ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0424.v1
Online: 22 November 2022 (11:58:34 CET)
Floodplains are critically important ecosystems that provide a whole suite of ecosystem services including nutrient and carbon sequestration, flood mitigation, water storage, and critical wildlife habitat to name a few. However, human modification of rivers and floodplains through channelization, artificial levee construction, reduction in active floodplain area, and water management can significantly reduce the ecosystem function of river-floodplain systems. In this study, we evaluated the changes in nutrient loading of the Kissimmee River floodplain during the restoration of the river-floodplain system. In addition to time-series loading analysis, we also evaluated soil nutrient concentrations across the lower portion of the Kissimmee River floodplain. During the 44-year nutrient loading time-series, the floodplain remained a nutrient exporter with changes in nutrient loading generally corresponding to both water quality (i.e. point source reductions) and hydrologic restoration activities in the watershed and Kissimmee River floodplain. During the study period, inputs of total phosphorus and total nitrogen loads from upstream either significantly increased or remained the same. In addition to external sources of nutrients, internal sources of nutrients from floodplain soils can also contribute to the total nutrient export from the system. These internal sources could be organic via the decomposition of organic matter or geologic from the original excavation of the canal and/or restoration backfilling. Soil nutrient concentrations vary between vegetative communities and landscape position and could be a significant source of phosphorus to the downstream system which is plagued by eutrophic conditions. Therefore, as floodplain function in the Kissimmee River continues to be restored and managed, additional effort may be needed to address nutrient inputs and internal legacy nutrients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0537.v1
Online: 31 August 2022 (08:18:32 CEST)
Different soil nutrients affect plant metabolites accumulation characteristics. The main soil nutrients and their correlation with Pepino metabolites were investigated in this study to evaluate differences between greenhouses on the Loess Plateau in northwest China. A total of 269 Pepino metabolites in the fruits were identified using a UPLC-QTOF-MS approach from plants grown in three major Pepino growing regions. Their differential distribution characteristics were analyzed. 99 metabolites differed among the Pepino fruits in the three regions. The main classes of the differentially accumulated metabolites were ranked as Amino acids and derivatives, Nucleotides and derivatives, Organic acids, Alkaloids, Vitamins, Saccharides and Alcohols, Phenolic acids, Lipids, and others. Environmental factor analysis indicated that soil nutrients were the primary differentiating factor. Five soil nutrient indicators: TN（total nitrogen）, TP（total phosphorus）, AP（available phosphorus）, AK（available potassium）, and OM（organic matter）, exhibited significant differences in three growing sites. Metabolite and soil nutrient association analysis using redundancy analysis (RDA) and Mantel test indicated that TNand OM contributed to the accumulation of amino acids and derivatives, nucleotides and derivatives, and alkaloids while inhibiting organic acids, vitamins coagulation biosynthesis. Moreover, AP and TP were associated with the highest accumulation of saccharides and, alcohols, phenolic acids. Consequently, differences in soil nutrients were reflected in Pepino metabolites variability. This study clarified the metabolite variability and the relationship between Pepino and soil nutrients in the main planting areas of northwest China. It provides a theoretical basis for the subsequent development of Pepino's nutritional value and cultivation management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0099.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: aging; bioactive nutrients; dietary; nutrigenomics; Oxiinflammaging
Online: 19 December 2016 (09:37:23 CET)
The increase in the average lifespan and the consequent proportional growth of the elderly segment of society has furthered the interest in studying ageing processes. Ageing may be considered a multifactorial process derived from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors including lifestyle. There is ample evidence in many species that the maximum age attainable (maximum lifespan potential, MLSP) is genetically determined and several mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms are associated with longevity. Many studies have shown that most of the phenotypic characteristics observed in the aging process are the result of the occurrence, with age, of a low grade chronic pro-inflammatory status called "inflammaging", partially under genetic control. The term indicate that aging is accompanied by a low degree of chronic inflammatory, an up-regulation of inflammatory response and that inflammatory changes are common to many age-related diseases. Therefore, the theory of oxidation-inflammation was proposed as the main cause of aging. Accordingly, the chronic oxidative stress, that appears with age, affects all cells and especially those of the regulatory systems, such as the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems and the communication between them. This prevents an adequate homeostasis and, therefore, the preservation of health. It was also proposed that the immune system plays a key role in the aging process, specifically in the rate of aging, since there is a relationship between the redox state and functional capacity of immune cells and longevity of individuals. Moreover, the role of the immune system in senescence could be of universal application. A confirmation of the central role of the immune system in oxi-inflamm-aging is that the administrationintake? of adequate amounts of antioxidants in the diet improves immune function, decreases their oxidative stress, and consequently increases longevity. The promotion of healthy lifestyles is one of the major goals of governments and international agencies all over the world. Human molecular processes are influenced by both physiological pathways and exogenous factors which include, for instance, those originating from diet. Dietary intake has substantive effects on molecular processes of metabolic health. Nutrients can directly regulate physiological changes in human body. In fact, in addition to have an energetic and structural value, nutritional intake provides bioactive molecules which are selectively able to modulate specific metabolic pathways, noticeably affecting cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases development or progress. Numerous bioactive nutrients are being progressively identified and their chemopreventive effects are being described at clinical and molecular mechanism levels. Systematic analyses comprise all “omics” technologies (such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) and the goal is to investigate bioactive molecules effects derived from the diet. Nutrigenomic knowledge on physiologic status and disease risk will provide both developments of better diagnostic procedures and of new therapeutic strategies specifically targeted on nutritionally relevant processes. The present review was aimed to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying beneficial effects of bioactive nutrients and nutrigenomics on age-related diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0026.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: COVID-19; herbs; spices; nutrition; nutrients; immunomodulatory
