Preprint Review Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Why and How to Use the Body’s Own Stem Cells for Regeneration in Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Primer

Version 1 : Received: 2 November 2021 / Approved: 3 November 2021 / Online: 3 November 2021 (16:16:42 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 11 November 2021 / Approved: 12 November 2021 / Online: 12 November 2021 (11:44:31 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Journal reference: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research 2022, 17, 36
DOI: 10.1186/s13018-022-02918-8


Background: Recently, the management of musculoskeletal disorders with the patients' own stem cells, isolated from the walls of small blood vessels, which can be found in great numbers in the adipose tissue, has received considerable attention. On the other hand, there are still misconceptions about these adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) that contain vascular-associated pluripotent stem cells (vaPS cells) in regenerative medicine. Methods: Based on our previous publications on this topic, we have developed a concept to describe the significance of the ADRCs/vaPS cells in the field of orthobiologics as briefly as possible and at the same time as precisely as possible. Results: The ADRCs/vaPS cells belong to the group of orthobiologics that are based on autologous cells. Because the latter can both stimulate a patient’s body's localized self-healing power and provide new cells that can integrate into the host tissue during the healing response when the localized self-healing power is exhausted, this group of orthobiologics appears more advantageous than cell-free orthobiologics and orthobiologics that are based on allogeneic cells. Within the group of orthobiologics that are based on autologous cells, enzymatically isolated, uncultured ADRCs/vaPS cells have several advantages over non-enzymatically isolated cells/microfragmented fat as well as over uncultured bone marrow aspirate concentrate and cultured cells (adipose-derived stem cells, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells). Conclusions: The use of ADRCs/vaPS cells can be seamlessly integrated into modern orthopedic treatment concepts, which can be understood as the optimization of a process which - albeit less efficiently - also takes place physiologically. Accordingly, this new safe and effective type of treatment is attractive in terms of holistic thinking and personalized medicine.


adipose-derived regenerative cells; ADRCs; adipose-derived stem cells; ADSCs; bone regeneration, cartilage regeneration; efficacy; point of care treatment; stem cell; tendon healing without scar formation; tendon regeneration; vaPS cells


MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, Sport Sciences & Therapy

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 12 November 2021
Commenter: Christoph Schmitz
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Updated abstract; addition of information in the text (new reference no. 49).
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