Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Teacher Competence; Classroom Satisfaction; Life Satisfaction; PE Students
Online: 28 March 2019 (11:27:41 CET)
The aim of this article was to assess how the professional competence of PETs (Physical Education Teachers) can predict student satisfaction in high school and student satisfaction with life itself. In line with these aims, this study was completed as a cross-sectional study, which was carried out in a total 890 Physical Education (PE) students. Of the research group, 50.3% were female and 49.7% were male. Age average was 15.49 years old for females (SD 1.79) and 15.00 years old for males (SD 2.00). The data collection instrument was the Intrinsic Satisfaction Classroom Scale and Satisfaction with Life Scale. The results are presented as descriptive statistics, correlations and structural equation modelling analysis, and they show that the competences of the PE teacher determine in great measure student’s satisfaction with school and with their own personal lives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0012.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: emotional intelligence; mountain sports; life satisfaction; resilience
Online: 1 February 2023 (11:42:54 CET)
High-level performance in mountain sports would be unlikely unless different emotional factors are taken into account through the analysis of psychological characteristics such as mood, resilience or motivation, among many others. In this study, 788 people with a sports degree from the Spanish Federation of Mountain Sports and Climbing (FEDME) participated, 75.3% are men and 24.5% are women. The mean age of the participants was 49.8 years (±12.8), ranging from 18 to 76 years. The Wong Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS-S), the RS-14 Resilience Scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) instrument were used. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship between the dimensions of emotional intelligence, resilience and life satisfaction. The results showed a relationship between several of the dimensions from the instruments used (p<.01). In terms of gender, higher scores were found for women than for men. The regression model shows that both the dimensions of emotional intelligence [Appraisal of own emotions (β=.104; p<.001); Use of emotions (β=.30; p<.001); Emotional Regulation (β=.103; p<.001)] and resilience [Personal competence (β=.402; p<.001)], are predictors of greater life satisfaction, with 44.1% positively explained by the regression model. Further proposals should extend the results obtained with the analysis of more sports modalities and provide evidence that would complement those extracted in this research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1890.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: gratitude, enjoyment of life, life satisfaction, social support, aging, older adults, Saudi Arabia
Online: 26 May 2023 (08:19:32 CEST)
This cross-sectional study was aimed to investigate the relationship between gratitude and life satisfaction, and the mediation role of social support and enjoyment of life among older individuals. The Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test, the Enjoyment of Life Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Scale were administered to a sample of 260 older individuals aged between 60 and 80. The main findings revealed a positive association between gratitude and life satisfaction, and social support was a partial mediator in this relationship. Although enjoyment of life was not a direct mediator in the relationship between gratitude and life satisfaction, the final model indicated a significant serial pathway from gratitude to social support and then through enjoyment of life-to-life satisfaction. In conclusion, enhancing gratitude, promoting enjoyment of life, and social support in older individuals might increase their life satisfaction, which in turn might contribute to their successful aging
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0623.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: precarity; decent works; life satisfaction; SMEs; PLS-SEM
Online: 26 October 2018 (09:36:59 CEST)
This study measures key indicators of perceived precarity and decent working conditions and their relative effects on life satisfaction of workers in small and medium-sized enterprises. Using a random sample survey, we interviewed 103 workers in four districts of Sylhet division in Bangladesh. Utilizing Smart PLS application for structural equation modeling, we iterated the samples 1000 times which resulted in a new sample size standing at 499. We used a Likert-type five-point scaling technique, with appropriate items related to the latent constructs of the model, for path analysis. We found perceived precariousness has the highest causal relations with a path coefficient of 0.706 with social dialogue (an indicator of decent working conditions) followed by 0.539 with working hour issue, 0.345 with life satisfaction and 0.301 with the unacceptable work issue. The importance-performance map analysis confirms that perceived precarity is the most critical construct for worker’s life satisfaction. Thus, in a ceteris paribus situation, an increase of one point in the performance on the perceived precarity is expected to increase in the performance on the life satisfaction by a total effect level of 0.428. Therefore, we recommend further attention should be paid by the policymakers to the issue of consciousness of the precarity at the workplace for a better life satisfaction of workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0076.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Young carers; Informal carers; Life satisfaction; Social support; Family functioning; Academic functioning; Caring activities
Online: 4 September 2023 (04:05:23 CEST)
Caring for an ill or disabled relative can present significant challenges that may exceed the per-sonal resources of the caregiver. Young carers (YCs) often take on this role, providing support to family members or friends, which can have far-reaching effects on various aspects of their lives. This study involved 235 adolescents, 106 YCs and 129 non-carers (NCs), who completed ques-tionnaires assessing life satisfaction, social support, family functioning, academic functioning, and caring activities. Group effects measured with MANOVA and MANCOVA (controlling for age effects), showed YCs to have higher amounts of caregiving activities than NC (as expected) but lower satisfaction with life. Hierarchical regressions also found that, for YCs, academic func-tioning, social support and the negative impact of caregiving predicted satisfaction with life; and that the negative impact of caregiving on YCs is explained by their family functioning and the amount of their caregiving activities. For NCs, only academic functioning, social support and family functioning predicted satisfaction with life. In conclusion, caregiving has a negative im-pact on YC’s life satisfaction, but this effect is determined by their social support, academic func-tioning and negative impact of caring, which in turn depends on their familiar functioning and amount of caring activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1283.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: extraversion; age; life satisfaction; happiness; well being; correlation analysis; regression analysis; functional form
Online: 19 June 2023 (04:16:37 CEST)
For a long time, there has been interest in the relationship between personality traits and life satisfaction. However, many previous studies suffer from small sample sizes or selective sampling, sometimes leading to biased or imprecise results. The current study, which focuses on the trait of extraversion, attempts to overcome these limitations by using a large-scale German survey of more than 40,000 individuals aged 10 to 72. As the descriptive and regression results clearly show, there is a statistically significant relationship between extraversion and several dimensions of current life satisfaction. Depending on the type of satisfaction, the unstandardized regression coefficients range from 0.18 to 0.33. To gain further insight, age is added as an explanatory variable to test whether these associations change as a person ages. The results show that the effect sizes sometimes differ by age but remain robust and statistically significant. In conclusion, the study adds to the literature by providing convincing evidence that extraversion and life satisfaction are positively associated, at least in Western and industrialized countries, and that there are interaction effects with age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0536.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: dementia; depression; loneliness; activities of daily living; social support; life satisfaction
Online: 27 October 2020 (07:55:52 CET)
As the number of older adults with dementia increases, early diagnosis and intervention are crucially important. The purpose of this study was to conduct dementia screening on older adults to determine whether there are differences in daily activities of living, depression, loneliness, social support, and life satisfaction between older adults at high-risk for dementia compared with low-risk older adults. We hypothesized a negative relationship between high-risk older adults and these factors. This study also hypothesized a moderating effect for social support on the relationship between daily living activities and life satisfaction. This study used a cross-sectional design with survey data. Participants were recruited at 15 public community health centers in South Korea. A total of 609 older adults (male 208, female 401) living in the community were screened for early dementia, and 113 participants (18.9 %) were assigned to the high-risk group. As hypothesized, participants in the high-risk group showed significantly more negative results in terms of activities of daily living, depression, loneliness, social support, and life satisfaction compared with participants in the low-risk group. The findings of this study provide a theoretical basis for the importance of early screening for dementia and policies for effective dementia prevention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0606.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: life satisfaction; depression; self-esteem; stigma; out of school youth; structural equation modeling
Online: 27 August 2020 (09:02:07 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which self-esteem and depression mediated the influence of internalized stigma on life satisfaction among Korean out-of-school youths. Cross-sectional data on 318 youths provided information on perceived stigma, self-esteem, depression, life satisfaction, and personal characteristics. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was followed by structured path analysis to investigate the mediation effects. Internalized stigma was negatively associated with life satisfaction. Self-esteem significantly mediated the influence of stigma on depression and the influence of depression on life satisfaction. Further, stigma directly and significantly influenced depression. This study demonstrated that self-esteem and depression were important to the relationship between internalized stigma and life satisfaction. Implications for possible policies and programs with the aim of helping out-of-school youths to integrate and lead successful satisfying lives are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0021.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: the reference group theory; life satisfaction; exercise adherence; personal investment; strategic and cultural fit