Online: 2 September 2020 (05:06:56 CEST)
Corona Virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new strain of coronavirus that causes respiratory illnesses with a start of flu like symptoms. This disease is fatal and is spread all over the world. The Scientist are working day and night to find vaccine or a cure. World Health Organisation has declared COVID-19 as pandemic . In the view of the pandemic many treatments are being tried on the patients and various treatment modalities are being followed, the traditional medicine has shown a major role to manage this disease. The traditional medicines include the use of herbs, nutrition and spices that are freely available in Asian countries. These are used in day to day life by Asian population . In this paper we have compiled and reviewed the role of various herbs and spices such as Oregano, Ashwagandha, Ginseng, Basil, Sage, Curcumin, Fenugreek, Ginger and Garlic in building immunity and also in curing pathogenic invasions based on evidence based researches. As there is no cure available for COVID-19 till now so supportive therapy is playing a major role for the patients to fight with this pandemic. The AYUSH ministry has also promoted the use of above herbs for a patient suffering from this disease. The corona virus is present in respiratory system as shown by different studies and it has different strains. The guidelines laid by the ICMR and WHO shows that use of herbs, spices and nutrients can be helpful to manage this virus by increasing the immunity in patients. Hence we are not claiming any cures but the herbs and spices used in day to day life are very much effective in management of COVID-19. World Health Organisation (WHO) has recognised the use of alternative and traditional medicine in the management of COVID-19 but the herbs should be used in prescribed amounts and overdose of them can be harmful for health [1,3]. Therefore the present article will enlighten the readers about the role of herbs, spices and nutrients in improving the conditions in COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0497.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: urban lake; sediments; nutrients; landuse; pollutant sources
Online: 26 September 2018 (04:53:40 CEST)
Lake Rawa Besar is an urban lake surrounded by dense settlements and market area. Currently Lake Rawa Besar is experiencing physical and ecology strain. This research’s objectives are to determine the levels of sediment and nutrient, the distribution, also the relation to land use and human activities producing pollutant. Field surveys with 30 sample points and observations was needed scattered within the lake. Measuring the value of each parameter is carried out in national standardized laboratory. The result shows that sediment load of TDS is still below the standard limit for clean water, while TSS levels in the middle of lake exceed the standard limit. Nutrient loads, spesifically nitrate and phospate levels is below the standard limit. While turbidity and BOD levels have a uniform distribution pattern in the lake, exceed the standard limit for clean water, and have a positive correlation. High levels of turbidity and BOD are caused by household waste and human activities producing organic waste such as tofu factory, fowl manure, and garbage dump. Small sewage goes into the lake mediates pollutants inflow. Attention is needed by nearby people, also for the government, to sustain the ecological condition of the lake.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0435.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: coronavirus; fevers; pneumonia; nutrients; sauna baths; physical exercise
Online: 29 March 2020 (11:25:23 CEST)
The recent outbreak and spread of the COVID-19 virus infection across the world has seen a massive global system-wide shutdown of human social and economic activity. Both developed and developing nations have been forced to contain and isolate their citizens as much as possible. However, the continuous rising cases in both categories of nations, especially those with poor or nonexistent testing facilities and healthcare systems pose a hidden danger. The seemingly lack of and access to a truly global concerted research effort in both temporary but effective symptom mitigation may lead to more deaths in infected cases. We propose that a fusion of both technological and home-grown solutions can be utilized effectively to manage symptoms. This would add to the preventive methods of social distancing, isolation, quarantine and frequent handwashing to halt the impact of the disease. We also hope to spur further research in such drug/non-drug combination therapy-based methods with emphasis on effectiveness based on quality of nutrient sources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0181.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: stormwater; biofilter; de-icing chemicals; nutrients; filtration performance
Online: 20 March 2018 (16:28:04 CET)
Biofilter application for treatment of stormwater containing de-icing chemicals commonly applied in airports, propylene glycol and potassium formate, was investigated. Lab-scale adsorption tests using filter media made of crushed clay (Filtralite) and granular activated carbon showed that adsorption was unsuitable for removal of propylene glycol and potassium formate. Column filtration experiment testing two different crushed clay size ranges was conducted. The results showed that DOC removal was dependent on a number of factors. This study investigated the impact of filter depth, nutrients addition, and filtration rate. DOC removal suggested that DOC degradation occurred on the top filter layer. It was shown that the most active separation occurred in the first ~20 cm of filter depth. This was confirmed by results from water quality analysis (i.e. DOC removal and ATP measurement) and calculations based on a filtration performance analysis (Iwasaki model) and filter hydraulic evaluation (Lindquist diagram). It was shown that for the highest C:N:P ratio tested (molar ratio of 24:7:1), 50-60% DOC removal was achieved. Addition of nutrients was found important and determining the biofilter performance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0462.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: sphingolipids; ceramide; flavonoids; resveratrol; genistein; curcumin, nutrients; nutraceuticals; chemotherapeutics
Online: 31 May 2018 (08:26:07 CEST)
The latest scientific literature outlines a resilient interconnection between cancer modulation and dietary polyphenols by sphingolipid-mediated mechanisms, usually correlated with a modification of their metabolism. We aim to extensively survey this relation to show how it could be advantageous in cancer treatment or prevention by nutrients. Polyphenols, chemically characterized by polyhydroxylated phenolic structure, are well known for their pervasive pharmacological properties: anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, antiseptic, antitumor, antiallergic, cardioprotective and others. Pervasive is also their distribution in food products especially in plant foods as vegetables, cereals, legumes, fruits, nuts and beverages as wine, cider, beer, tea, cocoa. Recently, sphingolipids have been correlated with cancer by a dysregulation of their rheostat emerging as mediator of cell proliferation in cancer and modulator of chemotherapeutics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0457.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: CKD; renal function; nutrients; nutraceuticals; xenobiotics; inflammation; functional nutrition.
