ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0303.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: solid waste management; performance assessment; fuzzy rule-based modeling; performance indicators; Simulink MATLAB
Online: 30 January 2019 (06:55:00 CET)
Most of the municipalities in the Gulf region are facing performance related issues in their municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems. They lack to possess a deliberate inter-municipality benchmarking processes. Instead of identifying the performance gaps for their key components (e.g., personnel productivity, operational reliability, etc.) and adopt proactive measures, the municipalities primarily rely on an efficient emergency response. A novel hierarchical modeling framework, based on deductive reasoning, is developed for performance assessment of MSWM systems. Fuzzy rule based modeling using Simulink-MATLAB was used for performance inferencing at different levels, i.e., component, sub-components, etc. The model is capable of handling the inherent uncertainties due to limited data and imprecise knowledge base. The model’s outcomes can exclusively assist the managers working at different levels of organizational hierarchy for effective decision-making. Performance of the key component, assists the senior management to assess the overall compliance level of performance objectives. Subsequently, operation management can hone in the sub-components to acquire useful information for intra-municipality performance management. While, individual indicators are useful for inter-municipality benchmarking. The model has been implemented on two municipalities operating in Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia. The results demonstrate the model’s pragmatism for continuous performance improvement of MSWM systems in the country and elsewhere.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0042.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: performance-based management; performance measurement; good governance; local government; public agency
Online: 3 April 2019 (11:27:59 CEST)
Performance appraisal is a fundamental indicator in public accountability to achieve the good governance principles. Hence, this study aims to analyze the performance measurement that can improve performance on government agencies in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The study was conducted in qualitative approach. The research found that non-integrated models of performance measurement in South Sulawesi are inefficient and ineffective. Inefficiency happens because it uses time and cost resources separately, while being ineffective is because both models focuses on each goal instead on performance goals and the process is not supported by the actual management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0451.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: sustainable management control; performance evaluation system; resource-based theory; sustainable balanced scorecard.
Online: 24 July 2018 (09:31:34 CEST)
In this article, management control has been studied from the perspective of intention towards sustainable development of companies. The main idea focuses on the analysis of relations between sustainable management control and the system of performance appraisal using as a reference the resource-based theory. These relations have been assessed both theoretically by reviewing literature in the field, and empirically based on data collected in a questionnaire from top management, as well as data from Annual Reports from the main segment of Bucharest Stock Exchange. The authors have shown that financial performance has a significant influence on management control, and the return on capital employed is one of the most recommended indicators. The sustainable nature attributed to management control is the result of institutional theory evolution, provisions of Directive 2014/95/EU and Guide of Global Management Accounting Principles (2015) using stewardship. Consequently, profits are not the main element any more in the assessment of financial „health” of a company. To ensure the sustainable success, sustainable balanced scorecard is one of real measures for managing financial and non-financial performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0039.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Performance Management; COVID-19; Virtual Workplace; Trust-Based Working; Business Continuity; Pandemic
Online: 3 June 2022 (09:50:49 CEST)
Previous research has either neglected to consider misbehaviour or misconduct in the virtual workplace during the current COVID-19 pandemic or highlighted some challenges encountered with remote working or work from home but in isolation, e.g., misbehaviours or ethical concerns associated with improper use of technology when accessing clients’ confidential information, without understanding their aetiology and context in a holistic manner. This has impacted the ability of existing research in providing recommendations organisations can practically implement to improve the sustainability and productivity of the virtual workplace, especially as they seek to navigate the current pandemic and prepare for the global business environment in the next decade. Instead, this study, for the first time, proposes a novel holistic methodology to identify the aetiologies of ethical and performance challenges with focus to the Information Technology consulting sector, as well as developing a set of recommendations companies can adopt to manage such behavioural and productivity challenges. Thus, this study illustrates the key issues associated with remote working implemented to respond to the current COVID-19 pandemic, which mine not only the individual performance in an organisation but also its overall productivity, as well as suggests the main performance and reward management strategies that can be leveraged to mitigate them. Tailored strategies are described and discussed as referred to this industry to help in navigating a more unstable yet competitive market to manage the virtual employees’ misbehaviours in the workplace and drive growth for individuals and organisations alike.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0433.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: advanced industrial engineering; strategy; management; business performance; key performance indicators
Online: 28 July 2022 (08:43:32 CEST)
The paper deals with the design of a systematic procedure for implementing strategy changes into internal business processes for a project-oriented production type of organization. In the first part of the contribution, a summary of the theoretical starting points for the field of strategic management and change management is presented. In the second part, the contribution deals with the analysis of the current situation in the area of the impact of the change of strategy on the management of business processes. In the last part, the proposal of the procedure for implementing strategy changes into internal business processes and the verification results are presented. The proposed procedure includes steps where the selection and verification of key performance indicators at individual levels of management plus the quantification of the impact of the change in strategy on the processes takes place. The management can thus monitor and evaluate the chosen processes in accordance with the fulfilment of the chosen strategy of the company. The last chapter presents the verification of the proposal for the systematic introduction of changes into the processes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0544.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: pillar-based lake management; object-based lake management; Lake Rawapening
Online: 29 November 2022 (08:49:57 CET)
Lake Rawapening, Semarang Regency, Indonesia, has incorporated a holistic plan in its management practices. However, despite successful target achievements, some limitations remain that a review of its management plan is needed. This paper identifies and analyzes existing lake management strategies as a standard specifically in Lake Rawapening by exploring various literature, both legal frameworks and scholarly articles indexed in Google Scholar and published in Water by MDPI about lake management in many countries. There are two major types of lake management, namely pillar-based and object-based. While the former is the foundation of a conceptual paradigm that does not comprehensively consider the roles of finance and technology in the lake management, the latter indicates the objects to manage so as to create standards or benchmarks for the implementation of various programs. Overall, Lake Rawapening management should include more programs on erosion-sedimentation control and monitoring of operational performance using information systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0239.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ATO; Performance Evaluation; Scenario-based Testing; Simulation
Online: 17 March 2022 (02:42:05 CET)
There is increasing interest in automating train operations of mainline services, e.g. to increase network capacity. Automatic train operation (ATO) is already achieved by several pilot projects, but not implemented on a large scale. Before the general introduction of new or adapted technologies can have a transformative effect on the operation of such a complex system as train operation on mainlines, they have to pass functional, interoperability and performance tests. A virtual preliminary analysis is one way to ensure a smooth as well as safe introduction and implementation. This paper aims to present an approach that applies to the performance testing of ATO systems. Therefore, methods and test standards for technologies enabling automatic operation in other transport sectors are reviewed. The main findings have been adapted, transformed and combined to be used as a general strategy for virtual performance testing in the railway sector. Specifically, universal performance indicators, namely punctuality, accuracy, energy consumption, safety and comfort, are presented. A layer model for scenario description is adapted from the automotive sector, as well as the definition of different scenario types. Lastly, factors that can influence the performance of an ATO algorithm are identified. To demonstrate the developed approach, a straightforward investigation of a case study is conducted using a microscopic train simulator in combination with an ATO algorithm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: performance-based building design; PBBD; high-rise residential.
Online: 7 July 2020 (09:46:46 CEST)
The complexity of the design in high-rise residential projects is a challenge for the construction industry in completing projects that fit the needs of users. Performance-Based Building Design (PBBD) appears as a design concept that can describe these needs into performance requirements. In this case designing a building can be considered as an iterative process of exploration, where desired functional properties can be created, the shapes are suggested, and evaluation processes is used, so as to bring together the shapes and functions of the building. This concept is a container for designers to produce high-performance buildings. This study aimed to identify the performance-based building design factors applied by architect designers and engineers in high-rise residential building in Surabaya. As part of this study, primary data was collected based on surveys conducted through observation and questionnaire distributed to designers who had or were involved in the high-rise residential design process in Surabaya. A total of sixty-eight respondents were included in this study. Descriptive analysis through a mean and standard deviation scatter plot was used to rank the application of PBBD. Meanwhile, factor analysis was used in the analysis of PBBD application factors. From the results of the analysis, four factors were obtained for the application of PBBD in high-rise residential buildings in Surabaya, namely; the interests of occupants, the sustainability of building operations, the design collaboration process, and the risk of loss. Future research is the influence relationships and measure the success model of PBBD at a higher level into BIM (Building Information Modeling) interoperability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0110.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: capital structure; firm’s performance; panel data; unit root analysis; Bangladesh
Online: 22 November 2016 (09:36:36 CET)
Capital structure decision plays an imperative role in firm’s performance. Recognizing the importance, there has been many studies inspected the rapport of capital structure with performance of firms and findings of those studies are inconclusive. In addition, there is relative deficiency of empirical studies examining the link of capital structure with performance of banks in Bangladesh. This paper attempted to fill this gap. Using panel data of 22 banks for the period of 2005-2014, this study empirically examined the impacts of capital structure on the performance of Bangladeshi banks assessed by return on equity, return on assets and earnings per share. Results from pooled ordinary least square analysis show that there are inverse impacts of capital structure on bank’s performance. Empirical findings of this study is of greater significance for the developing countries like Bangladesh because it will call upon concentration of the bank management and policy makers to pursue such policies to reduce reliance on debt and to accomplish optimal level capital structure. This research also contributes to empirical literatures by reconfirming (or otherwise) findings of previous studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0149.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: adaptive co-marketing; social marketing; community-based social marketing; social license to operate; community engagement; corporate social responsibility; marketing strategy
Online: 30 November 2016 (05:13:35 CET)
The concept of a Social License to Operate (SLO) has become increasingly important in the sustainability literature in recent years. Having its origins in the business discourse of the mining industry with respect to limiting opposition to mining projects, the notion of a social contract above and beyond legal requirements has since become applied across a number of different industries. Despite the concepts adoption confusion exists over the practices and outcomes of SLO, and particularly the nature of engagement. Given this situation it is surprising that not more attention to the role of marketing, and social marketing in particular, in operationalizing the concept. The paper discusses the potential of social marketing to contribute to SLO. Economic, political and social relations are complex in SLO and exchange is intricate in such relational environments. A community-based social marketing orientation is proposed as a means to improve exchange relations and enhance engagement. Seven models of SLO related social marketing models are discussed with community-based social marketing and adaptive co-marketing models being regarded as the most positive for the achievement of an SLO. Potential barriers to adoption of these approaches are noted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0393.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: activity-based balance index; soccer; accelerometer; performance; skill assessment
Online: 24 May 2020 (18:09:18 CEST)
The aim of this study was to introduce a new activity-based balance index by using accelerometer data. Twenty-seven junior soccer players from the Iranian premier league were selected. Four functional tests, consisting of one leg stance, dynamic Y balance, running and dribbling tests, were conducted to assess the players’ balance, activity and skill. During these four tests, besides their relative scores, the acceleration of their body center was also recorded. Activity-based balance index (ABI) was calculated using these acceleration data. The results showed positive correlations between ABI and both static and dynamic balance scores. Additionally, negative correlations were found between ABI and dribbling scores, which demonstrate the agility required for this skill. It seems that this new index achieves the evaluation of both the balance and the skill level of soccer players. Perhaps this is a new way of talent identification and also a re-development of balance tests from traditional to modern.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0075.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: SCM; SCM performance; mediated power; non- mediated power; partnership quality
Online: 16 January 2017 (10:21:48 CET)
A supply chain management (SCM) system is a strategic cooperative that organically integrates all supply chains to improve the performance of a company. The greatest critical success factor of SCM is partnership. Without cooperation between companies, SCM performance is limited. Does this imply, therefore, that companies within the supply chain can achieve mutual transactions equally? If the power between companies is unequal, how does this affect their partnership? The focus of this study is to assess whether power types enhance SCM performance through partnerships. We categorize power types as mediated and non-mediated. Mediated power is categorized based on coercion, reward, and legitimate, while non-mediated power is categorized based on information, expert, and reference. Therefore, this study examines how power types form a causal partnership relationship within the supply chain, and performs an empirical investigation on how the partnerships influence SCM performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0156.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Health care risk waste, home-based caregivers
Online: 8 October 2018 (16:02:59 CEST)
The quadruple burden of diseases, early discharge from hospital and hospital at home have resulted in home-based care services becoming a requirement in South Africa. The home-based care services generate a significant amount of health care risk waste that is mismanaged. However, more attention is given to the health care risk waste generated in hospitals and clinics than to health care risk waste generated by home-based caregivers. Therefore, this study investigates the health care risk waste management practices by home-based caregivers. The study adopted a mixed research approach, qualitative and quantitative methods, using a literature review, interviews, and questionnaires as means of data collection. Results show that there are different types of health care risk waste generated as a result of different activities performed by home-based caregivers, but that the waste was found to be managed in an unsafe manner. The majority of households receiving home-based care did not have basic sanitation facilities such as toilets, running water and waste removal services, aggravating the issue of health care risk waste mismanagement. The study recommends a new policy framework that will lead to safe management practices of generated health care risk waste to be adopted by home-based caregivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0731.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: COVID-19; crisis management; Korean fitness center; Importance–Performance Analysis
Online: 28 April 2021 (07:47:57 CEST)
