ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0147.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: deficit schizophrenia, positive symptoms, negative symptoms, inflammation, neuro-immune
Online: 10 July 2019 (11:02:41 CEST)
Schizophrenia comprises various symptom domains, including positive and negative symptoms. Machine learning showed that a) negative symptoms are significantly interrelated with PHEM (psychosis, hostility, excitation, and mannerism) symptoms, formal thought disorders (FTD) and psychomotor retardation (PMR); and b) stable phase schizophrenia comprises two distinct classes, namely Major Neuro-Cognitive Psychosis (MNP, largely overlapping with deficit schizophrenia) and Simple NP (SNP). In this study, we recruited 120 MNP patients and 54 healthy subjects and measured the above-mentioned symptom domains. In MNP, there were significant associations between negative and PHEM symptoms, FTD and PMR. A single latent trait, which is essentially unidimensional, underlies these key domains of schizophrenia and MNP and additionally shows excellent internal consistency reliability, convergent validity, and predictive relevance. Confirmatory Tedrad Analysis indicates that this latent vector fits a reflective model. The lack of discriminant validity shows that PHEM and negative symptoms greatly overlap and probably measure the same construct. Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) shows that MNP (diagnosis based on negative symptoms) is better modeled using PHEM symptoms, FTD, and PMR than negative symptoms. In conclusion, in stable phase MNP, a restricted sample of the schizophrenia population, negative and PHEM symptoms, FTD and PMR belong to one underlying latent vector reflecting overall severity of schizophrenia (OSOS). The bi-dimensional concept of “positive” and “negative” symptoms cannot be validated and, therefore, future research in stable phase schizophrenia should consider that the latent phenomenon OSOS as well as its 8 reflective manifestations are the key factors of schizophrenia phenomenology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0107.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: dementia, behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, neuropsychiatric symptoms, aromatherapy, bergamot essential oil.
Online: 12 June 2019 (15:33:17 CEST)
Ageing of the world population makes of dementia a challenge for health systems worldwide. The cognitive disturbance is a serious but not the only issue in dementia; behavioural and psychological syndromes known as neuropsychiatric or behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia remarkably reduce the quality of life of patients. Rising evidence is unraveling the pathophysiology of these symptoms in which all the neurotransmitter systems in the Central Nervous System (CNS) are implicated, with a pivotal role of alterations of the glutamatergic neurotransmission. Pharmacological agents for the treatment of these disorders endowed with efficacy and safety are not available yet; aromatherapy provides the best evidence in the control of agitation, the most resistant symptom. Basic research effort demonstrates that the essential oil of bergamot induces anxyolitic-like effects, devoid of sedation, typical of benzodiazepines, with noteworthy advantage for demented patients. People suffering from dementia often cannot verbalize pain, thus resulting unrelieved and contributing to agitation. Bergamot essential oil provides extensive evidence of analgesic properties independent from the route of administration. Among other mechanisms, modulation of autophagy, a process involved in neuropathic pain, seems to be implicated in the analgesic activity of bergamot essential oil. These data, together with the reported safety profile form the rational basis for bergamot as a neurotherapeutic to be trialed for the control of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0116.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: suicide; network analysis; symptoms; personalized treatment
Online: 13 February 2017 (11:04:49 CET)
Although suicide is a major public health issue worldwide, we understand little of the onset and development of suicidal behavior. Suicidal behavior is argued to be the end result of the complex interaction between psychological, social and biological factors. Epidemiological studies resulted in a range of risk factors for suicidal behavior, but we do not yet understand how their interaction increases the risk for suicidal behavior. A new approach called network analysis can help us better understand this process as it allows to visualize and quantify complex association between many different symptoms or risk factors. A network analysis of data contain information on suicidal patients can help us understand how risk factors interact and how their interaction is related to suicidal thoughts and behaviour. A network perspective has been successfully applied to the field of depression and psychosis, but not yet to the field of suicidology. In this theoretical article, I will introduce the concept of network analysis to the field of suicide prevention, and offer directions for future applications and studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0445.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: urinary tract; pseudotumor; diagnosis; symptoms; histology
Online: 18 December 2020 (07:32:45 CET)
A broad spectrum of lesions, including hyperplastic, metaplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and reactive, may mimic cancer all along the urinary tract. This narrative collects most of them from a clinical and pathologic perspective offering urologists and general pathologists their most salient definitory features. Together with classical, well-known, entities such as urothelial papillomas (conventional and inverted), nephrogenic adenoma, polypoid cystitis, fibroepithelial polyp, prostatic-type polyp, verumontanum cyst, xanthogranulomatous inflammation, reactive changes secondary to BCG instillations, schistosomiasis, keratinizing desquamative squamous metaplasia, post-radiation changes, vaginal-type metaplasia, endocervicosis/endometriosis (müllerianosis), malakoplakia, florid von Brunn nest proliferation, cystitis/ureteritis cystica and glandularis, among others, still other cellular proliferations with concerning histological features and poorly understood etiopathogenesis like IgG4-related disease, PEComa, and pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferations (post-operative spindle cell nodule, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor), are reviewed. Some of these diagnoses are problematic for urologists, other for pathologists, and still others for both. Interestingly, the right identification of their definitory features will allow their correct diagnoses thus avoiding overtreatment. The literature selected for this review also focuses on the immunohistochemical and/or molecular data useful to delineate prognosis.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0255.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; Mental Health; Psychological Symptoms
Online: 15 May 2020 (15:17:21 CEST)
This work presents a compilation of data obtained by clinical psychologists during the Covid-19 pandemic in Brazil. Through searches on social media with #Covid19 and #MentalHealth and the exchange of information on networks of professionals, it was possible to compile and group the main psychological symptoms presented during isolation. Information was clustered according to the period it appeared, in order to guide future situations. Moreover, to prepare a group of clinical psychologists to provide online assistance.