Online: 30 May 2018 (17:15:58 CEST)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects worldwide 8-16% of the population. In developed countries, the most important risk factors for CKD are diabetes, hypertension and obesity, calling into question the importance of educating and acting on lifestyles and nutrition. A balanced nutrition and supplementation can indeed support the maintenance of a general health status, including preservation of renal function, and help to manage and curb the main risk factors for renal damage. While the concepts of protein and salt restriction in nephrology are historically acknowledged, the role of some nutrients on renal health and the importance of nutrition as a preventative measure for renal care are less known. In this review, we provide an overview of the demonstrated and potential actions of some selected nutrients, nutraceuticals and xenobiotics on renal health and function. The effects on kidney of fibres, proteins, fatty acids, curcumin, steviol glycosides, green tea, coffee, nitrates, nitrites, and alcohol, both direct and indirect, in CKD and non-CKD condition, are reviewed here. In a view of a functional and personalized nutrition, understanding the renal and systemic effects of dietary components is essential since many chronic conditions and CKD are related to systemic dysfunctions such as chronic low-grade inflammation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: type 2 diabetes; glycemic control; insulin resistance; nutrients; umbrella review
Online: 9 May 2022 (05:05:33 CEST)
Background: Nutrient supplements are widely used for type 2 diabetes (T2D) yet evidence-based guidance for clinicians is lacking. Methods: We searched the four electronic databases from November 2015–December 2021. The most recent, most comprehensive, high-ranked systematic reviews, meta-analyses and/or umbrella reviews of randomised controlled trials in adults with T2D were included. Data were extracted on study characteristics, aggregate outcome measures per group (glycemic control, measures of insulin sensitivity and secretion), adverse events, and GRADE assessments. Quality was assessed using AMSTAR-2. Results: Twelve meta-analyses and one umbrella review were included. There was very low certainty evidence that chromium, Vitamin C and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (-3 PUFAs) were superior to placebo for the primary outcome of HbA1c (MD -0.54%, -0.54% and ES -0.27 respectively). Probiotics were superior to placebo for HbA1c (WMD -0.43%). There was very low certainty evidence that Vitamin D was superior to placebo for lowering HbA1c in trials of <6 months (MD -0.17%). Magnesium, zinc, Vitamin C, probiotics and polyphenols were superior to placebo for FBG. Vitamin D was superior to placebo for insulin resistance. Data on safety was limited. Conclusions: Future research should identify who may benefit from nutrient supplementation, safety, and optimal regimens and formulations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0262.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: karst; Agroforestry; soil fractal dimension; soil physicochemical properties; soil nutrients
Online: 15 September 2021 (14:07:50 CEST)
Suitable soil structure and nutrient security are important for plant growth and development, characteristics of soil fractal dimension and distribution of physical and chemical properties and their interactions play an important role in studying the stability of soil structure and water and fertilizer cycles. As a sustainable management model, intercropping has positive benefits for erosion control, spatial optimization of resources, as well as improving system productivity. The effects of four intercropping methods on soil fractal dimension and physicochemical properties were investigated by intercropping Salvia miltiorrhiza with forage and S. miltiorrhiza with forest under typical karst rock desertification habitats in Guizhou. The results showed that soil nutrient content of intercropping was significantly higher than that of monoculture, the organic carbon content of soil grown under forest is higher than other treatments, and there was a non-significant change in soil water content of intercropping compared with monoculture. The soil fine-grained matter of intercropping was significantly higher than that of monoculture, while the soil fractal dimension showed a tendency to become larger with the increase of fine-grained matter. The intercropping planting, due to its component types and spatial and temporal configurations, leads to differences in soil water and fertilizer interactions, which can be combined with other ecological restoration measures to optimize the composite model and jointly promote the restoration and development of ecologically fragile areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0011.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: plant nutrition; chemical fertilization; nutrient diagnosis; forest plantation; foliar nutrients
Online: 2 January 2018 (10:25:46 CET)
Pinus patula is one of the most planted wood conifer species worldwide; however, no foliar nutrient standards exist for this species up to date. The objective of the present study was to generate and verify two sets of foliar nutrient standards for nearly ten-year-old P. patula trees: critical nutrient concentrations and DRIS norms. Nutrients studied were N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, and B. The reference standards were verified experimentally by installing two fertilization trials; one of them located in Huayacocotla, state of Veracruz and the other one in Aquixtla, state of Puebla, Mexico. Nutrient status of each fertilization trial was correctly predicted by critical nutrient values and DRIS as well. Both standards were able to detect the secondary growth-limiting nutrient deficiency in the Huayacocotla trial, where the primary limitation for growth was scarcity of solar radiation within tree crowns. The limiting nutrient in both experimental trials was K.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0012.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: Flammulina velutipes; fermentation broth; umami taste; nutrients; electronic tongue; mushroom byproducts
Online: 4 May 2022 (14:14:18 CEST)
As one of the most appealing edible mushrooms, the quality of Flammulina velutipes can be affected by the cultivation substrate, which has an impact on the mushroom umami taste and nutrients. In our study, the effect of mushroom root fermentation broth (MRFB) based substrate on umami taste and nutrients of F. velutipes were evaluated; four proportions of MRFB was conducted (CK 0%, E1 6.7%, E2 13.4%, E3 20.1%). Results indicated that MRFB was an effective nutrient supplement for mushroom cultivation substrate. E2 and E3 showed higher crude fiber, crude fat, soluble protein, and soluble sugar. Compared to CK, the content of monosodium glutamate-like (MSG-like) amino acids, essential amino acids, total amino acids and total 5'-nucleotides in E2 and E3 were higher. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) values in E1, E2 and E3 were 1.70, 2.43 and 1.56 times of CK, respectively. Higher umami, saltness and sweetness taste values were found in E2. Thereby, it signified that better umami and richer nutrients were achieved by using substrate with proper volume of MRFB, especially, E2 with 13.4% of MRFB. Overall, better mushroom quality could be derived from the application of MRFB in cultivation. MRFB was a favorable nutrient supplement for Flammulina velutipes cultivation substrate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0015.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Metal oxide nanoparticles; Bioaccumulation; Recommended Dietary Allowances; Daily Values; Essential nutrients