: The purpose of this research was to verify the importance and performance of crisis management in Korean fitness center using Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA). For this study, 304 fitness center executives and managers in Seoul and Gyeonggi region were selected as from March 21 to May 17, 2020. Frequency analysis was performed using SPSS 24.0 and exploratory factor analysis was conducted to verify the validity and reliability. Priority analysis and IPA analysis were performed to compare the mean values, and the following results were obtained. First, in the first quadrant, there were 6 attributes besides keep social distancing between employees and customers. Second, in the second quadrant, there were four attributes in addition to regular disinfection of the gymnasium. Third, in the third quadrant, there were 6 attributes besides maintain furniture clean. Third, there were 6 attributes other than maintaining furniture clean in the third quadrant. Fourth, in the fourth quadrant, there are three attributes in addition to the restriction of face-to-face meetings. The conclusion is as follows. First, equip supplies for prevention of covid19, keep social distance, and check government support policies. Second, analyze of economic support policies, and research on their application methods. Third, Prepare various non-face-to-face communication methods and Untact(non-contact) marketing strategies. Fourth, make a checklist for factors with relatively little importance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0713.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Flood management; ecosystems; climate change; indicators; benchmarking; nature-based
Online: 30 November 2020 (09:55:54 CET)
This paper discusses devastating urban floods in the year 2019 that caused human and socioeconomic losses in many countries, including Iran. The main question addressed by this paper is the choice between two flood management models, namely, the optimal and nature-based flood management or the existing hazardous situation that damage the ecosystem and natural resources. The analysis of this paper will find the main responsible factors in the mentioned floods in Iran. For this reason, it examines the impacts of the existing flood management that neglects the ecosystems, environmental components, and nature. The method of this research includes theoretical studies, case studies with the help of structured interviews, and observations. A benchmarking technique compares the two alternatives. The comparisons use seven indicators abstracted from successful global experiences and local knowledge. Finally, this research presents a model for optimal flood management that is applicable everywhere in the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0186.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: sharing economy; sharing workers; human resource management practices; service performance; work engagement
Online: 10 May 2021 (12:39:44 CEST)
Based on the Organizational Support Theory, this study examines the relationship between human resource management practices and service performance of sharing workers by demonstrating the mediation role of work engagement. We tested this theoretical model using an in-person interview questionnaire survey of 318 downwind drivers. Results showed that: (1) the main effect of human resource management practices of sharing workers on service performance was significant; (2) work engagement played a prominent mediation role between human resource management practices and service performance of sharing workers; (3) the mediation role of employee vigor between the platform incentives and the performance of employee services was significant; (4) employee dedication had an obvious and indirectly positive mediating effect between sharing workers' dimensions of human resource management practice and their service performance; (5) employee absorption on the mediation role between the various dimensions of the sharing human resources management practices (platform support, platform incentives and platform constraints) and employee service performance was significant. This study has important value for the study on human resource management practices in the context of sharing economy, and provides practical enlightenment for employee management of the sharing economy platform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0201.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: Public hospitals; Performance; Efficiency; Quality; COVID19; Network-based Data Envelopment Analysis
Online: 14 October 2022 (03:37:41 CEST)
COVID-19 is a well-known respiratory disease spreading worldwide since January 2020, causing many deaths and massive pressure on health systems. This pandemic’s appearance compromised the health services’ sustainability and quality as many procedures were postponed or even canceled out, with an expected increase of adverse events like nosocomial infections, in-hospital deaths, and the worsening of the patients’ clinical status. Therefore, assessing whether the healthcare providers’ performance has changed is paramount. In this case, we evaluated the public hospitals in Portugal as the leading secondary health care providers in the country, which in turn has been highly affected by the pandemic. To this end, we developed a network Data Envelopment Analysis model serially relating efficiency and effectiveness. Using 2,795 observations from public hospitals and 18 variables, we observed consistent drops in efficiency when the pandemic started, followed by a recovery to levels above the pre-pandemic ones. Regarding effectiveness, we observed a positive trend during the evaluated period. In short, these results allow us to conclude that, apart from the great resilience of public healthcare providers, the Portuguese State was not prepared for a pandemic like COVID-19, but still the actions taken (including massive vaccination) were beneficial.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0112.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: HE course management； evidence-based practice； professionalism； practice
Online: 26 June 2017 (04:33:02 CEST)
This paper outlines evidence-based practice in the context of professionalism, and highlights the contribution evidence-based practice can make to the professional practice of higher education course managers. Implications of the changing HE landscape for the status of academics as professionals are reviewed, and evidence-based practice is proposed as a solution for both enhanced course management and to remedy perceived deprofessionalisation. Finally, questions regarding researching professional practice within one’s own institution are addressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0452.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: knowledge management (KM); communities of practice (CoP); tacit knowledge; knowledge sharing; KM cycle; CoP framework, organizational culture, performance measurement
Online: 27 August 2018 (11:04:27 CEST)
In this digital world, organisations are facing global competition as well as manpower pressures leading towards knowledge economy, which heavily impacts on their local and international businesses. The trend is to foster collaboration and knowledge sharing to cope with these problems. With the advancement of technologies and social engineering that can connect people in virtual world across time and distance, several organisations are embarking on knowledge management (KM) systems, implementing community of practice (CoP) approach. However, virtual communities are relatively new paradigms, and there are several challenges to their successful implementation from an organisation’s point of interest. There is lack of CoP implementation framework that can cater to today’s dynamic business and sustainability requirements. To fill the gap in literature, this paper develops a practical framework for a CoP implementation with a view to align KM strategy with business strategy of an organization. It explores the different steps of building, sharing and using tacit and explicit knowledge in CoPs by applying Wiig KM cycle. It proposes a practical CoP implementation framework that adopts the Benefits-Tools-Organisation-People-Process (BTOPP) model in addressing the key questions surrounding each of the BTOPP elements with a structured approach. Finally, it identifies key challenges such as organizational culture and performance measurements, and provides practical recommendations to overcome them for a successful CoP implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0243.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: internet of things (IoT); low-power wide area network (LPWAN); mixed integer linear programming (milp); lorawan; lora simulator (lorasim); open-source; optimization; quality-of-service (qos); data extraction rate; packet collision rate; energy consumption; energy efficiency; network performance; protocol overhead; performance evaluation; performance improvement
Online: 6 November 2019 (03:57:34 CET)
Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) enable a growing number of Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications with large geographical coverage, low bit-rate, and long lifetime requirements. LoRa (Long Range) is a well-known LPWAN technology that uses a proprietary Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) physical layer, while the upper layers are defined by an open standard - LoRaWAN. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective method to improve the Quality-of-Service (QoS) of LoRa networks by fine-tuning specific radio parameters. Through a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problem formulation, we find optimal settings for the Spreading Factor (SF) and Carrier Frequency (CF) radio parameters, considering the network traffic specifications as a whole, to improve the Data Extraction Rate (DER) and to reduce the packet collision rate and the energy consumption in LoRa networks. The effectiveness of the optimization procedure is demonstrated by simulations, using LoRaSim for different network scales. In relation to the traditional LoRa radio parameter assignment policies, our solution leads to an average increase of 6% in DER, and a number of collisions 13 times smaller. In comparison to networks with dynamic radio parameter assignment policies, there is an increase of 5%, 2.8%, and 2% of DER, and a number of collisions 11, 7.8 and 2.5 times smaller than equal-distribution, Tiurlikova's (SoTa), and random distribution, respectively. Regarding the network energy consumption metric, the proposed optimization obtained an average consumption similar to Tiurlikova's, and 2.8 times lower than the equal-distribution and random dynamic allocation policies. Furthermore, we approach the practical aspects of how to implement and integrate the optimization mechanism proposed in LoRa, guaranteeing backward compatibility with the standard protocol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0156.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: rule-based system; reservoir management model; land management model; SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool)
Online: 10 May 2018 (06:27:38 CEST)
Decision tables have been used for many years in data processing and business applications to simulate complex rule sets. Several computer languages have been developed based on rule systems and they are easily programmed in several current languages. Land management and river-reservoir models simulate complex land management operations and reservoir management in highly regulated river systems. Decision tables are a precise yet compact way to model the rule sets and corresponding actions found in these models. In this study, we discuss the suitability of decision tables to simulate management in the river basin scale Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT+) model. Decision tables are developed to simulate automated irrigation and reservoir releases. A simple auto irrigation application of decision tables was developed using plant water stress as a condition for irrigating corn in Texas. Sensitivity of the water stress trigger and irrigation application amounts were shown on soil moisture and corn yields. In addition, the Grapevine Reservoir near Dallas, Texas was used to illustrate the use of decision tables to simulate reservoir releases. The releases were conditioned on reservoir volumes and flood season. The release rules as implemented by the decision table realistically simulated flood releases as evidenced by a daily NSE (Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency) of 0.52 and a percent bias of -1.1%. Using decision tables to simulate management in land, river and reservoir models was shown to have several advantages over current approaches including: 1) mature technology with considerable literature and applications, 2) ability to accurately represent complex, real world decision making, 3) code that is efficient, modular and easy to maintain, and 4) tables that are easy to maintain, support, and modify.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0162.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Leadership, management, competency-based learning, organizational performance, institutions of higher learning, university, education
Online: 15 March 2019 (10:04:47 CET)
This paper presents a brief account and rationale for implementation of competency-based learning in any form of management and leadership development programmes in South Africa. The fact that competency-based learning (CBL), also known as outcomes-based learning has been scrapped from the schooling system in South Africa is unfortunate as this method enhances critical thinking skills and practical problem-solving skills. This paper presents CBL as a model of meta-cognitive approach to learning that integrates both theory and practice into experiential learning through six dimensions, namely, active learning, constructive learning, cumulative learning, goal-oriented learning, learner-centred and curriculum design strategies. In the advent of the fast-paced global economy, managers and leaders need to seek those business schools that value real-time practical approach to curriculum for relevance and to maximize shareholder value through human resource development. This brief presentation ends by recommending an approach through CBL that fosters three critical pillars of leadership development, namely: intellectual, behavioural and emotional agenda.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0024.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: infiltration based BMP’s; flood; infiltration; clogging; soil permeability; underdrain; soil saturation rate; drainage basin; urban drainage
Online: 3 February 2019 (03:05:39 CET)
Infiltration based stormwater best management practices bring considerable economic, social and ecological benefits. Controlling stormwater quantity and quality are primarily important to prevent urban flooding and minimizing loads of pollutants to the receiving waters. However, there have been growing concerns about how the traditional design approach contributes to the failure of infiltration based BMP’s that have caused flooding, ponding, prolonged movement of surface water, and frequent clogging, etc. Many of these problems were due to the fact that the current design approaches of stormwater BMP’s only focus on surface hydrology and give little or no attention to the underline subsoil permeability rate and other constraints during the design and sizing process. As a result, we are exhibiting many newly constructed infiltration based BMP’s are failing to function well. This paper presents and demonstrates a new paradigm shift in designing infiltration-based stormwater BMP’s by combining subsurface hydrology and undelaying native soil constraints to establish acceptable criteria for sizing infiltration based BMPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0037.v3
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: converter-based microgrids; renewable energy sources; optimum battery control; real-time energy management; particle swarm optimisation
Online: 14 January 2019 (10:15:30 CET)
Real-time energy management of a converter-based microgrid is difficult to determine optimal operating points of a storage system in order to save costs and minimise energy waste. This complexity arises due to time-varying electricity prices, stochastic energy sources and power demand. Many countries have imposed real-time electricity pricing to efficiently control demand side management. This paper presents a particle swarm optimisation (PSO) for the application of real-time energy management to find optimal battery controls of a community microgrid. The modification of the PSO consists in altering the cost function to better model the battery charging/discharging operations. As optimal control is performed by formulating a cost function, it is suitably analysed and then a dynamic penalty function in order to obtain the best cost function is proposed. Several case studies with different scenarios are conducted to determine the effectiveness of the proposed cost function. The proposed cost function can reduce operational cost by 12% as compared to the original cost function over a time horizon of 96 hours. Simulation results reveal the suitability of applying the regularised PSO algorithm with the proposed cost function, which can be adjusted according to the need of the community, for real-time energy management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0303.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: boron; lithium battery; lithium-ion batteries; cathode; anode; electrolyte; battery thermal management system (BTMS); battery performance
Online: 23 May 2022 (10:57:06 CEST)
Lithium batteries and an increasing focus on CO2 reduction have become an integral part of daily life and business for many people. Boron and boron compounds have been widely studied together in the history and development of lithium batteries. With a broad examination of battery components and systems but a boron-centric approach to raw materials, this review seeks to summarize past and recent studies on the following: which boron compounds are studied in lithium battery, in which parts of lithium batteries, what improvements are offered for battery performance, and what improvement mechanisms can be explained. The uniqueness of boron and its extensive application beyond batteries contextualizes the interesting similarity with studies on batteries. The paper predominantly focuses on lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) but also mentions other lithium batteries. At the end, the article aims to predict prospective trends for future studies that may lead to the successful and extensive use of boron compounds on a commercial scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0104.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: advanced nuclear fuel cycles; waste management; resource utilization; economics; performance comparison; multi-criteria decision analysis; sensitivity/uncertainty analysis; environmental footprint
Online: 30 August 2017 (12:35:24 CEST)