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: COVID-19; severe symptoms; inactivation; genetic diversity
Online: 16 April 2020 (09:15:49 CEST)
The rapid spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a serious threat to public health systems globally and is subsequently, a cause of anxiety and panic within human society. Understanding the mechanisms and reducing the chances of having severe symptoms from COVID-19 will play an essential role in treating the disease, and become an urgent task to calm the panic. However, the COVID-19 test developed to identify virus carriers is unable to predict symptom development in individuals upon infection. Experiences from other plagues in human history and COVID-19 statistics suggest that genetic factors may determine the compliance with the virus, i.e., severe, mild, and asymptomatic. Here, a hypothesis is put forward based on the epidemiological characteristics and traits of COVID-19, and our gene expression analysis. It proposes that COVID-19 inactivation in the blood by blocking virus entry into other internal organs for reproduction through the blood circulation after lung cell invasion prevents severe symptoms. Additionally, we investigated a genetic connection between candidate genes and severe COVID-19 symptoms through the utilization of strategies combining hypothesis and data-driven approaches. A list of genes and important SNPs that require further investigation to aid the screening of individuals who may suffer severe illness if exposed to the virus is present. Those individuals should be intensively safeguarded and prioritised for treatment. Concurrently to further research on the COVID-19 pathogenesis, our results also offer a new research strategy for pandemic prevention and health maintenance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: mast cells; mastocytosis; mediator-related symptoms; anaphylaxis; children
Online: 1 February 2021 (11:36:31 CET)
Mastocytosis is characterized by pathological accumulation of mast cells (MC) in various organs. In these patients, MC may degranulate and thereby contribute to clinical symptoms, especially when a concomitant allergy is present. However, MC activation can not only be induced by high-affinity receptors for IgE, but also by anaphylatoxins, neuropeptides, IgG immune complexes, complement-components, drugs, products of bacteria or parasites, as well as physical factors such as heat, cold, vibration, stress, sun, or physical effort. Symptoms due to mediators released by activated MC may develop in adults suffering from systemic mastocytosis, but also evolve in children who usually have cutaneous mastocytosis (CM). Clinically, CM is otherwise characterized by typical brown, maculopapular skin lesions or mastocytoma associated with a positive Darier’s sign. Pruritus and flushing are common and blistering may also be recorded, especially in diffuse CM (DCM). Pediatric patients with mastocytosis may also have gastrointestinal, respiratory, and neurologic complaints. Although anaphylaxis is not a typical finding, pediatric patients with massive skin involvement and high tryptase levels have a relatively high risk to develop anaphylaxis. This paper reviews MC mediator-related symptoms and anaphylaxis in children with mastocytosis, with special emphasis on risk factors, triggers, and management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: respiratory symptoms; PM exposure; residential location; Namibia; Windhoek
Online: 10 October 2016 (09:59:29 CEST)
The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and to assess respiratory health risks associated with Particulate Matter (PM) exposure among the residents of Windhoek, Namibia. Objectives: To measure particulate pollution concentration in Windhoek through monitoring of particulate matter concentration and to identify any associations between particulate pollution, individual location and respiratory health among the Windhoek resident’s. Methods: an adapted standardized self-administered questionnaire was used to collect respiratory health related data as well as previous exposure, while PM monitoring was done using ASTM D1739 reference method. Results: A high prevalence was observed for cough (43%), breathlessness (25%), and Asthma (11.2%). PM was found to be a significant risk factor for episode of cough and phlegm, while high PM exposure category had increased odds ratio for episode of phlegm and cough (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 0.8-8.0). No association was observed between location and respiratory health outcomes. Conclusion: The study found high levels of PM concentration across all Windhoek suburbs which were above the German, American and EPA. Enactment of legislation relating to the control and monitoring of PM related emissions at point of generation is required at country and city level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0261.v3
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Arachnid; Scorpion; Spider; Pet; Bite; Sting; Envenomation; Pain; Symptoms
Online: 1 December 2020 (10:32:10 CET)
With a global estimate of tens of thousands of arachnid enthusiasts, spiders and scorpions are gaining increasing popularity as pets in industrialised countries in Europe, Northern America and Asia. As most spiders and all scorpions are venomous and due to their mostly negative image in the public media, several governments are already considering introducing legislation to regulate the domestic care of potentially dangerous captive animals. We aimed to investigate the circumstances and effects of exposure to arachnids kept in captivity. Thus, we collected and analysed data from 354 self-reported bites and stings attributed to pet arachnids. Our data revealed that on average there were less than 20 recorded envenomations per year with ~90% preventable by due care. We also categorized the severity of the resulting symptoms and found that the vast majority of symptoms were either local (60.7%) or minor (32.8%), 5.4% were asymptomatic, only 1.1% were severe and no fatalities were recorded. Based on our database of bite and sting reports, we performed a risk assessment for arachnid pet ownership and concluded that, with the proper care, arachnids can be safely kept as pets and pose a lower risk than many other recreational activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0006.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Covid-19; School Closure; Elementary School; Emotional Symptoms; Japan
Online: 2 June 2020 (14:58:33 CEST)
In Japan, schools were suddenly closed all over the country with one month left at the end of the school year to prevent the spread of new coronavirus infections. Although previous studies have shown that quarantine and isolation have a negative impact on mental health, the impact of school closure on children's mental health is not clear. This study examined mental health indicators, such as emotional symptoms, in addition to behavior during school closure and anxiety after school resumes, among children in three primary schools for which survey data existed in December before school closure. No cases of infection have been confirmed in the area where the school was located at the time of the survey. As a result, anxiety about whether they would be able to return to their normal routine after school resumed was associated with mental health. In addition, there was a worsening of emotional symptoms in those who were in medium group of school adjustment as of December.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0375.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: pesticides; spirometry; respiratory symptoms; cholinesterase; rural workers; family farmers
Online: 29 April 2018 (10:25:38 CEST)
