ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0371.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: regenerative higher education; podcasting as qualitative inquiry; ecological university; sustaina-bility transitions; regenerative education practices; regenerative education design
Online: 28 June 2022 (03:57:41 CEST)
Abstract Universities have the potential, and the responsibility, to take on more ecological and relational approaches to facilitating learning-based change in times of interconnected socio-ecological crises. Signs for a transition towards these more regenerative approaches of higher education (RHE) that include more place-based, ecological, and relational, ways of educating can already be found in niches across Europe (see for example the proliferation of education-based living labs, field labs, challenge labs). In this paper, the results of a podcast-based inquiry into the design practices and barriers of enacting such forms of RHE are shown. This study revealed seven educational practices that occurred across the innovation niches. It is important to note these practices are enacted in different ways, or are locally nested in unique expressions, For example, while the ‘practice’ of Cultivating Personal Transformations was represented across the included cases, the way these transformations were cultivated were unique expressions of each context. These RHE-design practices are derived from twenty-six narrative-based podcasts as interviews recorded in the April through June 2021 period. The resulting podcast (The Regenerative Education Podcast) was published on all major streaming platforms from October 2021 and included 21 participants active in Dutch Universities, 1 in Sweden, 1 in Germany, 1 in France, and 3 primarily online. Each episode engages with a leading practitioner, professor, teacher, and/or activist that is trying to connect their educational practice to making the world a more equitable, sustainable, and regenerative place. The episodes ranged from 30 to 70 minutes in total length and included both English (14) and Dutch (12) interviews. These episodes were analyzed through transition mapping a method based on story analysis and transition design. The results include seven design practices such as Cultivating Personal Transformations, Nurturing Ecosystems of Support, and Tackling Relevant and Urgent Transition Challenges, as well as a preliminary design tool that educational teams can use together with students and local agents in (re)designing their own RHE to connect their educational praxis with transition challenges.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0406.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: food as medicine, culinary medicine, farming as medicine, medical education, regenerative agriculture, farming, soil health, nutrition
Online: 7 September 2023 (03:31:12 CEST)
The United States is plagued with the highest rates of preventable metabolic diseases it has ever seen, and while poor nutrition is increasingly recognized as a critical contributing factor, good nutrition has been shown to be a potent factor in prevention and management of these illnesses. Notably, nutrition is inextricably intertwined with farming practices and the stewardship of our environment – particularly its soil. In this proposal, we propose a method to expose medical students to basic agricultural and environmental knowledge regarding the production of food, as well as educate them in practical nutrition education within the interactive, case-based, and longitudinal preclinical curriculum at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine (CWRU SOM). We propose a two-part approach; first: integrating relevant topics in nutrition, culinary medicine, and farming practices into the preclinical blocks through Official Learning Objectives, and second: an optional 8-week, zero credit elective for students interested in pursuing a deeper understanding of these topics. Through these interventions, we believe courses like this will support a generation of physicians able to understand health from soil to plate with a consideration for the environment in addition to exemplifying healthful lifestyles themselves. We believe these kinds of future physicians will be the most effective in treating (and ideally reversing) the chronic disease epidemic.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0702.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Nanofibers; regenerative medicine; technical note
Online: 10 November 2023 (11:39:39 CET)
Nanofiber-based systems have emerged as a groundbreaking approach in the field of regenerative medicine, offering immense potential for tissue engineering and regenerative therapies. These systems, composed of nanoscale fibers, provide a unique platform for mimicking/bio-mimicking the complex structures and functionalities of native tissues, enabling the regeneration of injured tissues. This letter aims to provide a brief overview of nanofiber-based systems in regenerative medicine, discovering their importance, design, and fabrication techniques, characterization, biocompatibility, applications, challenges, and future directions as well as discussing key concepts and techniques involved in the development of this innovative tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0321.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: adipose-derived regenerative cells; flow cytometry; microfragmented fat; NucleoCounter; regenerative medicine; stem cells; UA-ADRCs
Online: 7 November 2022 (12:12:12 CET)
Uncultured, unmodified, autologous, adipose-derived regenerative cells (UA-ADRCs) are a safe and effective treatment option for various musculoskeletal pathologies. However, it is unknown whether the composition of the final cell suspension systematically varies with the subject's individual age, sex, body mass index and ethnicity. UA-ADRCs were isolated from lipoaspirate from n=232 subjects undergoing elective lipoplasty using the Transpose RT system (InGeneron, Inc.; Houston, TX, USA). The UA-ADRCs were assessed for the number of nucleated cells, cell viability and the number of viable nucleated cells per gram of adipose tissue harvested. Cells from n=37 subjects were further characterized using four-channel flow cytometry. The present study shows, for the first time, that key characteristics of UA-ADRCs can be independent of the subject's age, sex, BMI and ethnicity. This result has important implications for the general applicability of UA-ADRCs in regeneration of musculoskeletal tissue. Future studies must determine whether in-dependence of key characteristics of UA-ADRCs of the subject's individual age, sex, BMI and eth-nicity only applies to the system used in the present study, or also to others of the more than 25 different experimental methods and commercially available systems used to isolate UA-ADRCs from lipoaspirate that have been described in the literature.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0315.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Regenerative medicine, Adhesion barriers, Tissue engineering
Online: 6 November 2023 (07:56:04 CET)
Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering are interdisciplinary fields that combine cell biology, material science, and bioengineering to develop therapies for tissue repair and regeneration. This field has made significant advances in recent years, particularly in the use of stem cells and biomaterials. Advancements in cell-based therapies have involved the use of cells to repair or replace damaged tissues and organs. Tissue engineering involves using scaffolds and growth factors to promote tissue regeneration. However, a major challenge in this field is the formation of adhesions, which can cause complications, such as intestinal obstruction and chronic pain. Adhesion barriers are used to prevent adhesion of tissues and organs during recovery, thereby reducing the risk of complications. Anti-adhesion materials, such as polysaccharides, proteins, and synthetic polymers, are used to create a physical barrier between tissues and prevent adhesion. These materials can be used alone or in combination, but their effectiveness varies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0532.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: extracellular vesicles; exosomes; platelets; regenerative medicine
Online: 23 July 2021 (09:58:26 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) present a great potential for the development of new treatments in the biomedical field. To be used as therapeutics, many different sources have been used for EVs obtention, while only few studies have addressed the use of platelet derived EVs (pEVs). In fact, pEVs have been shown to intervene in different healing responses, thus some studies have evaluated their regenerative capability in wound healing or hemorrhagic shock. Even more, pEVs have proven to induce cellular differentiation, enhancing musculoskeletal or neural regeneration. However, the obtention and characterization of pEVs is widely heterogeneous and differs from the recommendations of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles. Therefore, in this review, we aim to present the main advances in the therapeutical use of pEVs in the regenerative medicine field while highlighting the isolation and characterization steps followed. The main goal of this review is to portray the studies performed in order to enhance the translation of the pEVs research into feasible therapeutical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1258.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: cutting system; cutting dynamics; regenerative effect; vibrations
Online: 17 August 2023 (13:00:44 CEST)
The article is devoted to the issues of assessing the impact of changes in the delay value in the feed direction, what determines the regenerative nature of self-excitation of the cutting system, on the dynamics of metal processing on metal-cutting machines. It is this interconnected model of the cutting system that allows to identify the main dynamic effects that occur in the cutting system, including the effect of vibrations regeneration when cutting along the track. The article also has a section dedicated to the experiment on a real metalworking machine, on which vibrations of the top of the cutting wedge of the tool were measured and based on these data, a real calculation of the delay time and the magnitude of the change in the area of the cut layer was carried out, due to variations in the real feed. The conducted studies have shown that in addition to the vibrations of the cutting tool in the direction of feeding, the vibration activity of the tool in the direction of cutting plays an essential role in ensuring the regenerative effect. The delay time constant of the operator is formed, which determines the real value of the feed during cutting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1531.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Biomaterials; Hybrid Materials; Tissue Engineering; Regenerative Medicine
Online: 22 May 2023 (16:19:46 CEST)
The main purpose of tissue engineering is to fabricate and exploit engineered constructs suitable for the effective replacement of damaged tissues and organs, and able to perfectly integrate with the host’s organism without eliciting any adverse reaction. Ideally, autologous materials represent the best option, but they are often limited due to the low availability of compatible healthy tissues. So far, one therapeutic approach relies on the exploitation of synthetic materials: they exhibit good features in terms of impermeability, deformability and flexibility, but present chronic risks of infections and inflammations. Alternatively, biological materials, including naturally derived ones and acellular tissue matrices of human or animal origin, can be used to induce cells growth and differentiation, which are needed for tissue regeneration: however, this kind of materials lacks satisfactory mechanical resistance and reproducibility, affecting their clinical application. In order to overcome the above-mentioned limitations, hybrid materials, which can be obtained by coupling synthetic polymers and biological materials, have been investigated with the aim to improve biological compatibility and mechanical features. Currently, the interest in these mate-rials is growing, but the ideal ones have not been found yet. The present review aims at exploring some applications of hybrid materials, with particular mention to urological and cardiovascular fields: in the first case, the efforts to find a construct that can guarantee impermeability, mechanical resistance and patency will be herein illustrated; in the second case, the search for impermeability, hemocompatibility and adequate compliance will be been disclosed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0337.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Wharton's jelly; Regenerative Medicine; Osteoarthritis; Cartilage Defects
Online: 22 July 2022 (13:08:45 CEST)