Is it true that the nuclear technology applied to electric energy generation offers a clean, safe, reliable and affordable i.e. sustainable alternative? Yes it is, but its impact on the environment strongly depends on the implementation bearing residual risks due to a human factor, technical failures or natural catastrophes. A full response is therefore difficult and can first be given when the wicked multi-disciplinary problems get well formulated and “solved”. These problems have multi-dimensional nature lying at the interface between: necessary R&D effort, the industrial deployment and the technology impact in view of the environmental sustainability including the management of produced hazardous waste. This enormous complexity indicates that just a description of the problem might represent a problem. The paper proposes a holistic approach to assess the nuclear energy systems potential with respect to sustainable performance applying Multi-criteria decision analysis with a suitable objective tree and a multi-level criteria structure and examines the trading-off techniques for ranking of the alternatives. The framework proposes a multi-criteria and multi-stakeholders treatment which can be used as a pre-decisional support towards an implementation of nuclear fuel cycles adapted to national preferences and priorities. Proposed approach addresses some aspects of the environmental footprint of nuclear energy systems. Advanced nuclear fuel cycles, previously investigated by the NEA/OECD expert group WASTEMAN, are analyzed as a case study. Sustainability facets of waste management, resource utilization and economics are in focus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0360.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Random Forest; Iterative Random Forest; gene expression networks; high performance computing; X-AI-based eQTL
Online: 31 October 2019 (02:33:17 CET)
As time progresses and technology improves, biological data sets are continuously increasing in size. New methods and new implementations of existing methods are needed to keep pace with this increase. In this paper, we present a high performance computing(HPC)-capable implementation of Iterative Random Forest (iRF). This new implementation enables the explainable-AI eQTL analysis of SNP sets with over a million SNPs. Using this implementation we also present a new method, iRF Leave One Out Prediction (iRF-LOOP), for the creation of Predictive Expression Networks on the order of 40,000 genes or more. We compare the new implementation of iRF with the previous R version and analyze its time to completion on two of the world's fastest supercomputers Summit and Titan. We also show iRF-LOOP's ability to capture biologically significant results when creating Predictive Expression Networks. This new implementation of iRF will enable the analysis of biological data sets at scales that were previously not possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: low-back pain (LBP); guidelines; gaps; evidence-based; acute pain; analgesics; multimodal analgesia; fixed doses combination (FDC)
Online: 26 August 2022 (04:36:13 CEST)
Acute low back pain (LBP) stands as a leading cause of activity limitation and work absenteeism, and its associated healthcare expenditures are expected to become substantial when acute LBP develops into a chronic and even refractory condition. Therefore, early intervention is crucial to prevent progression to chronic pain whose management is particularly challenging and for which the most effective pharmacological therapy is still controversial. Current guideline treatment recommendations vary and are mostly driven by expertise with opinion differing across different interventions. Thus, it is difficult to formulate evidence-based guidance when relatively few randomized clinical trials did explore the diagnosis and management of LBP while employing different selection criteria, statistical analyses, and outcome measurements. This narrative review aims to provide a critical appraisal of current acute LBP management by discussing the unmet needs and areas of improvement from bench-to-bedside and proposes multimodal analgesia as the way forward to attain an effective and prolonged pain relief and functional recovery in patients with acute LBP.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: triple constraints; augmented reality; Augmented reality-based learning systems; time; cost; scope; artificial intelligence; education
Online: 9 December 2019 (09:17:17 CET)
Over the last few decades there has been an exponential growth in IT, motivating IT professionals and scientists to explore new dimensions resulting in the advancement of artificial intelligence and its subcategories like computer vision, deep learning and augmented reality. AR is comparatively a new area which was initially explored for gaming but recently a lot of work has been done in education using AR. Most of this focuses on improving students understanding and motivation. Like any other project, the performance of an AR based project is determined by the customer satisfaction which is usually affected by the theory of triple constraints; cost, time and scope. many studies have shown that most of the projects are under development because they are unable to overcome these constraints and meet project objectives. We were unable to find any notable work done regarding project management for augmented reality systems and application. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a system for management of AR applications which mainly focuses on catering triple constraints to meet desired objectives. Each variable is further divided into subprocesses and by following these processes successful completion of the project can be achieved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0145.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: banking; financial performance; sustainability performance
Online: 15 January 2020 (07:23:42 CET)
Banking sector is generally taken out of sample while the sustainability performance, and the financial performance are compared with each other. The core aim of this study is to analyze the effect of the declarations made in the cope of sustainability reports on the financial performance in the banking sector. Seven banks were included in the study which were placed at least one time in BIST Sustainability Index in between 2010-2017 years. Environment, human resources, product liability and community involvement were determined as sustainability criteria and return on assets, return on equity and net interest margin were determined as financial performance criteria. Non-Parametric Statistic Tests and Panel Data Analysis were used for analysis and types, and the sizes of banks were selected as dummy variables. As a result, it is found that the declarations of sustainability reports have a significant effect only on return on assets and have no significant effect on return on equity and net interest margin. And also, when we analyzed the relationship of sustainability criteria and return on assets, we found that the declarations about environment and human resources have negative effects on return on assets.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: functional dependency; network-based linear dependency modelling; internet of things; micro mort model; goal-oriented approach; transformation roadmap; cyber risk regulations; empirical analysis; cyber risk self-assessment; cyber risk target state.
Online: 25 December 2020 (11:35:48 CET)
The Internet-of-Things (IoT) triggers new types of cyber risks. Therefore, the integration of new IoT devices and services requires a self-assessment of IoT cyber security posture. By security posture this article refers to the cybersecurity strength of an organisation to predict, prevent and respond to cyberthreats. At present, there is a gap in the state-of-the-art, because there are no self-assessment methods for quantifying IoT cyber risk posture. To address this gap, an empirical analysis is performed of 12 cyber risk assessment approaches. The results and the main findings from the analysis is presented as the current and a target risk state for IoT systems, followed by conclusions and recommendations on a transformation roadmap, describing how IoT systems can achieve the target state with a new goal-oriented dependency model. By target state, we refer to the cyber security target that matches the generic security requirements of an organisation. The research paper studies and adapts four alternatives for IoT risk assessment and identifies the goal-oriented dependency modelling as a dominant approach among the risk assessment models studied. The new goal-oriented dependency model in this article enables the assessment of uncontrollable risk states in complex IoT systems and can be used for a quantitative self-assessment of IoT cyber risk posture.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0275.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Africa; ecologically based rodent management; field rodents; pest management; rodent control; rodenticides; rodents; synanthropic rodents.
Online: 16 January 2023 (07:54:30 CET)
The use of synthetic chemical rodenticides is the most commonly practiced rodent management method in sub-Saharan Africa which results in health and environmental risks without any significant improvement in terms of reducing rodent pest populations sustainably. In this paper, which is a second part of a diptych, we advocate for better control of the use of synthetic chemical rodenticides in urban and agricultural settings in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as a shift towards more sustainable and environment-friendly rodent management approaches, such as the Ecologically-Based Rodent Management (EBRM), as a realistic alternative to synthetic rodenticides. The EBRM approach relies on a solid knowledge of pest rodent biology, ecology and behavior as well as the use of a pool of rodent management actions implemented through community-based interventions to ensure sustained reduction of rodent pest populations down to economically and sanitary acceptable levels. EBRM is expected not only to ensure reducing the social impacts of pest rodents in cost-beneficial ways, but also the risks of rodents and synthetic rodenticides to human health and the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0032.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Environmental decision support systems; applications; outcome-based approach; adaptive management; user requirements; environmental management; participatory land planning
Online: 6 October 2017 (08:51:07 CEST)
There is increasing demand from stakeholders for tools to support outcome-based approaches in environmental management. For such tools to be useful, understanding user requirements is key. In Scotland, UK, stakeholders were engaged in the development of an Environmental Decision Support System (EDSS) to support the management of land and freshwater resources for multiple policy outcomes. A structured participatory engagement process was employed to determine stakeholder requirements, establish development principles to fulfil these requirements and road-test prototypes. The EDSS specification that emerged from this bottom-up process was spatially-explicit, free at the point of use, and touch and mobile device compatible. This application, which is under development, does not closely resemble most existing published EDSS. We suggest that there is a mismatch between the way scientists typically conceptualise EDSS and the kinds of applications that are likely to be useful to decision-makers on the ground. Interactive mobile and web-based geospatial information services have become ubiquitous in our daily lives, but their importance is not reflected in current literature on EDSS. The current focus in environmental management on adaptive, stakeholder-centred strategies based on outcomes offers an opportunity to make better use of these new technologies to aid decision-making processes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0138.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Underwriter; IPO’s; Performance; underwriter reputation; IPO’s Performance
Online: 5 September 2020 (09:55:05 CEST)
In this paper, it is defined that how the IPOs are affected by the underwriter reputation. What will happen to IPOs who are backed by reputed underwriter and who is not? And evaluate the IPOs short-run and long-run performance. Also try to explain the relationship between IPOs and underwriter. Also tried to compare some of the international return and Pakistani returns. Also determine the relation of the investor to the underwriter. There is a set of investors who have there own relationship with the underwriters how they will affect on the IPOs in the market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Data Management; Utilization and Analysis; Capacity Building; Health professionals; Workforce Development; Evidence Based
Online: 7 June 2018 (08:54:20 CEST)
The objective of the study was to investigate the gap between data and evidence-based decisions among healthcare professionals considering the enormous amount of individual and aggregate data collected. Our study assessed the capacity, skills, and knowledge of the Ministry of Health leadership staff to understand data management, analysis, utilization, and dissemination. Three key components were assessed: 1) Knowledge through true/false questions, 2) Level of Skill (and Competency) using a Likert scale, and 3) Understanding of Key Concepts and Tools based on a Likert scale. The 183 study respondents were diverse healthcare professionals from Kenya, Tanzania, and Rwanda. Majority of respondents had not received any training on data management, analysis, interpretation, and utilization techniques, further there was a significant difference between those who had received training versus those who had not(p=0.005). The respondents were competent in work-related experiences but lacked skills and knowledge on: data concepts and tools, study designs, and types of data analysis. These findings explain the gap between data management, analysis, utilization, and dissemination among health professional’s cadre. To enhance service delivery and optimal provision of health care, it is imperative to have all health care professionals receive a well-designed training on data management, analysis, interpretation, and utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0195.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: decision support systems; environmental state; Case Based Reasoning; Analytic Hierarchy Process; environmental management actions; driving-force variables; pressure variables
Online: 18 September 2019 (03:32:42 CEST)
This paper proposes a Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) system to contribute to reinforce the sustainable performance of an environmental management system. The CBR system aims to support the decision-making process to select environmental management actions aimed at reducing risky trends of the environmental state of a region. The CBR system takes advantage of a set of situation-solution pairs called cases, which are stored in a memory and then retrieved as candidates to solve new problems. Situations in this work are represented by a set of risky trends of the following key environmental variables: CO2 emissions, Air-Quality, Loss of Vegetation Cover, Water Availability, and Solid Waste, whose combination damage the environmental state quality of a region. Meanwhile, solutions are represented by a set of environmental management actions. Similar situations to a given current situation are retrieved from the memory of cases and then their solutions are combined, through an adaptation mechanism, until the solution of the current problem is obtained. We used risky trends derived from real data related to the environmental states of a Mexican region to test the proposed CBR system. The results obtained provided insights into the potential of CBR systems to support the decision-making process to select environmental management actions aimed at reducing risky trends of current environmental states.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0612.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: translucent textile membrane roof, climate-based daylight modelling, daylight performance, energy conservation, translucent thermal insulation, multi-layer membrane
Online: 31 July 2018 (08:58:49 CEST)
Daylight usage in buildings improves visual comfort and lowers the final energy demand for artificial lighting. The question always occurs: how much conservation can you achieve? New upcoming or rare materials and constructions have a lack of information about their application. Therefore, the current work investigates the daylight performance of a multi-layer textile membrane roof with 2 300 m² on top of a sports hall. A translucent, thermal insulation with a glass fibre fleece between the roof membranes combines daylight usage and heating demand reduction. A sports hall with built year 2017 is selected as the case study building. The optical properties of the roof construction are measured. The (visual) light transmittance amounts to 0.72 % with a clean surface. An accordingly parametrized climate-based annual daylight modeling delivers daylight indicators for different construction scenarios. The results show that in comparison to only one glass facade, the additional translucent and thermally insulated membrane construction increases the annual daylight autonomy700/ continuous DA700 from 0/ 15 % to 1.5/ 38 %. In the roof covered areas of the sport field, this results in a reduction from 19.7 to 13.8 kWhel/m²/a electricity for the artificial lighting with dim control (30 % savings). Also, the influence of soiling on the light transmittance was determined with a relevant reduction of one layer about a factor 0.81. The novel results are of great value as a comparison and benchmark for planners and future buildings of similar type.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0512.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: benchmarking; evaluation of performance; performance indicator; principal component analysis
Online: 30 August 2018 (05:16:30 CEST)
The Inefficient water use, varying and low productivity in Kenya public irrigation schemes is a major concern. It is therefore necessary to periodically monitor and evaluate the performance of public irrigation schemes. The performance of public irrigation in western Kenya was assessed by combining benchmarking methodology and principal component analysis. The aim was to quantify and rank the performance of pumped public irrigation schemes in Kenya. Eleven benchmarking indicators were computed for the period from 2012 to 2016 and compared to global benchmark values. The indicators used fall under agricultural productivity, water supply and financial performance categories. The computed agricultural productivity was 36%–51% in Ahero, 23%–42% in West Kano and 26%–50% Bunyala irrigation scheme. Water supply performance in Ahero, West Kano and Bunyala irrigation schemes varied from 24% to 58%, 3% to 49% and 19% to 43% respectively. Financial performance varied from 46% to 54% in Ahero, 25% to 32% in West Kano and 54%–56% in Bunyala irrigation scheme. An average overall performance efficiency of 46%, 39% and 31% was obtained in Ahero, Bunyala and West Kano irrigation schemes respectively. The performance of the irrigation schemes is very poor and measures on improving performance are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0275.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Grid-connected PV plant, Monitoring, Performance parameters, performance comparison, Mauritania.