Online: 4 October 2022 (11:06:17 CEST)
To expand the application area of the reference group and enrich exercise theoretical research, based on Stimulus-Organism-Response (S–O-R) framework, this study examines the factors that motivate for adherence to exercise from the external. Taking reference group and strategy and cultural fit as the main stimulus, and personal investment and life satisfaction as mediating variables, this study try to explore the influence of external stimulus on residents’ exercise behavior. In order to enrich the sample size, two surveys of 734 Chinese residents in two cities (Xiamen vs. Fuzhou) were conducted using factor analyses, regression analysis, and T-test analysis. The results indicated that the reference group and strategic and cultural fit as external stimulus have impact on residents’personal investment, life satisfaction and exercise adherence, personal investment and life satisfaction as the organism has impact on residents’ exercise adherence. Personal investment and life satisfaction play a chain mediating role between the reference group and exercise adherence, strategy and cultural fit, and exercise adherence. Moreover, the T-test determined the differences between Xiamen and Fuzhou residents’ exercise adherence and life satisfaction. Residents’ surroundings affect their exercise behavior and life satisfaction. These findings have implications for policymaking aimed at promoting national exercise, which could gradually improve residents’ physical fitness, particularly in light of the current coronavirus emergency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0299.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: commuting stress; turnover intention; life satisfaction; mediation model; demographics; ANOVA; hierarchical regression; bootstrap; Turkey
Online: 17 July 2018 (09:49:16 CEST)
Using hierarchical regression analysis within a mediation model framework, the present study explores direct and indirect (through life satisfaction) causal impacts of commuting stress on turnover intention of employees from 29 business organizations in six populous cities of Turkey. A semi-random heterogeneous sample of 214 employees with different demographics was surveyed in winter and summer times for also capturing seasonal variations of variables. The results supporting the partial mediating role of life satisfaction in the positive relationship between commuting stress and turnover intention infer that commuting stress induces turnover intention directly and indirectly (by reducing life satisfaction). The analysis of variance reveals that demographic characteristics of employees such as gender, marital status, age, and family size together with commuting type and commuting duration matter for their perceived commuting stress, life satisfaction, and turnover intention levels. Commuting stress perception is relatively higher in summer time whereas the other magnitudes are consistently and significantly invariant between two survey implementations. The study concludes with a call for the consideration of commuting stress and life satisfaction together with environmental and demographic factors when analyzing the antecedents and consequences of employee turnover intention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0311.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: perceived stress; life satisfaction; academic performance; university students; stress management; COVID-19
Online: 21 October 2021 (13:59:07 CEST)
The circumstances arising from the exceptional situation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic have affected all socioeconomic areas in the last two years. The field of Education has not been an exception and the management of the situation seems to have caused an increase in the level of perceived stress of university students. On this basis, this research that aims, first, to analyze the student’s level of perceived stress during the de-escalation and return to normality period, secondly, to evaluate its relationship with life satisfaction and, finally, to detect the students' needs in stress management, has been developed. An exploratory-descriptive study of quantitative and cross-sectional nature has been carried out. 222 university students of the Childhood and Primary Education Degrees of the University of Jaén (Spain) have participated. The instruments, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) have been used. The results show a moderate and partial relationship among the dimensions of the used instruments. The obtained coefficients of determination are, Academic Performance (r² = .019) and Life Satisfaction (r² = .402), with a mean square error (SRMR) of .079. These findings show the need to develop actions within the university training program in effective stress management strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1608.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: social network; media usage; behavioral intention; advertisement acceptance; life value; psychological satisfaction; public data policy; media psychology
Online: 24 November 2023 (13:58:05 CET)
This study examined the effect of the media usage environment, particularly TV and SNS devices, on advertisement acceptance, lifestyle, and psychological satisfaction. Hypothesis pathways and comparative structural mediating effects were analyzed. Media and Consumer Research public data were used for empirical analysis. A total of 6,640 people who participated in sports activities were included in the study. The results demonstrated that TV and SNS device usage environments had similar effects on advertisement acceptance. While TV did not influence the pursuit of personal life, SNS device use environments affected the pursuit of personal life. SNS device use environments had a greater effect on individual psychological satisfaction than TV. Adoption had a mediating effect on the influence of media usage environments on the pursuit of personal life. The pursuit of a personal life had a significant mediating effect on the influence of media use environments on psychological stability. This study revealed no differences in the effects of new and traditional media on advertisement acceptance, while new media had a greater influence on lifestyle and psychological satisfaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0120.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Burnout; career satisfaction; COVID-19; faculty shortage; nursing faculty; turnover intentions; work environment; work-life interference
Online: 10 January 2022 (13:58:18 CET)
The interactions between work and personal life are important for ensuring well-being especially during COVID-19 where the lines between work and home are blurred. Work-life interference/imbalance can result in work-related burnout, which has been shown to have negative effects on faculty members’ physical and psychological health. Although our understanding of burnout has advanced considerably in recent years, little is known about the effects of burnout on nursing faculty turnover intentions and career satisfaction. Thus, this study aimed to test a hypothesized model examining the effects of work-life inference on nursing faculty burnout (emotional exhaustion and cynicism), turnover intentions and ultimately, career satisfaction. A predictive cross-sectional design was used. An online national survey of nursing faculty members was administered throughout Canada in Summer 2021. Nursing faculty who held full-time or part-time positions in Canadian academic settings were invited via email to participate in the study. Data was collected from an anonymous survey housed on Qualtrics. Descriptive statistics and reliability estimates were computed. The hypothesized model was tested using structural equation modeling. Data suggest that work-life interference significantly increase burnout which contribute to both higher turnover intentions and lower career satisfaction. Turnover intentions in turn was negatively associated with career satisfaction. The findings add to the growing body of literature linking burnout to turnover and dissatisfaction, highlighting key antecedents and/or drivers of burnout among nurse academics. These results provide suggestions for suitable areas for the development of interventions and policies within the organizational structure to reduce the risk of burnout during and post-COVID-19 and improve faculty retention.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0094.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: : viruses; synthetic organisms; artificial life; life domains; Lithbea
Online: 7 June 2022 (04:42:38 CEST)
As synthetic/artificial life forms become more abundant and sophisticated, an increasing number of bizarre creatures - xenobots, robots, soft A-life entities, genetically engineered organisms, etc. - are invading our society. Therefore, we need to bring order to all this, to establish what is living and what is not. Here, I intend to classify all these non-natural entities and clarify their status with reference to their consideration or not as living beings, leaving the door open to an uncertain future in which perhaps we can see how "the artificial" and "the natural" merge to originate something new. To order all this "new biodiversity" and to also give entry to viruses (which are excluded of the three-domains tree of life), I propose the creation of a new domain, Lithbea (from the name: life-in-the-border entities), in which all these new human-made entities as well as the viruses will be included. Within this domain there would be two kingdoms, Virus and Humade (contraction of human-made), based on their origin, natural or human-made. A brief description of each component of Lithbea is included and the implications for society and biology of this “new biodiversity” is briefly discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0354.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Definition of life; self-replicators; paralife; Utility-Product paralife; abiotic life; mechanical life; complexity
Online: 18 November 2022 (10:06:48 CET)