Pesticide exposure is a growing concern for public health. Although Brazil is the world's largest consumer of pesticides, few studies addressed the health effects among farmers. This study aimed to evaluate whether pesticide exposure is associated with respiratory outcomes among rural workers and relatives in Brazil during the crop and off-seasons. 82 family farmers were interviewed about occupational history and respiratory symptoms, and cholinesterase tests were conducted in the crop-season. Spirometry was performed during the crop and off-season. Respiratory outcomes were compared between seasons and multiple regressions were conducted to search for associations with exposure indicators. Participants were occupationally and environmentally exposed to multiple pesticides from an early age. During the crop and off-season, respectively, they presented a prevalence of 40% and 30.7% for cough, 30.7% and 24% for nasal allergies, and 24% and 17.3% for chest tightness. Significant relations between spirometry impairments and exposure indicators were found both during the crop and off-season. These findings provide complementary evidence about the association of pesticide exposure with adverse respiratory effects among family farmers in Brazil. This situation requires special attention as it may increase the risk of pulmonary dysfunctions, and the morbidity and mortality burden associated with these diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0075.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: living alone; depressive symptoms; widows; socioeconomic status; social ties
Online: 18 September 2017 (09:02:55 CEST)
We examined the relationship between living alone and the prevalence of depressive symptoms in older Korean widows and assessed the individual contributions of health, social ties, and socioeconomic factors to the development of depressive symptoms. The study was a secondary analysis using data from widows 65 years of age and older who participated in the Living Profiles of Older People Survey (LPOPS). A logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the contributions of health, social ties, and socioeconomic factors to the development of depressive symptoms. Working status and equivalent household income were significantly associated with depressive symptoms in both those living with others and those living alone. Adjustment for health status and social ties did not change the impact of living alone on the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, adjustment for equivalent household income eliminated the negative association between living alone and depressive symptoms. Our findings indicate that economic resources are more important than health and social ties for alleviating the negative impact of living alone on the development of depressive symptoms in older widows.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0011.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: long covid; symptom cluster; persistent symptoms; long-term; Mexico; survey
Online: 1 June 2021 (09:44:47 CEST)
Recently, several reports have emerged describing the long-term consequences of COVID-19 that may affect multiple systems, suggesting its chronicity. As further research is needed, we conducted a longitudinal observational study to report the prevalence and associated risk factors of long-term health consequences of COVID-19 by symptom clusters in patients discharged from the Temporary COVID-19 Hospital (TCH) in Mexico City. Self-reported clinical symptom data were collected via telephone calls over 90 days post-discharge. Among 4670 patients discharged from the TCH, we identified 45 symptoms across eight symptom clusters (neurological; mood disorders; systemic; respiratory; musculoskeletal; ear, nose, and throat; dermatological; and gastrointestinal). We observed that the neurological, dermatological, and mood disorder symptom clusters persisted in >30% of patients at 90 days post-discharge. Although most symptoms decreased in frequency between day 30 and 90, alopecia and the dermatological symptom cluster significantly increased (p<0·00001). Women were more prone than men to develop long-term symptoms and invasive mechanical ventilation also increased the frequency of symptoms at 30-days post-discharge. Overall, we observed that symptoms often persisted regardless of disease severity. We hope these findings will help promote public health strategies that ensure equity in the access to solutions focused on the long-term consequences of COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0548.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Huanglongbing, Candidatus Liberibacter, Asian citrus psyllid, blotchy mottle, visual symptoms
Online: 24 February 2021 (11:45:39 CET)
Citrus Greening, which is mainly caused by bacteria, is one of the severe citrus diseases affecting all citrus cultivars and causing the deliberate abolition of trees worldwide. This infectious disease cannot be spread by wind, rain, or contact by contaminated personnel. The primary vector that spreads this disease through feeding citrus leaves is the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), a minuscule insect. The management of citrus greening is also very costly as there is no fruitful technique is developed to cure this disease except removing all infected plants from good ones to eliminate the dissemination of the pathogen. Citrus greening identification is also the most difficult job, as the symptoms are similar to other citrus diseases and nutrient deficiency. Asymmetrical blotchy mottling patterns on leaves are the main symptoms to detect this disease. Here we have discussed some visual signs of citrus greening, which will ultimately help root level farmers to identify and prevent this disease before it drastically impacts citrus plants. Whether it is affected by citrus greening or lack of nutrients, we have also discussed the pen test method of determining the symptoms as symmetrical or asymmetrical across the mid-vein.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0706.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: fecal incontinence; unconscious elderly; irritable bowel syndrome; gastrointestinal symptoms; constipation; diarrhea
Online: 28 December 2020 (13:24:54 CET)
The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is functional gastrointestinal tract disease, include abnormal defecation and abdominal pain. The Rome IV criteria define fecal incontinence as "recurrent and uncontrolled stool leakage that lasts more than 3 months." Fecal incontinence is common in patients with IBS and can have a significant negative impact on daily life and reduce the patient's quality of life. Diet and lifestyle guidance are needed to prevent fecal incontinence. Fecal incontinence can be reduced by ingesting dietary fiber, which can improve stool properties, and avoiding foods with stool-softening properties. Additionally, defecation habit guidance is important for preventing fecal incontinence. If rectal sensation is normal, it is recommended to go to the bathroom as soon as there is a desire to defecate. In elderly people, if there is stool in the rectum due to decreased rectal sensation and it continues to accumulate in the rectum without triggering the urge to defecate, overflowing leaky fecal incontinence may occur. For such patients, defecation habit training teaching them to defecate even if they do not have the desire to defecate may be effective. Education and advice on defecation reduces fecal incontinence and is beneficial to caregivers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0368.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: fruit; vegetables; depressive symptoms; depression; young people; young adult; nutrition; diet
Online: 15 December 2020 (10:18:23 CET)
Higher consumption of fruit and vegetables has been associated with a lower risk of various chronic diseases including coronary heart disease, obesity, and certain cancers. Recently, fruit and vegetable intake has also been linked with mental health, including depression. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable intake and depressive symptoms in young people and adults aged 15-45. The systematic review focused on peer-reviewed cohort studies published from 1 January 2000 to 31 August 2020 using searches of six electronic databases. The exposure was fruit and vegetable consumption analysed both separately and/or together, and the outcome was depression or depressive symptoms. Data from eligible studies were extracted according to predefined criteria and the studies were appraised using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for Cohort Studies to evaluate for study quality and risk of bias. To evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and depressive symptoms, a narrative synthesis was conducted. Of 9667 potentially relevant studies that were screened for title and abstracts, 144 full text studies were evaluated, and 12 studies from seven countries were deemed eligible and included in the qualitative synthesis. Using the NOS framework one study was categorised as ‘very good’ quality, ten studies were ‘good’ quality, and two studies were ‘moderate’ quality. With respect to combined fruit and vegetable consumption, two studies demonstrated an inverse association with depression. When the effects of fruit and vegetable on depression were analysed separately, five studies showed significant associations in fruit consumption, and two studies showed significant associations in vegetable consumption. Four studies showed no association between combined fruit and vegetable consumption and depression, one study showed no association between fruit consumption and depression, and two studies showed no association between vegetable consumption and depression. Despite some contradictory results in the studies included in this review, the evidence seems to be building that a possible association exists, and this may have implications for addressing the burden of mental illness in young people and adults aged 15-45 years. Well-designed prospective cohort studies are needed to provide more robust evidence on the diet-depression relationship.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0215.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: endocanabinoid system; sleep deprivation; animal models; psychosis-like symptoms; drug development