Online: 11 February 2021 (10:30:39 CET)
This paper presents preliminary operational performance results of a pilot grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system designed and installed on the rooftop of the Ministry of Petroleum, Energy and Mining headquarter in Nouakchott (latitude of 18.1°N and the longitude of 16.0°W), Mauritania. The aim is for the government to demonstrate the relevance of using solar energy and to encourage the uptake of solar PV technology for commercial and residential building applications in Mauritania.. In this study, the grid-connected PV system has a peak power of 48 kW and the performance monitoring was carried out during one year, with a system that allow to measure DC power, inverter and system conversion efficiency, energy generated by the PV arrays, solar radiation in the inclination plane of panels, ambient temperature and module temperature. During this period, the PV plant was found to supply 65,668 kWh to the grid. The final yield ranged from 3.91 to 5.09 kWh/kWp/day. The performance ratio was found to vary from 69.69% to 89.35% and the annual capacity factor was found to be 19%. Finally, performance parameters were compared with other PV plants installed in the same region of Northern Africa. The outcome of this work is deemed important in assisting accurate PV system design and decision-making.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0012.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: role-based access control; attribute-based access control; attribute-based encryption
Online: 8 July 2016 (10:12:21 CEST)
Cloud Computing is a promising and emerging technology that is rapidly being adopted by many IT companies due to a number of benefits that it provides, such as large storage space, low investment cost, virtualization, resource sharing, etc. Users are able to store a vast amount of data and information in the cloud and access it from anywhere, anytime on a pay-per-use basis. Since many users are able to share the data and the resources stored in the cloud, there arises a need to provide access to the data to only those users who are authorized to access it. This can be done through access control schemes which allow the authenticated and authorized users to access the data and deny access to unauthorized users. In this paper, a comprehensive review of all the existing access control schemes has been discussed along with analysis. Keywords: role-based access control, attribute-based access control, attribute-based encryption
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0019.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: clustering; machine learning; distributed computing; performance portability; GPGPU; OpenCL; peak performance
Online: 2 February 2019 (03:27:07 CET)
Clustering is an important task in data mining that has become more challenging due to the ever-increasing size of available datasets. To cope with these big data scenarios, a high-performance clustering approach is required. Sparse grid clustering is a density-based clustering method that uses a sparse grid density estimation as its central building block. The underlying density estimation approach enables the detection of clusters with non-convex shapes and without a predetermined number of clusters. In this work, we introduce a new distributed and performance-portable variant of the sparse grid clustering algorithm that is suited for big data settings. Our compute kernels were implemented in OpenCL to enable portability across a wide range of architectures. For distributed environments, we added a manager-worker scheme that was implemented using MPI. In experiments on two supercomputers, Piz Daint and Hazel Hen, with up to 100 million data points in a 10-dimensional dataset, we show the performance and scalability of our approach. The dataset with 100 million data points was clustered in 1198s using 128 nodes of Piz Daint. This translates to an overall performance of 352TFLOPS. On the node-level, we provide results for two GPUs, Nvidia's Tesla P100 and the AMD FirePro W8100, and one processor-based platform that uses Intel Xeon E5-2680v3 processors. In these experiments, we achieved between 43% and 66% of the peak performance across all compute kernels and devices, demonstrating the performance portability of our approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0363.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Artificial Neural Network; Schedule Performance Index (SPI); Cost Performance Index (CPI); To Complete Cost Performance Indicator (TCPI); Predicting; Models
Online: 24 March 2020 (14:49:20 CET)
The importance of this study may be defined by using the smart techniques to earned value indicators of residential buildings projects in Republic of Iraq, only one development intelligent forecasting model was presented to predict Schedule Performance Index (SPI), Cost Performance Index (CPI), and To Complete Cost Performance Indicator (TCPI) are defined as the dependent. The approach is principally influenced by the determining numerous factors which effect on the earned value management, that involves Iraqi historical data. In addition, six independent variables (F1: BAC, Budget at Completion., F2: AC, Actual Cost., F3, A%, Actual Percentage., F4: EV, Earned Value. F5: P%, Planning Percentage., and F6: PV, Planning Value) were arbitrarily designated and satisfactorily described for per construction project. It was found that ANN has the capability to envisage the dust storm with a great accuracy. The correlation coefficient (R) has been 90.00%, and typical accuracy percentage has been 89.00%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0477.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: HRM; innovation; organizational performance
Online: 26 December 2022 (07:16:40 CET)
This study offers a concise summary of the research that has been done on alternative methods of HRM. A survey of 47 articles on the topic of creative human resource management uncovered three primary schools of thinking. At its core, innovation in HRM entails nothing more than that. One such topic worthy of investigation is the way human resource management approaches new situations. Third, research on inventiveness in the business world has given rise to the concept of "innovative HRM." Each of these three approaches, as well as the theoretical underpinnings of each, will be covered in this article. The note wraps up with a discussion of the significance of the findings for next research as well as clinical practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0392.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: K-means; performance; pattern
Online: 22 September 2021 (22:31:53 CEST)
We are in the era where various processes need to be online. However, data from digital learning platforms are still underutilised in higher education, yet, they contain student learning patterns, whose awareness would contribute to educational development. This limits development of adaptive teaching and learning mechanisms. In this paper, a model for data exploitation to dynamically study students progress is proposed. Variables to determine current students progress are defined and are used to group students into different clusters. K-means clustering is performed on real data consisting of students from a South African tertiary institution. Cluster migration is analysed and the corresponding learning patterns are revealed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0795.v2
Online: 14 May 2021 (16:27:12 CEST)
The authors propose in this study to evaluate financial performance applications for stock prices of the Indonesian Stock Exchange in manufacturing companies. The method of research used here is a quantitative descriptive method. In that statement, Indonesian Stock Exchange manufacturing companies between 2016 and 2018 are the population use in this research, using the sampling technique Purpose Sampling. This research uses secondary data from 2016 to 2018, the financial reports of Indonesian Stock Exchange manufacturing companies. The Indonesian stock exchange web site has been provided with all data sources at https://www.idx.co.id, and searching for www.google.id. Our analysis shows that book value prices and the net profit margin affect stock prices. The value of financial performance at the Indonesian Stock Bourses manufacturing companies' cost amounts to 64.5 percent, while other factors not listed in this study account for 35.4 percent.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0105.v1
Online: 3 February 2021 (10:08:07 CET)
Top performance in team sports attracts the attention from the general public. In particular, the best players became incredibly skilled and physically powerful, a fact that potentiates to deliver a product considered attractive, exciting and competitive. Not surprisingly, this is a very valuable product from an economic and social standpoint, thus, all sports professionals are extremely interested in developing new procedures to improve sports performance. Besides, the great interests of the various stakeholders (owners, CEO-s, agents, fans, media, coaches, players, families and friends) are one of the main reasons for this development of sports science umbrella and the accompanying sports industry. all their personal performances should be coordinated and put into function by the sports team. In this scientific and applied manuscript, we will deal primarily with the individual treatment of players in order to improve their personal performance and, consequently, team sport performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0367.v1
Online: 23 September 2022 (09:27:20 CEST)
French academies almost all implement reactivity drills and small-sided games (SSG) the day preceding a match (MD-1). The present study aimed to determine the physical impact of different training durations on MD-1 on the subsequent matchday performance (MD). Eleven elite U19 academy soccer players con-ducted three typical training sessions lasting 45min (TS45), 60min (TS60), and 75min (TS75) on MD-1. Dur-ing TS60, warm-up, reactivity and SSG were 10, 15, and 24min, respectively, plus coaches' feedback or wa-ter breaks. Durations decreased and increased by 25% for TS45 and TS75, respectively. Tests were con-ducted on MD-4 (CONTROL) and MD before the match (TEST). Tests consisted of a counter movement jump (CMJ), 20m sprint, Illinois agility test (IAT), and Hooper questionnaire. CONTROL values were simi-lar over the three experimental conditions. TEST on MD revealed greater CMJ for TS45 (42.7 ± 5.1cm) compared to TS60 (40.5 ± 5.5cm, p=0.032) and TS75 (40.9 ± 5.7cm, p=0.037). 20m time was lower for TS45 (3.07 ± 0.10s, p<0.001) and TS60 (3.13 ± 0.10s, p=0.017) compared to TS75 (3.20 ± 0.10s). IAT time was lower on TS45 (14.82 ± 0.49s) compared to TS60 (15.43 ± 0.29s, p<0.001) and TS75 (15.24 ± 0.33s, p=0.006). Further-more, the Hooper index was lower at TEST for TS45 (7.64 ± 1.50) compared to TS60 (11.00 ± 3.49, p=0.014) and TS75 (9.73 ± 2.41, p=0.045) indicating a better readiness level. We concluded that as training session duration increases, performance decreases on MD. A 45min training session including reactivity and SSG exercises is therefore recommended on MD-1.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0271.v1
Online: 18 July 2022 (11:07:08 CEST)
UHPC is a type of cement-based composite used in new construction and/or rehabilitation of existing buildings to extend service life. It is a novel composite material that can serve as an alternative to concrete construction in hostile climates. Following decades of study and production, a diverse variety of commercial UHPC compositions are now available globally to meet the rising number of applicants and demand for high-quality building materials. Although UHPC offers major benefits over normal concrete, its utilization is restricted due to restrictive design rules and exorbitant costs. As a result, a thorough examination of the durability properties of UHPC is required to give important information for material testing requirements and processes, as well as to broaden its practical uses. This report is aimed at increasing basic understanding of UHPC and supporting more UHPC research and applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: swimming; COVID-19; swim performance
Online: 19 November 2021 (14:34:46 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic caused significant training disruptions during the 2020-21 season due to lockdowns, quarantines, and strict adherence to pandemic protocols. The main purpose of this study was to determine how pandemic training restrictions affected training volume and performance in one collegiate swim team. Cumulative training volume data, across a 28-week season, were compared between a pandemic (2020-2021) versus non-pandemic (2019-2020) season. Swimmers were categorized into three groups (Sprinters, Mid-Distance, and Long-Distance) based on training group. Performance times in 25 swimmers who competed in Regional Championships, during both the non-pandemic and pandemic year, were compared via 1-way ANOVA. 26 male and 22 female swimmers commenced the 2020-21 (pandemic) season, with 23% of swimmers voluntarily opting out. Three COVID-19 cases were confirmed (2%) by the medical staff with no long-term effects. Significant reductions in average swim volume were verified in Sprinters (32,867±10,135 vs.14,800±7,995yards;p<0.001), Mid-Distance (26,457±10,692 vs.17,054±9.923yards;p<0.001), and Long-Distance (37,600±14,430 vs.22,254±14,418yards;p<0.001) swimmers (non-pandemic vs. pandemic season, respectively). In the Regional performance analyses, the Sprinters swam faster (n=8;-0.5±0.6secs), while Mid-Distance (n=10;0.17±2.1secs) and Long-Distance (n=7;6.0±4.9secs) swimmers swam slower (F=11.76;p=0.0003;r2=0.52). Thus, the pandemic caused significant reductions in swim training volume, with Sprinters performing better and Long-Distance swimmers performing worse at Regional Championships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0312.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Internet; television; academic performance; utilization.
Online: 26 November 2019 (10:51:18 CET)
An investigation was carried out to study the effects of television and internet on academic performance of senior secondary schools students in Rigachukun Inspectorate of Kaduna state. A well structured and designed questionnaire was adopted in eliciting information from the respondents. The respondents were sampled from schools within Kaduna state. The information obtained showed that the percentage of senior secondary school students who made use of internet for academic purpose was as much as those who could not operate a computer or even browse the internet. Good number of students applied internet mostly through phones and computer with internet access in solving their assignment. A larger percentage of students devoted their time to watching non-educative programs on television, even though it was discovered that some of them also watch educative programs. Positive impacts of television and internet are however obscuring and not glaring. Investigation carried out revealed that students in senior secondary schools need to be sensitized and oriented on how they can derive the best from internet and television. Schools should be encouraged in using television and internet as an instrument of learning and teaching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0241.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: leadership; community leadership; job performance
Online: 9 November 2018 (04:37:32 CET)
Leadership performance by village leaders is essential to promote sustainable life among rural communities, especially fisheries community who living along coastal villages. Otherwise, previous studies found that performance issues among village’s leaders remain as serious problems, and need to find the best solution. This study was conducted to profile the job performance among village leaders based on demographic factors such as educational level, age and experiences as village leader. The data of this cross-sectional survey were collected by questionnaires on 300 respondents consist of members of village organization through stratified sampling’s technique, while the data was analysed by SPSS using items of mean, standard deviation, independent-sample t-test and anova. The finding shown that there were differences in job performance among village leaders on educational level, age and experiences. Interestingly, the finding told the best on job performance among village leaders are (i) the age between 41 to 50 years old; (iii) the experience between 11 to 20 years; and (iii) the higher educational level the higher job performance among them. This result can be using by government or any responsible parties to improve job performance among village leaders, especially for recruitment selection and for in-service training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Training; competence; incentives; management; performance.
