Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Pharmaco-Magnetic Resonance as Tool for Monitoring the Medication-Related Effects in the Brain May Provide Potential Biomarkers for Psychotic Disorders

Version 1 : Received: 10 July 2021 / Approved: 13 July 2021 / Online: 13 July 2021 (10:13:56 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Aryutova, K.; Stoyanov, D. Pharmaco-Magnetic Resonance as a Tool for Monitoring the Medication-Related Effects in the Brain May Provide Potential Biomarkers for Psychotic Disorders. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 9309. Aryutova, K.; Stoyanov, D. Pharmaco-Magnetic Resonance as a Tool for Monitoring the Medication-Related Effects in the Brain May Provide Potential Biomarkers for Psychotic Disorders. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 9309.

Journal reference: Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 9309
DOI: 10.3390/ijms22179309

Abstract

Psychotic disorders occur as a result of pathobiochemical processes in the brain, which disrupt the central neurotransmission of molecules such as dopamine and glutamate. The dopamine hypothesis, adopted more than 2 decades ago, has repeatedly asserted its position as an etiopathogenetic substrate through the action of psychostimulants and neuroleptics on the mesolimbic and mesocortical systems, giving insight into the origin of positive and negative schizophrenic symptoms. On the other hand, cognitive impairments in schizophrenia remain not fully understood but are thought to be present during all stages of the disease, as well as in the prodromal the interictal and residual phases. Over the last decade, functional magnetic resonance imaging has focused on research of brain networks like the Default mode network, the Salience network and Central executive network, enabling a deeper understanding of cognitive deficits, as well as other phenomena such as disorganization of thought and behavior. The study of the nodes of these networks, such as the precuneus and insula, informs about their complex significant roles as structures responsible for important cognitive domains such as concentration, attention, ability to understand and reproduce information, as well as memory functions. It is suggested that the neurotransmission of dopamine and glutamate play a key role in these processes and their successful modulation in the correct brain regions through psychopharmacological and biomedical instrumental methods may lead to a significant reversal of conventional paradigms. Pharmaco-magnetic resonance imaging is a neuroimaging method that can provide the translation of scientific knowledge about the neural networks and the disruptions in and between different brain regions, into clinically applicable and effective therapeutic results in the management of severe psychotic disorders.

Keywords

schizophrenia; psychosis; cognitive symptoms; neurotransmission; dopamine; glutamate; brain connectivity; pharmacological magnetic-resonance imaging; translational neuroscience.

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