Online: 14 April 2020 (06:28:23 CEST)
The interaction between endocannabinoid (eCB) system with in key brain structures such as hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex and sleep deprivation (SD)-induced psychosis has been less studied. The present hypothesis revolves around the question whether altered chemical dynamics within the eCB system with the resultant impact on cannabinoid receptors in key cortical hubs would impact SD-induced psychosis-like symptoms. Having this investigated research is expected to pave the path towards identifying newer drug targets namely for schizophrenia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0293.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Keywords: palliative care, child, brain, neoplasm, neuropathic pain, pain, symptoms, hospice
Online: 16 August 2018 (15:14:46 CEST)
Children with central nervous system (CNS) malignancies often suffer from high symptom burden and risk of death. Pediatric palliative care is a medical specialty, provided by an interdisciplinary team, which focuses on enhancing quality of life and minimizing suffering for children with life-threatening or life-limiting disease, and their families. Primary palliative care skills which include basic symptom management, facilitation of goals-of-care discussions, and transition to hospice can and should be developed by all providers of neuro-oncology care. This chapter will review the fundamentals of providing primary palliative care
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0389.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; physical activity; sedentary way; non-motor symptoms; apathy; dopaminergic therapy
Online: 7 May 2020 (13:05:08 CEST)
Physical activity (PA) is a factor that may have an influence on the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The aim of this study was to identify the potential determinants of spontaneous PA in the PD patient group. 134 PD patients aged 65.2±9.2 years, Hoehn-Yahr scale ≤ 4, Mini Mental State Examinaton (MMSE) ≥ 24 were examined. For the study purposes, the authors analyzed: age, sex, education, history of PD, dopaminergic treatment, the severity of PD symptoms using Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Hoehn-Yahr scale. Additionally all participants were evaluated through a set of scales for specific neuropsychiatric symptoms including: depression, anxiety, apathy, fatigue and sleep disorders. An analysis of linear regression was used with backward elimination. In the total explanatory model, 12% of the variability in activity (R2=0.125; F(16.133)=2.185; p<0.01), the significant predictor was starting therapy with the dopamine agonist (DA) (β= 0.420; t= 4.068; p=0.000), which was associated with a longer duration of moderate PA. In the total explanatory model, for more than 13% of the variance in time spent sitting (R2=0.135; F(16.130)=2.267; p<0.01), the significant predictors were secondary education and the results of the UPDRS. The patients with secondary and vocational education, those starting treatment with DA and those with a less severe degree of Parkinson’s symptoms (UPDRS) spent less time sitting in a day. It is possible to identify determinants of spontaneous PA. It may elucidate consequences in terms of influence on modifiable conditions of PA and the proper approach to patients with unmodifiable PA factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0376.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; long-COVID; sequalae; symptoms; Latin America; high altitude
Online: 22 August 2022 (06:04:53 CEST)
Background: Some patients who have recovered from COVID-19 have experienced a range of persistent symptoms or the appearance of new ones after a SARS-CoV-2 infection. These symptoms can last from weeks to months, impacting everyday functioning to a significant number of patients. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis based on an online, self-reporting questionnaire was conducted in Ecuador from April to July 2022. Participants were invited by social media, radio, and TV to voluntarily participate in our study. A total of 2103 surveys were included in this study. We compared socio-demographic variables and long-term persisting symptoms at low (< 2,500 m) and high altitude (>2,500 m).Results: Overall, 1100 (52.3%) responders claimed to have long-term symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Most of these symptoms were reported by women (64.0%), the most affected group was young adults (68.5%), and the majority of long-haulers were mestizos (91.6%). We found that high altitude residents were more likely to report persisting symptoms (71.7%) versus those living at lower altitudes (29.3%). The most common symptoms were fatigue or tiredness (8.4%), hair loss (5.1%) and difficulty concentrating (5.0%). The highest proportion of persisting symptoms was observed among those who received an incomplete vaccine scheme.Conclusions: This is the first study describing post-COVID symptoms' persistence in low and high-altitude residents. Our findings demonstrate that women, especially those aging between 20-40, are more likely to describe sequalae associated with post-COVID. We also found that living at a high altitude was associated with earlier onset and longer symptom duration. Finally, we found a greater risk to report long lasting symptoms among women, those with previous comorbidities and those who had a severer acute SARS-CoV-2 infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0350.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Lyme borreliosis; post-Lyme disease syndrome; medically unexplained symptoms; social sciences; medical uncertainty
Online: 25 May 2022 (10:15:19 CEST)
Media coverage of Lyme disease (LD) has led to an increase in consultations for presumed LD in Europe. However, LD is confirmed in only 10-20% of patients, with a significant number remaining in a diagnostic dead-end. The objective of our study was to understand the genesis of the LD hypothesis in care pathways. In 2019, 30 patients from a prospective cohort consulting in the infectious diseases department at University Hospital in Marseille for presumed LD were recruited for semi-structured interviews. The inclusion criteria were: suffering from subjective symptoms for 6 months, no clinical or paraclinical argument suggesting current LD. The patients’ medical trajectories were collected using a biographical approach. A majority of participants were convinced they had LD despite the lack of medical evidence and the scepticism of their referring GP. The diagnosis of Lyme disease was primarily triggered by identification with clinical stories circulating in the media. Most of participants had conducted the diagnostic investigation themselves. Diagnostic wandering in the diagnostic process suggests a failure of modern medicine to propose solutions for medically unexplained symptoms. Clinicians should systematically explore patients’ etiologic representations in a patient-centred care approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0324.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Cohort studies; Epidemiology; Gray matter; Neuroimaging; Paediatrics; Psychiatric symptoms; QDECR; Vertex-wise analysis.