Online: 2 August 2020 (11:18:19 CEST)
Understanding potential uptake and biodistribution of engineered nanoparticles in soil-grown plants is imperative for toxicity and risk assessment considering the oral exposure of edibles by humans. Herein, we assessed potential influence of particle size (25, 50, and 250 nm) and concentration (0, 50, 100, 200, and 500 mg/kg-soil) of Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) on: (1) the root system architecture, and the physicochemical attributes of soil at the soil-root interface, (2) leading to Cu transport and accumulation in root, stem, leaf and seed in soybean (Glycine max cv Kowsar) grown for entire lifecycle of 120 days, and compared with soluble Cu2+ ions and water-only controls, and (3) performed a comparative assessment of total seed Cu levels in soybean with other valuable food sources for Cu intake and discussed its human health implications. Our findings showed particle size- and concentration-dependent influence of CuONPs on Cu uptake and tissue distribution in root, stem, leaf and seed in soybean. Alterations in root architecture (root dry weight, root length, root volume, and root area) were dependent on the Cu compound type, Cu concentrations, and their interactions (p<0.05), except for root density. Concentration-response relationships for all three sized CuONPs, and Cu2+ ions, were linear. CuONPs and Cu2+ ions had inhibitory effects on root growth and development. Overall, soybean responses to smallest size CuONPs-25 nm were higher for all parameters investigated compared to two larger sized CuONPs (50 nm, 250 nm) or Cu2+ ions. Cu uptake/bioaccumulation differed among soybean tissues in the order: root > leaf > stem > seed. Despite reduced root architecture and seed yield, our smallest size CuONPs-25 nm led to increased total seed Cu uptake compared to the larger sized CuONPs and Cu2+ ions tested. Our findings also suggest that soil amendment by CuONPs, more so by the smallest size CuONPs-25 nm, could significantly improve nutritional Cu value in soybean seed as reflected by % Daily Values (DV), and are rated “Good” to “Very Good” according to the “World’s Healthiest Foods” rating. However, until the potential toxicity and risk from consumption of soybean seed is characterized in humans, caution should be exercised when the Cu fortified seeds are used for daily human consumption when addressing Cu deficiency and associated illnesses, globally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0624.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Palaeontology Keywords: Urbanization; Gulf of Trieste; Ostracods; Nutrients; Environmental stress; Marine Nature Reserve
Online: 25 July 2020 (19:00:43 CEST)
For the first time the distribution and modifications of living ostracod associations present in the Gulf of Trieste (GoT) in relation to the alterations caused by human activity in the last 20 years were investigated. The results were compared with the main chemico-physical parameters (especially nitrogen and phosphorus) measured over the same period, which can lead to a general decrease in environmental quality. For a more in-depth analysis of the changes recorded by ostracods in the last 50 years, a period in which eutrophication and anoxia increased, we revisited the study carried out by Masoli in the GoT in 1967. The results obtained made it possible to verify how over the last 20 years, ostracod assemblages have suffered a decrease both qualitatively and quantitatively. Most of the species recovered show characteristics of opportunism and tolerance to environmentally stressful conditions, high organic matter concentrations and oxygen deficiency. The ostracods analyzed in 1967 showed similar results with few dominant opportunistic species. We verified how ostracods recorded in GoT, similar to Mollusks and Foraminifera, the possible environmental crisis linked to the recurrence of mucilage and hypoxic events documented for the Gulf of Trieste in the last 50 years. Finally, a comparison with the best environmental conditions found in the Marine Nature Reserve of Miramare (MPA) allowed us to emphasize the important role of protected areas to avoid the loss of biodiversity due to urbanization.
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: breakfast; linear programming; NHANES; NRF9.3; nutrient density; food groups; nutrients; optimization
Online: 10 May 2019 (10:42:42 CEST)
The quality of dietary patterns can be optimized using a mathematical technique known as linear programming (LP). LP methods have rarely been applied to individual meals. The present LP models optimized the breakfast meal for those participants in the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014 who ate breakfast (n=11,565). The Nutrient Rich Food Index (NRF9.3) was a measure of diet quality. Breakfasts in the bottom tertile of NRF9.3 scores (T1) were LP-modeled to meet nutrient requirements without deviating too much from current eating habits. Separate LP models were run for children and for adults. The LP-modeled breakfasts resembled the existing ones in the top tertile of NRF9.3 scores (T3), but were more nutrient-rich. Favoring fruit, cereals, and dairy, the LP-modeled breakfasts had less meat, added sugars and fats but more whole fruit and 100% juices, more whole grains, and more milk and yogurt. LP modeling methods can build on existing dietary patterns to construct food-based dietary guidelines and identify individual meals and/or snacks that need improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0387.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: membrane fouling; membrane plasticization; nutrients transport properties; perfusion bioreactors; tissue engineering
Online: 20 July 2018 (14:01:37 CEST)
High porosity and mass transport properties of microfiltration polymeric membranes benefits nutrients supply to cells when used as scaffolds in interstitial perfusion bioreactors for tissue engineering. High nutrients transport is assumed when pore size and porosity of the membrane are in the micrometric range. The present work demonstrates that the study of membrane fouling by proteins present in the culture medium, though not done usually, should be included in the routine testing of new polymer membranes for this intended application. Two poly(ε-caprolactone) microfiltration membranes presenting similar average pore size (~0.7µm) and porosity (>80%) but different external surface porosity and pore size have been selected as case study. The present work demonstrates that a membrane with lower surface pore abundance and smaller external pore size (~0.67 µm), combined with adequate hydrodynamics and tangential flow filtration mode is usually more convenient to guarantee high flux of nutrients. On the contrary, having large external pore size (~1.70µm) and surface porosity would incur in important internal protein fouling that could not been prevented with the operation mode and hydrodynamics of the perfusion system. Additionally, the use of glycerol in the drying protocols of the membranes might cause plasticization and a consequent reduction of mass transport properties due to membrane compaction by the pressure exerted to force perfusion. Therefore, preferentially, drying protocols that omit the use of plasticizing agents are recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0207.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: above-ground carbon stock; below-ground carbon stock; soil nutrients; exclosure
Online: 26 March 2018 (08:17:48 CEST)