Online: 8 August 2018 (10:55:28 CEST)
Background.Nurse gives professional nursing service to patients according to competence owned. Based on these services in the end of every year, nurses are given incentives for medical services as financial incentive. Purpose. To analyze the impact of competence training and incentives medical services’ distribution upon the achievement of nurse’s performances in General Hospital of W. Z. Johannes Kupang. Matterial and method. Observational survey research with cross sectional design. Population. Nurses in General Hospital of W. Z. Johannes Kupang. Technique. Total sampling technique with number of samples 183 respondents. Inclusive criteria of samples are willing to be interviewed, nurse’s status, permanent offices without limitation from particular working unit or poly in hospital. Independent variable: (1) competence training; (2) Incentives for medical services. Dependent variable; Nurse’s performance achievement. Variables are measured by using Lickert scale. Information are recorded through questionnaire. Analyzes using linier regression. Result. There are impacts of competence training (α=.000;ß=.489)and distribution of incentives for medical services(α=.012; ß=.152)upon nurse’s performances achievement in General Hospital of Prof.W. Z. Johannes Kupang. Conclusion.The training of nursing service status that could increase competences among nurses with affair incentives for medical services’ distribution simultaneously end up in the increasing of nurse’s performances achievement in a hospital
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0094.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: entrepreneurship; innovation; management; performance; sustainability
Online: 31 July 2017 (15:43:49 CEST)
The study examines how the South African construction industry can nurture an entrepreneur and a large successful entrepreneurial construction company, even though the founder had no formal education and the company was founded during the Apartheid era. The question of whether entrepreneurs are born or are made is based on the age-old question of nurture and nature. The paper presents the narratives of a successful entrepreneur Mr. Sam Lubbe. The narratives presented are collected through a case study research approach. The data collected suggests that although Sam does not have any formal education, he succeeded based on nurturing given to him when he had the opportunity to work for a large South African construction company, his innate characteristics of self-confidence, task-result orientation, originality, future direction, and a unique business model which also helped him access international construction work opportunities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0379.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: surgical simulator training; individual performance trend; speed-accuracy function; automatic detection; performance feed-back
Online: 17 October 2018 (08:40:08 CEST)
Simulator training for image-guided surgical interventions may benefit from artificial intelligence systems that control the evolution of task skills in terms of time and precision of a trainee's performance on the basis of fully automatic feed-back systems. At the earliest stages of training, novice trainees frequently focus on getting faster at the task, and may thereby compromise the optimal evolution of the precision of their performance. For automatically guiding them towards attaining an optimal speed-accuracy trade-off, an effective control system for the reinforcement/correction of strategies must be able to exploit the right individual performance criteria in the right way, reliably detect individual performance trends at any given moment in time, and alert the trainee, as early as necessary, when to slow down and focus on precision, or when to focus on getting faster. This article addresses several aspects of this challenge for speed-accuracy controlled simulator training before any training on specific surgical tasks or clinical models should be envisaged. Analyses of individual learning curves from the simulator training sessions of novices and benchmark performance data of one expert surgeon, who had no specific training in the simulator task, validate the suggested approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0336.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: nature-based solutions; climate change adaptation; biodiversity; ecosystem-based adaptation
Online: 23 October 2021 (14:19:30 CEST)
Nature-based solutions (NbS) are increasingly recognised for their potential to address both the climate and biodiversity crises. These outcomes are interdependent, and both rely on the capacity of NbS to support and enhance the health of an ecosystem: its biodiversity, the condition of its abiotic and biotic elements, and its capacity to function normally despite environmental change. However, while understanding of ecosystem health outcomes of nature-based interventions for climate change mitigation is growing, the outcomes of those implemented for adaptation remain poorly understood with evidence scattered across multiple disciplines. To address this, we conducted a systematic review of the outcomes of 109 nature-based interventions for climate change adaptation using 33 indicators of ecosystem health across eight broad categories (e.g. diversity, biomass, ecosystem functioning and population dynamics). We showed that 88% of interventions with positive outcomes for climate change adaptation also reported measurable benefits for ecosystem health. We also showed that interventions were associated with a 67% average increase in local species richness. All eight studies that reported benefits in terms of both climate change mitigation and adaptation also supported ecosystem health, leading to a triple win. However, there were also trade-offs, mainly for forest management and creation of novel ecosystems such as monoculture plantations of non-native species. Our review highlights two major limitations of research to date. First, only a limited selection of metrics are used to assess ecosystem health and these rarely include key aspects such as functional diversity and habitat connectivity. Second, taxonomic coverage is poor: 67% of outcomes assessed only plants and 57% did not distinguish between native and non-native species. Future research addressing these issues will allow the design and adaptive management of NbS to support healthy and resilient ecosystems, and thereby enhance their effectiveness for meeting both climate and biodiversity targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0258.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Sports Nutrition; Dietary Supplements; Athletic Performance
Online: 16 January 2023 (01:29:53 CET)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effect of caffeine supplementation on performance in official soccer matches. In double-blind, randomized crossover design, 13 professional soccer players performed two complete matches, with Caffeine (CAF) (6 mg/kg) and placebo (PLA) supplementation. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA showed that there was no effect of supplementation on the total distance covered (p = 0.536; ŋp² =0.033) or the total distance covered at different speeds (p = 0.453; ŋp² = 0.048), acceleration or deceleration (p = 0.387; ŋp² = 0.063) number of sprints (p = 0.521; µ² = 0.035) Heart Rate mean (p = 0.484; ŋp² = 0.042) Heart Rate maximum (p = 0.110; ŋp² = 0.199), Rate Perceived Effort (p = 0.151) or efficiency index (p = 0.480). Therefore, acute caffeine supplementation not effective to increase the performance of soccer players in official matches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0088.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Academic performance; Machine Learning; RBFNN; psychomotor
Online: 6 July 2022 (05:09:31 CEST)
Introduction: Academic success is primary goal of every student. It is described as the extent to which a student has successfully achieved his or her short and long-term educational goals. Several factors have been established to predict academic performance of students. Machine learning techniques have been employed in predicting students’ performance, but it has not been prevalent in developing countries like Nigeria and most studies did not consider class teachers’ end-of-the-year rating. Aim: The aim of this work is to develop a Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) for prediction of secondary school students’ performance. Materials and Methods: We obtained data from school repository containing students’ raw score and classteachers’ rating from year one to year six. The data was labelled into pass or fail given the actual outcome of their examinations. Subjects were categorized into Mathematics, English and major, depending on the student’s specialization. Class-teachers’ ratings were also included in the dataset. The preprocessed dataset was used to train the RBFNN model. The impact of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was also measured. Results: We set up four experiments in order to achieve our aim. The best result gave the sensitivity of 93.49%, specificity of 75%, accuracy of 86.59% and an AUC score of 94%. Other experiments gave a relatively low performance. Conclusion: This study helps students to get a projection of academic success even before sitting for the examination. This will also help parents and counsellors in knowing the direction of their counseling to each student. Teachers and parents should pay attention to class teacher ratings of the students as this is discovered to affect the prediction accuracy of their examination success.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0519.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: Network; Graph theory; Soccer; Performance analysis
Online: 27 August 2021 (11:30:10 CEST)
Formation in soccer is among the most important tactical choices for a successful match.Herein, the simulations of 420000 match-plays have been performed varying the formation, the number of opponents that are actively pressing the team, the speed of the opponents in attempting a pass interception. Dribbling has been neglected. The match-play ends either with a successful series of passes from a central back to the line of the strikers or with the opponents that steal the ball. In this work, I demonstrate that 3-4-3 formation, which is among the most employed formations, relates to the highest probability of success.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0140.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: K-Mean, Mean-Shift, Performance, Accuracy
Online: 5 August 2021 (11:00:32 CEST)
Clustering, or otherwise known as cluster analysis, is a learning problem that takes place without any human supervision. This technique has often been utilized, much efficiently, in data analysis, and serves for observing and identifying interesting, useful, or desired patterns in the said data. The clustering technique functions by performing a structured division of the data involved, in similar objects based on the characteristics that it identifies. This process results in the formation of groups, and each group that is formed, is called a cluster. A single said cluster consists of objects from the data, that have similarities among other objects found in the same cluster, and resemble differences when compared to objects identified from the data that now exist in other clusters. The process of clustering is very significant in various aspects of data analysis, as it determines and presents the intrinsic grouping of objects present in the data, based on their attributes, in a batch of unlabeled raw data. A textbook or otherwise said, good criteria, does not exist in this method of cluster analysis. That is because this process is so different and so customizable for every user, that needs it in his/her various and different needs. There is no outright best clustering algorithm, as it massively depends on the user’s scenario and needs. This paper is intended to compare and study two different clustering algorithms. The algorithms under investigation are k-mean and mean shift. These algorithms are compared according to the following factors: time complexity, training, prediction performance and accuracy of the clustering algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0424.v1
Online: 21 October 2020 (09:31:42 CEST)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death worldwide. This condition resulted in huge research on CVD increasing the need for animal models suitable for the in vivo research. Daphnia and Zebrafish are good animal models for cardiovascular research due to their relative body transparency and easy culture property. Several methods have been developed to conduct cardiac performance measurement in Daphnia and Zebrafish. However, most of the methods only able to obtain heartbeat rate. The other important cardiac endpoints like stroke volume, ejection fraction, fraction shortening, cardiac output and heartbeat regularity must use other programs for measurement. To overcome this limitation, in this study, we successfully developed a one-stop ImageJ-based method using kymograph macros language that able to obtain multiple cardiac performance endpoints simultaneously for the first time. To validate its utility, we incubate Daphnia magna at different ambient temperatures and exposed zebrafish with astemizole to detect the corresponding cardiac performance alterations. In summary, the kymograph method reported in this study provides a new, easy to use, and inexpensive one-stop method on obtaining multiple cardiac performance endpoints with high accuracy and convenience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0358.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: healthcare sector; financial performance; public hospitals
Online: 16 July 2020 (13:27:46 CEST)
Hospital indebtedness is a complex and very diverse phenomenon. Thus, the goal of this study is the comparison of the financial performance of public hospitals in accordance with their ownership and size. The results of the research lead to the conclusion that the vast majority of public hospitals are indebted, and their ownership structure does not affect their financial condition. What is more, the statistical analysis depicted that large Marshall hospitals are less indebted than poviat-commune ones. In the group of medium-size hospitals, the situation was the opposite. Moreover, the study did not confirm the significant relationship between the size or ownership and the financial status of the hospital. The analysis conducted in the article is aimed at filling in the gap in studies comparing the indebtedness between different types of public hospitals.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0179.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: imaging; CMOS; camera; SNR; noise; performance
Online: 9 October 2018 (09:38:23 CEST)
Expensive cameras meant for research applications are usually characterized by the manufacturers and detailed specifications  are available for them. Suppliers of inexpensive cameras usually do not provide such detailed information about their cameras. This data set provides the acquisition speed and noise characteristics acquired from a monochrome 1.2 megapixel CMOS camera, the QHY5L-II M . The source code provided along with this data set  can also be used to acquire similar data for other QHY cameras. This enables the use of such cost-effective cameras for other scientific applications in other fields, beyond the designed use in Astronomy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Shadings; Thermal Performance; Iwan; experimental; EnergyPlus
Online: 12 October 2017 (05:49:55 CEST)
In this paper, the effect of an exterior shading element (Iwan) on energy consumption in four different climatic regions, and for different geographical directions, has been investigated numerically and experimentally. By applying different materials and techniques and creating various elements and spaces, architects make hard climatic conditions more tolerable for residents. Iwan is one of the cooling elements which is used in different forms and dimensions in the Islamic architecture. In the present research, Iwan has been introduced as a climatic element in traditional and contemporary architectures and its role in reducing the energy consumption in buildings has been studied. In this respect, first, the thermal loads of a building without Iwan are computed by means of EnergyPlus software. Then, four different forms of Iwan are added to the above-mentioned structure along the four principal geographical directions, and the effect of Iwan on the reduction of thermal loads is analyzed for four different climates. Finally, the design parameters of Iwan, in terms of depth and form, that can help reduce the thermal loads in different climatic conditions are presented. The results show that the best position for using an Iwan is the south direction and the use of Iwan in temperate & humid, hot & humid, cold & mountainous and hot & dry climates could reduce the energy consumption in buildings by 32%, 26%, 14%, and 29%, respectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0212.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Knowledge Graphs; Link Prediction; Semantic-Based Models; Translation Based Embedded Models
Online: 17 February 2022 (11:49:24 CET)
For disciplines like biological science, security, and the medical field, link prediction is a popular research area. To demonstrate the link prediction many methods have been proposed. Some of them that have been demonstrated through this review paper are TransE, Complex, DistMult, and DensE models. Each model defines link prediction with different perceptions. We argue that the practical performance potential of these methods, having similar parameter values, using the fine-tuning technique to evaluate their reliability and reproducibility of results. We describe those methods and experiments; provide theoretical proofs and experimental examples, demonstrating how current link prediction methods work in such settings. We use the standard evaluation metrics for testing the model's ability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0027.v2
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Zoo animal welfare; Five Domains; Validity; Animal-based; Resource-based; Scoring
Online: 22 December 2021 (11:59:32 CET)