The primary objective of this study is to report the initial efficacy data observed with the use of cryopreserved human umbilical tissue allograft for the supplementation of cartilage defects in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Our primary endpoints were pain, stiffness, and functional recovery scores. In this ongoing study, 55 participants (age 56-93 years) received a single Wharton's jelly tissue allograft application. The study dose consisted of 150mg of Wharton's jelly allograft suspended in approximately 2mL of sterile Sodium Chloride 0.9% solution (normal saline). Each study knee application was performed under ultrasound guidance in a physician's office. The research methodology consisted of NPRS scores and WOMAC subsection scores including pain, stiffness, and physical function. Study enrollment consisted of 55 patients followed for a post-application duration of 90 days. No adverse events or adverse reactions were reported. The results demonstrated statistically significant improvements of NPRS and WOMAC in initial versus 90-day examination. The data represents Wharton's jelly tissue allograft applications are a safe, non-surgical, and efficacious for patients with symptomatic articular cartilage defects associated with osteoarthritis of the knee.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1620.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: diagnostic; stem cells; human body; transplantations; regenerative medicine
Online: 23 August 2023 (04:33:23 CEST)
Stem cells can be used in cellular therapy. This happended in order to replace damaged cells or having aim to regenerate organs. The definition of stem cells can be extended. From this point of view, we can mention taking in consideration the idea in which it is known that these cells form the base of the building body. More than, we can mention that stem cells are characterized by two knowing properties namely differentiation and selfrenewal. Based on the observation that differentiation of adult stem cells into specific derivativescan be controlled by laboratory techniques, it is anticipated that adult stem cells may become the basis of therapies for many, and various types of medical conditions. Taking on stem cells, regenerative medicine (RM) it is known as being one of the hottest topics in biotechnology nowadays. From this purpose, stem cells can be used in regenerative medicine (RM). The principles of regeneration are found in different types of cultures, from long time ago, centuries etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1769.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells; proteomics; tissue engineering; regenerative medicine
Online: 26 July 2023 (07:06:41 CEST)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive therapeutic tool for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine owing to their regenerative and trophic properties. The best-known and most widely used are bone marrow MSCs which are currently being harvested and developed from a wide range of adult and perinatal tissues. MSCs from different sources are believed to have different secretion potentials and production which may influence their therapeutic effects. To confirm it, we performed a quantitative proteomic analysis based on the TMT technique of MSCs from three different sources: Wharton’s jelly (WJ), dental pulp (DP) and bone marrow (BM). Our analysis focused on MSC biological properties of interest for tissue engineering. We identified a total of 611 differentially expressed human proteins. WJ-MSCs showed the greatest variation compared with the other sources. WJ produced more extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and ECM-affiliated proteins and appeared more able to modulate the inflammatory and immune response. BM-MSCs displayed enhanced differentiation and paracrine communication capabilities. DP-MSC appeared to promote exosome production. The results obtained confirm the existence of differences between WJ, DP and BM-MSC and the need to select the MSC origin according to the therapeutic objective sought.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1795.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: fibroin, scaffold; carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC); osteocyte; regenerative medicine
Online: 26 June 2023 (10:47:20 CEST)
This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of composite scaffolds in combination of fibroin and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in bone tissue engineering. Fibroin is a useful biomaterial and is a major component of silk yarns composed of fibrous proteins. Improving for binding efficiency in bone formation after implanted scaffold, CMC was added to fibroin. CMC could improve injectable characters in bone substitutes by adding in scaffold material, fibroin. The porous shapes, porosity, surface wettability, water absorption, and thermal properties of the CMC added fibroin scaffold were better than fibroin only scaffold. For tissue engineering of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), BMSCs isolated from mice were seeded onto the scaffold, and the cell proliferation rate was measured. alkaline phosphatase activity in BMSCs was higher in the scaffold containing CMC than that in the scaffold containing fibroin alone. The expression levels of osteocyte marker genes and proteins were increased in the CMC scaffold. The biocompatibility and hydrophilicity of CMC scaffolds play important roles in the growth and proliferation of osteocytes. Furthermore, the CMC scaffold design proposed in this study could play an important role in facilitating cartilage, ossification, and nerve differentiation of BMSCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0007.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: Facet joint syndrome; adipose tissue-derived regenerative cells
Online: 1 February 2023 (04:40:12 CET)
Background: Chronic Back Pain due to Facet Joint Syndrome is a common and debilitating con-dition. Advances in regenerative medicine have shown that Autologous Unmodified Adipose Tissue-Derived Regenerative Cells (ADRC) provide several beneficial effects [1,2]. These regen-erative cells can differentiate into various tissues  and exhibit a strong anti-inflammatory po-tential. ADRCs can be obtained from a small amount of fatty tissue derived from the patient´s abdominal fat. Methods: We report long-term results of 37 patients (age 31-78 years, mean 62.5) suffering from “Facet Joint Syndrome” The pathology was confirmed by clinical, radiological examinations and fluoroscopically guided test injections. Then liposuction was performed. 50-100 cc of fat were harvested. To recover stem cells from adipose tissue, we use the CE-certified Transpose RT™ system from InGeneron GmbH. The cells were then injected under fluoroscopic control in the periarticular fat. Follow-up examinations were performed at one week 1 and 5 years. Results: Every patient reported improved VAS pain at any follow-up (1 week, 1, and 5 years) with ADRCs compared to the baseline. Conclusion: Our observational data indicate that facet joint syndrome patients treated with unmodified adipose tissue-derived regenerative cells experience improved quality of life in the long term.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0425.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Goat; Sheep; Small Ruminants; Animal Models; Regenerative Medicine.
Online: 21 January 2021 (15:01:17 CET)
Medical and translational scientific research requires the use of animal models as an initial approach to the study of new therapies and treatments, but when the objective is an exploration of translational potentialities, classical models fail to adequately mimic problems in humans. Among the larger animal models that have been explored more intensely in recent decades, small ruminants, namely sheep and goats, have emerged as excellent options. The main advantages associated to the use of these animals in research works are related to their anatomy and dimensions very similar to those of humans in most physiological systems, in addition to their low maintenance and feeding costs, tendency to be docile, long life expectancies and few ethical complications raised in society. The most obvious disadvantages are the significant differences in some systems such as the gastrointestinal, and the reduced amount of data that limits the comparison between works and the validation of the characterization essays. Despite everything, recently these species have been increasingly used as animal models for diseases in different systems, and the results obtained open doors for their more frequent and advantageous use in the future. The purpose of this review is to summarize the general principles related to the use of small ruminants as animal models, with focus on regenerative medicine, to group the most relevant works and results published recently and to highlight the potentials for the near future in medical research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0115.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: regenerative medicine; reprogramming; cardiac differentiation; secretoma; tissue engineering
Online: 15 March 2018 (05:02:41 CET)
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are reprogrammed cells that have hallmarks similar to embryonic stem cells including the capacity of self-renewal and differentiation into cardiac myocytes. The improvements in reprogramming and differentiating methods achieved in the past 10 years widened the use of hiPSCs, especially in cardiac research. hiPSC-derived cardiac myocytes (CMs) recapitulate phenotypic differences caused by genetic variations, making them human attractive disease models and useful tools for drug discovery and toxicology testing. In addition, hiPSCs can be used as source cells for cardiac regeneration in animal models. Here, we review the advances in the genetic and epigenetic control of cardiomyogenesis that underlies the significant improvement of the induced reprogramming of somatic cells to CMs. We also cover the phenotypic characteristics of the hiPSCs derived CMs, their ability to rescue injured CMs through paracrine effects, the novel approaches in tissue engineering for hiPSC-derived cardiac tissue generation, and finally, their potential use in biomedical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0745.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Tissue engineering; regenerative medicine; hydrogels; GelMA; alginate; platelet lysate
Online: 9 August 2023 (10:58:51 CEST)
Hydrogels (gels) are attractive tools for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine due to their potential for drug delivery and ECM-like composition. In this study, we use rheology to characterize GelMA/alginate gels loaded with human platelet lysate (PL). We then characterize these gels from a physicochemical perspective and evaluate their ability to transport PL proteins, their pore size, and their rate of degradation. Finally, their biocompatibility is evaluated. We describe how alginate changes the mechanical behavior of the gels from elastic to viscoelastic after ionic (calcium-mediated) crosslinking. In addition, we positively report the release of PL proteins and relate it to the degradation profile of the gels and the biocompatibility of the gels. Thus, the developed gels represent attractive substrates for both cell studies and bioactive materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1291.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Regenerative medicine; Platelet Rich Plasma; colostrum; growth factors; cytokines
Online: 19 July 2023 (05:42:08 CEST)
The employment of PRP in regenerative medicine has not generated the promised grandiose outcomes. Nonetheless, it currently remains the gold standard strategy for tissue regeneration. Therefore, scientific research has focused on identifying other matrices rich in growth factors and cytokines to improve the efficacy of PRP. In the present study, a new technology called AMPLEX PLUS -compound derived from colostrum enriched with exosomes- was applied in combination with PRP to evaluate the concentration trend of 20 bioactive molecules. The results show that the concentration of all the compounds analyzed increased significantly in PRP samples with AMPLEX PLUS technology compared with samples containing only plasma or PRP, suggesting how this new strategy could improve the performance of PRP and make significant advances in regenerative medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0186.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: DC third rail; energy efficiency; regenerative braking energy recovery
Online: 4 July 2023 (09:57:24 CEST)
Regenerative braking energy (RBE) recovery of trains can improve energy efficiency as well as reduce the overall greenhouse gases emissions of electric rail systems. The train's speed limit, track elevation, track curvature, and headway time can affect the amount of RBE recovered. This study aims to investigate the impacts of these parameters on the RBE recovery for a DC third rail system. A DC third rail system has been modeled using the ETAP-eTraX software based on the Malaysia Mass Rapid Transit Line 2 (MRT Line 2) traction power system. The effects of the change of speed limit, track elevation, track curvature, and headway time of the trains on the RBE recovery have been evaluated under various scenarios. The results showed that the track’s elevation has the most significant influence on the overall energy consumptions of the train while the speed limit has the most significant influence on the amount of RBE recovery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0433.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: hydrogel; active motifs modification; regenerative medicine; Self-assembling peptide