Exclosures are used to regenerate native vegetation as a way to reduce soil erosion, increase rain water inﬁltration and provide fodder and woody biomass in degraded grazing lands. Therefore, this study assessed the impact of grazing exclosure on vegetation biomass, carbon sequestration and soil nutrients under five and ten years of grazing exclosures and freely grazed areas in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Vegetation biomass, carbon stocks and soil nutrients increased with increasing grazing exclusion. However, open grazing lands and five years of grazing exclosure did not differ in aboveground biomass, above-and-belowground carbon stocks. Moreover, ten years of grazing exclosure had a higher (P<0.01) grass, herb and litter carbon stocks compared to five years exclosure and open grazing lands. The total carbon stock was higher for ten years exclosure (193.3 t C ha-1) than the five years exclosure (154.0 t C ha-1) and in open grazing areas (146.6 t C ha-1). Grazing lands closed for ten years had a higher SOC, organic matter, total N, available P, and exchangeable K+ and Na+ compared to five year’s exclosure and open grazing lands. Therefore, establishment of grazing exclosures had a positive effect in restoring degraded grazing lands, thus improving vegetation biomass, carbon sequestration potentials and soil nutrients under the changing climate and global warming.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0030.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: global warming; nutrients addition; cyanobacterial blooms; eutrophic systems; oligo-mesotrophic systems
Online: 3 May 2017 (09:39:21 CEST)
Global warming, as well as europhication are predicted to promote cyanobacterial blooms, but how tropical phytoplankton communities from different trophic state systems respond to temperature variation is less known. To further explore the effect of temperature changes and nutrient addition on phytoplankton communities and to get insight in possible resistance to these effects, we tested the hypothesis that temperature variation will have a stronger effect on cyanobacteria dominance in eutrophic water than in oligo-mesotrophic. Hereto, we conducted an experiment with phytoplankton communities from two aquatic ecosystems differing in trophic state. Water samples from a eutrophic and an oligo-mesotrophic system were collected and incubated in 25 and 30ºC. Also, treatments that received additional surplus N and P were included that served as eutrophication treatments. Temperature variation itself did not promote cyanobacteria in either water from the oligo-mesotrophic or the eutrophic system. However, nutrient enrichment of water from the eutrophic system significantly boosted cyanobacteria, and biomass increased 10 times in both 25ºC and 30ºC treatments. In contrast, eutrophication of water from the oligo-mesotrophic system did not change the relative contribution of phytoplankton groups and response ratios were much lower than those for water from the eutrophic system. Although using a very simple experimental design, the results suggest that in eutrophic systems cyanobacteria dominance can be favoured by further addition of nutrients, independently of a direct temperature effect and that more pristine environments possess some resistance against eutrophication. Since global warming is assumed to intensify eutrophication symptoms indirectly, our study underscores the importance of nutrient control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0340.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: dietary plants; medicinal plants; extraction; solvent; phytoconstituents; antioxidants; anti-nutrients; radical scavenging
Online: 22 July 2022 (13:16:10 CEST)
Sesamum indicum is considered an underutilized oil-bearing seed in the semi-arid regions of Ghana. Nonetheless, it is a promising source of food with both nutritional and therapeutic benefits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties S. indicum seeds using different extraction solvents. The seeds were obtained from the local farmers and prepared for analysis. The bioactive compounds present in the seeds were extracted using hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water and their yields quantified. Total phenolic content (TPC), Condensed tannin content (TTC) and Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) , and DPPH radical scaveging assay were analyzed using standard methods. Antinutrients such as saponins, alkaloids, phytates and oxalates were also analyzed from the powdered seeds. Two chemometric methods; hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and Pearson correlation were employed to evaluate the interdependence of the various parameters to result in their antioxidant properties. The re-sults revealed that the solvents utilized had a significant impact on the extraction yield, phyto-chemical component concentration, and antioxidant activities. Hexane extracts of S. indicum seeds significantly exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (p < 0.05). It was marked with the highest TAC value of 232.6 ± 6.267 mg/g AAE and a strong DPPH scavenging activity with an IC50 of 52.81 ± 2.30 µg/mL. Correlations (p < 0.05) was established between TPC,CTC, TAC and DPPH radical scavenging activity) of the extracts. Antinutrients such as; phytate, oxalate, saponins and alkaloids were found to be 7.691 ± 0.8576, 1.501 ± 0.1375, 21.33 ± 4.619 and 317.33 ± 30.29 mg/g respectively. Data obtained suggest that S. indicum possess rich bioactive compounds that can be used in neutraceuticals and food products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0715.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Western South Atlantic continental margin; benthic Foraminifera; fresh water; nutrients; eutrophication; anoxic
Online: 30 October 2018 (08:51:08 CET)
The present work focuses on fresh water signatures at the sediment-water interface (1 cm) using foraminiferal species in both austral winter and summer in eleven longitudinal transects on the Western South Atlantic continental margin between 27° and 37° S, at water depths of 11.7 to 250 m. Here we show that depth, salinity, temperature, oxygen, grain size (mud and sand percentage), suspended matter, organic matter, SiO4, NO2, and NO3 in this order of importance are responsible for the distribution of foraminiferal species and thecamoebians. The presence of these microfossils indicate freshwater influx in four sectors over the continental shelf: Itajaí-Açu River, Laguna estuarine system, Patos Lagoon and RdlP (Rio de la Plata) will be explored further in detail. Our findings on freshwater signature on the continental shelf sediments through benthic species indicator are comparable to other continental systems worldwide, and a paleo record study would be useful for three South American countries (Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay). A freshwater signature in the continental shelf indicates deposition sites probably linked to anthropogenic impact since most of the pollutants and contaminants are dumped into water bodies that eventually reach and accumulate in the ocean. Therefore, the freshwater-related species on the continental shelf reflects exactly where the depositional sediment sites are, and where anthropogenic impacts accumulate. Foraminiferal microhabitat occupation within these zones is discussed in detail. And we conclude that together with the fauna, the abiotic parameters play an important role in determining the occurrence and degree of marine eutrophication induced by the input of polluted river waters, also showing possible anoxic environments on the shelf.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0154.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: bread wheat; correlations, gamma, grain nutrients concentrations; mutation, phytic acid; metals bioavailability
Online: 9 July 2018 (15:39:51 CEST)