Here I describe an overlooked form of non-biological paralife (i.e., near-life) that has been evolving on Earth for millions of years, and is currently in the final stages of transitioning into a new form of life. Any consideration of non-biological life or paralife is complicated by the fact that there is no consensus among biologists for the definition of life. This ambiguity has caused disagreement about whether subcellular reproduction systems like viruses are a form of life, despite having genomes, mutations, heritable phenotypes and system-improving evolution. To resolve this problem, I develop a definition of life that is entirely functional and independent of any of the structural idiosyncrasies of biological life on Earth: an order-generating system controlled by internally-encoded information that perpetuates itself by functioning to counteract its entropic decay. Using this definition, subcellular transposons, plasmids, and viruses are paralife because they match the definition of life in all ways except that they induce their order-generating functioning by a living host rather through their own self-sustaining production system. Using this functional definition of life, I show that utility- products (UPs) like fabricated hand tools are part of induced-reproduction systems that have features equivalent to biological genomes, mutations, heritable phenotypes, and a process of system-improving evolution. The perceived benefit of utility-products causes them to induce their reproduction by a biological life-form (humans). For these reasons, human utility products are functionally just as close to being a form of life as subcellular transposons, plasmids, and viruses, i.e., they are Utility-Product paralife (UP-parlife). I also show that some forms of UP-paralife are currently evolving into mechanical life that is capable of both self- sustaining reproduction and system-improving evolution without outside assistance. This transition requires the development of a high level of factory and/or UP automation and artificial intelligence (AI) that is capable of complex reasoning, imagination and creativity. Finally, I consider the influence of UP-life and UP-paralife on the development of the level of structural complexity in the universe, and I briefly speculate about how these non-biological forms of life and paralife will influence the expansion of scientific knowledge about the universe.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1584.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Urban Form; Urban Life; Street Life; Urban Space; Proximity
Online: 24 July 2023 (09:31:58 CEST)
Today’s urban spaces face precipitous challenges and complications, which include the COVID-19 pandemic, urbanization, population growth, and climate change. Proximity plays an essential role in influencing the integrity of public spaces and urban environments, while proxemics studies people’s experience, and the benefits, of urban space, and is based on a behavioral system of activities that includes ‘territoriality’. There is a need to study the behavioural patterns of people in given situations with proxemic dimensions in order to sustain both human beings and the quality of urban space. However, people behave spontaneously within environmental settings and reflect each other’s responses, meaning it is important to distinguish between different cultures, which tend to respond in particular ways to the meaning of proximity. This suggests there is no universal indicator for phenomena such as crowding. The aim of this paper is to highlight the interrelationship between urban form and urban life. This study focuses on two patterns of activity - street life and social life - by adopting a descriptive-analytical approach to documentary and desk research. The findings reveal a vital distinction between social and public patterns of proximity, while other proximities, although critical, are not observed within interactions between people.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1390.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: eating; drinking; daily life; real life; sensors; technology; behavior
Online: 20 July 2023 (07:55:54 CEST)
To monitor adherence to diets and to design and evaluate nutritional interventions it is essential to obtain objective knowledge about eating behavior. In most research, measures of eating behavior are based on self-reporting, such as 24-h recalls, food records (food diaries), and food frequency questionnaires. Self-reporting is prone to inaccuracies due to inaccurate and subjective recall and other biases. Recording behavior using non-obtrusive technology in daily life would overcome this. We here provide an up-to-date systematic overview encompassing all (close-to) publicly or commercially available technologies to automatically record eating behavior in real-life settings. 1328 studies were screened and after applying defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 122 studies were included for in-depth evaluation. Technologies in these studies were categorized by what type of eating behavior they measure and which type of sensor technology they use. In general, we found that relatively simple sensors are often used. Depending on the purpose, these are mainly motion sensors, microphones, weight sensors, and photo cameras. While several of these technologies are commercially available, there is still a lack of publicly available algorithms that are needed to process and interpret the resulting data. We argue that future work should focus on developing robust algorithms and validating these technologies in real-life settings. Combining technologies (e.g., prompting individuals for self-reports at sensed, opportune moments) is a promising route toward ecologically valid studies of eating behavior.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0234.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Theory of Life; Definition of Life; Origin of Life; Electron Bifurcation; Hydrothermal Vents; Biophysics; Biological Physics
Online: 16 June 2021 (11:30:35 CEST)
The definition, origin and recreation of life remain elusive. As others have suggested, only once we put life into reductionist physical terms will we be able to solve those questions. To that end, this work proposes the phenomenon of life to be the product of two dissipative mechanisms. From them, one reinterprets extant biological life and deduces a testable scenario for its origin. The proposed theory of life allows its replication, reinterprets ecological evolution, creates new constraints on the search for life and lays the foundations for groundbreaking technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0438.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Life cycle assessment; circular economy; multiple product life cycles; temporal variability; life cycle inventory; emission intensity
Online: 16 November 2020 (17:24:26 CET)
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used frequently as a decision support tool for evaluating different design choices of products based on their environmental impacts. A life cycle usually comprises several phases of varying timespan. The amount of emissions generated from different life cycle phases of a product could be significantly different from one another. In conventional LCA, the emissions generated from the life cycle phases of a product are aggregated at the inventory analysis stage, which is then used as an input for life cycle impact assessment. However, when the emissions are aggregated, the temporal variability of inventory data is ignored, which may result in inaccurate environmental impact assessment. Besides, the conventional LCA does not consider the environmental impact of circular products with multiple use cycles. It poses difficulties in identifying the hotspots of emission-intensive activities with the potential to mislead conclusions and implications for both practice and policy. To address this issue and to analyse the embedded temporal variations in inventory data in a CE context, the paper proposes to calculate the emission intensity for each life cycle phase. It is argued that calculating and comparing emission intensity, based on the timespan and amount of emissions for individual life cycle phases, at the inventory analysis stage of LCA offers a complementary approach to the traditional aggregate emission-based LCA approach. In a circular scenario, it helps to identify significant issues during different life cycle phases and the relevant environmental performance improvement opportunities through product, business model and supply chain design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0054.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: metadata; documentation; data life-cycle; metadata life-cycle; hierarchical data
Online: 4 April 2018 (08:16:15 CEST)
The historic view of metadata as “data about data” is expanding to include data about other items that must be created, used and understood throughout the data and project life cycles. In this context, metadata might better be defined as the structured and standard part of documentation and the metadata life cycle can be described as the metadata content that is required for documentation in each phase of the project and data life cycles. This incremental approach to metadata creation is similar to the spiral model used in software development. Each phase also has distinct users and specific questions they need answers to. In many cases, the metadata life cycle involves hierarchies where latter phases have increased numbers of items. The relationships between metadata in different phases can be captured through structure in the metadata standard or through conventions for identifiers. Metadata creation and management can be streamlined and simplified by re-using metadata across many records. Many of these ideas are being used in metadata for documenting the life cycle of research projects in the Arctic.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: life extension; wind turbines; end-of-life issues; probabilistic modelling; economic optimization; fatigue; risk; remaining useful life
Online: 18 January 2021 (15:02:18 CET)
Reassessment of the fatigue life for wind turbines structural components is typically performed using deterministic methods with the same partial safety factors as used for the original design. However, in relation to life extension, the conditions are generally different from the assumptions used for calibration of partial safety factors; and using a deterministic assessment method with these partial safety factors might not lead to optimal decisions. In this paper, the deterministic assessment method is compared to probabilistic and risk-based approaches, and the economic feasibility is assessed for a case wind farm. Using the models also used for calibration of partial safety factors in IEC61400-1 ed. 4 it is found that the probabilistic assessment generally leads to longer additional fatigue life than the deterministic assessment method. The longer duration of the extended life can make life extension feasible in more situations. The risk-based model is applied to include the risk of failure directly in the economic feasibility assessment and it is found that the reliability can be much lower than the target for new turbines, without compromising the economic feasibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1797.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Sleep; Autism Spectrum Disorder; Quality of Life; Family Quality of Life
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:12:23 CEST)