Online: 23 November 2022 (05:11:24 CET)
Ion-complementary self-assembling peptides have been studied in many fields for their distinct advantages mainly due to their self-assembly properties. However, their shortcomings, such as insufficient specific activity and poor mechanical properties, also limited their application. For better and wider application of this kind of promising biomaterials, ion-complementary self-assembling peptides can be modified with their self-assembly properties not being destroyed to the greatest extent. The modification strategies were reviewed by taking RADA16-Ⅰ as an example. For the insufficient specific activity, RADA16-Ⅰ can be structurally modified with active motifs derived from the active domain of the extracellular matrix or other related active factors. For weak mechanical properties, materials with strong mechanical properties or materials that can undergo chemical crosslinking were used to mix with RADA16-Ⅰto enhance the mechanical properties of RADA16-Ⅰ. To improve the performance of RADA16-Ⅰ as drug carriers, appropriate adjustment of the RADA16-Ⅰ sequence and/ or modification of the RADA16-Ⅰ-related delivery system with polymer materials or specific molecules can be considered to achieve sustained and controlled release of specific drugs or active factors. The modification strategies reviewed in this paper may provide some references for the further basic research and clinical application of ion-complementary self-assembling peptides and their derivatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0073.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: calcium pyrophosphate; calcium polyphosphate; biocompatibility; bone implants; regenerative medicine
Online: 5 July 2022 (13:13:30 CEST)
Biocompatibility of ceramic materials in CaO-P2O5 system was investigated using different methods, including in vitro and in vivo tests. Ceramics based on calcium pyrophosphate Ca2P2O7 were obtained by annealing cement-salt stone from highly concentrated hardening suspensions (HCHS). Cement-salt stone was prepared using powder mixtures of calcium citrate tetrahydrate Ca3(C6H5O7)2·4H2O and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O. These salts were mixed with each other in such a way that calcium pyrophosphate and calcium polyphosphate were present in the final ceramic product in the following weight ratios: Ca(PO3)2/Ca2P2O7 = 0/100; 5/95; 10/90 and 20/80. Distilled water was added to a homogenized powder mixtures of Ca3(C6H5O7)2·4H2O and Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O by a water/solid ratio of 0,5 by weight. The obtained suspensions were shaped using silicon molds and left to dry in air for a week. The phase composition of the obtained samples of cement-salt stone was represented by brushite CaHPO4·2H2O, monetite CaHPO4, calcium citrate tetrahydrate Ca3(C6H5O7)2·4H2O and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O. According to the XRD data, the phase composition of ceramic materials after annealing in the temperature range of 800-1000 0C was mainly represented by the β-Ca2P2O7 phase. In vivo tests shown that obtained ceramic materials can be recommended for regenerative treatments for bone defects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0104.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: hyrogel; cardiotoxicity; regenerative medicine; antineoplastic drugs; polydioxanone; pulmonary autograft
Online: 6 September 2021 (14:01:12 CEST)
Hydrogels, hydrophilic polymeric compounds, have been recently put under investigation as regenerative medicine applications and delivery systems for antineoplastic drugs, particularly chemotherapeutics (anthracyclines, alkylating agents), target drugs (trastuzumab) and immunotherapies. Porosity, conductivity, biodegradability and physical states are some of the peculiarities that render hydrogels suitable for therapies implementation. Chemically-modifying agents and enzymes can be also coupled to hydrogels for pharmacokinetical parameters improvement and side effects avoidance. Cardiotoxicity is in fact one of the major issues for oncological patients after treatment efficacy. Heart failure, myocarditis and hypertension are causes of morbidity and mortality that can possibly be avoided. Specific reaching of the target tumor site has been achieved by several authors in preclinical in vivo studies but clinical studies are currently under design processes. Polydioxanone, a hydrogel-mimicking agent, is capable to interact with the elastic properties of pulmonary artery. An advantageous characteristic is that can be also reabsorbed within biological systems and can cause a remodeling process of the vessel wall. Hydrogels currently represent a strong topic of interest for researchers and probably will guide future clinical investigations and practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1921.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: hyaluronic acid; platelet-rich plasma; patellar chondropathy; regenerative medicine; orthopedics.
Online: 30 October 2023 (10:59:08 CET)
Musculoskeletal disorders are increasingly prevalent worldwide, causing significant socioeconomic burdens and diminished quality of life. Notably, patellar chondropathy (PC) is among the most widespread conditions affecting the joint structures, resulting in profound pain and disability. Hyaluronic acid (HA) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) have emerged as reliable, effective, and minimally invasive alternatives. Continuous research spanning from laboratory settings to clinical applications demonstrate the numerous advantages of both products. These encompass lubrication, anti-inflammation, and stimulation of cellular behaviors linked to proliferation, differentiation, migration, and the release of essential growth factors. Cumulatively, these benefits support the rejuvenation of bone and cartilaginous tissues, which are otherwise compromised due to the prevailing degenerative and inflammatory responses characteristic of tissue damage. While existing literature delves into the physical, mechanical, and biological facets of these products, as well as their commercial variants and distinct clinical uses, there is limited discussion on their interconnected roles. We explore basic science concepts, product variations, and clinical strategies. This comprehensive examination provides physicians with an alternative insight into the pathophysiology of PC as well as biological mechanisms stimulated by both HA and PRP that contribute to tissue restoration.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0360.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: Achilles tendinosis; Enthesopathies; Wharton’ s Jelly; laser therapy; EPAT; Regenerative Medicine
Online: 14 November 2023 (15:45:50 CET)
Damaged connective tissues between the bone and tendons or ligaments are common among adults regardless of activity level. Achilles tendinosis is one of the most common tissue defects and enthesopathies. The patient in this study is a 54-year-old female with chronic Achilles tendinosis from chronic enthesopathy at the Achilles tendon insertion with a retrocalcaneal exostosis for three years who has failed standard-of-care practices for over two years. The patient received extracorporeal pulsed-activated therapy (EPAT) before applying 2ml of CryoText, a Wharton’s jelly tissue allograft. The patient then received class IV laser therapy treatments twice weekly for three weeks. The patient started with a 10/10 VAS at the initial visit. At five weeks post-application, the patient’s score had improved by 80% at 2/10 VAS. By week 13, the patient rated her pain as 0/10 VAS. The improvement in patient-reported pain and functionality reported in this study after the application of Wharton’s Jelly, EPAT, and class IV laser therapy warrants future research studying the safety and efficacy of these patient care modalities together.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1952.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Regenerative endodontic procedures; hydrogels; tissue engineering; apical release; preclinical model
Online: 29 August 2023 (08:45:41 CEST)
Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) aim at recreating dental pulp tissue using biomaterials such as hydrogels. Their bioactivity is mostly linked to the nature of biomolecules or chemical compounds that will compose the endodontic hydrogel. However, many other parameters, such as hydrogel concentration, type, bioactive molecules solubility, of apex size were reported to influence the hydrogel behavior, leading to the inability to predict the clinical outcome. This lack of knowledge and the various parameters that should be considered, suggest that biological activity of endodontic hydrogel is impossible to anticipate and could hinder the bench to bedside transition. We formulated in this article our opinion that most of these parameters could be identified, described, and studied. A second part of the document lists some challenges and perspectives, including development of future mathematical models able to explain and predict the bioactivity of these endodontic hydrogel in clinic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0491.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Extracellular matrix; Cell-tissue interactions; Tissue engineering; Regenerative medicine; scaffolds
Online: 7 August 2023 (07:26:41 CEST)
The advancements achieved in Tissue Engineering are based on a careful and in-depth study of cell-tissue interaction. The choice of a certain biomaterial in Tissue Engineering is fundamental as it represents an interface for adherent cells in the creation of a microenvironment suitable for cell growth and differentiation. The knowledge of the biochemical and biophysical properties of the extracellular matrix is a useful tool for the optimization of polymeric scaffolds. The aim of this re-view is to analyse the chemical, physical and biological parameters on which it is possible to act in Tissue Engineering for the optimization of polymeric scaffolds. Understanding the scaffold impact on cell fate is of paramount importance for the successful advancement of Tissue Engineering.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0239.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: regenerative, shock absorber, drive mode, vehicle dynamics, output power, nonlinearity
Online: 28 March 2018 (14:18:30 CEST)
In this paper, the current technologies of the regenerative shock absorber systems have been categorized and evaluated. Three drive modes of the regenerative shock absorber systems, namely the direct drive mode, the indirect drive mode and hybrid drive mode are reviewed for their readiness to be implemented. The damping performances of the three different modes are listed and compared. Electrical circuit and control algorithms have also been evaluated to maximize the power output and to deliver the premium ride comfort and handling performance. Different types of parameterized road excitations have been applied to vehicle suspension systems to investigate the performance of the regenerative shock absorbers including that of the nonlinear regenerative shock absorber. The research gaps for comparison of the different drive modes and the nonlinearity analysis of the regenerative shock absorbers are identified and, the corresponding research questions have been proposed for future work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0053.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: electrical vehicle; anti-lock braking system (ABS); regenerative brake; control
Online: 5 August 2016 (09:49:08 CEST)
Recently, design of electric scooters (ESs) has commonly adopted brushless DC motors (BLDCMs) in place of brushed DC motors. This invention develops a new anti-lock braking system (ABS), based on a slip-ratio estimator, for ES utilizing the braking force generated by the BLDCM when electrical energy releases to the load yielding an analogous effect of ABS control in gas-engine vehicles. Comparing to mechanical ABS, the design possesses the advantages of rapid torque responses due to fast actuating response. The electrical ABS is realized by associating with kinematic and Short-circuit braking. A current controller is used to adjust the braking force, while the sliding mode control strategy is adopted to regulate the slip ratio for best road adhesion while braking. Real-world experiments have been conducted for functional and performance verification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0141.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Regenerative dentistry; 3D printing; biomimetic; bioinspired materials; MSC; cell colonization; Tissue engineering; Regenerative medicine; Oral Bone; Tissue Regeneration; biocolonization; CDHA, MTT; LDH; SEM; FDM