Online: 14 May 2021 (11:31:23 CEST)
Physical symptoms are defined as symptoms for which adequate examination does not reveal a sufficient underlying root cause, e.g., pain and fatigue. The extant literature of the neurobiological underpinnings of physical symptoms has been largely inconsistent and primarily consists of (clinical) case-control studies with relatively small samples sizes. Therefore, we studied the association of brain morphology with physical symptoms in pre-adolescents from two independent and population-based cohorts. This study included 2,683 individuals from the Generation R Study (51% girls, 10.1 ± 0.6 years old) and 10,567 pre-adolescents from the ABCD Study (48% girls, 9.9 ± 0.6 years old). High- resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was collected using 3-Tesla MRI systems. Physical symptoms were evaluated using the somatic complaints syndrome scale from the parent-reported school-age version of the Child Behavior Checklist. Linear regression models were fitted for global brain metrics (i.e., cortical and subcortical grey matter volume and total white matter volume) as well as surface-based vertex-wise measures (surface area and cortical thickness). Analyses were initially conducted separately in each cohort and later meta-analysed. No associations were observed in either cohort separately. In the combined vertex-wise meta-analysis of both cohorts; the right hemisphere surface area, most notably the rostral middle frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex, were related to physical symptoms after correcting for multiple comparisons (cluster area = 1,882 mm2). The present study, which is the most representative and well-powered to date, suggests that surface area, but not other measures of brain morphology, are modestly related to physical symptoms in pre- adolescents. While these effects are subtle, future longitudinal research is warranted to elucidate whether such associations indicate a cause or a consequence of the physical symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cancer; COVID-19; symptoms; healthcare workers; anosmia; dysgeusia; ageusia; France; serological test; RT-PCR
Online: 10 March 2021 (16:17:48 CET)
Background: Cancer patients may fail to distinguish COVID-19 symptoms such as anosmia, dysgeusia/ageusia, anorexia, headache, and fatigue, which are frequent after cancer treatments. We aimed to identify symptoms associated with COVID-19 and to assess the strength of their association in cancer and cancer-free populations. Methods: The prospective multicenter cohort study PAPESCO-19 included 878 cancer patients and 940 healthcare workers (HCWs) systematically tested for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. Participants reported the results of routine screening RT-PCR and thirteen COVID-19 symptoms. Backward logistic regression identified the symptom combinations significantly associated with COVID-19. Results: COVID+ proportions were similar in patients (8%) and HCWs (9.5%, p=0.26), whereas symptomatic proportions were lower in patients (32%) than HCWs (52%, p<0.001). Anosmia, anorexia, fever, headache, and rhinorrhea together accurately discriminated (c-statistic=0.7027) COVID-19 cases in patients. Anosmia, dysgeusia/ageusia, muscle pain, intense fatigue, headache, and chest pain better discriminated (c-statistic=0.8830) COVID-19 cases in HCWs. Anosmia had the strongest association in patients (OR=7.48, 95% CI: 2.96–18.89) and HCWs (OR=5.71, 95% CI: 2.21–14.75). Conclusions: COVID-19 symptoms and their diagnostic performance differ in cancer patients and HCWs. Anosmia is associated with COVID-19 for patients, while dysgeusia/ageusia are not. Cancer patients deserve tailored preventive measures due to their particular COVID-19 symptom pattern.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0200.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: clade 220.127.116.11b; fatal infection; avian flu; HPAIV H5N8; neurological symptoms; bird of prey; raptor
Online: 11 July 2018 (12:30:00 CEST)
In contrast to previous incursions of highly pathogenic H5 viruses, H5N8 clade 18.104.22.168b caused numerous lethal infections in white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Germany during the winter 2016/2017. Until April 2017, 17 HPAIV H5N8-positive white-tailed sea eagles had been detected (three alive and 14 dead). Mainly young eagles died (before reaching the adult plumage at 5 years), often with severe neurological symptoms, where histopathology revealed mild to moderate, oligo- to multifocal necrotizing polioencephalitis. Lethal lead (Pb) concentrations, proven as main mortality factor of the sea eagles could be ruled out since values measured in liver or kidney tissue were all within background levels (< 1 ppm). Since the fall of 2016, the epizootic of HPAIV H5 clade 22.214.171.124b reportedly induced, for the first time, fatal disease in European white-tailed see eagles. The virus strain may become a new threat to a highly protected species across its distribution range in Eurasia. Positive cloacal swaps have proven that the eagles can spread the virus with their faeces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Nocturia; Quality of life; Lower urinary tract symptoms, Male adults, NQoL, Urinary frequency, Bedtime urination.