Study Objectives: To (1) investigate the prevalence of sleep disorder symptoms in caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and (2) the relationships between caregiver sleep problems and their health-related quality of life and family quality of life. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of caregivers (N=62) of children ages 6 to 11 years old diagnosed with ASD receiving care at a regional autism research and resource center. Measurements and Results: Participants completed the Sleep Habits Questionnaire (SHQ), the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) SF-12, and the Beach Center Family Quality of Life Scale (FQOL). Caregivers with longer sleep duration reported better mental health and better family quality of life. Caregivers who reported insomnia symptoms, non-restorative sleep, and insufficient sleep were more likely to report poorer mental health than caregivers who did not report these sleep disorder symptoms. Caregivers with obstructive sleep apnea and restless legs syndrome experienced worse physical quality of life. Conclusions: The physical and mental health of the primary caregiver is essential to the support of the child with ASD and to the functioning of the family. The study findings point to the importance of future research and interventions to enhance sleep health in order to improve quality of life for caregivers of children with ASD.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.3390/sci2030073
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: emergence of life; game of life; inefficiency objection; simpson’s paradox; astrobiology
Online: 18 September 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
We address the need for a model by considering two competing theories regarding the origin of life: (i) the Metabolism First theory and (ii) the RNA World theory. We discuss two inter-related points. (I) Models are valuable tools in understanding both the processes and intricacies of the origin of life issues. (II) Insights from models also help us to evaluate the core objection to origin of life theories called “the inefficiency objection” commonly raised by proponents of both the Metabolism First theory and the RNA World theory against each other. We use Simpson’s paradox as a tool for challenging this objection. We will use models in various senses ranging from taking them as representations of reality to treating them as theories/accounts that provide heuristics for probing reality. In this paper, we will frequently use models and theories interchangeably. Additionally, we investigate Conway’s Game of Life and contrast it with our Simpson’s Paradox (SP)-based approach to emergence of life issues. Finally, we discuss some of the consequences of our view. A scientific model is testable in three senses: (i) a logical sense, (ii) a nomological sense, and (iii) a current technological sense. The SP-based model is testable in the logical sense. It is also testable nomologically. However, it is not currently feasible to test it.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0661.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: life definition; living being definition; robot definition; living viruses; extraterrestrial life
Online: 30 August 2020 (11:33:48 CEST)
What is life, what is the difference between something that is alive and something that is not, are viruses living beings, or what would life be like elsewhere in the universe, are questions that still do not have clear-cut answers fully accepted by the scientific community. Based on the fundamental attributes of all living things, I define life as a process that takes place in very ordered organic structures and is characterized by being automatic, interactive and evolutionary. I also define a living being as an organic, highly ordered, automatic, interacting and evolutionary system, and a robot as an ordered automatic and interacting system. Based on this definition and what we know about the biology of viruses, I maintain that they should be considered as living entities. Finally, I explain why if there were life elsewhere in the universe, it would be very similar to what we know on our planet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1107.v1
Online: 18 October 2023 (08:07:07 CEST)
Coral recruitment is an important factor to coral reefs in maintaining their health. Currently, numerous coral reefs are facing extreme degradation, which protection and therefore rehabilitation practices are required to reverse. The present study explores the potential role of coral recruitment assessment by citizen scientists about the impacts of human influences towards coral reefs through measurement of coral recruitment values. Only a very small number of studies use forms of pre-launch assessment prior to reef restoration. These methods are able to properly guide vital decision-making information for reef rehabilitation methods and locations. In this initial study we observe significant relationships between reefs with higher coral recruitment values and their health. As compared to other average coral reef values, the reef we measured had higher recruitment values on average. Two sections of the reef had noticeably higher mean corals per square meter compared to average values, while a third section of the reef had a lower frequency. This section has been brought to concern through the pre-launch assessment, and has potential for rehabilitation through coral transplantation and a reduction of anthropogenic actions within the area.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0199.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: allergy; microbiome; early life
Online: 16 May 2022 (08:05:43 CEST)
Allergic diseases are becoming a major healthcare issue in many developed nations, where living environment and lifestyle are most predominantly distinct. Such differences include urbanized, industrialized living environments, overused hygiene products, antibiotics, stationary lifestyle, and fast-food based diets tend to reduce microbial diversity and lead to impared immune protection, which further increase the development of allergic diseases. In the same time, studies also showed that modulating microbiomes can ameliorate allergic symptoms. Therefore, in this paper, we aimed to review recent findings on the potential role of the human microbiome in the gastrointestinal tract, surface of skin and respiratory tract for the development of allergic diseases. Furthermore, we addressed a potential therapeutic or even preventive strategy for such allergic diseases by modulating the human microbial composition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0428.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: quality of life; health-related quality of life; psychosocial factors; psycho-oncology
Online: 6 June 2023 (09:36:11 CEST)
The quality of life (QOL) is an important indicator of human satisfaction and wellbeing. QOL is significantly and persistently affected for patients after a cancer diagnosis. Despite some evidence suggesting that psycho-oncologic interventions can provide lasting benefits, the inclusion of such interventions in cancer therapy is not universal. This article overviews known approaches to the evaluation of QOL in cancer patients and various interventions for improving patients’ outcomes with a focus on the Eastern European regional and specific Romanian context. With a mortality rate above and cancer care performance below the EU average and unequally distributed, Roma-nia urgently needs a national coordination program which is discussed in our review highlighting the main psychological tools needed for the assessment and its challenges towards implementing the program. In the end, we suggest some directions for future development of the psycho-oncologic approach in the context of social, policy and unexpected financial challenges the nation provides
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1594.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: HIV/AIDS; Mozambique; Quality of life; Schooling; Meaning in life; Social support
Online: 23 May 2023 (07:28:51 CEST)
Increasing quality of life (QoL) is both an end in itself and a means to optimize the impact of treatment in HIV-infected persons. Possibly due to cultural and social influences, the predictors of QoL vary across studies, which highlights the importance of studying specific populations. In the present study, we wanted to determine the sociodemographic (age, sex, schooling) and psychosocial correlates (meaning in life, social support, positive and negative affect) of QoL in HIV-infected patients living in Mozambique, a country with high prevalence of HIV, but also with well-structured strategies to fight the disease. To that end, we made correlational analyses followed by regression models, and we examined potential mediation processes among predictors. All correlates were relevant except sex. Meaning in life was the strongest predictor, while social support was the weakest. Schooling was both directly and indirectly related with QoL - in the latter case, it was mediated by meaning in life, social support and positive affect. Our findings suggest that investments in education may be highly rewarding to Mozambicans, and that satisfying needs of self-actualization and purpose may be more urgent than improving social connections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0535.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Meaning of Life; Existential Vacuum; Antecedents; Meaning of Life Model; Psychological Wellbeing
Online: 30 January 2023 (02:41:22 CET)
The debate about the meaning of life in the literature has been around for a while and portraits a fundamental human need to find a personal path of existence. The meaning of life phenomenon purpose lies in its impact on the psychological wellbeing. Knowing your purpose in life can make it more structured and in balance, therefore more meaningful and comprehensible. However, in the existing body of the academic literature meaning of life is discussed more from the philosophic perspective rather than a practical area, which is not helping to solve the global issues of increasing mental health problems. When social and emotional wellbeing is being affected, it is urgent to apply a practical approach to effectively overcome these states. Introduction of a new, holistic meaning of life model is an attempt to offer a practical solution for society to maintain their mental health through awareness of their life’s purpose. Previously in the pilot study (Dombrovskis, 2017) in a sample group of 100 citizens of Latvia who self-reported being in a crisis situation at the given moment, using qualitive analysis the first component for the model structure was identified – antecedent. In our research antecedent is defined as something that triggers certain action, so in crisis situation person can regain a structure and stability in life. We found 8 different antecedents that trigger behavior of those affected by crisis: achievements; power; success; development; freedom; uniqueness; interesting life and fleeing. To continue to explore other components for our model in the setting of Latvia, this study aims to investigate the demographic and personality related variables that may serve as antecedents and as such become one of component in our model structure. The study used a sample of residents of Latvia representing the total population of 1,110 respondents (633 women, 57%, and 477 men, 43%) who have completed the self-assessment questionnaire Meaning of life scale (MOLS) (online and frontally) designed by the authors on their satisfaction with different factors regarding the meaning of life. Average age of respondents (M=33.88; SD=8,527) varied from 18 to 67. The exploratory and confirmatory analysis confirms the data regarding existence of totally 16 factors: 8 antecedents identified in the pilot study and 8 new antecedents identified in the present study - family relations; level of income; relations with friends/acquaintances; state of health; organization of free time; career growth (achievements); sexual life quality and quality of education. Findings confirm a model’s structure to be complex phenomenon consisting of various components. However, findings suggest that more research should be done to fill the following gaps: 1) identify actions, which are triggered by 16 antecedents; 2) figure out F1, F2 and F3 factor role in the model structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0410.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: fatigue life; mean square error; statistical modeling; stress – life modeling; Weibull distribution function