Online: 8 November 2022 (03:03:17 CET)
This paper presents a proof-of-concept study on the biocolonization of 3D-printed hydroxyapatite scaffolds with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Three-dimensional (3D) printed biomimetic bone structure made of Calcium Deficient HydroxyApatite (CDHA) intended as future bone graft was made from newly developed composite material for FDM printing. The biopolymer polyvinyl alcohol serves in this material as a thermoplastic binder for 3D molding of the printed object with a passive function and is completely removed during sintering. The study presents the material, the process of fused deposition modeling (FDM) of CDHA scaffolds and its post-processing at three temperatures (1200, 1300, 1400 °C), as well it evaluates the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of scaffolds with MTT and LDH release assays after 14 days. The study also includes a morphological evaluation of the cellular colonization with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in two different filament orientations (rectilinear and gyroid). The results of the MTT assay showed that the tested material was not toxic, and cells were preserved in both orientations, with most cells present on the material fired at 1300°C. Results of the LDH release assay showed a slight increase in LDH leakage from all samples. Visual evaluation of SEM confirmed the ideal post-processing temperature of the 3D-printed FDM framework for samples fired at 1300°C and 1400°C, with a porosity of 0.3 mm between filaments. In conclusion, the presented fabrication and colonization of CDHA scaffolds have great potential to be used in the tissue engineering of bones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1855.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: autologous, intra-articular, knee osteoarthritis, micrograft technology, pain management, regenerative medicine
Online: 27 September 2023 (10:47:45 CEST)
Autologous micrografting technology (AMT®) involves the use of autologous micrografts to stimulate/enhance the repair of damaged tissue. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of the AMT® procedure in patients with early stages of knee osteoarthritis. Briefly, the AMT® procedure involved extraction of auricular cartilage, disaggregation using the Rigeneracons® SRT in 4.0 mL of saline solution and injection of the disaggregated micrografts into the external femorotibial compartment area of the affected knee. Ten patients (4 men, 6 women; age range: 37─84 years) were included in the study. In all patients, there was a steady improvement in knee instability, pain, swelling, mechanical locking, stair climbing and squatting at 1- and 6-months post-procedure. Improvement in mobility was observed as early as 3 weeks post-procedure in 2 patients. Significant improvements were seen in mean scores of all five subscales of Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS [KOOS symptoms, KOOS pain, KOOS ADL, KOOS sport and recreation, and KOOS quality-of-life]) between pre-procedure and 1- and 6-months post-procedure (all p≤0.05). Autologous auricular cartilage micrografts obtained by AMT® procedure (using Rigenera® technology) is an effective and safe protocol in the treatment of early-stage knee osteoarthritis. These encouraging findings need to be validated in a larger patient population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1382.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: regenerative braking; SOC; SOH; battery life; charging and discharging characteristics; ultracapacitor
Online: 20 June 2023 (03:23:32 CEST)
The automobile industry is often believed to be moving towards electric vehicles. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) are anticipated to dominate the automotive industry. Regenerative braking is one of the modern approaches that recharge the battery by extracting the kinetic energy from the braking thus improving the vehicle range. However, the rate of current supplied by regenerative braking to the battery is a major concern as lithium-ion (Li-ion) is susceptible to failure due to the intensity of the charging-discharging rate, and operating temperature. So, this review article focuses on the effect of regenerative braking on the life of the battery and measures being taken to protect the battery from higher charging during regenerative braking. Various research articles are considered for observing the effect of regenerative braking on battery life. It is found that longer duration charging current obtained from regenerative braking that is irrespective of current intensity is the prominent factor of battery deterioration. If the SOC and the temperature are not in the optimal range, the Lithium plating rate increases. However, a higher level of regenerative braking increases the battery life even at high SOC and temperature by reducing the Depth of Discharge (DOD) and by using shorter recharging periods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0306.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: microfragmented adipose tissue; regenerative medicine; bone healing, osteotomy, cranial cruciate ligament
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:22:38 CEST)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of autologous microfragmented adipose tissue (MFAT), obtained by mechanical fragmentation, on radiographic bone healing in dogs subjected to tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO). Twenty dogs with unilateral cranial cruciate disease were enrolled and randomly assigned to the treatment group (MFAT) or the control group (NT). The MFAT group underwent TPLO and autologous MFAT intra-articular administration while the NT group underwent TPLO alone. The adipose tissue was collected from the thigh region and MFAT was obtained by mechanical fragmentation at the end of the surgery. The patients were subjected to X-ray exam preoperatively, immediately postoperatively (T0) and at 4 (T1) and 8 (T2) weeks postoperatively. Two radiographic scores that had previously been described for the evaluation of bone healing after TPLO were used. A 12-point scoring system (from 0 = no healing to 12= complete remodelling) was used at T0, T1 and T2, while a 5-point scoring system (from 0 = no healing to 4 = 76%–100% of healing) was used at T1 and T2. The median healing scores were significantly higher at T1 and T2 for the MFAT group compared with the NT group for the 12-point (p < 0.05) and 5-point (p < 0.05) scoring systems. The intra-articular injection of autologous microfragmented adipose tissue can accelerate bone healing after TPLO without complications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0333.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: hPSCs derived-organoids; Culture strategy; Disease modeling; Drug screening; Regenerative therapy
Online: 24 June 2022 (08:11:15 CEST)
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have become a powerful tool to generate various kinds of cell types comprising the human body. Recently, organoid technology emerged as a platform to build a physiologically relevant tissue-like structure from the PSCs, which provides a more relevant three-dimensional microenvironment to the actual human body than the conventional monolayer culture system for transplantation, disease modeling, and drug development. Although it holds so many advantages, the organoid culture system still has various problems related to culture methods, which became a challenge to get similar physiological properties to their original tissue counterparts. Here, we discuss the current development of organoid culture methods, including the problem that may arise from the currently available culture systems as well as the possible approach to overcoming the current limitation and improving their optimum utilization for translational application purposes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0242.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: extracellular vesicles; stem cells; induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs); regenerative medicine
Online: 15 April 2020 (10:08:44 CEST)
Regenerative medicine aims to repair damaged or missing cells, tissues or organs for the treatment of various diseases, poorly managed with conventional drugs and medical procedures. To date there are different approaches to obtain these results. Multimodal regenerative methods include transplant of healthy organs, tissues, or cells, body stimulation to activate a self healing response in damaged tissues, as well as the combined use of cells and bio-degradable scaffold to obtain functional tissues. Certainly, stem cells and derived products are promising tools in regenerative medicine due to their ability to induce de novo tissue formation and/or promote tissue and organ repair and regeneration. Currently, several studies have shown that the beneficial stem cell effects in damaged tissue restore are not depending on their engraftment and differentiation on the injury site, but rather to their paracrine activity. It is now well known that paracrine action of stem cells is due to their ability to release Extracellular Vesicles (EVs). EVs play a fundamental role in cell-to cell communication and are directly involved in tissue regeneration. In the present review, we tried to summarize the molecular mechanisms trough which EVs carry out their therapeutic action and their possible application for the treatment of several diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0094.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Agroforestry; ecosystem services; measurable criteria; certification standard; biodiversity; agroecosystem; regenerative agriculture
Online: 12 September 2018 (13:56:22 CEST)
Agroforestry is increasingly being recognized as a holistic food production system that can have numerous significant environmental, economic, and social benefits. This growing recognition is paralleled in the U.S. by the budding interest in regenerative agriculture and motivation to certify regenerative practices. Current efforts to develop a regenerative agriculture certification offer an opportunity to consider agroforestry’s role in furthering regenerative goals. To understand this opportunity, we first examine how agroforestry practices can advance regenerative agriculture’s five core environmental concerns: soil fertility and health, water quality, biodiversity, ecosystem health, and carbon sequestration. Next, we review a subset of certification programs, standards, guidelines, and associated scientific literature to understand existing efforts to standardize agroforestry. We determine that development of an agroforestry standard alongside current efforts to certify regenerative agriculture offers an opportunity to leverage common goals and strengths of each. Additionally, we determine that there is a lack of standards with measurable criteria available for agroforestry, particularly in temperate locations. Lastly, we propose a framework and general, measurable criteria for an agroforestry standard that could potentially be implemented as a standalone standard or built into existing agriculture, forestry, or resource conservation certification programs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0233.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Messenger RNA; Cell Regeneration; Pluripotent Cells; Cellular Differentiation, Direct Reprogramming, Regenerative Medicine
Online: 6 November 2023 (10:23:25 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic stimulated attention to the medicinal applications of messenger RNA (mRNA). mRNA is expected to be applied not only to vaccines but also to regenerative medicines. The purity of mRNA is important for its medicinal application. However, the current mRNA synthesis techniques have problems, e.g., contamination of undesired 5’-uncapped mRNA and double-stranded RNAs. Recently, our group developed a completely capped mRNA synthesis technology that contributed to the progress of mRNA research. The introduction of chemically modified nucleosides, e.g., N1-methylpseudouridine and 5-methylcytidine, have been demonstrated by Dr. Karikó and Dr. Weissman which opened the practical application of mRNA for vaccines and regenerative medicines. Dr. Yamanaka reported the production of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) by the introduction of 4 types of genes using a retrovirus vector. iPSCs are widely used for research about regenerative medicines and the preparation of disease models to screen new drug candidates. Of the Yamanaka factors, Klf4 and c-Myc are oncogenes, and there is a tumor development risk if these are integrated into genomic DNA. Therefore, regenerative medicines using mRNA, which has no risk of genome insertion, have attracted attention. In this review, we summarized the synthesis of mRNA and its application for regenerative medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0490.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: resilience; regenerative capacity; sustainability; soil management practices; soil quality index; soil health
Online: 10 October 2023 (03:23:37 CEST)