Metal, primarily Fe and Zn, deficiencies affect over half of the world's population. Human diets with prevalent cereal products cause micronutrient malnutrition. Biofortification is one of the most effective approaches to alleviate malnutrition. Spring wheat genetically stable (M7) mutant lines developed with 100 and 200 Gy gamma treatments to broaden genetic variation and search for new resources were analyzed for nutritionally important minerals (Ca, Mg, K, Fe, and Zn), their bioavailability, and grain protein content (GPC). The variation was 172.3–883.0 mg/kg for Ca, 472.9–1088 mg/kg for Mg, 3128.6–5487.5 mg/kg for K, 40.9–89.0 mg/kg for Fe, and 22.2–89.6 mg/kg for Zn. In mutant lines, among the investigated minerals, the highest increases in concentrations were observed in Fe, Zn, and Ca when compared to the parent. Some mutant lines, mostly in the 100 Gy-derived germplasm, had two to three times higher Fe, Zn, and Ca concentrations, lower phytic acid concentration (1.4–2.1 times), and 6.5–7% higher GPC compare to the parent. Variation was detected for the Ca:Phy, Mg :Phy, Phy:K, Phy:Fe, and Phy:Zn molar ratios, (1.27–10.41, 5.05–18.68, 1.66–4.87, 1.40–5.32 and 1.78–11.78, respectively). The results showed how the genetic variation could be generated through radiation and be useful to develop biofortification by micronutrient varieties with their appropriate bioavailability to overcome malnutrition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0460.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: Cannabis; cannabinoids; nutrients; nitrogen (N); phosphorus (P); potassium (K); yield; response surface methodology
Online: 24 August 2021 (08:40:44 CEST)
Following legalization, cannabis has quickly become an important horticultural crop in Canada and increasingly so in other parts of the world. However, due to previous legal restrictions on cannabis research there are limited scientific data on the relationship between nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) supply (collectively: NPK) and the crop yield and quality. This study examined the response of a high delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Cannabis sativa cultivar grown in deep-water culture with different nutrient solution treatments varying in their concentrations (mg L-1) of N (70, 120, 180, 250, 290), P (20, 40, 60, 80, 100) and K (60, 120, 200, 280, 340) according to a central composite design. Results demonstrated that inflorescence yield responded quadratically to N and P, with the optimal concentrations predicted to be 194 and 59 mg L-1, respectively. Inflorescence yield did not respond to K in the tested range. These results can provide guidance to cultivators when formulating nutrient solutions for soilless cannabis production and demonstrates the utility of surface response design for efficient multi-nutrient optimization.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: continuous cropping obstacles; Panax quinquefolius L.; phenolic acids; soil bacterial community composition; soil nutrients
Online: 5 January 2021 (11:46:53 CET)
This study aims to verify the time-variant feature of American ginseng (AG) continuous cropping obstacles and to explore the factors impeding continuous cropping. We verified the feature with a plant-soil feedback pot experiment and then investigated the factors by comparing the properties of control soils that had not been previously used for growing ginseng (CS) with those of soils with a 10-year-crop-rotation cycle following the growth of AG (RS). It’s found that the survival rate of AG in RS was lower than that in CS. The RS had lower pH, available potassium content, and urease activity. Additionally, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, caffeic, and cinnamic acid levels were lower in RS than in CS, but salicylic acid levels showed the opposite pattern. RS had higher Rhodanobacter and lower Acidothermus, Sphingomonas relative abundances in bacterial community. It’s also found that many bacteria were substantially correlated with phenolic acids and soil physiochemical properties. Results indicate that even after 10-year crop rotation, the negative effects of prior continuous cropping of AG has not been eliminated. The growth of AG can be affected negatively with deterioration of soil physicochemical properties and with lower levels of phenolic acids which promote pathogen reproduction. Probiotics reduction also weighs. Moreover, biotic factors are interrelated with abiotic ones. Therefore, it can be inferred that the comprehensive change of soil properties is the main obstacle for continuous cropping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0186.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Fine root; tropical rainforest; nutrients dynamics; litter bags; decay rate; nitrogen mineralization, Calcium, Magnesium.
Online: 20 February 2019 (09:09:06 CET)
Plants produce above- and below-ground biomass. However, our understanding of both production and decomposition of below-ground biomass is poor, largely because of the difficulties of accessing study materials. Below-ground organic matter decomposition studies are scanty and especially rare in the tropics. Here, we used a litter bag experiment to quantify the mass loss and nutrients dynamics of decomposing twigs and fine roots from an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal associated tree, Parashorea chinensis, in a tropical rain forest in Southwest China. Overall, twig litter decomposed 1.9 times faster than fine roots (decay rate (k) twig=0.255, root=0.134). The difference in decomposition rates can be explained by a difference in phosphorus (P) concentration, availability and use by decomposers or C quality. Both materials showed an increase in N concentration, with final measurements still higher than initial levels. This suggests N may not be available due to microbial immobilization. Both carbon and nitrogen dynamics were significantly predicted by mass loss and showed a negative and positive relationship, respectively. Our study results imply that fine roots carbon and nitrogen contribute more to soils organic matter and enlarge the resident time. Therefore, better understanding of carbon cycle requires better understanding of mechanisms governing below ground biomass decomposition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0014.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: beans; iron, zinc and copper bioaccessibility; myo-inositol phosphates; anti-nutrients; polyphenols; household processing
Online: 2 July 2018 (13:19:42 CEST)
Micronutrient deficiencies are a major public health problem. Beans are an important plant-based source of iron, zinc and copper, but their absorption is reduced in the presence of anti-nutrients such as phytates, polyphenols and tannins. Soaking and discarding the soaking water before cooking is unanimously recommended, but this can result in mineral loss. Data on the consequences for mineral bioaccessibility is still limited. This study aimed to evaluate iron, zinc and copper bioaccessibility in black beans cooked (regular pan, pressure cooker) with and without the soaking water. Minerals were quantified by ICP-MS, myo-inositol phosphates (InsP5, InsP6) by HPLC ion-pair chromatography, total polyphenols using Folin-Denis reagent and condensed tannins using Vanillin assay. Mineral bioaccessibility was determined by in vitro digestion and dialysis. All treatments resulted in a statistically significant reduction of total polyphenols (30%) and condensed tannins (20%). Only when discarding the soaking water a loss of iron (6%) and copper (30%) was observed, and InsP6 was slightly decreased (7%) in one treatment. Bioaccessibility of iron and zinc were low (about 0.2% iron and 35% zinc), but copper presented high bioaccessibility (about 70%). Cooking beans under pressure without discarding the soaking water resulted in the highest bioaccessibility levels among all household procedures. Discarding the soaking water before cooking did not improve the nutritional quality of the beans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0152.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: riverine particulate material; phytoplankton; seawater; growth; organic carbon cycle; nutrients; primary production; carbon burial; CO2