Zoos are increasingly putting in place formalized animal welfare assessment programs to allow monitoring of welfare over time, as well as to aid in resource prioritization. These programs tend to rely on assessment tools that incorporate resource-based and observational animal- focused measures since it is rarely feasible to obtain measures of physiology in zoo-housed animals. A range of assessment tools are available which commonly have a basis in the Five Domains framework. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted to bring together recent studies examining welfare assessment methods in zoo animals. A summary of these methods is provided with advantages and limitations of the approach es presented. We then highlight practical considerations with respect to implementation of these tools into practice, for example scoring schemes, weighting of criteria, and innate animal factors for consideration. It is concluded that would be value in standardizing guidelines for development of welfare assessment tools since zoo accreditation bodies rarely prescribe these. There is also a need to develop taxon or species- specific assessment tools to inform welfare management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0069.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: winglets; lift-induced drag; wing tip device; non-planar lifting surface; performance optimization; aircraft performance; regional aircraft
Online: 9 June 2019 (03:48:26 CEST)
An increasing number of aircraft is equipped with wing tip devices, which either are installed by the aircraft manufacturer at the production line or are retrofitted after the delivery of the aircraft to its operator. Installation of wing tip devices has not been a popular choice for regional turboprop aircraft and the novelty of the current study is to investigate the feasibility of retrofitting the British Aerospace (BAe) Jetstream 31 with an appropriate wing tip device (or winglet) to increase its cruise range performance, taking also into account the aerodynamic and structural impact of the implementation. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, no previous study exists which has attempted to assess the winglet retrofit of an existing aircraft type of similar size and operating profile. The optimal winglet design achieved a 2.38% increase of the maximum range by reducing the total drag by 1.19% at a mass penalty of 3.25%, as compared with the baseline aircraft configuration. Other designs were found to be more effective in reducing the total drag, but the structural reinforcement required for their implementation outweighed the achieved performance improvements. Since successful winglet retrofit programs for typical short to medium range narrow body aircraft report even more than 3% of block fuel improvements, undertaking the project of installing an optimal winglet design to the BAe Jetstream 31, should also consider a Direct Operating Cost (DOC) assessment on top of the aerodynamic and structural aspects of the retrofit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0148.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Sustainable Teaching; multidisciplinary; multicultural; teams; Case-based Learning; Problem-based Learning; teamwork
Online: 26 April 2021 (15:38:20 CEST)
This article investigates the prospect of implementing multidisciplinary and multicultural student teamwork (MMT) involving Case-based Learning (CBL) and Problem-based Learning (PBL) as a sustainable teaching practice. Based on a mixed methods approach, which includes direct observation (both physical and virtual), questionnaire distribution and focus-group interviews the study reveals that MMT through CBL and PBL can both facilitate and hinder sustainable learning. Our findings show that while MMT enhances knowledge sharing, it also poses a wide range of challenges, raising questions about its social significance as a sustainable teaching practice. The study suggests the implementation of certain mechanisms, such as ‘Teamwork Training’ and ‘Pedagogical Mentors’, aiming to strengthen the sustainable orientation of MMT through CBL and PBL.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Model-based systems engineering (MBSE); Model informatics and analytics; Model-based collaboration
Online: 12 March 2021 (16:52:34 CET)
In MBSE there is yet no converged terminology. The term ’system model’ is used in different contexts in literature. In this study we elaborated the definitions and usages of the term ’system model’, to find a common definition. 104 publications have been analyzed in depth for their usage and definition as well as their meta-data e.g., the publication year and publication background to find some common patterns. While the term is gaining more interest in recent years it is used in a broad range of contexts for both analytical and synthetic use cases. Based on this three categories of system models have been defined and integrated into a more precise definition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0523.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: game-based learning; game design; project-based teaching; informatics and society, cybersecurity
Online: 26 July 2018 (16:38:48 CEST)
This article discusses the use of game design as a method for interdisciplinary project-based teaching in secondary school education to convey informatics and society topics. There is a lot of knowledge about learning games but little background on project-based teaching using game design as a method. We present the results of an analysis of student-created games and an evaluation of a student-authored database on learning contents found in commercial off-the-shelf games. We further contextualise these findings using a group discussion with teachers. Results underline the effectiveness of project-based teaching to raise awareness for informatics and society topics. We further outline informatics and society topics that are particularly interesting to students, genre preferences and potentially engaging game mechanics stemming from our analyses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0074.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: recommendation system; context awareness; location based services; mobile computing, cloud-based computing
Online: 18 September 2017 (08:54:04 CEST)
The ubiquity of mobile sensors (such as GPS, accelerometer and gyroscope) together with increasing computational power have enabled an easier access to contextual information, which proved its value in next generation of the recommender applications. The importance of contextual information has been recognized by researchers in many disciplines, such as ubiquitous and mobile computing, to filter the query results and provide recommendations based on different user status. A context-aware recommendation system (CoARS) provides a personalized service to each individual user, driven by his or her particular needs and interests at any location and anytime. Therefore, a contextual recommendation system changes in real time as a user’s circumstances changes. CoARS is one of the major applications that has been refined over the years due to the evolving geospatial techniques and big data management practices. In this paper, a CoARS is designed and implemented to combine the context information from smartphones’ sensors and user preferences to improve efficiency and usability of the recommendation. The proposed approach combines user’s context information (such as location, time, and transportation mode), personalized preferences (using individuals past behavior), and item-based recommendations (such as item’s ranking and type) to personally filter the item list. The context-aware methodology is based on preprocessing and filtering of raw data, context extraction and context reasoning. This study examined the application of such a system in recommending a suitable restaurant using both web-based and android platforms. The implemented system uses CoARS techniques to provide beneficial and accurate recommendations to the users. The capabilities of the system is evaluated successfully with recommendation experiment and usability test.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0014.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Machine Learning; Fog layer; Heartrate; Performance; IoT
Online: 1 December 2022 (08:07:47 CET)
This work focused on the evaluation of some machine learning (ML) models and their application in e-health, using intermediate nodes within an Internet of Things (IoT) platform used for heartbeat anomaly detection. For the evaluation of ML models, a set of statistical validation metrics was selected. These metrics were applied in the training, testing and validation phases of the models. The results obtained can determine relevant factors for the selection of ML models, either based on the statistical and intrinsic efficiency of the ML models, or on their suitability to be implemented in intermediate nodes within an IoT platform. the more Lightweight models such as Simple Linear Regression, Logistic Regression, and K Nearest Neighbors, could easily operate in intermediate nodes, and they are models that require low processing and storage to work. In conclusion, the approach for intermediate nodes of Internet of Things platforms using cognitive networks decreases the processing cost in cloud computing and transfers it to the fog layer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0460.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: atmospheric propagation; communication system performance; attenuation; communication
Online: 29 July 2022 (11:15:18 CEST)
6G is already being planned and will employ much higher frequencies, leading to a revolutionary era in communication between people as well as things. It is well known that weather, especially rain, can cause increased attenuation of signal transmission for higher frequencies. The standard methods for evaluating the effect of rain on symbol error rate are based on long-term averaging. These methods are an inaccurate, which results with an inefficient system design. This is critical regarding bandwidth scarcity and energy consumption and requires a more significant margin of effort to cope with the imprecision. Recently we have developed a new and more precise method for calculating communication system performance in case of rain, using the probability density function of rain rate. For high rain rate (above 10mm/hr), for a typical set of parameters, our method shows the symbol error rate in this range to be higher by orders of magnitude than that found by ITU standard methods. Our model also indicates that sensing and measuring the rain rate probability is important in order to provide the required bit error rate to the users. To the best knowledge of the authors, this novel analysis is unique. It can constitute a more effi-cient performance metric for the new era of 6G communication and prevent disruption due to incorrect system design. Keywords: atmospheric propagation, communication system performance, attenuation, com-munication
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0093.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: anxiety; low participation; mother tongue; speaking performance
Online: 7 May 2022 (05:36:27 CEST)
The goal of classroom English instruction is to educate students on how to use the English language effectively for communication in any scenario. It is identified by presenting various teaching tactics and speaking activities to encourage students to participate more actively in conversations. The study intended to identify the problems in the speaking performance of Grade 8 Jade in Tagum City National High School. The study was conducted using a quantitative non-experimental descriptive survey method. Results revealed that the problems in speaking performance have garnered a mean of 3.20 (moderate) as descriptive equivalent and it was found out that the prevailing speaking problem is anxiety with a mean of 3.84, interpreted as high. Thus, an intervention program is designed to address the problems in the speaking performance of the respondents. This program is divided into two: Overcoming Speaking Anxiety Seminar-Workshop and Speaking Enhancement Activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0151.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: high-performance; heritable; multi-environments; credibility interval
Online: 10 February 2022 (11:14:21 CET)
The giant challenge breeding flood-irrigated rice is to identify superior genotypes that present high-yielding with specific grain qualities, resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses, excellent adaptation to the target environment. Thus, the objectives of this study were to propose a bayesian multi-trait model, estimate genetic parameters, and select flood-irrigated rice genotypes with better genetic potentials in different evaluation environments. For this, twenty-five rice genotypes belonging to the flood-irrigated rice improvement program were evaluated. The grain yields, grain length, width and thickness, grain length, and grain width and weight of 100 grains in the agricultural year 2016/2017. The experimental design used in all experiments was a randomized block design with three replications. The Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm estimated genetic parameters and genetic values. The grain thickness trait was considered highly heritable, with a credibility interval ranging from: h^2: 0.9480; 0.9440; 0.8610, in environments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The grain yields showed a low correlation estimate between grain thickness and 100-grain weight, in all environments, with a credibility interval ranging from (ρ= 0.5477; 0.5762; 0.5618 and 0.5973; 0.5247; 0.5632, grain thickness and 100-grain weight, in environments 1, 2, and 3, respectively). The Bayesian multi-trait model proved to be an adequate strategy for the genetic improvement of flood-irrigated. Genotypes 2 and 15 had similar potential in the three environments, they should be selected as high-performance multi-trait genotypes for the genetic breeding of flood-irrigated rice in the program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0511.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: real sea surface; object detection; performance detection
Online: 31 December 2021 (11:16:15 CET)
The video images captured at long range usually have low contrast floating objects of interest on a sea surface. A comparative experimental study of the statistical characteristics of reflections from floating objects and from the agitated sea surface showed the difference in the correlation and spectral characteristics of these reflections. The functioning of the recently proposed modified matched subspace detector (MMSD) is based on the separation of the observed data spectrum on two subspaces: relatively low and relatively high frequencies. In the literature the MMSD performance has been evaluated in generally and moreover using only a sea model (additive Gaussian background clutter). This paper extends the performance evaluating methodology for low contrast object detection and moreover using only the real sea dataset. This methodology assumes an object of low contrast if the mean and variance of the object and the surrounding background are the same. The paper assumes that the energy spectrum of the object and the sea are different. The paper investigates a scenario in which an artificially created model of a floating object with specified statistical parameters is placed on the surface of a real sea image. The paper compares the efficiency of the classical Matched Subspace Detector (MSD) and MMSD for detecting low-contrast objects on the sea surface. The article analyzes the dependence of the detection probability at a fixed false alarm probability on the difference between the statistical means and variances of a floating object and the surrounding sea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sustainability; concrete; assessment; performance; service life; environment.
Online: 10 December 2021 (14:40:53 CET)
The article presents an original method to assess the sustainability of concrete. The method uses three parameters, namely: performance, lifetime and environmental impact, to calculate a sustainability index. The originality and the simplicity of the proposed method presented in the article consists in the fact that by applying the relation to determine the sustainability index, the first two factors service life and performance are constant. This approach is possible in the context of the new proposals to specify the durability of structural concrete in EN 1992 and EN 206. That allows classification of concrete according to its performance, through Environmental action Resistance Classes (ERC). For this purpose, specific experimental methods were used in order to determine the performance of concrete exposed to carbonation. The concretes were prepared with two cement types with additions (CEM II / A-S and CEM II / A-M (S-LL)). Based on the carbonation resistance classes (the first constant - the performance) and exposure classes, the thickness of the concrete cover layer was determined to ensure a certain service lifetime (second constant - the service lifetime). Finally, the global warming potential was calculated for each composition, consequently allowing the users of the method, to select the compositions with the lowest impact on the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0400.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: gauging weirs; impact; swimming performance; hydraulic barriers
Online: 22 November 2021 (14:05:33 CET)
The monitoring of river discharge is vital for the correct management of water resources. A worldwide facility used for measuring discharge are flat-V gauging weirs. These structures consist of a small weir, with a triangular cross-section and a flat “V”-shaped notch. Their extensive use is a consequence of their utility in the measurement of both low and high flow conditions. However, depending on their size, local morphology and river discharge can act as full or partial hydraulic barriers to fish migration. To give answer to this question, the present work studies fish passage performance over flat-V weirs considering their hydraulic performance. For this, radio-tracking and video monitoring observations were combined with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models in two flat-V weirs, using Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei) as target species. Results show that fish passage is conditioned by both hydraulic and behavioral processes, providing evidences about the scenarios where flat-V weirs may act as full or partial barriers to upstream movements. For the studied flat-V weirs, a discharge range of 0.27-8 m3/s, with a water drop difference between upstream and downstream water levels lower than 0.7 m and a depth downstream the weir higher than 0.30 m can be considered as an effective passage situation for barbels. These findings are of interest to quantify flat-V weir impacts, for engineering applications and to establish managing or retrofitting actions when required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0232.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sustainability; concrete; assessment; performance; service life; environment.