Online: 5 August 2021 (11:14:31 CEST)
Background: Most prevalence surveys on nocturia have focused on older populations. This study aimed to measure the nocturia prevalence across the full spectrum of male adults living in Hong Kong, where severity and associated quality-of-life (QoL) were also explored. Methods: A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted in men aged 18 or above using the ICIQ-NQoL Questionnaire. Results: With 1,239 respondents at age ranged 18-99, the overall nocturia prevalence were found to be 63.0% (ranged 41.6-84.6% at different age groups) and 31.2% (ranged 13.0-56.3% at different age groups), for ≥1 and ≥2 bedtime voiding episodes, respectively. The chance of nocturia was dramatically increased at age 60 or above while both prevalence and voiding frequency were increased with advancing age. About 83% of the nocturia men experienced 1-2 voiding episodes per night, but many of them had self-rated their QoL poor or very poor and indicated moderate-to-high bothersome. Younger men at age 18-39 were found to have high prevalence as 41.6% and almost 30% of them rated poor or very poor QoL. Conclusions: Nocturia was not only affecting the older populations but also caused significant bothersome and negative impacts on QoL in younger males.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0289.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: schizophrenia; psychosis; cognitive symptoms; neurotransmission; dopamine; glutamate; brain connectivity; pharmacological magnetic-resonance imaging; translational neuroscience.
Online: 13 July 2021 (10:13:56 CEST)
Psychotic disorders occur as a result of pathobiochemical processes in the brain, which disrupt the central neurotransmission of molecules such as dopamine and glutamate. The dopamine hypothesis, adopted more than 2 decades ago, has repeatedly asserted its position as an etiopathogenetic substrate through the action of psychostimulants and neuroleptics on the mesolimbic and mesocortical systems, giving insight into the origin of positive and negative schizophrenic symptoms. On the other hand, cognitive impairments in schizophrenia remain not fully understood but are thought to be present during all stages of the disease, as well as in the prodromal the interictal and residual phases. Over the last decade, functional magnetic resonance imaging has focused on research of brain networks like the Default mode network, the Salience network and Central executive network, enabling a deeper understanding of cognitive deficits, as well as other phenomena such as disorganization of thought and behavior. The study of the nodes of these networks, such as the precuneus and insula, informs about their complex significant roles as structures responsible for important cognitive domains such as concentration, attention, ability to understand and reproduce information, as well as memory functions. It is suggested that the neurotransmission of dopamine and glutamate play a key role in these processes and their successful modulation in the correct brain regions through psychopharmacological and biomedical instrumental methods may lead to a significant reversal of conventional paradigms. Pharmaco-magnetic resonance imaging is a neuroimaging method that can provide the translation of scientific knowledge about the neural networks and the disruptions in and between different brain regions, into clinically applicable and effective therapeutic results in the management of severe psychotic disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0526.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; origin; transmission; epidemiology; signs and symptoms; diagnosis; treatment and prevention.
Online: 30 April 2020 (10:47:14 CEST)
The emergence of novel SARS-CoV-2 virus in China in December 2019 has turned into a global pandemic through continued spread beyond borders. This review was aimed to extract up-to-date information on the evolution, transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of COVID-19 to fight against this common enemy. PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar were the sources of literature; whereas CDC, WHO and Worldometer provided updated information. Bats served as the reservoirs of this virus while pangolin is believed as an intermediate host to transmit the virus to humans. Direct human-to-human and indirect transmissions were involved. Major clinical manifestations included fever, cough, fatigue, sputum production and shortness of breath. Chest radiographs mostly showed bilateral ground-glass opacities. Aged patients and patients with comorbidities had higher case fatality ratios. Critical cases were vulnerable to develop pneumonia, multi-organ failure and deaths. Overall situation in China has improved substantially. The European region and region of the Americas were the worst hit out of six WHO global regions. PCR based methods are used for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Severe/critical cases essentially require supportive or intensive cares. Avoiding exposure to COVID-19 is the best way to prevent the disease. Thus, this review provides a snapshot on COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0275.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; real-time RT-PCR; COVID-19 symptoms; COVID-19 hematological findings; Bangladesh
Online: 21 June 2020 (14:47:03 CEST)
Objective: SARS-Cov-2 infection or COVID-19 is a global pandemic. From the time of identification to till, multiple clinical symptoms and parameters have been identified by the researchers of various countries and regions regarding the diagnosis and presentations of COVID-19 disease. In this manuscript, we investigated the primary symptoms and basic hematological presentations of SARS-CoV-2 infection among the Bangladeshi patients. Methodology: We have collected the disease history of mild to moderate degree of COVID-19 patients; hematological and biochemical on admission reports of moderate degree COVID-19 patients. All of them were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR in different institutes in Bangladesh. Results: According to this study though COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh commonly presented with fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, and sore throat, but symptoms like myalgia, diarrhea, skin rash, headache, Abdominal pain/cramp, nausea, vomiting, restlessness, and a higher temperature of >1000F have a greater presentation rate and more frequent than other published studies. CRP and Prothrombin time was found to increase in all the patients. Serum ferritin, ESR, SGPT, and D-Dimer were found increased among 53.85%, 80.43, 44%, and 25% patients respectively. 17.39% of the patients had leukocytosis and neutrophilia. 28.26% of patients presented with lymphocytopenia. 62.52% of patients had mild erythrocytopenia. Conclusion: Despite some similarities, our study has evaluated a different expression in presenting symptoms in the case of COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh. CRP, Prothrombin time, serum ferritin, ESR, SGPT, D-Dimer, erythrocytopenia, and lymphocytopenia can be initial diagnostic hematological findings and assessment for prognosis COVID-19 disease. Also, gender variations have a different scenario of clinical and laboratory appearance in this region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0063.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: COVID-19; Real-Time Tracker; Common Symptoms; Data Visualization; Hypothesis Testing; ARIMA Time-Series Forecast; Penalized Logistic Regression
Online: 7 June 2020 (07:44:48 CEST)