Online: 9 January 2023 (07:52:27 CET)
Riverine particulates dominate the transport of vital nutrients like Si, Fe or P to the ocean mar-gins, where they may increase primary production by acting as slow release fertilizer. Further-more, the supply of particulate surface area to the ocean is considered to be a major control or-ganic carbon burial. Taken together, these observations suggest a close link between the supply of riverine particulate material and the organic carbon cycle. To explore this link, we conducted microcosm experiments to measure the growth of the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii in the presence and absence of different types and concentrations of riverine particulate material. Results demonstrate a strong positive effect of riverine particulate material on diatom growth with increased total diatom concentrations and slowed post-exponential death rates with in-creasing particulate concentration. Moreover, SEM and optical microscope investigations con-firm that riverine particulates facilitates organic carbon burial through their role in the aggrega-tion and sedimentation of phytoplankton. The supply of riverine particulate material has been shown to be markedly climate sensitive with their fluxes increasing dramatically with increas-ing global temperature and runoff. This pronounced climate sensitivity implies that riverine particulates contribute substantially in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations through their role in the organic carbon cycle.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0223.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: abiotic stress; antioxidant defense; enzyme regulations; oxidative stress; plant nutrients; reactive oxygen species; soil fertility
Online: 24 January 2018 (07:01:05 CET)
Among the plant nutrients potassium (K) is one of the vital elements required for plant growth and physiology. Potassium is not only a constituent of plant structure but also plays regulatory function in several biochemical processes related to protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, enzyme activation. There are several physiological processes like stomatal regulation and photosynthesis are dependent on K. In the recent decades K was found to provide abiotic stress tolerance. Under salt stress, K helps in maintaining ion homeostasis and regulation of osmotic balance. Under drought stress condition K regulates the stomatal opening and makes the plants adaptive to water deficit. Many reports provided the notion that K enhances the antioxidant defense in plants and therefore, protects the plants from oxidative stress under various environmental adversities. Also, it provides some cellular signaling alone or in association with other signaling molecules and phytohormones. Although a considerable progress in understanding K-induced abiotic stress tolerance in plants has been achieved the exact molecular mechanisms of such protections are still under research. In this review, we summarized the recent literature on the biological functions of K, its uptake, and translocation and its role in plant abiotic stress tolerance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0221.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: primary open angle glaucoma; primary angle-closure glaucoma; PEX glaucoma; diet; oxidative stress; nutrients serum level
Online: 18 February 2022 (03:38:25 CET)
Glaucoma is one of the most common causes of irreversible vision loss worldwide. It is an insidious disease with a multifactorial pathogenesis. Despite progress in treatment methods, prevention and lifestyle modifications may be useful in slowing the progression of this disease. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the influence of diet, oxidative stress, and disturbances in blood serum levels of nutrients on the incidence and severity of glaucoma based on scientific reports on the role of nutrition in the pathogenesis and course of glaucoma. This paper presents an analysis of the above issues; however, further research is required to develop this topic. Future clinical trials are needed to assess the influence of nutrition and to develop nutritional management strategies for patients with glaucoma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0232.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Sweet potato; Phosphorus fertilizer; Bacillus megaterium DSM2894; leaf and tuberous root nutrients contents; Tuberous root yield
Online: 14 December 2021 (12:15:41 CET)
Under Egyptian soil conditions, when phosphorus fertilizers were applied to the soil, it gets fixed and converts to unavailable form, leading to low solubility for the plant. This study were fulfilled on sweet potato (cv. Beauregard) under undesirable soil properties (CaCO3 10.8 vs 11.3%) using Bacillus megaterium DSM 2894 strain under different five mono calcium phosphate (CSP) levels [(69(CSP20); 138(CSP40); 207 (CSP60); 276 (CSP80) and 345 ((CSP100) kg ha-1 of calcium superphosphate (CSP)] to arise the potential efficiency of some nutrients uptake and decease the applied total amount of CSP in 2019 and 2020 seasons. The results mentioned that highest values were obtained by inoculated plants with DSM2894 strain under 20, 60 and 100% of CSP for all studied nutrients content in both seasons, except Mn content in the 2019. Also, inoculated plants with DSM2894 under previous treatments for all tuberous root nutrients content, except Fe and Zn contents in both seasons, in addition protein and anti-radical power and total yield. Statistically, leaf nutrients uptake and tuberous root content were highly significant affected by DSM and CSP combination. Appling of phosphorus fertilizer with DSM2894 mixture was gave the best values as compared with phosphorus fertilizer or DSM2894, individually.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0297.v1
Subject: Keywords: Human Milk Fat; TAG; DHA; Fatty Acids; Nutrients; Food Industry; Structured Lipids; LCPUFA; Interesterification; Acidolysis; PA
Online: 18 May 2020 (05:47:46 CEST)
Maternal milk, from well-nourished and healthy mothers, is a source of several bioactive compounds and balanced nutrients required for proper growth and development of the infant. Hence it is regarded as the optimal form of nourishment. Human milk fat from human milk is the most crucial component and is a necessity for the growing infant. However, in certain cases, the breast milk may fulfill the nutritional needs or the breast-feeding of the infant is not feasible; infant formulae are then considered as the best alternative as nutritional support. It becomes essential for the infant formula to behave and provide nutritive support in the same way as human milk. In order to achieve so, the most crucial components of all should also be prepared precisely, i.e., the analogue of human milk fat. This analogue, which mimics the actual human milk fat, can be then used as a prime ingredient while designing the infant formula. Significant research and several advances have been made in preparing the infant formula enriched with adequate fat content, and more studies are still being conducted in order to achieve a more sound product in the most economical and simplest way possible.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0279.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: animal model; dietary components; feeding strategy; gene expression; lipid profile; nutrients; nutrigenomic; physiological processes; signaling pathways; transcription.