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:14:05 CEST)
It has been known for nearly over 150 years that fatigue life data exhibits a considerable amount of variability. Furthermore, statistically modeling fatigue life adequately is challenging. Different empirical approaches have been used, each of which has merit; however, none is appropriate universally. Even when a sufficiently robust database exists, the scatter in the fatigue lives may be extremely large and difficult to characterize. The complications in empirical modeling are exacerbated for long life estimation when experimental observations are rare. The purpose of this work is to review traditional and more modern empirically based methodologies for estimating the cumulative distribution functions for fatigue life, given an applied load. To assess the applicability of the methods confidence bounds will be estimated. The analyses will be performed on an historic set of data for annealed aluminum wire tested in reverse torsion fatigue. These data are available in publications. It is recommended that a time dependent distribution function that is an based on principles of reliability that can be generalized for a variety of modeling applications should be considered for fatigue life estimation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0121.v1
Online: 2 November 2023 (08:01:44 CET)
Buildings are subject to intrinsic and extrinsic failures at all stages of the construction process, i.e., design to occupancy (i.e., use) as several failure types can affect them. There are three basic steps for researching building failures: listing, cataloging, and solving/deciding whether highlighting the least invasive and lowest cost intervention. Therefore, this research presents some methods used in construction for the intervention prioritization and seeks to illustrate the most suitable methodology for different settings failure x diagnosis x intervention. Therefore, the most traditional tools are shown: BASICO, SWIFT, FEMEA, AAF, and GUT matrix, where a critical assessment of the strengths and weaknesses is carried out. After that, a case study on maintenance services for the moisture on the building facades was performed. Finally, the GUT matrix and the FMEA method are the best results
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0238.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Quality-of-Life; children; asthma
Online: 5 June 2023 (05:00:52 CEST)
Asthma, like other chronic diseases, affects children prone to transitions of various aspects of their lives. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the level quality of life of children with bronchial asthma and to what extent the disease affects them their everyday life. The literature search was conducted a review of the articles was done in Greek and English, through electronic databases PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus. The terms and conditions their combinations used for the search were: “kids”, “children”, "pediatric asthma", "quality of life (QOL)", "health", "adolescents". The search was limited to the last five years (2015 – 2020) and finally 12 were selected articles. The most important areas negatively affected by quality of life of children with asthma are physical activity, their emotional state, school performance and sleep quality when it is connected to other factors. Important role in quality of life of these children has asthma management, disease severity and other environmental factors. Medical and nursing staff need to guide them asthmatic children and their families to have a good everyday life. Having the necessary knowledge needed for the quality-of-life health professionals should include in their medical nursing caring methods of achieving and maintaining a lifestyle that is no different than that of healthy children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1893.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: the Model of Human Occupation; experience sampling method; Occupational Questionnaire; life balance; life satisfaction
Online: 27 July 2023 (09:41:34 CEST)
Our lives are comprised of moment-to-moment activity experiences. According to the Model of Human Occupation (MOHO), our occupational experiences can be affected by volition, which consists of personal causation, values, and interests. This study investigated how momentary volition affected occupational satisfaction and mind-wandering while performing occupations. This study also examined the relationship between momentary volition and the overall life perspectives of life satisfaction and life balance. Undergraduate students participated in this cross-sectional study. The experience sampling method (ESM) was used to measure students’ momentary states such as activity, volition, occupational satisfaction, and mind-wandering. After conducting the ESM, the participants’ life satisfaction was measured using the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), and their life balance was measured by the Life Balance Inventory (LBI). Forty-two participants and 1,092 sampling data were included in the analysis. Momentary personal causation, values, and interests contributed to occupational satisfaction. Mind-wandering was predicted negatively by interests but positively by personal causation. Momentary interests were positively correlated with SWLS and LBI scores. This study demonstrated that momentary volition was associated with occupational satisfaction and engagement, as well as life satisfaction and balance, in undergraduate students.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2069.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Brownian motor; Death; Definition of life; Feynman–Smoluchowski ratchet; heat engine; Theory of life
Online: 29 June 2023 (07:24:40 CEST)
The multifarious internal workings of organisms are difficult to reconcile with a single feature defining a state of ‘being alive’. Indeed, definitions of life rely on emergent properties (growth, capacity to evolve, agency) only symptomatic of intrinsic functioning. Empirical studies demonstrate that biomolecules including ratcheting/rotating enzymes, ribozymes and pigment molecules undergo repetitive conformation state changes driven by energy absorption, excitation and relaxation. They exhibit disparate structures, but govern processes relying on directional physical motion (DNA transcription, translation, ATP synthesis, cytoskeleton transport, photosynthetic resonance energy transfer) and share the principle of repetitive uniplanar conformation changes driven by thermodynamic gradients, producing dependable unidirectional motion: ‘heat engines’ exploiting thermodynamic disequilibria to perform work. Recognition that disparate biological molecules share a heat engine principle governing directional motion, working in self-regulating networks, allows a mechanistic definition: life is a self-regulating process whereby matter undergoes cyclic, uniplanar conformation state changes that convert thermodynamic disequilibria into directed motion, performing work that locally reduces entropy. ‘Living things’ are structures including autonomous networks of units operating on the heat engine principle. Death is loss of integrated heat engine function. These principles are independent of any specific chemical environment, and can be applied to other biospheres.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0290.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: breast cancer; survivors; Bayesian structural equation modeling; Quality of life; Difficulty in daily life
Online: 5 May 2023 (03:58:05 CEST)
Background The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship structure of quality of life (QOL) in survivors of breast cancer, including difficulty in daily life and negative experience as health-related indicators. Methods Participants were survivors of breast cancer for more than 2 years after primary breast cancer surgery and belonged to self-help groups. The assessment used FACT-B (QOL), HADS (anxiety and depression), SOC (sense of coherence), WHODAS 2.0 (difficulties in daily life), and CAOD (negative experiences). Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM) was performed to analyze the hypothesized model. If the causal model was significant, multiplication of the path coefficient from anxiety and depression to QOL, and from SOC to anxiety and depression, was considered a direct effect on QOL, and from SOC to difficulty in daily life, from difficulty in daily life to negative experiences, and from negative experiences to anxiety and depression were considered indirect effects on QOL. Results Goodness of fit of the model in the BSEM was satisfactory. The direct effect was 0.274, and indirect effect was 0.163. Conclusions These direct and indirect approaches to difficulties in daily life are very significant because they can provide a basis for development of support strategies to increase QOL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0015.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: characterization; life cycle assessment; life cycle impact assessment; normalization; particulate matter; respiratory inorganics; water vapor
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:16:42 CEST)
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is being included formally in EcoDesign regulations. Especially product carbon footprint will be mandatory in Europe. However, life cycle impact assessment including global warming potential (GWP) in LCA is hampered by several challenges. One of these is lack of water vapor characterization indexes for GWP. A life cycle inventory profile for air transport fuel including water vapor emissions is evaluated with state-of-the-art practice, i.e. EF Method and ILCD 2011 Midpoint+ and neglecting water vapors high altitude GWP compared to carbon dioxide. Then the characterization factor in GWP100 for water vapor and alternate normalization for particulates are introduced. The results are compared. The main findings are that the EF method and ILCD both generate rather realistic results for Particulate Matter and Respiratory Inorganics mid-point indicators, respectively, but the amount of premature deaths should be better allocated to different specific emissions, and that water vapor may dominate the GWP100 result over the usual carbon dioxide. LCIA mid-points need measurable and understandable bases. The common knowledge of water vapor’s GWP100 should not be neglected in LCIA for air transport and beyond where relevant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0491.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: folk beliefs; ancestor worshiping belief; spiritual life; beliefs and religion life; Vietnamese people; Vietnam today