While the COVID-19 outbreak was reported to first originate from Wuhan, China, it has been declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on 30 January 2020 by WHO, and it has spread to over 180 countries by the time of this paper was being composed. As the disease spreads around the globe, it has evolved into a worldwide pandemic, endangering the state of global public health and becoming a serious threat to the global community. To combat and prevent the spread of the disease, all individuals should be well-informed of the rapidly changing state of COVID-19. In the endeavor of accomplishing this objective, a COVID-19 real-time analytical tracker has been built to provide the latest status of the disease and relevant analytical insights. The real-time tracker is designed to cater to the general audience without advanced statistical aptitude. It aims to communicate insights through various straightforward and concise data visualizations that are supported by sound statistical foundations and reliable data sources. This paper aims to discuss the major methodologies which are utilized to generate the insights displayed on the real-time tracker, which include real-time data retrieval, normalization techniques, ARIMA time-series forecasting, and logistic regression models. In addition to introducing the details and motivations of the utilized methodologies, the paper additionally features some key discoveries that have been derived in regard to COVID-19 using the methodologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0418.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Diagnosis; Health sensing system; Nocturnal perspiration; Parameter; Pathology; Predictor; Q-strip; Subjective measurement; Sweat pattern; Symptoms; Prodromal; biomarker
Online: 23 April 2020 (15:26:39 CEST)
One third of a person’s life is spent on sleep, therefore the quality and habit of sleep affects health. A single case study indicated that perspiration could serve as a prognostic marker. Diagnosing nocturnal perspiration is common clinical practice, since this serves as a major symptom in many pathologies. Till this day no specific evidence-based approach for diagnosing nocturnal perspiration exists. By introducing the Q-strip, a device which quantitatively measures nocturnal perspiration, this could be acquired. The Q-strip could serve a purpose in diagnosing nocturnal perspiration more efficient without being intrusive. In addition to its health sensing potentials, the Q-strip makes it possible to visualise perspiration patterns. This introduces the possibility to examine the quality of sleep. Future research is recommended to investigate this.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0182.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: older people; nursing home; incontinence; urinary incontinence; pelvic health; sedentary behaviour; physical health; faecal incontinence; low urinary tract symptoms
Online: 12 January 2022 (18:41:11 CET)
Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common geriatric syndrome affecting bladder health and is especially prevalent in nursing homes (NHs). The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of UI and its associated factors in 5 Spanish NHs. UI (measured with Minimum Data Set 3.0.), sociodemographic and health-related variables were collected. Chi- square (or Fisher’s) or Student’s t-test (or Mann Whitney U) for bivariate analysis were used, with Prevalence Ratio (PR) as an association measure. The prevalence of UI was 66.1% (CI:95%, 53.6–77.2) and was significantly associated with frailty (PR 1.84; 95%CI 0.96–3.53), faecal incontinence (FI) (PR 1.65; 95%CI 1.02–2.65), anxiety (PR 1.64; 95%CI 1.01–2.66), physical performance (PR 1.77; 95%CI 1.00–3.11) and cognitive state (PR 1.95; 95%CI 1.05–3.60). Statistically significant differences between incontinent-continent groups were found for activities of daily living (ADL) limitations, mobility, quality of life, sedentary behaviour (SB) and handgrip strength. It can be concluded that 2/3 of the residents experienced UI, and its significant associated factors were mainly physical (SB, frailty, physical performance, ADL limitations, mobility, FI and handgrip strength) followed by psycho-cognitive factors (cognition, anxiety and quality of life).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0463.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Nocturia; aging male symptoms; Quality of life; Health-related Quality of life; Male adults; NQoL; Urinary frequency; Bedtime urination; sleep
Online: 29 July 2022 (13:13:15 CEST)
Background: The link between nocturia and aging male symptoms (AMS) has not been scientifically established. This study aimed to measure the degree of severity of AMS that impact on the health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) in adult males living with nocturia, and to determine the predictive values of nocturnal factors on AMS. Methods: It is an extended analysis of new data collected by using the Hong Kong Traditional AMS (HK-AMS) scale and Cantonese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in a recently published cross-sectional population-based survey. Results: Of the 781 respondents that have completed the set of questionnaires, 68% and 61% of men living with nocturia reported clinically significant (at moderate-to-severe levels) somato-vegetative and sexual AMS, whereas the prevalence and severity were increased with advancing nighttime voiding frequency. The nocturia-specific QoL (NQoL) score and nocturnal frequency were found to be significant predictive factors for composite, somato-vegetative and sexual AMS, in addition to age, global OSQI score, and certain metabolic diseases. Conclusions: Current findings suggested the inclusion of nocturia when measuring the male-specific HRQoL related to aging.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0122.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: melatonin; coronavirus; pandemic; SARS-CoV-2; bat; lung; p62; apoptosis; programmed cell death; mortality; morbidity; prevention; vaccine; adjuvant; drug; symptoms
Online: 8 April 2020 (08:13:26 CEST)
The current COVID-19 pandemic is one of the most devastating events in recent history. The virus causes relatively minor damage to young, healthy populations, imposing life-threatening danger to the elderly and people with diseases of chronic inflammation. So, if we could reduce the risk for vulnerable populations, it would make the COVID-19 pandemic more similar to other typical outbreaks. Children do not suffer from COVID-19 as much as their grandparents and have a much higher melatonin level. Bats also do not suffer from the virus they transmit, and bats too have a much higher level of melatonin. Viruses generate an explosion of reactive oxygen species, and melatonin is the best natural antioxidant that is lost with age. Melatonin inhibits the programmed cell death which coronaviruses induce, causing significant lung damage. Coronavirus causes inflammation in the lungs which requires inflammasome activity. Melatonin blocks the inflammasome. The immune response is impaired by anxiety and sleep deprivation. Melatonin improves sleep habits, reduces anxiety and stimulates immunity. Fibrosis may be the most dangerous complication after COVID-19. Melatonin is known to prevent fibrosis. Mechanical ventilation may be necessary but yet imposes risks due to oxidative stress, which can be reduced by melatonin. Thus, by using the safe over-the-counter drug melatonin, we may be immediately able to prevent the development of severe disease symptoms in coronavirus patients, reduce the severity of their symptoms, and/or reduce the negative effects of coronavirus infection on patients’ health after the active phase of the infection is over.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0463.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19 vaccines; vaccine effectiveness; BNT162b2 vaccine; mRNA-1273 vaccine; ChAdOx1 vaccine; 19 Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assay; reactogenicity; vaccine-associated symptoms