Online: 16 November 2021 (09:07:22 CET)
Studies on the influence of dietary components and their effects are fundamental for nutrigenomics, or the study of how nutrients can be cellular sensors, how they affect biological processes and gene expression in different tissues. Lipids are an important source of fatty acids (FA) and energy and are fundamental to biological processes and influence the regulation of transcription. Pigs are excellent model to study nutrigenomics, particularly lipid metabolism because the deposition and composition of FA in their tissues reflect the composition of FA in their diet. Recent studies show that FA supplementation is important in production systems, such as growing and finishing pigs, as it can improve the energy value of the feed, help reduce costs, improve animal welfare, and influence the nutritional value of the meat. Studies show that oleic (OA), linoleic (LA), docosahexaenoic (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids are associated with the regulation of transcription in tissues such as muscle, liver, adipose tissue, and brain. Other studies indicate that EPA and DHA are associated with changes in specific signaling pathways, altering gene expression and biophysical properties of membranes. This review, therefore, focuses on the current knowledge of the effects of dietary FA on production traits and gene expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0204.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: groundwater; pre-treatment; contact filtration; infiltration ponds; nutrients removal; TP; Cyanobacteria; Cyanotoxin; microcystin-LR; eutrophic lakes; TOC
Online: 19 August 2019 (04:08:58 CEST)
Artificial groundwater recharge is commonly used for drinking water supply. The resulting water quality is highly dependent on the raw water quality. In many cases, pre-treatment is required. Pre-treatment improves the drinking water quality, although how and to what extent it affects the subsequent pond water quality and infiltration process, is still unknown. We evaluated two treatment systems by applying different pre-treatment methods for raw water from a eutrophic and temperate lake. An artificial recharge pond was divided into two parts, where one received raw water, only filtered through a micro-screen with 500 µm pores (control treatment), while the other part received pre-treated lake water using chemical flocculation with polyaluminium chloride (PACl) combined with sand filtration, i.e. continuous contact filtration (contact filter treatment). Water quality such as cyanobacterial biomass, microcystin-LR as well as organic matter and nutrients were measured in both treatment processes. We found cyanobacterial biomass and microcystin-LR level after the contact filter treatment was significantly different from the control treatment and also significantly different in the pond water. In addition, with contact filter treatment, total phosphorus (TP) and organic matter removal were significantly improved in the end water, TP was reduced by 96 % (< 20 µg/L) and the total organic carbon (TOC) was reduced by 66 % instead of 55 % (TOC content around 2.1 mg/L instead of 3.0 mg/L). This full-scale onsite experiment demonstrated effective pre-treatment would benefit a more stable water quality system, with less variance and lower cyanotoxin risk. In a broader drinking water management perspective, the presented method is promising to reduce cyanotoxin risk, as well as TP and TOC, which are all predicted to increase with global warming and extreme weather.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0206.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Strip-mined land; bioenergy; biomass; energy crop; miscanthus; SWAT model; SWAT-CUP; runoff; nutrients; and water quality
Online: 21 January 2019 (10:57:36 CET)
Strip-mined land (SML) disturbed by coal-mining is the non-crop land resource that can be utilized to cultivate high-yielding energy crops such as miscanthus for bioenergy applications. However, the biomass yield potential, annual availability and environmental impacts on growing energy crops in SML are less understood. In this study, we estimated the yield potential of miscanthus (Miscanthus sinensis) in SML and its environmental impacts on local streams using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). After calibration and validation of the SWAT model, the results demonstrated that miscanthus yield potentials were 2.6 (0.8−5.53), 10.0 (1.3−16.0) and 16.0 (1.34−26.0) Mg ha-1 with the fertilizer application rate of 0, 100, and 200 kg-N ha-1 respectively. Furthermore, cultivation of miscanthus in the SML has the potential to reduce sediment (~20%) and nitrate (2.5%−10.0 %) loads reaching to water streams with a marginal increase in phosphorus load. The available SML in the United States could produce about 10 to 16 dry Tg of biomass per year without negatively impacting the water quality. In conclusion, SML can provide a unique opportunity to produce biomass for bioenergy applications, while improving stream water quality in highly dense mining area (the Appalachian region) in the United States.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0456.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: chlorophyll fluorescence; J8-1 plum line; mandelonitrile; Prunus domestica; redox signalling; salicylic acid; salt-stress; soluble nutrients
Online: 19 October 2018 (14:57:02 CEST)
Salinity is considered as one of the most important abiotic challenges that affect crop productivity. Plant hormones, including salicylic acid (SA), are key factors in the defence signalling output triggered during plant responses against environmental stresses. We have previously reported in peach a new SA biosynthetic pathway from mandelonitrile (MD), the molecule at the hub of the cyanogenic glucoside turnover in Prunus sp. In this work, we have studied whether this new SA biosynthetic pathway is also present in plum and the possible role this pathway plays in plant plasticity under salinity, focusing on the transgenic plum line J8-1, which displays stress tolerance via an enhanced antioxidant capacity. The SA biosynthesis from MD in non-transgenic and J8-1 micropropagated plum shoots was studied by metabolomics. Then the response of J8-1 to salt stress in presence of MD or Phe (MD precursor) was assayed by measuring: chlorophyll content and fluorescence parameters, stress related hormones, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants, the expression of two genes coding redox-related proteins, and the content of soluble nutrients. The results from in vitro assays suggest that the SA synthesis from the MD pathway demonstrated in peach is not clearly present in plum, at least under in vitro conditions. Nevertheless, in J8-1 NaCl-stressed seedlings, an increase in SA was recorded as a result of the MD treatment, suggesting that MD could be involved in the SA biosynthesis under NaCl stress conditions in plum plants. We have also shown that the plum line J8-1 was tolerant to NaCl under greenhouse conditions, and this response was somewhat different in MD-treated plants. In that regards, the MD treatment produced an increase in SA, jasmonic acid (JA) and reduced ascorbate (ASC) contents as well as in the coefficient of non-photochemical quenching (qN) and the gene expression of Non-Expressor of Pathogenesis-Related 1 (NPR1) and thioredoxin H (TrxH) under salinity conditions, suggesting a crosstalk between different signalling pathways (NPR1/Trx and SA/JA) leading to salinity tolerance in the transgenic plum line J8-1.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0432.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Seed coat; pericarps; floral bracts; glumes; dead organs enclosing embryos; seed germination; seedling establishment; hydrolytic enzymes; ROS detoxifying enzymes; cell wall modification enzymes; nutrients; phytohormones; nucleases; chitinases; Brassicaceae; Poaceae
Online: 26 July 2018 (09:53:41 CEST)
Plants have evolved a variety of dispersal units whereby the embryo is enclosed by various dead protective layers derived from maternal organs of the reproductive system including seed coats (integuments), pericarps (ovary wall, e.g., indehiscent dry fruits) as well as floral bracts (e.g. glumes) in grasses. Commonly, dead organs enclosing embryos (DOEEs) are assumed to provide a physical shield for embryo protection and means for dispersal in the ecosystem. In this review article, we will highlight recent studies showing that DOEEs of various species across families also have the capability for long-term storage of various substances including active proteins (hydrolases, ROS detoxifying enzymes), nutrients and metabolites that have the potential to support the embryo during storage in the soil and assist in germination and seedling establishment. We discuss a possible role for DOEEs as natural coatings capable of ‘engineering’ the seed microenvironment for the benefit of the embryo, the seedling and the growing plant.