Soil resilience has become a central theme in research aimed at understanding the impacts of human activities on the environment and mitigating the negative effects of soil disturbance. To evaluate how soil management practices affect soil resilience, 26 small farms were studied in a mountainous district of Lebanon. Farms were categorized into conventional (C), neutral (N), and regenerative (R), based on the practices adopted including tillage, amendments, rotation, cover crops, residues management, and pest control. Common practices included intercropping (85%), residue retention (73%), cover crops (61%), and organic amendments (46%). Qualitative assessment of soil health used indicators from Latin American Society for Agroecology (SOCLA) as well as from ‘Tool for Agroecological Performance Evaluation’ of the FAO. The indicators aligned with the classification of farms into their respective C/N/R groups. The sustainability scores were 4.28 (Low) for conventional, 6.34 (Moderate) for neutral, and 7.88 (Good) for regenerative farms. Quantitative analysis determined for 15 selected farms showed significant differences in soil organic matter (1.86% C, 2.75% N, 3.32% R), soil respiration (156C, 296N, 380R mg C-CO₂. week⁻¹), and earthworm abundance/liter (2.92C, 4.24N, 5.72R). The Soil Quality Index (SQI) provided an accurate representation of the current soil health condition, with increment from 0.05, 0.27 (low), to 0.49 (good) in conventional, neutral, and regenerative farms, respectively. The research highlights that soil resilience is influenced by a combination of intricate factors, encompassing biotic interactions, as well as physical, chemical, and biological processes. Particularly in regions like the Mediterranean basin, adopting sustainable soil management practices contributes to enduring productivity while preserving the functional integrity and resilience characteristics of the soil.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0412.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Pierre Robin Sequence; Micrognathia; Personalized; Appliance; Biocompatible; Glossoptosis; Regenerative dentistry; 3D printing
Online: 8 October 2023 (07:21:52 CEST)
Robin sequence is a congenital anomaly characterized by a triad of features that include micrognathia, glossoptosis, and airway obstruction. This comprehensive historical review maps the evolution of approaches and appliances for its treatment from the past until current modern possibilities of interdisciplinary combination of modern engineering, medicine, materials, and computer science combined approach with emphasis to design appliances inspired by nature - individual human anatomy. Current biomimetic designs are clinically applied resulting in appliances that are more efficient, comfortable, sustainable, and safer than legacy traditional designs. Review maps the treatment modalities that have been used for patients with Robin sequence over the years. Early management of Robin sequence focused primarily on airway maintenance and feeding support, while current management strategies involve both nonsurgical and surgical interventions and biomimetic biocompatible personalized appliances. The goal of this paper was to provide a review of the evolution of management strategies for patients with Robin sequence that led to the current interdisciplinary biomimetic approaches impacting the future of Robin Sequence treatment with biomimetics at the forefront.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0521.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: platelet-rich plasma; platelet-rich fibrin; hyaluronic acid; orthobiologics; osteoarthritis; regenerative medicine
Online: 7 June 2023 (08:54:22 CEST)
Platelet and fibrin-rich orthobiologic products, such as autologous platelet concentrates, have been extensively studied and appreciated for their beneficial effects in multiple conditions. PRP and its derivatives, including PRF, have demonstrated encouraging outcomes in clinical and laboratory settings, particularly in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders such as OA. Although PRP and PRF have distinct characteristics, they share similar properties. The relative abundance of platelets, peripheral blood cells and molecular components in these orthobiologic products stimulate numerous biological pathways. These include inflammatory modulation, augmented neovascularization, and delivery of pro-anabolic stimuli that regulate cell recruitment, proliferation, and differentiation. Furthermore, the fibrinolytic system, which is sometimes overlooked, plays a crucial role in musculoskeletal regenerative medicine by regulating proteolytic activity and promoting the recruitment of inflammatory cells and MSCs in areas of tissue regeneration, such as bone, cartilage, and muscle. PRP acts as a potent signaling agent; however, it diffuses easily, while the fibrin from PRF offers a durable scaffolding effect that promotes cell activity. The combination of fibrin with hyaluronic acid, another well-studied orthobiologic product, has been shown to improve its scaffolding properties, leading to more robust fibrin polymerization. This supports cell survival, attachment, migration, and proliferation. Therefore, the administration of the "power mix" containing HA and autologous PRP + PRF may prove to be a safe and cost-effective approach in regenerative medicine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0596.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Cell-based therapy; Regenerative medicine; Pluripotency; Mesenchymal stem cells; Stromal Vascular Fraction
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:16:25 CEST)
Cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine is a powerful tool that can be used both to restore various cell lost in a wide range of human disorders, and in renewal processes. Stem cells show promise for universal use in clinical medicine, potentially enabling the regeneration of numerous organs and tissues in the human body. This is possible due to their self-renewal capacity, and their ability to differentiate into various cell types. To date, pluripotent stem cells seem to be the most promising regeneration tool. Recently, a novel stem cell niche, called multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells, is emerging. These cells are of particular interest because they are pluripotent and are found in adult human mesenchymal tissues. One of their most significant features is that they can produce cells representative of all the three germ layers. Furthermore, they can be easily harvested from fat, and isolated from the mesenchymal stem cells. This makes them very promising, allowing autologous treatments and avoiding the problems of rejection, typical of transplants. Muse cells have recently been employed, with encouraging results, in numerous preclinical studies, performed to test their efficacy in the treatment of various pathologies, exploiting their regenerative potential in different tissues. This systematic review aimed to 1) highlight the specific potential of Muse cells, and provide a better understanding of this niche, and 2) originate the first organized review of already tested applications of Muse cells in regenerative medicine. The obtained results could be useful to extend the possible therapeutic applications of Muse cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0427.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Isolation; Neural Crest-derived Stem Cells; Mechanical Dissociation; Regenerative Periodontology, Enzymatic Digestion
Online: 2 November 2020 (11:35:16 CET)
Periodontitis is microbial infection affecting periodontium, the tooth supporting structure and affects >743 million people worldwide. Neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) hold the promise to regenerate the damaged periodontium. These cells have been identified within adult adipose tissue, periodontal ligament, and palatal tissue. Typical enzymatic isolation protocols are expensive, time consuming and often not clinically compliant. Enzyme-free, mechanical dissociation has been suggested as an alternative method of generating cell suspensions required for cell separation and subsequent expansion ex vivo. In our study, samples of rat skeletal muscle tissue were used to appraise the suitability of a novel mincing method of mechanical dissociation against enzymatic digestion with collagenase and dispase. Skeletal muscle is readily available and has been shown to contain NCSC populations. We used a Rigenera-Human Brain Wave® prototype mincer to produce a suspension of skeletal muscle-derived cells modeling NCSCs. We have compared the resulting cell cultures produced via mechanical dissociation and enzymatic dissociation, producing single cell suspensions suitable for Magnetic Cell Sorting (MACs) and Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Despite the Countess Automated Cytometry data demonstrating that cell suspensions produced by mechanical dissociation (n=24) contain on average 26.8 times as many viable cells as enzymatic cell suspensions (n=18), enzymatic suspensions produced more successful cell cultures. Spheroids and subsequently adherent cells formed from 4 enzymatic cell suspensions (44.4%) vs. 1 mechanical cell suspension (8.3%). Enzymatic digestion protocols formed spheroids faster and more plentifully than mechanical cell suspensions. Adherent cells and spheroids isolated via both methods appear morphologically similarly to NCSCs from our previous studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0088.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Adipose derived stem cell (ASC); Regenerative medicine; embryonic stem cell marker network
Online: 20 January 2017 (04:56:06 CET)
The stromal vascular cell fraction (SVF) of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT and SAT) has increasingly come into focus in stem cell research, since these compartments represent a rich source of multipotent adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). ASCs exhibit a self- renewal potential and differentiation capacity. Our aim was to study the different expression of embryonic stem cell markers NANOG, SOX2 and OCT3/4 and to evaluate if there exists a hierarchal role in this network in ASCs derived from both SAT and VAT. ASCs were isolated from SAT and VAT biopsies of 72 consenting patients (23 men, 47 women; age 45 ± 10; BMI between 25 and 30 range) undergoing elective open-abdominal surgery. Sphere-forming capability was evaluated by plating cells in low adhesion plastic. Stem cell markers CD90 and CD105 were analyzed by flow cytometry and stem cell transcription factors NANOG, SOX2 and OCT3/4 were detected by immunoblotting and Real-Time PCR. NANOG, SOX2 and OCT3/4 interplay was explored by gene silencing. ASCs from VAT and SAT confirmed their mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) phenotype expressing the specific MSC markers CD90, CD105, NANOG, SOX2 and OCT3/4. NANOG silencing induced a significant OCT 3/4 (70% ± 0.05) and SOX2 (75% ± 0.03) down-regulation whereas SOX2 silencing did not affect NANOG gene expression. Adipose tissue is an important source of MSC, and siRNA experiments endorse a hierarchical role of NANOG in the complex transcription network that regulates pluripotency and plasticity.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1197.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: tarsal tunnel; nerve damage; neuropathy; wharton’ s jelly; regenerative medicine
Online: 20 November 2023 (03:36:52 CET)
Background Caused by age or trauma, collapsed connective tissue can cause nerve entrapment and damage within the tarsal tunnel. With an unknown incidence rate, tarsal tunnel syndrome is relatively underdiagnosed, and current literature is inconclusive on best practices for patient care. While most standard treatments involve symptom management, this retrospective case series highlights a novel approach, targeting the damaged tissues surrounding the nerves and replacing the structural cushioning with a Wharton’s jelly tissue allograft. Methods This cohort was selected from the retrospective repository at Regenativelabs. The eight selected patients had tarsal tunnel-related defects from four clinical sites. Patient outcomes were tracked on a 90-day calendar utilizing the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) and the Western Ontario and McMaster University Arthritis Index (WOMAC). All patients had failed standard care practices for at least six weeks. Each patient received one 2mL application of 150mg minimally manipulated Wharton’s jelly tissue allograft to strategic sites around the affected tarsal tunnel. No patients experienced adverse reactions. Red light and laser therapies were recommended post-application. Results The percent change of improvement in patient pain scales was calculated with the cohort averages at initial application, 30-day follow-up, and 90-day follow-up appointments. All patients reported decreased pain on both scales. Percent change calculated from the initial application to the 90-day follow-up showed an improvement of 59.43% in NPRS and a 37.58% improvement in WOMAC. Conclusions Given the reported pain improvements on various pain rating scales, this study provides evidence that WJ allograft applications are safe, minimally invasive, and efficacious for patients who have failed standard care treatments for connective tissue defects associated with Tarsal Tunnel syndrome. The results of this study warrant further research to confirm the efficacy of Wharton's jelly added to conservative care protocols to clarify WJ allograft application's optimal dose, protocol, and durability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0875.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: energy-efficient train driving; regenerative braking; optimal control theory; Pontryagin maximum principle; Khmelnitsky’s algorithm