Online: 26 August 2022 (14:14:39 CEST)
This prospective study provides data on long-term humoral immunogenicity of a heterologous off-label vaccine regimen combining the adenoviral vectored ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 from Astra-Zeneca (ChAd) with the mRNA-1273 vaccine from Moderna (m1273) in comparison to two different homologous mRNA vaccine schedules. Of the 316 COVID-19 naïve adult health care workers (HCW) included to complete a survey on vaccine-associated symptoms (VAS), 197 had received the homologous BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine from Pfizer/BioNTech (BNT/BNT), 76 the homologous m1273/m1273, and 43 the heterologous ChAd/m1273 vaccine regimen. Concentration of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in plasma 5-7 months after the second vaccine dose was higher in the m1273/m1273 and ChAd/m1273 than the BNT/BNT vaccine group. The frequency of systemic VAS after first vaccine dose was 86% after ChAd compared to 35% and 39% after BNT and m1273, respectively (p < 0.0001), and after second vaccine dose highest (89%) in the m1273/m1273 group (p < 0.001). Individuals with systemic VAS achieved higher levels of antibodies irrespective of vaccine regimen. In conclusion, VAS serve as a strong predictor of long-term humoral immune response, and the heterologous ChAd/m1273 vaccine regimen provides an at least equal long-term humoral immune response compared with the standard vaccine regimens used in Denmark.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0328.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; outpatient cohort; seroprevalence; mild infections; asymptomatic cases; COVID-19 contacts; PCR-positivity and symptoms; first year of the pandemic; Hungary
Online: 22 September 2022 (02:08:09 CEST)
We aimed to estimate the proportion of the population infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the first year of the pandemic. The study population consisted of outpatient adults with mild or no COVID-19 symptoms, and was divided into subpopulations with different levels of exposures. Of the subpopulation without known previous COVID-19 contacts 4143, of the subpopulation with known COVID-19 contacts 594 persons were investigated. IgG- and IgA-seroprevalence and RT-PCR positivity were determined in context with COVID-19 symptoms. We hope to have contributed to the understanding of the significance of the asymptomatic and mild infections in the long persistence of the pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: lower urinary tract symptoms; LUTS; benign prostatic hyperplasia; BPH; saw palmetto; Serenoa repens; phytotherapy; lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr); hexanic extract of Serenoa repens (HESr)
Online: 5 July 2021 (15:38:23 CEST)
Parts I and II of this 3-part series indicated how a global review of both English-language and non-English language papers plus a focus on a lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr) having a standardized fatty acid profile have together engendered new insights about the biological activity of LSESr vs. LUTS. In this last of a 3-part series, data from the world literature is presented that confirms that LSESr efficacy is the predominant finding in clinical trials. Despite two placebo-controlled clinical trials performed in the U.S. that failed to confirm a benefit of LSESr vs. placebo in LUTS, the global body of the peer-reviewed literature attests not only to efficacy but also to safety. Results will be presented of important trials that compare LSESr to alpha-blockers such as tamsulosin (Flomax®) as well as to 5α-reductase inhibitors such as finasteride (Proscar®) that demonstrate consistent findings of near equivalency between LSESr and these pharmacologic agents. Studies relating data indicative of an additive effect or synergy between LSESr and tamsulosin will be presented as well. The heightened effectiveness of LSESr in men with severe LUTS vs. moderate LUTS expands the importance of our scrutinization of the global literature concerning LSESr. Of great consequence are the contributions of non-English language peer-reviewed publications that have consistently provided evidence of LSESr efficacy in treating LUTS/BPH. These peer-reviewed articles have shown that the effect of LSESr is not that of a placebo. Finally, a comparison of the LSESr extraction products used in the treatment of LUTS, and a discussion of the milieu factors that affect the natural history of LUTS and influence the outcome of clinical trials complete this sedulous analysis of LSESr vs. LUTS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0107.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: lower urinary tract symptoms; LUTS; benign prostatic hyperplasia; BPH; saw palmetto; Serenoa repens; phytotherapy; lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr); hexanic extract of Serenoa repens (HESr)
Online: 5 July 2021 (15:29:20 CEST)
Given the extent of this global analysis, this report will be presented in three sections. Part I will introduce LUTS. What are the demographics of LUTS? What symptoms are assessed by LUTS and how do we quantify LUTS? Why would a non-prescription item be a valuable consideration in LUTS treatment versus other treatment options? What is basic information about Serenoa repens and what defines a standardized LSESr product? What are the published trials that have affected the acceptability of Serenoa repens in the treatment of LUTS? Finally, a major portion of Part I will discuss the four major reviews of Serenoa repens versus LUTS that have influenced how it is accepted in the USA, in Europe, and other parts of the world. Part I, therefore, lays the groundwork and is foundational for the important findings relating to LUTS and Serenoa repens that will be presented in Parts II and III.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: lower urinary tract symptoms; LUTS; benign prostatic hyperplasia; BPH; saw palmetto; Serenoa repens; phytotherapy; lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr); hexanic extract of Serenoa repens (HESr)
Online: 5 July 2021 (15:19:11 CEST)
Part I of this 3-part series provided the groundwork for understanding the role of a standardized lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr) in the treatment of LUTS. It documented that a treatment having a high therapeutic index (i.e., a ratio of benefit to adverse reactions) is a critical need in the demographic context of a rapidly growing elder population. Part I described the clinical symptomatology of LUTS and how it is quantified. A critique of the reports from four authoritative bodies: the European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), Cochrane 2012, the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and the AUA (American Urological Association) was presented. The foundation above then fine-tuned our search to require (a) consistent evaluability criteria, (b) the quantification of clinical findings, (c) the need to focus on studies employing a standardized LSESr product meeting the fatty acid profile set forth by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US Pharmacopeia and (d) a global assessment of scientific investigations published in all languages and not limited to only English. Part II details the following “new” findings when LSESr vs. LUTS is examined with the above constraints.