2.85 billion XOF (4.33 million USD).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0613.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: 12Mn steel; round billet; thermal mechanical simulation; CCT curve; diatometer method; JmatPro; tensile strength; the reduction of area; stress-strain curve; Thermal-cal software
Online: 25 March 2021 (11:44:06 CET)
The dilatometer curves of continuous cooling transformation of 12Mn steel were measured with Formastor-FⅡthermal mechanical simulator．The steel's undercooled austenite phase continuous cooling transformation curves ( CCT curves) were established by means of the dilatometer method and the metallographic-hardness measurement method． The effect of cooling rate on microstructure and hardness of the steel was studied． CCT curve of test steel was simulated by JMatPro. The results show that the Ac1 and Ac3 of the experimental steel are 692 ℃ and 855 ℃ ; the microstructure obtained is made of ferrite，pearlite and bainite．The ferrite transformation and pearlite transformation occur at a slower cooling rate，in which the ferrite is dominant. When the cooling rate is greater than 4.25 ℃ / s bainite transformation happens．As the cooling rate increases，microstructure or grains become finer．The hardness of the tested steel with increasing cooling rate shows a trend of first fast increase and soon decrease．The simulation results are consistent with the measured CCT law. The high temperature mechanical properties of 12mn steel round billet were tested by gleeble-1500d thermal / mechanical simulator. The tensile strength, reduction of area and stress-strain curves of the billet were obtained in the range of 600-1300 ℃.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0276.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: composite materials; carbonized elastomeric matrices; C/SiC fillers; μ-DENT; in situ tensile test; Deben Microtest; Tescan Vega 3; NanoScan-4D; Digital Image Correlation (DIC).
Online: 11 December 2020 (11:31:29 CET)
The carbonized elastomer-based composites (CECs) possess a number of attractive features in terms of thermomechanical and electromechanical performance, durability in aggressive media and facile net-shape formability, but their relatively low ductility and strength limit their suitability for structural engineering applications. Prospective applications such as structural elements of MEMS can be envisaged, since smaller principal dimensions reduce the susceptibility of components to residual stress accumulation during carbonization, and to brittle fracture in general. We report the results of operando in-SEM study of micro-deformation and fracture behavior of CECs based on NBR elastomeric matrices filled with carbon and silicon carbide. Nanostructured carbon composite materials were manufactured via compounding of elastomeric substance with carbon and SiC fillers using mixing rolling mill, vulcanization, and low-temperature carbonization. Double Edge Notched Tensile (DENT) specimens of vulcanized and carbonized elastomeric composites were subjected to in situ tensile testing in the chamber of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) Tescan Vega 3 using Deben Microtest 1 kN Tensile Stage. The series of acquired SEM images were analyzed by means of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) using Ncorr open source software to map the spatial distribution of strain. These maps were correlated with Finite Element Modelling (FEM) simulations to refine the values of elastic moduli. Besides, the elastic moduli were derived from unloading curve nanoindentation hardness measurements carried out using NanoScan-4D tester and interpreted using the Oliver-Pharr method. Carbonization causes significant increase of elastic moduli from 0.86 ± 0.07 to 14.12 ± 1.20 GPa for the composite with graphite and carbon black fillers. Nanoindentation measurements yield somewhat lower values, namely, 0.25 ± 0.02 GPa and 9.83 ± 1.10 GPa before and after carbonization respectively. The analysis of fractography images suggests that crack initiation, growth and propagation may occur both at the notch stress concentrator and relatively far from the notch. Possible causes of such response are discussed, namely, (1) residual stresses introduced by processing; (2) shape and size of fillers; and (3) the emanation and accumulation of gases in composites during carbonization.