Online: 22 August 2020 (05:03:32 CEST)
In all forms of folk beliefs, ancestor worship is a universal traditional belief form of the Vietnamese people. As a Vietnamese people, “everyone worships their ancestors, everyone worships their parents and grandparent”. Ancestor worship is a common belief in the whole country. It is a belief that expresses the deeply humanistic spirit of the Vietnamese people and has great values in human life. So, what is the nature of ancestor worship? What is the values of ancestor worship in life? And in the context of globalization, how has this the belief changed? This study focuses on analyzing the above contents, thereby highlighting the value of this belief in the spiritual life of Vietnamese people; to point out the positive and negative changes of this belief in the current period; from that, take the right measures to bring into play the positive and limit the negative side of those changes in the spiritual life of Vietnamese people.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0064.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: proteinoids; origin of life; thermal proteins
Online: 1 November 2023 (13:11:45 CET)
Understanding the origins of life involves dealing with the unresolved question of how the first informational polymers and cell-like structures emerged from prebiotic chemistry. The formation of thermal proteinoids through the heating of mixtures of amino acids, leading to the spontaneous formation of protocells enclosed by membranes, presents a compelling model for the synthesis of polypeptides in an abiogenic context. Recent research has revealed the presence of electrical excitability and signal processing capacities in proteinoids, indicating the possibility of primitive cognitive functions and problem-solving capabilities. The present study provides a comprehensive examination of the features shown by heat proteinoids and their potential significance in the context of the artificial formation of polypeptides during the early stages of Earth’s development. Experiments showcasing the possibility for unconventional computing with proteinoids as well as modelling proteinoid assemblies into synthetic proto-brains are given. Proteinoids’ robust abiogenic production, biomimetic features, and computational capability shed light on potential phases in the evolution of polypeptides and primitive life from the primordial environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1110.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: traditional medicine; life expectancy; health care
Online: 18 September 2023 (07:17:14 CEST)
The study investigated the impact of traditional medicine on life expectancy in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The study adopted a quantitative research approach. Purposive or judgmental sampling was used to elucidate the data set used for the study. Cross-sectional data were gathered with the help of a well-designed questionnaire from a total of three hundred and fifty-seven (357) respondents who were available for the survey. The data set collected was analysed using descriptive and linear regression using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS). From the results, 53%, 87%, and 56% were male, below 50 years old, and in the low-income class, respectively, suggesting that the bulk of the respondents under investigation were male, young, and had rather modest incomes. Also, 53% were married, and all had one form of formal education. 67% of respondents acknowledge using traditional medicine; however, the majority of respondents preferred Orthodox medical care over alternative kinds of care. Traditional medicine (TM) and factors that contribute to the advancement of traditional medicine (FITM) have a negative impact on life expectancy, according to the regression analysis. On the other hand, TM has no statistically significant impact on life expectancy, despite FITM having a statistically significant effect at the 5% level. All available data, however, indicates that TM and FITM have an impact on life expectancy, either directly or indirectly. Based on the results, this study concluded that traditional medicine has the potential to significantly increase life expectancy in Nasarawa State and throughout Nigeria. The study recommends that traditional health professionals, stakeholders, and concerned government agencies should put efforts in place to improve and promote modern traditional medicine among the people, especially its effectiveness and medicinal quality, increase its accessibility to people, and efficiently regulate its prices to increase its affordability for low-income earners
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1923.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: thyme; cinnamon; anthracnose; shelf life; ethylene
Online: 27 June 2023 (14:02:24 CEST)
Anthracnose is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) being the main disease that affects the soursop fruits. The objective was to evaluate the effect of chitosan-based coatings with essential oils on the physiological, antifungal, and shelf-life properties of soursop. Chitosan-based coatings were made with essential oils of cinnamon and thyme and applied to soursop. The parameters evaluated were respiration and ethylene by gas chromatography, shelf life, weight loss, total soluble solids, color, maturity index, and titratable acidity. Chitosan obtained had a molecular weight of 169 kDa and 83% degree of deacetylation, respiration, and ethylene values showed a significant reduction of 47 and 50%, with coatings. Weight loss was reduced by up to 50%, even on inoculated fruits, and shelf life increased by two days. The chitosan-based coatings with essential oils are a good alternative to improve the quality of soursop and decrease the effect of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0147.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: hypoadrenocorticism; dogs; owners; quality of life
Online: 3 May 2023 (12:33:28 CEST)
Canine hypoadrenocorticism is a rare chronic disease, which demands intense dog-owner interaction, as its treatment requires to be individualised. The aim of this study was a qualitative analysis of the challenges owners face when dealing with the disease, especially regarding its management and how this affects quality of life. By promoting an online discussion between owners, we transcribed and summarised their experiential knowledge in dealing with the disease. Owners were recruited for the online seminars via social media. After a theoretical introduction, participants were free to share experiences and ask questions. The recorded events were retrospectively analysed. Twenty-four owners of 22 Addisonian dogs took part in four events. Owners felt most “traumatised” when experiencing their dog’s acute adrenal crisis. The initial adjustment phase and distinguishing the non-specific symptoms of hypoadrenocorticism from those of other diseases were also challenging. Overall, owners were well informed on the disease and committed to its long-term adjustment. Adrenal crisis and the initial adjustment phase may be more burdening to owners than expected. Understanding what their clients’ concerns are, can help veterinarians provide better care and reduce the negative impacts of canine hypoadrenocorticism. Promoting peer to peer support, as well as providing a framework for participative communication might also help.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0033.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: emotional-intelligence; life-skills; vulnerable-populations
Online: 5 October 2022 (10:55:00 CEST)
Children living in residential care homes (RCH) often present conditions of abandonment due to separation, abuse and mistreatment; circumstances that are detrimental to proper emotional development, resulting in poor self-confidence, aggressive behaviors, low self-esteem, anxiety, among other developmental problems. Additionally, pandemic lockdown hinders access to mental health services for RCH service providers, and limits children to external mental health support and resources. The objective of this study was to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a remote-applied Emotional-Intelligence-based intervention program (RA-EIBI) for children living in RCH during pandemic lockdown. A non-parametric pre-test, treatment, post-test comparative design was used to evaluate effectiveness of the intervention program. Seven children living in RCH during pandemic lockdown were initially assessed using Evaluation of Neurological Soft Signs, and Empathy Quotient (EQ-I) to estimate emotional intelligence quotient. A 10 session RA-EIBI program was designed and applied to the children after initial assessment, and a final evaluation was conducted to perform related samples comparisons. Results shown a non-significant mean increase of intrapersonal, interpersonal, stress management, adaptability, and emotional state, all emotional intelligence-related skills. A RA-EIBI program is an accessible resource for RCH, and children living under this condition. EI skills were maintained along the social isolation period due to COVID-19. Followup of emotional conditions of children demonstrated an improvement in self-perceived well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0297.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Mabs; VoC; COVID-19; real-life
Online: 20 September 2022 (07:15:52 CEST)
Abstract Despite the lightning-fast advances in the management of SARS-CoV after 2 years of pandemic, COVID-19 continues to pose a challenge for fragile patients, who could benefit from early administration of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to reduce the risk of severe disease progression. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate effectiveness of mAbs against SARS-CoV-2 among patients at risk for severe disease progression, namely elderly and those with comorbidities, before the omicron variant surge. Patients were treated with either casirivimab/imdevimab, sotrovimab, and bamlanivimab/etesevimab. The rates and risk factos for clinical worsening, hospitalization, ICU admission and death (unfavourable outcomes) were evaluated. A stratified analysis according to the presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG was also performed. Among 185 included patients, we showed low rates of unfavorable outcomes (9.2%), which were more frequent in patients with chronic kidney disease (aOR: 10.44, 95CI: 1.73-63.03; p<0.05) and basal D-dimer serum concentrations >600 ng/ml (aOR 21.74, 95CI: 1.18-397.70; p<0.05). Patients with negative SARS-CoV-2 serology at baseline showed higher C-reactive protein values compared with patients with positive serology (p <0.05) and showed a trend toward a higher admission rate to SICU and ICU compared with patients with positive serology. Our results thus showed, in a real-life setting, the efficacy of mAbs against SARS-CoV-2 before Omicron surge when the available mabs become not effective.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0401.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: life history; longevity; senescence; stochastic environments
Online: 26 July 2022 (08:51:22 CEST)