Online: 12 November 2021 (15:12:23 CET)
This article presents a method to assess the sustainability of concrete based on three elements: service life, performance and environmental impact. The method proposes - to achieve similar performance and service life times, regardless of the component materials used, so that the sustainability assessment ultimately depends on the environmental impact criterion. To this end, specific experimental methods are used to determine the performance of concrete in terms of compressive strength and carbonation resistance for concrete cast with two blended cement types. The procedure needed to classify the concrete through carbonation resistance is detailed, in relationship with the performance obtained for compressive strength. The obtained results highlight the concrete formulations to be used to ensure similar performances regardless of the cement type used. In conclusion, the simplicity in the application of the method, which is closely related to the performance approach on concrete durability in the revision proposals of the European standards, is highlighted. The method is also a useful tool to encourage the widespread use in concrete formulation of blended cements with low environmental impact, without reducing the performance or service life time of the constructions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0030.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: reservoir computing; time series prediction; performance optimisation
Online: 2 November 2021 (10:09:46 CET)
Reservoir computing is a machine learning method that uses the response of a dynamical system to a certain input in order to solve a task. As the training scheme only involves optimising the weights of the responses of the dynamical system, this method is particularly suited for hardware implementation. Furthermore, the inherent memory of dynamical systems which are suitable for use as reservoirs mean that this method has the potential to perform well on time series prediction tasks, as well as other tasks with time dependence. However, reservoir computing still requires extensive task dependent parameter optimisation in order to achieve good performance. We demonstrate that by including a time-delayed version of the input for various time series prediction tasks, good performance can be achieved with an unoptimised reservoir. Furthermore, we show that by including the appropriate time-delayed input, one unaltered reservoir can perform well on six different time series prediction tasks at a very low computational expense. Our approach is of particular relevance to hardware implemented reservoirs, as one does not necessarily have access to pertinent optimisation parameters in physical systems but the inclusion of an additional input is generally possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0140.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: performance; biodegradation; bacterial consortium; marine sponge; PAHs
Online: 8 October 2021 (12:09:30 CEST)
Every petroleum processing industry produces sewage sludge containing several types of poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) components. The degradation of PAH components by physical, biological and chemical methods is not efficient. The use of marine sponge symbiont bacteria is considered an alternative method in the degradation and reduction of PAHs com-pared to the previous method. This study aims to explore the potential and performance of a consortium of sponge symbiont bacteria in degrading anthracene and pyrene. There are three types of bacteria (Bacillus pumilus strain GLB197, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain SLG510A3-8, Acineto-bacter calcoaceticus strain SLCDA 976) were mixed to form a consortium. The interaction between the bacterial consortium suspension and PAH components was measured at 5-day intervals for 25 days. The biodegradation performance of bacteria on PAHs samples was determined based on five biodegradation parameters. The analysis results showed a decrease in the concentration of anthracene (21.89%) and pyrene (7.71%), equivalent to a ratio of 3: 1. The data was followed by a decrease in the abundance of anthracene (60.30%) and pyrene (27.52%), an equivalent ratio of 2: 1. The level of degradation of the pyrene component is lower than that of the anthracene compo-nent, presumably due to the higher toxicity of pyrene and the more stable molecular structure, making it difficult for bacterial cells to destroy it. The biodegradation products are organic compounds of alcohol, aldehyde, carboxylic acids and a small proportion of aromatic hydrocarbon components. Keywords: performance; biodegradation; bacterial consortium; marine sponge; PAHs
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0088.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: innovation; proactivity; financial literacy; economy business performance
Online: 5 October 2021 (15:06:35 CEST)
This study aims to determine the Implication of innovation, proactivity, risk-taking, artistic orientation, and financial literacy on creative economy businesses during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was conducted on 120 creative economy businessmen in Bandar Lampung City, which is a miniature of Indonesia with multiethnic cultures. The results showed innovation is not significant, but proactive attitude, artistic orientation, and financial literacy have a significant implication on the performance of creative economic businesses during the Covid-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0259.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Financial constraints; corporate social responsibility; financial performance
Online: 15 September 2021 (12:43:05 CEST)
This study focuses on a sample of Chinese listed companies from 2019 to 2020 to explore the relationships among corporate social responsibility, financial constraints, and financial performance. In addition, we discuss five factors affecting financial constraints. We also analyze the types of enterprises that can improve their financial performance by implementing corporate social responsibility keeping in mind the factors that lead to a high degree of financial constraint. The results indicate that: 1. The degree of financial constraints has a negative and significant impact on financial performance; 2. There is a reverse relationship between the degree of financial constraints and the effectiveness of corporate social responsibility measures; 3. Enterprises with high financial constraints (due to lower financial slack and revenue growth rates) can significantly improve their financial performance through the implementation of effective corporate social responsibility programs. 4. Enterprises with high financial constraints, caused by financial slack and revenue growth rate, can significantly improve their financial performance by implementing corporate social responsibility programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0168.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: lizard; autotomy; tail; locomotion; performance; temperature; predation
Online: 7 July 2021 (08:00:27 CEST)
Caudal autotomy is a dramatic adaptation used by many lizard species to evade predators. Most studies to date indicate that caudal autotomy impairs lizard locomotor performance. Surprisingly, some species bearing the longest tails show negligible impacts of caudal autotomy on sprint speed. Part of this variation has been attributed to lineage effects. For the first time, we model the effects of caudal autotomy on the locomotor performance of a gymnophthalmid lizard, Micrablepharus atticolus, characterized by a long and bright blue tail. To improve model accuracy, we incorporated the effects of several covariates. We found that body temperature, pregnancy, mass, collection site, and the length of the regenerated portion of the tail were the most important predictors of locomotor performance in Micrablepharus atticolus. However, sprint speed was unaffected by tail loss. Apparently, the long tail of M. atticolus is more useful when using undulation amidst the leaf litter and not when using quadrupedal locomotion on a flat surface. Our findings highlight the intricate relationships among physiological, morphological, and behavioral traits. We suggest that future studies about the impacts of caudal autotomy among long-tailed lizards should consider the role of different microhabitats/substrates on locomotor performance, using laboratory conditions that closely mimic their natural environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0034.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Functional fitness training; athletic performance; exercise testing
Online: 1 June 2021 (12:32:59 CEST)
This study analyzed the relationship between anthropometric measures, cardiorespiratory capacity, strength, power and local muscle endurance with performance in the CrossFit® Open 2020. For this, 17 volunteers (6 women) (29.0 ± 7.2 years; 70.5 ± 9.8 kg) completed, on separate weeks, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), maximal oxygen consumption (2km row test), muscle strength (1RM back and front squat, isometric peak torque), and muscle power (1RM snatch and clean & jerk), and muscle endurance (Tibana test), which were compared with performance during the CrossFit® Open 2020. Multiple linear regression showed that for the CrossFit Open 2020.1 and 2020.2 workouts, the score in the Tibana test was the only variable that explained the outcomes (Beta = -0.78, p < 0.01 for 2020.1 workout and Beta = 0.82, p < 0.01 for 2020.2 workout). Performance in the CrossFit Open 2020.3 and 2020.4 workouts were explained through the relative strength (Beta = 0.58, p = 0.02 for 2020.3 workout and Beta = 0.50, p = 0.04 for 2020.4 workout). Lastly, Tibana test had the greatest influence on CrossFit Open 2020.5 workout (Beta = -0.75, p < 0.01). A local muscle endurance and muscle strength may be used to predict CrossFit® open workout performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0181.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: physical activity; sleep; inhibitory performance; mediating effects
Online: 10 May 2021 (11:51:54 CEST)
The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between physical activity (PA) level and inhibitory control performance and then determine whether this association was mediated by multiple sleep parameters (i.e., subjective sleep quality, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance). Methods. 180 healthy university students (age: 20.15 ± 1.92 years) from the East China Normal University were recruited in the present study. PA level, sleep parameters, and inhibitory control performance were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Scale (PSQI), and a Stroop test, respectively. Data were analyzed using structual equation modeling. Results. A higher level of PA was linked to better cognitive performance. Furthermore, higher subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency were associated with better inhibitory control performance. The mediation analysis revealed that subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency mediated the relationship between PA level and inhibitory control performance. Conclusion. Our results are in accordance with the literature and buttress the idea that a healthy lifestyle that involves a relatively high level of regular PA and adequate sleep patterns is beneficial for cognition (e.g., inhibitory control performance). Furthermore, our study adds to the literature that sleep quality and sleep efficiency mediates the relationship of PA and inhibitory control performance expanding our knowledge in the field of exercise-cognition.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: digestible energy; growth performance; microbiome; metabolome; donkey
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:28:35 CET)
Little information is available regarding the impacts of dietary energy level on the gut microbiota and metabolites of donkeys. This studied aimed to explore the effects of dietary energy content on growth performance, intestinal microbiome and metabolome of Dezhou donkeys. Thirty-six 9-month-old male Dezhou donkeys were assigned to two groups fed low or high content energy diets (LE or HE). Results showed that donkeys fed HE had improved (P < 0.05) the average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (G/F), compared with those receiving LE diet. Compared to the LE group, feeding HE specially increased the abundances of unidentified_Prevotellaceae (P = 0.02) while decreased the richness of unidentified_Ruminococcaceae (P = 0.05) of donkeys. Compared to LE group, feeding HE diet significantly (P < 0.05) affected the metabolic pathways involving the aspartate metabolism and urea cycle. In addition, the increased bacteria and metabolites in the HE-fed group exhibited a positive correlation with improved growth performance of donkeys. Taken together, feeding HE diet increased the richness of some specific bacteria and upregulated growth-related metabolic pathways, which contributed to the augmented growth performance of donkeys. Thus, it is a recommendable dietary strategy to feed HE diet to fattening donkey for superior production performance and feed efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0225.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Repeated Sprint Training; Speed Performance; Physiology; Sports
Online: 9 December 2020 (12:20:00 CET)
Background: Interventions with the performance of sessions with sprints in different intensity manipulations, can be a great alternative to improve physical performance. Objective: To verify the influence of different break times between sprints on the performance of amateur futsal athletes Methods: 10 individuals, men, amateur futsal athletes (Age: 21.5 ± 1.6; Weight: 72.4 ± 6.88; Height: 1.72 ± 0.05; BMI: 24.3 ± 1.2; Fat%: 13.7 ± 3.3, VO2peak: 49.1 ± 10.5) participated in the study. For the intervention, individuals were randomly selected to perform sessions with sprints (10 sets 20 meters) with different pause times, being 15 (S15), 30 (S30) and 60 (S60) seconds. For performance analysis, the speed (km / h) applied to each sprint was used, monitored by a device with a photocell (CEFISE Biotecnologia Esportiva®, Nova Odessa, São Paulo) and the statistical treatment of all data was through the software Statistica 7.0 (Statsoft ™, Tulsa, OK, USA) using a significance level of p≤0.05. Results: There was an interaction between speed and interval time (p = 0.000). For condition S15, a greater reduction in performance was observed (p≤0.05), while for S30 and S60, no significant reduction in performance was observed (p> 0.05). The data for the area under the curve showed a significant difference (p = 0.000), where the interval of 60 seconds (S60) was longer compared to the values of 30 (S30) (p = 0.000) and 15 seconds (S15) (p = 0.000). However, there were no significant differences between the 30 and 15 second data (p = 0.248). Conclusion: Shorter time (15 seconds) of interval between repeated sprints can significantly affect performance when compared to longer breaks (30 and 60 seconds). But, all the conditions tested here, can be positive for the improvement of the performance, mainly in sports that demand fast and efficient motor actions, as for example, futsal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0056.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Islamic Bank; Banking Performance; Bibliometric Analysis; Cluster
Online: 2 December 2020 (10:51:16 CET)
Islamic banks (IBs) have been criticized as not being genuinely Islamic, and the methods in measuring their performances have been debatable. While the literature on IBs performance has been emerging, such studies precisely assess its recent development remains absent. Therefore, we aim to evaluate the development of scholarly articles that measure IBs’ performances. We employ bibliometric analysis and sample related articles from the Scopus database. We find that the development of IBs performance literature may be understood by 111 peer-reviewed journal articles, 4 conference papers, 1 book, and 1 book series. We analyze these materials based on publication sources, country and institution affiliation, keywords association, and cluster dendrogram. Our model that quantifies the keywords association and cluster dendrogram provides a novelty in assessing IBs performance literature development. Future studies may replicate our model to cluster and identify the keyword associations from the unstructured data sources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0247.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: beef cow welfare; reproductive performance; New Zealand
Online: 6 November 2020 (15:38:20 CET)
One key area where animal welfare may relate to productivity is through reproductive performance. Welfare was assessed on 25 extensively managed pastoral New Zealand beef farms and the relationship between welfare and reproductive performance was explored. Relationships between welfare measures and key reproductive performance indicators (pregnancy rate, weaning rate, mating period and bull: cow ratio) were investigated using an exploratory Principal Components Analysis and linear regression model. Seven welfare measures (thinness, poor rumen fill, dirtiness, blindness, mortality, health checks of pregnant cows and yarding frequency/year) showed potential influence on reproductive performance, and lameness was retained individually as a potential measure. Mean pregnancy rates in both 2018 (PD18) and 2017 (PD17) were ~91% and mean weaning rate was 84%. Of the welfare measures, only lameness had a direct association with pregnancy rate, as well as confounding effect on the association between mating period and pregnancy rate. The bull: cow ration (mean 1:31) and reproductive conditions (dystocia, abortion, vaginal prolapse) did not influence pregnancy and weaning rates. In the study population there was no clear association between welfare and reproductive performance, except for the confounding effects of lameness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0651.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Pre-exam anxiety; Poor academic performance; GPA
Online: 30 October 2020 (15:49:21 CET)
Introduction: Exams are a relatively stressful period for all students, especially undergraduate medical students. Exams bring anxiety and stress for the students. Some students experience such high stress that it hinders their academic productivity and reduces their exam performance. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of pre-exam anxiety on the academic performance of medical students. Methods: Two hundred and twenty-five final year medical students completed Westside Test Anxiety (WTA) Scale one month before their exams. Grade Point Average (GPA) of these students was noted when the results were announced. Data was processed and analyzed using SPSS v 22.0Results: The mean anxiety score on WTA scale was 3.46 ± 0.87. All students (100%) who scored ≤ 2.50 GPA were highly-extremely highly anxious. In the 2.51-3.00 GPA group, 46% were highly-extremely highly anxious, 32% were moderately anxious, and 21% had low to normal anxiety. In the 3.01-3.50 GPA group, 30% were highly-extremely highly anxious, 30% were moderately anxious, and 39% had low to normal anxiety. In the 3.51-4.00 GPA group, 29% were highly-extremely highly anxious, 23% were moderately anxious, and 47% had low to normal anxiety. The correlation coefficient between GPA and test anxiety of students was -.314 which shows inverse relationship.Conclusion: Pre-exam anxiety and stress imparts negative effects on the exam performance of final year medical students. Poor academic performance was associated with high to extremely high pre-exam anxiety while high achievers had relatively lower anxiety levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0177.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: combustion engines; thermal efficiency; fuel performance catalysts.
