Cosola, C.; Sabatino, A.; di Bari, I.; Fiaccadori, E.; Gesualdo, L. Nutrients, Nutraceuticals, and Xenobiotics Affecting Renal Health. Nutrients2018, 10, 808.
Cosola, C.; Sabatino, A.; di Bari, I.; Fiaccadori, E.; Gesualdo, L. Nutrients, Nutraceuticals, and Xenobiotics Affecting Renal Health. Nutrients 2018, 10, 808.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects worldwide 8-16% of the population. In developed countries, the most important risk factors for CKD are diabetes, hypertension and obesity, calling into question the importance of educating and acting on lifestyles and nutrition. A balanced nutrition and supplementation can indeed support the maintenance of a general health status, including preservation of renal function, and help to manage and curb the main risk factors for renal damage. While the concepts of protein and salt restriction in nephrology are historically acknowledged, the role of some nutrients on renal health and the importance of nutrition as a preventative measure for renal care are less known. In this review, we provide an overview of the demonstrated and potential actions of some selected nutrients, nutraceuticals and xenobiotics on renal health and function. The effects on kidney of fibres, proteins, fatty acids, curcumin, steviol glycosides, green tea, coffee, nitrates, nitrites, and alcohol, both direct and indirect, in CKD and non-CKD condition, are reviewed here. In a view of a functional and personalized nutrition, understanding the renal and systemic effects of dietary components is essential since many chronic conditions and CKD are related to systemic dysfunctions such as chronic low-grade inflammation.
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