The world’s human population is reaching record longevities. Consequently, our societies are experiencing the impacts of prolonged longevity, such as increased retirement age. A major hypothesised influence on ageing patterns is resource limitation, formalised under calorie restriction theory. This theory predicts extended organismal longevity due to reduced calorie intake without malnutrition. However, several challenges face current calorie restriction (CR) research and, although several attempts have been made to overcome these challenges, there is still a lack of holistic understanding of how CR shapes organismal vitality. Here, we conduct a literature review of 222 CR peer-reviewed publications to summarise the state-of-the-art in the field. We use this summary to highlight challenges of CR research in our understanding of its impacts on longevity. Our review demonstrates that experimental research in this field is biased towards short-lived species (98.2% of studies examine species with <5 years of mean life expectancy) and lacks realism in key areas, such as stochastic environments or interactions with other environmental drivers such as temperature. We argue that only by considering a range of short- and long-lived species and by taking more realistic approaches can the impacts of CR on longevity be examined and validated in natural settings. We conclude by proposing experimental designs and study species that will allow the discipline to gain a much-needed understanding of how restricting caloric intake affects long-lived species in realistic settings. Through incorporating more experimental realism, we anticipate crucial insights that will ultimately shape the myriad of socio-bio-economic impacts of senescence in humans and other species across the Tree of Life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0441.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment; Blockchain; Supply Chain
Online: 28 October 2021 (14:56:20 CEST)
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a widely recognized tool used to evaluate environmental impacts of a product or process, based on the environmental inventory database and bills of material. Data quality is one of the most significant factors affecting the analysis results. However, currently most datasets in inventory databases are generic i.e., they may represent material and energy flow of a process at market average, instead of a specific process used by a manufacturer. As a result, stockholders are unable to track their supply chain to find out the actual environmental impact from each supplier and to compare the environmental performance of alternative options. In this paper, we developed a new framework i.e., blockchain based LCA (BC-LCA), where block-chain technology is adapted to secure and transmit inventory data from upstream suppliers to downstream manufacturers. With BC-LCA, more specific data can be acquired along the supply chain in a real-time manner. Moreover, the availability, accuracy, privacy, and automatic update of inventory data can be improved. A case study is provided based on an industrial supply chain, to demonstrate the utilization of BC-LCA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0470.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: life quality; women's health; family empowerment
Online: 24 August 2021 (13:59:30 CEST)
Background: The tsunami and earthquake occurred in 1927 and 2018 made life quality of Da’a Tribe women in refugee camps was affected by violence. It affects on women reproductive health in various aspects of life as high maternal mortality rate of 450 per 100 thousand live births and half of women victims of natural disasters have reproductive health problems such as anemia and malnutrition during pregnancy. The study objective is to explore the health quality of women related to the couple violence during the humanitarian crisis at refugees’ camps. Method: The population was 798 cases of violence. The 90 samples were selected by simple random sampling and calculated by Slovin method. Data analysis was done by descriptive qualitative and cross tabulation. The research location was Palu City. Results: The research findings showed that health quality of Da’a Tribe women after the couple violence is influenced by three factors, namely economic by 40%, psychological by 7%, violence during pregnancy 59.3%. Conclusion: Social life and women violence handling can be done by symbolizing the threat of criminal law for male perpetrators in accordance with applicable laws in Indonesia and improving the life quality of population, especially women in education and skills through empowering the family economy and increasing gender equality justice.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: cosmology, life, superfluid quantum space, consciousness.
Online: 15 April 2021 (13:38:05 CEST)
The evolution of life on the planet Earth is happening primarily in the universe and secondary on the Earth. We will examine in this article evolution of life as the cosmic phenomena. In our model multidimensional time-invariant superfluid quantum space that is the fundamental arena of the universe and represents about 95% of the energy in the universe has stable entropy. The increase of entropy happens only by about 5% of the energy in the universe that is in the form of matter. The evolution of life in our model is a process of matter organization into living systems that tends to develop towards the constant entropy of the time-invariant multidimensional quantum space. This process runs in the entire universe. The development of life into intelligent organisms is the universal process running throughout the entire universe.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0176.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: mitochondria; proteolysis; protein half-life; ubiquitin
Online: 27 November 2017 (09:18:27 CET)
The mitochondrial network is a dynamic organization within eukaryotic cells that participates in a variety of essential cellular processes, such as ATP synthesis, central metabolism, apoptosis and inflammation. The mitochondrial network is balanced between rates of fusion and fission that respond to pathophysiologic signals to coordinate appropriate mitochondrial processes. Mitochondrial fusion and fission are regulated by proteins that either reside or translocate to the inner or outer mitochondrial membranes or are soluble in the inter-membrane space. Mitochondrial fission and fusion are performed by GTPases on the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes with the assistance of other mitochondrial proteins. Due to the essential nature of mitochondrial function for cellular homeostasis regulation of mitochondrial dynamics is under strict control. Some of the mechanisms used to regulate the function of these proteins are post-translational proteolysis and/or turnover and this review will discuss these mechanisms required for correct mitochondrial network organization.
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: clay; mica; biotite; muscovite; origin of life; abiogenesis; mechanical energy; work; wet-dry
Online: 5 November 2020 (10:43:44 CET)
This paper presents a hypothesis about the origins of life in a clay mineral, starting with the earliest molecules, continuing through the increasing complexity of the development, in neighboring clay niches, of “Metabolism First,” “RNA World,” and other necessary components of life, to the encapsulation by membranes of the components in the niches, to the interaction and fusion of these membrane-bound protocells, resulting finally in a living cell, capable of reproduction and evolution. Biotite (black mica) in micaceous clay is the proposed site for this origin of life. Mechanical energy of moving biotite sheets provides one endless source of energy. Potassium ions between biotite sheets would be the source of the high intracellular potassium ion concentrations in all living cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0024.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: contextual risk factors; gender; individual risk factors; life-work interference; self-employed; wellbeing; work-life interference
Online: 3 July 2018 (05:56:36 CEST)
This study explores individual and contextual risk factors for the onset of work interfering with private life (WIL) and private life interfering with work (LIW) among self-employed men and women across European countries. It also studies the relationship between interference (LIW and WIL) and wellbeing among self-employed men and women and the effect of macro level risk factors. Data from the fifth round of European Working Conditions Survey was utilized and a sample of self-employed men and women with active businesses was extracted. Applying multilevel regressions, results show that though business characteristics are important for level of WIL, time demand is the most evident risk factor for WIL and LIW. There is a relationship between wellbeing and WIL and LIW respectively, and time demands is the most important factor in this relationship. Gender equality on the labor market did not relate to level of interference, nor did it mediate the relationship between interference and wellbeing. However, the main and most important risk factor for experiencing WIL and LIW and for how interference relate to wellbeing is gender relation processes in work and life, both on individual and contextual level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0540.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: work-life balance; work-life enrichment; outside-of-work activity; sustainable human capital development; COVID-19 pandemic
Online: 21 December 2020 (16:04:46 CET)
Nowadays, the development of civilization requires a vision of balancing the interests of employees and employers in the sphere of work as never before. Work-life balance is directly linked to social sustainability. The aim of this article is to analyse various dimensions of mutual enrichment of the professional and private life of an individual and to describe how positive experiences in professional and non-professional life influence the improvement of satisfaction, health and achievements, thus enabling the sustainable development of the individual. The conducted research was of a qualitative nature. Thematic exploration was used to analyse the findings of 34 in-depth interviews with experienced HR managers and employees at various levels of enterprises in Poland. The research shows that the work and personal life of the respondents interact, complement, and enrich in different ways, depending on the stage of the employee’s life. Habits developed by practicing a specific sport discipline or other type of hobby are helpful in the effective implementation of professional tasks. Also, non-professional interests, including communing with culture and art have a positive impact on professional activities. On the other hand, the respondents emphasized that thanks to their professional activities, specific to the type of work they perform, they are sometimes more extroverted, meticulous, organized and consistent when performing activities outside of work and in other aspects of private life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.2006.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: hemodialysis; hemodiafiltration; expanded hemodialysis; quality od life.