Online: 10 August 2023 (16:15:43 CEST)
Efficient train driving plays a vital role in reducing the overall energy consumption in the railway sector. An energy minimising control strategy can be computed using the framework given by optimal control theory, in particular the Pontryagin maximum principle. Our optimisation approach is based on an algorithm presented by Khmelnitsky that considers electric trains equipped with regenerative braking. A derivation of Khmelnitsky’s theory from a more general formulation of the maximum principle is given in this article, and a complete list of switching cases between different driving regimes has been included that is essential for practical application. A number of numerical examples are added to visualise the various switching cases. Energy consumption data from real-life operation of passenger trains are compared to the calculated energy minimum. In the presented study, the optimised strategy was able to save 37 percent of the average energy demand of the train in operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0451.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Electrospun wound dressing; Skin tissue engineering; Regenerative medicine; Gelatin; Poly (glycerol sebacate); Diabetic wound
Online: 8 May 2023 (05:15:40 CEST)
Infectious diabetic wounds can result in severe injuries or even death. Biocompatible wound dressings offer one of the best ways to treat these wounds, but creating a dressing with suitable hydrophilicity and biodegradation rate can be challenging. To address this issue, we used the electrospinning method to create a wound dressing composed of poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) and gelatin (Gel). We dissolved the PGS and Gel in acetic acid (75 v/v%) and added EDC/NHS solution as a crosslinking agent. Our measurements revealed that the scaffolds' fiber diameter ranged from 180.2 to 370.6 nm, and all the scaffolds had porosity percentages above 70%, making them suitable for wound healing applications. Additionally, we observed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the contact angle from 110.8° ± 4.3° for PGS to 54.9° ± 2.1° for PGS/Gel scaffolds, indicating an improvement in hydrophilicity of the blend scaffold. Furthermore, our cell viability evaluations demonstrated a significant increase (p < 0.05) in cultured cell growth and proliferation on the scaffolds during the culture time. Our findings suggest that the PGS/Gel scaffold has potential for wound healing applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0312.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: quenching transmitter; super-regenerative transceiver; MICS band; quenching signal controller; Colpitts oscillator; TSPC divider
Online: 21 September 2022 (03:18:24 CEST)
This paper demonstrates an on-off keying (OOK) super-regenerative quenching transmitter operating in 402- 405MHz MICs band applications. To reduce power consumption, the transmitter is controlled by a novel digital quenching signal controller that generates a digital control signal to start transmitter operation when a baseband signal is input to the transmitter. The digital signal controller consists of an envelope detector, a comparator, and a quench timer designed using a state machine to synchronize the operation between the digital controller and the input baseband signal. The transmitter consists of a Colpitts oscillator operating in double operating frequency followed by a frequency divider by 2, this configuration reduces system area and improves phase noise and signal spectrum. The proposed transmitter is implemented using UMC 130nm CMOS technology, and a 1.2V supply. Simulation shows that the proposed transmitter can meet MICS band mask specifications with data rates up to 1Mbps and total power dissipation of 537uW.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: adipose-derived regenerative cells; ADRCs; partial rotator cuff tear; stem cells; stromal vascular fraction
Online: 14 February 2020 (05:05:43 CET)
Background: This study tested the hypothesis that treatment of symptomatic, partial-thickness rotator cuff tear (sPTRCT) with fresh, uncultured, unmodified, autologous adipose derived regenerative cells (UA-ADRCs) isolated from lipoaspirate at the point of care is safe and more effective than corticosteroid injection. Methods: Subjects aged between 30 and 75 years with sPTRCT who did not respond to physical therapy treatments for at least six weeks were randomly assigned to receive a single injection of an average 11.4×106 UA-ADRCs (in 5 mL liquid; mean cell viability: 88%) (n=11; modified intention-to-treat (mITT) population) or a single injection of 80 mg of methylprednisolone (40 mg/ml; 2 mL) plus 3 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine (n=5; mITT population), respectively. Safety and efficacy were assessed using the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form (ASES), RAND Short Form-36 Health Survey and pain visual analogue scale (VAS) at baseline (BL) as well as three weeks (W3), W6, W9, W12, W24, W32, W40 and W52 post treatment. Fat-saturated T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the shoulder was performed at BL as well as at W24 and W52 post treatment. Results: No severe adverse events related to the injection of UA-ADRCs were observed in the 12 months post treatment. The risks connected with treatment of sPTRCT with UA-ADRCs were not greater than those connected with treatment of sPTRCT with corticosteroid injection. However, one subject in the corticosteroid group developed a full rotator cuff tear during the course of this pilot study. Despite the small number of subjects in this pilot study, those in the UA-ADRCs group showed statistically significantly higher mean ASES total scores at W24 and W52 post treatment than those in the corticosteroid group (p < 0.05). Discussion: This pilot study suggests that the use of UA-ADRCs in subjects with sPTRCT is safe and leads to improved shoulder function without adverse effects. To verify the results of this initial safety and feasibility pilot study in a larger patient population, a randomized controlled trial on 246 patients suffering from sPTRCT is currently ongoing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0311.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: adipose tissue; mesenchymal stem cells; regenerative medicine; lipocell; extracellular matrix preservation; ringer’s lactate; liposuction
Online: 24 December 2019 (07:53:44 CET)
This work aims to characterize a new method to recover low-manipulated human adipose tissue, enriched of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ATD-MSCs) for autologous use in regenerative medicine applications. Lipoaspirated fat collected from patients was processed through Lipocell, a II-a medical device for dialysis of adipose tissue, by varying filter sizes and washing solutions. ATD-MSCs yield was measured with flow cytometry after SVF isolation in fresh and cultured samples. Purification from oil and blood was measured after centrifugation with spectrophotometer analysis. Extracellular matrix preservation was assessed through H&E staining and biochemical assay for total collagen, type-2 collagen, and GAGs quantification. Flow cytometry showed a 2-fold increase of ATD-MSCs yield in treated samples in comparison with untreated lipoaspirate; no differences where reported when varying filter size. The association of dialysis and washing thoroughly removed blood and oil from samples. Tissue architecture and extracellular matrix integrity were unaltered after Lipocell processing. Dialysis procedure associated with Ringer’s lactate preserves the proliferation ability of ATD-MSCs in cell culture. The characterization of the product shows that Lipocell is an efficient method to purify the tissue from undesired byproducts, preserving ATD-MSCs vitality and ECM integrity, resulting in a promising tool for regenerative medicine applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0222.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Keywords: regenerative medicine; tissue engineering; decellularized extracellular matrix; 3D bioprinting; bioink, scaffolds; biofabrication; transplantation.
Online: 21 August 2019 (09:46:26 CEST)
Abstract: The promise of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering is founded on the ability to regenerate diseased or damaged tissues and organs into functional tissues and organs or the creation of new tissues and organs altogether. In theory, all damaged and diseased tissues and organs can be regenerated or created using different configurations and combinations of extracellular matrix, cells and inductive biomolecules. Currently, regenerative medicine and tissue engineering can allow the improvement of patients’ quality of life through availing novel treatment options. Tissues and organs have a specific ECM, with specific proteins and factors released by cells residing within the local microenvironment. The coupling of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering field with 3D printing is revolutionizing the treatment of patients in a huge way. 3D bioprinting allows the proper placement of cells and ECMs, allowing the recapitulation of native microenvironments of tissues and organs. 3D bioprinting utilizes different bioinks made up of different formulations of ECM/biomaterials, biomolecules and even cells. The choice of the bioink used during 3D bioprinting is very important as properties such as printability, compatibility and physical strength influence the final construct printed. The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides both physical and mechanical microenvironment needed by cells to survive and proliferate. Decellularized ECM bioink contains biochemical cues from the original native ECM and also the right proportions of ECM proteins. Different techniques and characterization methods are used to derive bioinks from several tissues and organs and to evaluate their quality. This review discusses the uses of decellularized ECM bioinks and argues that they represent the most biomimetic bioinks available. In addition, we briefly discuss some polymer-based bioinks utilized in 3D bioprinting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0044.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: extracellular vesicles; mesenchymal cells; proximal tubular cells; renal ischemia/reperfusion; mitochondria; anion superoxide; acellular therapy; regenerative medicine
Online: 3 February 2022 (10:07:54 CET)
Acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) is characterized by intense anion superoxide (O2•-) production and oxidative damage. We investigated whether extracellular vesicles secreted by adipose tissue mesenchymal cells (EVs) administrated during reperfusion can suppress the exacerbated mitochondrial O2•- formation after I/R. We used Wistar rats submitted to bilateral renal arterial clamping (30 min) followed by 24 h of reperfusion. The animals received EVs (I/R+EVs group) or saline, I/R group) in the kidney subcapsular space. The 3rd group was of the false-operated rats (SHAM). Mitochondria were isolated from proximal tubule cells and immediately used. Amplex Red™ was used to measure mitochondrial O2•- formation and MitoTracker® Orange to evaluate Δψ. In vitro studies were carried out by using human renal proximal tubular cells (HK-2) co-cultured or not with EVs under hypoxia conditions. Administration of EVs restored O2•- formation to SHAM levels in all mitochondrial functional conditions. The expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase remained unmodified; transcription of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was upregulated. The co-cultures of HK-2 cells with EVs revealed an intense decrease in apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanisms by which EVs recover the renal structure and function after I/R are related to the normalization of the mitochondrial redox environment. The intravesicular catalase is central in the preservation mechanisms that, with the aid of the upregulated antioxidant HO-1/Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 system, depress early processes of cell death after I/R and open new vistas for the treatment of AKI.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0069.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: platelet-rich plasma; regenerative medicine; platelet dosing; neutrophils; monocytes; lymphocytes; inflammation; angiogenesis; serotonin; analgesic effects; immunomodulation; rehabilitation.
