Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Identification of huanglongbing Based on Visual Symptoms: a Grower’s Diagnostic Toolkit

Version 1 : Received: 23 February 2021 / Approved: 24 February 2021 / Online: 24 February 2021 (11:45:39 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Journal reference: Heliyon 2021
DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e08387


Citrus Greening, which is mainly caused by bacteria, is one of the severe citrus diseases affecting all citrus cultivars and causing the deliberate abolition of trees worldwide. This infectious disease cannot be spread by wind, rain, or contact by contaminated personnel. The primary vector that spreads this disease through feeding citrus leaves is the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), a minuscule insect. The management of citrus greening is also very costly as there is no fruitful technique is developed to cure this disease except removing all infected plants from good ones to eliminate the dissemination of the pathogen. Citrus greening identification is also the most difficult job, as the symptoms are similar to other citrus diseases and nutrient deficiency. Asymmetrical blotchy mottling patterns on leaves are the main symptoms to detect this disease. Here we have discussed some visual signs of citrus greening, which will ultimately help root level farmers to identify and prevent this disease before it drastically impacts citrus plants. Whether it is affected by citrus greening or lack of nutrients, we have also discussed the pen test method of determining the symptoms as symmetrical or asymmetrical across the mid-vein.


Huanglongbing, Candidatus Liberibacter, Asian citrus psyllid, blotchy mottle, visual symptoms


BIOLOGY, Anatomy & Morphology

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