Online: 8 October 2020 (13:09:50 CEST)
The results from laboratory tests and field tests, available in the open literature for over ten years, despite the announcement of high efficiency translating into increased energy efficiency and such significant ecological advantages, have not so far resulted in widespread use of fuel performance catalysts (FPC) on a global scale. Wishing to explain why the above situation occurred and to verify the operation of catalytic additives for fuels; this article presents the results of research on the effect of using catalytic additives for fuel in a brand new diesel engine. The article contains an analysis of the results of exhaust gas emission tests from the Doosan MD196TI engine. During the tests, the engine was fueled with a typical diesel fuel and the same fuel with the a catalyst additive. The catalyst was added to the liquid fuel in the form of a commercially available product distributed by ProOne company under the name FMAX. The research was carried out in the form of a test, much more developed than the approval test on a stationary braking station in accordance with the requirements of ISO 8178. The article is concluded with a comparative analysis of exhaust gas emission results illustrating the effects of a catalyst in the form of reduction of solid particles, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and a slight increase in nitrogen oxide emissions. In addition, the effect of the catalyst depends on the product of thermal (brake) efficiency of the engine and the calorific value (CV) of the fuel used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0419.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: artificial sweeteners; zebrafish; Daphnia; cardiac performance; toxicity
Online: 18 September 2020 (04:47:33 CEST)
Artificial sweeteners are widely used food ingredients in beverages and drinks to lower calorie intake which in turn prevent lifestyle diseases such as obesity. Epidemiological evidences suggest that an overdose of artificial sweeteners could result to adverse effects after consumption. Thus, our study aims to systematically explore the potential adverse effects of eight commercial artificial sweeteners, including acesulfame-K, alitame, aspartame, sodium cyclamate, dulcin, neotame, saccharin and sucralose on cardiac performances of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Daphnia as model animals. Embryonic zebrafish and Daphnia were exposed to eight artificial sweeteners at 100 ppb concentrations and their cardiac performance (heart rate, ejection fraction, fractional shortening, stroke volume, cardiac output and heartbeat regularity) were measured and compared. Saccharin significantly increased the heart rate of zebrafish larvae while a significant decrease was observed in Daphnia. Significant increase was also noted in zebrafish heart rate variability after incubation in acesulfame K, dulcin, sodium cyclamate, and sucralose. However, a significant increase in Daphnia was only observed after incubation in dulcin. Based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering results, several artificial sweetener samples were species-specific to zebrafish and Daphnia. Our study demonstrates the potential adverse physiological effects of artificial sweeteners in cardiovascular systems of zebrafish larvae and Daphnia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0130.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: academic performance; COVID-19; veterinary; online learning
Online: 21 August 2020 (02:25:37 CEST)
Many universities and colleges worldwide suspended classroom teaching due to the novel coronavirus pandemic and switched to online teaching. The current cross-sectional study was carried out to analyze the impact of lockdown due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the academic performance of veterinary medical students and researchers. Veterinary medical students and researchers were invited to answer an online google form questionnaire. A total of 1398 participants were from 92 different countries answered the questionnaire with response rate of 94.52%. The data showed that COVID-19 pandemic lockdown affected the academic performance of most participants (96.7%) with varying degrees. The mean evaluation scores for the online education in general was 5.06 ± 2.43 while that for the practical parts was 3.62± 2.56. Although online education provides an opportunity for self-study. The main challenge online education faces in veterinary medical science is how to give practical lessons. Since most of the subjects are practical; therefore, it is not easy to learn it online. Students think that it is difficult to fulfill the veterinary competencies only with online education system. Online education can be improved by making it more interactive, showing medical procedures in real situations, giving concise information, and providing 3D virtual tools to mimic the real situation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0034.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Acupuncture; lactate; heart rate; physical performance; sustainability
Online: 2 August 2020 (14:46:22 CEST)
Studies have demonstrated the positive effects of acupuncture on athletic performance. The aim of this study was to determine the acute effects of acupuncture on heart rate, the perceived exertion scale and lactate levels in recreational athletes. Fifteen competitive males engaged in HIIT. The characteristic was 29.86±2.51 years old, heart rate reserve 59.00±3.33, lactate 3.17±0.50 mM/DL. The subjects were submitted to two exercise sessions. Both training sessions consisted of 10 burpees, 12 thrusters and 14 box jumps (75 cm high) for 12 minutes. Activity intensity was between 85 and 95% of maximum heart rate. Acupuncture points: ST36, L3, LI11. The student’s t-test was adopted, Shapiro-Wilk test was applied for normality, and Pearson correlation. There was a positive correlation of r = 0.69 between lactate levels and heart rate. Lactate: Lac1 15.00±1.18 – Lac2 19.59± 1.46 p= 0.0001*; Heart 1rate: HRF 163.71±7.27 – HRF2 177.60±6.99 p=0.0001*; Blood pressure: SBP1 174.86±1.57 – SBP2 180.86±1.77 p= 0.0001*; PES1: 19.4±1.14; PES2 16.8±0.84 p= 0.0001*; weight1 – 182,57±12,05; weight 2 206,43±11,39 p=0.0325*. Acupuncture increased lactate accumulation, heart rate and blood pressure, suggesting that the exertion reached after acupuncture is higher than without acupuncture. The acupuncture technics improved the athlete performance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; serological diagnostic test; performance evaluation
Online: 21 June 2020 (14:58:20 CEST)
In only a few months after initial discovery in Wuhan, China, SARS-CoV-2 and the associated COVID-19 disease has become a global pandemic causing significant mortality and morbidity. In the absence of vaccines and effective therapeutics, reliable serological testing can be a key element of public health policy to control further spread of the disease and gradually ease quarantine measures. However, prior to launch of large-scale seroprevalence studies to assess herd immunity, it is critical to understand the limits and potential of current SARS-CoV-2 serological tests on the market. In this study, we provide an overview of serological testing and conduct a systematic review of independent evaluations of SARS-CoV-2 serological tests performance. Our findings show significant variability in the accuracy of marketed tests and highlight several lab-based and point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests with high performance level in detecting SRAS-CoV-2 specific antibodies. The findings of this review highlight the need for ongoing independent evaluations of commercialized COVID-19 diagnostic tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0131.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Saqez; Copper; Physical properties; Biological resistance; Performance
Online: 7 May 2020 (15:08:51 CEST)
There is an increasing interest in applying environmentally-friendly materials in wood protection technology. This include the use of less toxic active ingredients, as well as better fixation. This study investigates the formulation based on the combination of copper and Saqez resin on the physical and biological resistance properties of poplar wood. Samples were treated by either copper-ethanolamine (Cu/MEA) and/or Saqez resin at various treatment levels. A vacuum pressure procedure was applied. The retention, weight percent gain, water absorption, volumetric swelling, and decay resistance of the samples were then determined. The highest retention and weight percent gain were obtained at the samples treated with the combination of copper-based system and Saqez resin. Additionally, the combination of the copper and Saqez improved the physical properties and decay-resistance against white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor.
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: supersonic combustion; vent mixer; mixing; combustion performance
Online: 16 April 2019 (12:14:14 CEST)
This work focuses on forced combustion with regards to the relationship between vent mixer models and several injection locations in unheated supersonic flow. A plasma jet torch was used to ignite the hydrogen–air mixture in a laboratory-scaled combustor duct. The flow field of the combustion was visualized with pressure and gas-sampling measurements. The vent mixers indicate good dispersion characteristics of the mixture for both parallel and normal 1 injections. However, forced combustion is dominantly governed by the injection rate toward the plasma jet (hot source) because the combustible region is restricted under the cold main flow. For this reason, the parallel injection, which provides the hydrogen–air mixture directly toward the plasma jet, shows good combustion performance. The normal 1 injection interacted with the vent mixers and shows slightly good combustion performance. Lastly, the normal 2 injection is little affected by the vent mixers and has poor combustion performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0397.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: mortar; aerial lime; aggregates; experimental testing; performance
Online: 22 August 2018 (14:36:31 CEST)
In order to fully perform their functions and be durable, mortars for renders and plasters are requested to have a set of characteristics that can vary with the type of exposure to external environmental actions and the type of substrate. Generally, they need moderate strength, high deformability, some water protection capability, good adhesion to the substrate, and compatibility with the pre-existent materials. The presence of water and its movement inside the pore structure of the mortars are among the most significant causes of degradation. Moreover, several authors consider that the main factors for durability and good performance of lime-based mortars are mostly related with the good quality of the binder and the use of adequate aggregates. This paper intends to study the effect of ageing on the properties and durability of air lime mortars, using aggregates of different mineralogy. For this purpose, different mortars compositions are exposed to an accelerated weathering test under defined conditions. The obtained characteristics are discussed and compared with the results obtained with the same mortars tested in laboratory conditions. The effects of the aggregate type on the durability of mortars seem to be linked to their effects on the mortars porous structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0080.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: high-intensity functional training; work capacity; performance
Online: 12 March 2018 (05:33:23 CET)
High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT) is a novel exercise intervention that may test body systems in a balanced and integrated fashion by challenging individuals’ abilities to complete mechanical work. However, research has not previously determined if physical work capacity is unique to traditional physiologic measures of fitness. Twenty-five healthy men and women completed a six-week HIFT intervention with physical work capacity and various physiologic measures of fitness assessed pre- and post-intervention. At baseline, these physiologic measures of fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity) were significantly associated with physical work capacity and this relationship was even stronger at post-intervention assessment. Further, there were significant improvements across these physiologic measures in response to the delivered intervention. However, the change in these physiologic measures failed to predict the change in physical work capacity induced via HIFT. These findings point to the potential utility of HIFT as a unique challenge to individuals’ physiology beyond traditional resistance or aerobic training. Elucidating the translational impact of increasing work capacity via HIFT may be of great interest to health and fitness practitioners ranging from strength/conditioning coaches to physical therapists.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: performance evaluation; poultry meat; ergonomics; injuries; industry
Online: 2 January 2018 (06:36:04 CET)
Injuries of repetitive efforts constitute one of the prime causes of absenteeism in the workplace, have bear a considerable cost for the public health system and can cast doubt on the sustainability of a company. The objective of this paper is to build, in the researchers, the needed knowledge to choose a set of relevant scientific articles about repetitive strain injuries in the poultry meat industry, aiming identify characteristics in those scientific publications that have the potential to contribute on the topic of this paper. The research is characterized as exploratory-descriptive, draws on primary and secondary data sources. The study involves the application of a method for selection and analysis of the selected articles. To this end, the method utilized was the Knowledge Development Process – Constructivist (Proknow-C) as theoretical intervention instrument. Within the process development, it was obtained a portfolio of 16 articles aligned to the research and scientifically recognized with the main periodicals, papers, authors and keywords. The ProKnow-C process allowed identify opportunities in the literature about injuries in the poultry meat industry and showed opportunities for research future. This paper, under the constructivist perspective, presents a structured process to build, in the researcher, the necessary knowledge to identification, selection and analysis of relevant scientific articles relating to research context and, for these articles, find prominences and opportunities for a research theme without similar publications.