Online: 5 October 2020 (11:00:53 CEST)
Emerging autologous cellular therapies that utilize platelet-rich plasma (PRP) applications have the potential to play adjunctive roles in a variety of regenerative medicine treatment plans. There is a global unmet need for tissue repair strategies to treat musculoskeletal (MSK) and spinal disorders, osteoarthritis (OA), and patients with chronic complex and recalcitrant wounds. PRP therapy is based on the fact that platelet growth factors (PGFs) support the three phases of wound healing and repair cascade (inflammation, proliferation, remodeling). Many different PRP formulations have been evaluated, originating from human, in vitro, and animal studies. However, recommendations from in vitro and animal research often lead to different clinical outcomes because it is difficult to translate non-clinical study outcomes and methodology recommendations to human clinical treatment protocols. In recent years, progress has been made in understanding PRP technology and the concepts for bioformulation, and new research directives and new indications have been suggested. In this review, we will discuss recent developments regarding PRP preparation and composition regarding platelet dosing, leukocyte activities concerning innate and adaptive immunomodulation, serotonin (5-HT) effects and pain killing. Furthermore, we discuss PRP mechanisms related to inflammation and angiogenesis in tissue repair and regenerative processes. Lastly, we will review the effect of certain drugs on PRP activity, and the combination of PRP and rehabilitation protocols.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0271.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: sustainable developments goals; cultural heritage; eco-design; climate education; COPERNICUS CDS; climate change impact; regenerative design; renewable energy resources
Online: 3 August 2023 (05:21:39 CEST)
The A.C.Q.U.A. (Advisable Conscious Quality Use from Assisi) project, promoted by the Climate and Energy and Heritage Design courses of the Planet Life Design Master Program, addresses the theme of the recovery and regeneration of ancient wash-houses in the context of energy, environmental sustainability and innovation, a way of understanding cultural heritage in the wider sense of heritage community through the active participation of all the actors involved: universities, institutions, businesses, students and citizens. The proposal, tested in the municipalities of Assisi and Ruviano (ITALY), involves the creation of a "Community Wash House", a new way of carrying out the usual domestic act of washing clothes in the open air, next to the places where this rite was traditionally performed, in technologically innovative constructions that use renewable energy sources and encourage a reduction in household consumption of water and energy. This project is part of the training of professionals in the new inter-university course that combines knowledge of the tools of technical and scientific design with historical and cultural perspectives in a perspective of sustainable redevelopment of existing structures in the area and the use of alternative energy sources with low climate impact, calculated using the statistics of the Copernicus CDS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0427.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: adipose derived regenerative cells; ADRCs, efficacy; point of care treatment; randomized controlled trials; safety; stem cells; stromal vascular fraction
Online: 28 February 2020 (12:12:23 CET)
It has become practically impossible to survey the literature on cells derived from adipose tissue with the aim to apply them in regenerative medicine. The aim of this review is to provide a jump start to understanding the potential of UA-ADRCs (uncultured, unmodified, fresh, autologous adipose derived regenerative cells isolated at the point of care) in regenerative medicine. We show that serious and adequate clinical research demonstrates that tissue regeneration with UA-ADRCs is safe and effective. ADRCs are neither 'fat stem cells' nor could they exclusively be isolated from adipose tissue, as ADRCs contain the same adult (depending on the definition) pluripotent or multipotent stem cells that are ubiquitously present in the walls of small blood vessels. Of note, the specific isolation procedure used has significant impact on the number and viability of the cells and hence on safety and efficacy of UA-ADRCs. Furthermore, there is no need to further separate adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) from ADRCs if the latter were adequately isolated from adipose tissue. Most importantly, UA-ADRCs have the physiological capacity to adequately regenerate tissue without need for manipulating, stimulating and/or (genetically) reprogramming the cells for this purpose. Tissue regeneration with UA-ADRCs fulfills the criteria of homologous use.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0302.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: cerebral ischemia, blood brain barrier, endothelial cells, impaired mitochondria, neurovascular unit, regenerative medicine, stem cell therapy, transfer of healthy mitochondria, vasculature
Online: 19 June 2018 (14:27:25 CEST)
Stroke remains a major cause of death and disability in the United States and around the world. Solid safety and efficacy profiles of novel stroke therapeutics have been generated in the laboratory, but most failed in clinical trials. Investigations into the pathology and treatment of the disease remain a key research endeavor in advancing scientific understanding and clinical applications. In particular, cell-based regenerative medicine, specifically stem cells transplantation, may hold promise as stroke therapy because grafted cells and their components may recapitulate the growth and function of the neurovascular unit, which arguably represents the alpha and omega of stroke brain pathology and recovery. Recent evidence has implicated mitochondria, organelles with a central role in energy metabolism and stress response, in stroke progression. Recognizing that stem cells offer a source of healthy mitochondria, potentially transferrable into ischemic cells, may provide a new therapeutic tool. To this end, deciphering cellular and molecular processes underlying dysfunctional mitochondria may reveal innovative strategies for stroke therapy. Here, we review recent studies capturing the intimate participation of mitochondrial impairment in stroke pathology, and showcase promising methods of healthy mitochondria transfer into ischemic cells, to critically evaluate the potential of mitochondria-based stem cell therapy for stroke.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1131.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: remote sensing; machine learning; regenerative grazing; grassland biomass; total standing dry matter; digital agriculture; grazing management; climate change; Cibo Labs; Sentinel-2
Online: 28 April 2023 (07:15:03 CEST)
The emergence of cloud computing, big data analytics, and machine learning has catalysed the use of remote sensing technologies to enable more timely land management of sustainability indicators such as ground cover and grassland biomass, given the uncertainty of future climate and drought conditions. Here, we examine the potential of “regenerative agriculture”, as an adaptive grazing management strategy to minimise bare ground exposure while maximising pasture biomass productivity. High-intensity sheep grazing treatments were conducted in small fields (less than 1 hectare) for short durations (typically less than 1 day). Paddocks were subsequently spelled to allow pasture biomass recovery (treatments comprising 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months) with each compared with control treatments with lighter stocking rates for longer periods (2,000 DSE). Pastures were composed of wallaby grass (Austrodanthonia species), kangaroo grass (Themeda triandra), Phalaris (Phalaris aquatica, and cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata) were destructively sampled to estimate total standing dry matter (TSDM), standing green biomass, standing dry biomass and trampled biomass. We then invoked a machine learning model using Sentinel-2 imagery to quantify TSDM, standing green biomass and standing dry biomass. Faced with La Nina conditions, regenerative grazing did not significantly impact pasture productivity, with all treatments showing similar TSDM and green biomass. However, regenerative treatments significantly impacted litter fall and trampled material, with the high intensity grazing treatments causing more dry matter trampling, increasing litter, enhancing decomposition rates and surface organic matter. Pasture digestibility was greatest for treatments with minimal spelling (3 months), whereas both standing senescent and trampled material were significantly greater for the treatment with 15-month spell periods. Estimates of TSDM using machine learning with Sentinel-2 imagery underestimated TSDM in treatment plots but explained spatiotemporal variability associated within and across treatments. The root mean square error between the measured and modelled TSDM was 903 kg DM/ha, which was less than the variability measured in the field. We conclude that regenerative grazing with short recovery periods (3-6 months) are most conducive to increasing pasture production under high rainfall conditions, and we speculate that high intensity grazing is likely to positively impact on soil organic carbon through increased litterfall and trampling. Our study paves the way forward for using machine learning with satellite imagery to quantify pasture biomass at small scales, enabling management of pastures from afar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0532.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: adipose derived regenerative cells; ADRCs; efficacy; point of care treatment; stem cells; stromal vascular fraction; tendon healing without scar formation; tendon regeneration
Online: 28 June 2021 (15:47:12 CEST)
Current clinical treatment options for symptomatic, partial-thickness rotator cuff tear (sPTRCT) offer only limited potential for true tissue healing and improvement of clinical results. In animal models, injections of adult stem cells isolated from adipose tissue into tendon injuries evidenced histological regeneration of tendon tissue. However, it is unclear whether such beneficial effects could also be observed in a human tendon treated with fresh, uncultured, autologous, adipose derived regenerative cells (UA-ADRCs). A specific challenge in this regard is that UA-ADRCs cannot be labeled and, thus, not unequivocally identified in the host tissue. Therefore, histological regeneration of injured human tendons after injection of UA-ADRCs must be assessed using comprehensive, immunohistochemical and microscopic analysis of biopsies taken from the treated tendon a few weeks after injection of UA-ADRCs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0449.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Central Nervous System; Ependymal Cells; Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells; NG2+ Cells; Regenerative Medicine; Retina Injury; Spinal Cord Injury; Traumatic Brain Injury.
Online: 16 June 2021 (15:02:02 CEST)
Adult neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) contribute to learning, memory, maintenance of homeostasis, energy metabolism and many other essential processes. They are highly heterogeneous populations that require input from a regionally distinct microenvironment including a mix of neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells, NG2+ glia, vasculature, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and others. The diversity of NSPCs is present in all three major parts of the CNS, i.e., the brain, spinal cord, and retina. Intrinsic and extrinsic signals, e.g., neurotrophic and growth factors, master transcription factors, and mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM), collectively regulate activities and characteristics of NSPCs: quiescence/survival, proliferation, migration, differentiation, and integration. This review discusses the heterogeneous NSPC populations in the normal physiology and highlights their potentials and roles in injured/diseased states for regenerative medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1507.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: brake wear; particulate matter; plug in hybrid electric vehicle; electric vehicle; regenerative and hydraulic brake control system; WLTP-Brake cycle; non-exhaust emissions
Online: 23 November 2023 (10:03:32 CET)
The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of methods based on the Worldwide Harmonized Light-Duty Vehicles Test Procedure Brake Cycle to measure brake wear particle emissions for currently used electrified vehicles. Our results indicated that reducing brake friction work reduced brake wear particle emissions. Commercially available, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles reduced emissions by 85% for PM10, 78% for PM2.5, and 87% for particle numbers (PNs) compared to vehicles with internal combustion engines. Brake friction work showed a linear relationship with PM10 and PM2.5. Nanoparticle PM emissions tended to increase slightly with regenerative braking, but did not contribute significantly to the overall PM percentage. the emission events of high number concentrations of nuclei mode particles (<20 nm in diameter) in electric vehicle brake assemblies designed for regenerative braking use under high-temperature, high-load braking conditions with full-friction brakes. The nuclei mode particles amplified the PN emissions and led to a high variability. In strict regulatory certification tests, where measurement reproducibility and stability are required, it is appropriate to measure PNs under brake conditions appropriate for the actual use of electric vehicles rather than under full-friction brake conditions or to remove particle measurements smaller than 20 nm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: adipose-derived; bone regeneration; cartilage regeneration; clinical application; clinical studies; differentiation; hair loss; induced pluripotent stem cells; maxillary sinus augmentation; osteoarthritis; pluripotency; regenerative
Online: 17 April 2019 (11:25:14 CEST)
Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving attention from basic scientists and clinicians as they hold certain promise for regenerative medicine. This paper is intended to clarify and facilitate the understanding, development and adoption of regenerative medicine in general and specifically of therapies based on unmodified, autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells (UA-ADRCs). To this end, results of landmark experiments on stem cells and stem cell therapy performed in the labs of the authors are summarized, the most intriguing of which are the following: (i) vascular associated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from different organs (adipose tissue, heart, skin, bone marrow and skeletal muscle) and differentiated into ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm, providing significant support for the hypothesis of the existence of a small, ubiquitously distributed, universal vascular associated stem cell with full pluripotency; (ii) the orientation and differentiation of MSCs are driven by signals of the respective microenvironment; and (iii) these stem cells irrespective of the tissue origin exhibit full pluripotent differentiation potential without any prior genetic modification or the need for culturing. They can be obtained from a small amount of adipose tissue when using the appropriate technology for isolating the cells, and can be harvested from and re-applied to the same patient at the point of care without the need for complicated processing, manipulation, culturing, expensive equipment, or repeat interventions. These findings demonstrate the potential of UA-ADRCs for triggering the development of an entire new generation of medicine for the benefit of patients and of healthcare systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0373.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells; regenerative medicine; tissue engineering; Clinical Application; Differentiation Capacity; Cellular Immunomodulation; Inflammation; Signaling Cells; Transplantation; International Society for Cell and Gene Therapy
Online: 15 March 2021 (11:51:28 CET)
Early reports demonstrated the presence of cells with stem-like properties in bone marrow, with these cells having both hematopoietic and mesenchymal lineages. Over the years, various investigations have purified and characterized mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) from different human tissues as cells with multi-lineage differentiation potential under the appropriate conditions. Due to their appealing characteristics and potential, MSCs are leveraged in many applications including medicine, oncology, bioprinting and as recent as treatment of COVID-19. To date, reports indicate mesenchymal stromal/stem cells have varied differentiation capabilities into different cell types and demonstrate immunomodulating and anti-inflammatory properties. Reports indicate that different MSCs microenvironments or niche and the resulting heterogeneity may influence their behavior and differentiation capacity. The potential clinical applications of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells have led to an avalanche of research reports on their properties and hundreds of clinical trials being undertaken. The future looks bright and promising for mesenchymal stem cell research with many clinical trials under way to prove their utility in many applications and in the clinic. This report provides an update on the potential broader use of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, review early observations of the presence of these cells in the bone marrow and their magnificent differentiation capabilities and immunomodulation.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: liver failure; microRNAs (miRNAs); placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PD-MSCs); phosphatase of regenerating liver-1 (PRL-1); regenerative medicine; stem cells homing; vascular remodeling
Online: 1 July 2019 (17:00:18 CEST)
Placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PD-MSCs) have been highlighted as therapeutic sources in several degenerative diseases. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) were mediated one of the therapeutic mechanisms of PD-MSCs in regenerative medicine. To enhance the therapeutic effects of PD-MSCs, we established functionally enhanced PD-MSCs with phosphatase of regenerating liver-1 overexpression (PRL-1(+)). However, the profile and functions of miRNAs induced by PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs in a rat model with hepatic failure prepared by bile duct ligation (BDL) remained unclear. Hence, the objectives of the present study were to analyze the expression of miRNAs and investigate their therapeutic mechanisms for hepatic regeneration via PRL-1(+) in a rat model with BDL. We selected candidate miRNAs based on microarray analysis. Under hypoxic conditions, compared with invaded naïve PD-MSCs, invaded PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs showed improved integrin-dependent migration ability through RHO family-targeted miRNA expression (e.g., hsa-miR-30a-5p, 340-5p, and 146a-3p). Moreover, rno-miR-30a-5p and 340-5p regulated engraftment into injured rat liver by transplanted PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs through the integrin family. Additionally, an increase in PDGFRA by suppressing rno-miR-27a-3p improved vascular structure in rat liver tissues after PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs transplantation. Furthermore, decreased rno-miR-122-5p was significantly correlated with increased proliferation of hepatocytes in liver tissues by PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs by activating IL-6 signaling pathway through the repression of rno-miR-21-5p. Taken together, these findings improve the understanding of therapeutic mechanisms based on miRNA-mediated stem cell therapy in liver diseases.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1081.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Adipose derived regenerative cells; ADRCs; Bone marrow aspirate concentrate; BMAC; Corticosteroid; Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells; hUC-MSCs; Knee osteoarthritis; Stem cells; Stromal vascular fraction; SVF
Online: 16 November 2023 (11:29:01 CET)
A recent study published in Nature Medicine (Mautner et al., Nat Med 2023 Nov 2. doi: 10.1038/s41591-023-02632-w. Epub ahead of print) reported findings regarding a four-arm parallel, multicenter, single-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial with 480 patients, aimed at comparing the therapeutic effectiveness of orthobiologic interventions against corticosteroid injections for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA). The study concluded that, one-year post-treatment, all orthobiologic therapies examined were equivalent in effectiveness to each other and to corticosteroid injections. While we commend the scope and methodological rigor of the trial, the publication could be enhanced by a more comprehensive presentation of data to support the conclusions drawn. Particularly, the omission of baseline data for primary outcomes, the missing context to evaluate absolute values, the lack of discussion regarding interindividual variability, and the unexpectedly favorable results for corticosteroids that contrast the established literature, are areas that merit additional examination and insight. Here we aim to highlight these points for consideration, and advocate for the release of supplementary data to facilitate a comprehensive understanding and utilization of this rich dataset.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: vascular homing peptide; cell penetrating peptide; angiogenesis; vascular heterogeneity; fibrosis; targeted delivery; decorin; transforming growth factor-β (tgf-β), bystander effect, cendr peptide; tissue regeneration; regenerative medicine
Online: 10 December 2019 (15:02:39 CET)
Growth factors, chemokines and cytokines guide tissue regeneration after injuries. However, their applications as recombinant proteins are almost non-existent due to the difficulty of maintaining their bioactivity in the protease-rich milieu of injured tissues in humans. Safety concerns have ruled out their systemic administration. The vascular system provides a natural platform for circumvent the limitations of the local delivery of protein-based therapeutics. Tissue selectivity in drug accumulation can be obtained as organ-specific molecular signatures exist in the blood vessels in each tissue, essentially forming a postal code system (“vascular zip codes”) within the vasculature. These target-specific “vascular zip codes” can be exploited in regenerative medicine as the angiogenic vasculature forming in the regenerating tissues has a unique molecular signature. The identification of vascular homing peptides capable of finding these unique “vascular zip codes” after their systemic administration provides an opportunity for the target-specific delivery of therapeutics to tissue injuries. Therapeutic proteins can be “packaged” together with homing peptides by expressing them as multi-functional recombinant proteins. These multi-functional recombinant proteins provide an example how molecular engineering gives a compound an ability to home to regenerating tissue and enhance its therapeutic potential. Regenerative medicine has been dominated by the locally applied therapeutic approaches despite these therapies are not moving to clinical medicine with success. There might be a time to change the paradigm towards systemically administered, target organ-specific therapeutic molecules in future drug discovery and development for regenerative medicine
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0683.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: circular city; wastescapes; Regenerative Design; Landscape Services (LS); Ecosystem Services (ES); Ecosystem Disservices (EDS); fundamental human needs (FHN); multi-dimensional evaluation; decision-making process; MCDA; PROMETHEE-GAIA method.
Online: 28 July 2020 (12:39:34 CEST)
The unresolved territories are privileged places for the proliferation of degradation phenomena that affect the environment and human well-being. The impacts of their critical conditions go beyond the limits of the damaged urban fragments, involving the built environment, society, economy, culture and conditioning quality of life. This paper proposes a methodological approach to landscape design supported by an evaluation framework to orient strategic design planning with specific attention to unresolved territories consistent with circular economy perspective. The circular city principles are applied to spatial planning of landscape, by operationalising Ecosystem Services, Landscape Services, and Ecosystem Disservices, as interpretative categories for multi-dimensional regenerative strategies. Starting from the theoretical framework, the objective of the analysis is to implement an approach to the regenerative design of landscapes of waste, defined wastescapes. The industrial area of East Naples is the case study where an incremental evaluative approach has been defined to design scenarios to provide services and values, aimed to drive the conversion in a regenerativescape. A multi-criteria analysis through PROMETHEE-GAIA method has been implemented to compare the base case scenario with two incremental new scenarios and identify situated sustainable priorities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0090.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: adipose-derived regenerative cells; ADRCs; adipose-derived stem cells; ADSCs; bone regeneration, cartilage regeneration; efficacy; point of care treatment; stem cell; tendon healing without scar formation; tendon regeneration; vaPS cells
Online: 12 November 2021 (11:44:31 CET)
Background: Recently, the management of musculoskeletal disorders with the patients' own stem cells, isolated from the walls of small blood vessels, which can be found in great numbers in the adipose tissue, has received considerable attention. On the other hand, there are still misconceptions about these adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) that contain vascular-associated pluripotent stem cells (vaPS cells) in regenerative medicine. Methods: Based on our previous publications on this topic, we have developed a concept to describe the significance of the ADRCs/vaPS cells in the field of orthobiologics as briefly as possible and at the same time as precisely as possible. Results: The ADRCs/vaPS cells belong to the group of orthobiologics that are based on autologous cells. Because the latter can both stimulate a patient’s body's localized self-healing power and provide new cells that can integrate into the host tissue during the healing response when the localized self-healing power is exhausted, this group of orthobiologics appears more advantageous than cell-free orthobiologics and orthobiologics that are based on allogeneic cells. Within the group of orthobiologics that are based on autologous cells, enzymatically isolated, uncultured ADRCs/vaPS cells have several advantages over non-enzymatically isolated cells/microfragmented fat as well as over uncultured bone marrow aspirate concentrate and cultured cells (adipose-derived stem cells, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells). Conclusions: The use of ADRCs/vaPS cells can be seamlessly integrated into modern orthopedic treatment concepts, which can be understood as the optimization of a process which - albeit less efficiently - also takes place physiologically. Accordingly, this new safe and effective type of treatment is attractive in terms of holistic thinking and personalized medicine.