Online: 30 November 2023 (16:12:12 CET)
There are several forms of maintenance high-efficiency hemodialysis (HD) including hemodiafiltrations (HDF) in different technic modes and expanded HD using dialyzers with medium cut-off membranes. The aim of the study was to assess the intradialytic tolerance and length of dialysis recovery time (DRT) in these modalities. This is an exploratory, cross-over study in maintenance HD patients with low comorbidity and no clinical indications for the use of high-efficiency HD, who were exposed to five intermittent dialysis in random order: high flux hemodialysis (S-HD), expanded HD (HDx), pre-dilution HDF (PRE-HDF), mix-dilution HDF (MIX-HDF) and post-dilution HDF (POST-HDF). 24 dialysis sessions of each method were included in the analysis. Dialysis parameters including blood flow rate, dialysis fluid flow rate and temperature, and pharmacological treatment were constant. Average total convection volume for post-HDF, pre-HDF and mix-HDF were 25.6 (3.8), 61.5 (7.2) and 47.1 (11.4) l, respectively. During all therapies, patients had similar hydration status monitored using bioimpedance spectroscopy and similar variability over time in systemic blood pressure, cardiac output, and peripheral resistance monitored using impedance cardiography. The lowest frequency of all intradialytic adverse events were observed during HDx. Delayed DRT was the shortest during PRE-HDF. Patients were also more likely to report immediate recovery while receiving PRE-HDF. These differences did not reach statistical significance, however the study results suggest that, intradialytic tolerance and DRT may depend on the dialysis method used. This support the need of taking into account patient preferences and quality of life while individualizing high efficiency therapy in HD patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1892.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: morphophysiological; fatty acids; life cycle; hormonal regulators
Online: 29 November 2023 (13:09:00 CET)
By virtue of the knowledge of the beneficial effect of the warm and dry storage, for the growth of the chincuya seed embryo, defined as morphological dormancy. The effect of the same type of storage was studied for the seed viability and germination by soaking gibberellic acid. Also, fatty acids and their kinetics were identified during the warm and dry storage. The following treatments were evaluated: storage time (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months), seed soaking in gibberellic acid at 350 mg L-1, and for the control, imbibition in distilled water, both for 72 h. The seed viability was evaluated through the stain test with tetrazolium chloride. The embedded seeds were germinated on absorbent paper towels and incubated at different temperatures of 30 ° C during the day and 25 ° C at night and 12 hours of photoperiod. The lipid profile was developed by gas chromatography. Seeds were held at constant temperature of 25 ± 3 ° C, in darkness, during the storage time. Results demon-strated that the high initial viability was maintained until the ninth month, when it decreases and is statisti-cally different from the other treatments. The smaller germination percentage (26.1 %) was observed in the freshly harvested seeds and, the higher one corresponded to the six months (65.6 %), with these differences being statistically significant. Regarding the identified fatty acids and their average content, it was found that 33.41 % corresponded to palmitic acid, 7.72 % to stearic acid; the arachidic acid with 1.30 %, making a total of saturated fatty acids of 42.44 %. The detected unsaturated fatty acids were: palmitoleic acid 1.52 %, oleic acid 43.37 % and linoleic acid 7.24 %, in total, 52.15 %. No significative changes were observed in the fatty acids content that are the largest part of the total seed reserves; although the higher concentrations matched with the longest germination (three months), with an average of 92.84 % total fatty acids. Specified regressions indi-cated with statistical robustness that palmitoleic and palmitic acids increased while the oleic acid decreased during the dry storage. The arachidic acid showed a slightly downward trend. Also, the concentrations of fat-ty acids were significatively different between unstored and unincubated seeds (intact) and unstored and in-cubated, but without germinating seeds (dormant), in the latter, the total fatty acids content was significantly lower. Given that the application of gibberellic acid and warm dry storage favored germination, as well as the change in fatty acid content during warm dry storage, added to the results already reported on morphological changes and embryonic growth as an effect of the same type of storage, it is established that Annona purpurea seeds present morphophysiological dormancy, also this is the first identification report of arachidic and pal-mitoleic acids in chincuya seeds and the higher germination percentage reported (65.6 %).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1026.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Keywords: quality of life; anxiety; autism; caregivers
Online: 15 November 2023 (14:43:53 CET)
The relationship between perception of anxiety and quality of life in caregivers of children with autism was verified. To verify quality of life, the Short Form Healthy Survey Item was used; perception of anxiety was assessed using the Beck Anxiety Inventory. 80 caregivers of children with autism participated, with 68.7% of caregivers being mothers. Of the total number of caregivers, 68.8% had a severe level of anxiety. Regarding quality of life, they demonstrated greater impairment in Limitation due to physical aspects, Limitation due to emotional aspects, Vitality and Pain. Caregivers with severe anxiety levels had worse quality of life in the domains of pain (p = 0.012), social aspects (p =< 0.001), limitation due to emotional aspects (p = 0.001) and mental health (p =< 0.001). However, in the functional capacity domain, caregivers with a moderate level of anxiety had a better physical capacity score (p = 0.001). There was a negative correlation between the general anxiety score and the general physical (p = 0.029) and general emotional component of quality of life (p =< 0.001). It was found that caregivers of children with ASD present losses related to psychological factors, quality of life and the lack of social support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0057.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Sustainability; Healthcare; Additive Manufacturing; Life Cycle Assessment
Online: 1 November 2023 (13:10:11 CET)
The study conducts a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) analysis to assess the environmental impact of two different manufacturing processes used to produce transparent dental aligners. The former method consists of thermoforming a polymeric disc over 3D printed, customized models, while the second, more innovative approach involves the direct printing of aligners using additive manufacturing (AM), specifically applying digital light processing (DLP) technology. The analysis results highlight how adopting direct printing through AM brings significant advantages in terms of environmental sustainability, thanks to the substantial reduction in raw materials and electricity consumption. These drops translate into decreased potential environmental impacts across all impact categories considered within the EF 3.1 method. Furthermore, lowering the amount of raw materials needed in the direct printing process contributes to a notable decrease in the overall volume of waste generated, emphasising the environmental benefits of this innovative technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1786.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: biomaterials; hemp-based materials; life cycle assessment
Online: 26 September 2023 (10:34:28 CEST)
The global construction sector contributes a significant share of total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In Australia, infrastructure activity alone generates 18% of the GHG emissions budget. The use of low-embodied carbon building materials is crucial to achieving sustainability in the construction sector and to fulfill national and international climate goals. Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is considered a promising feedstock for sustainable construction materials because of its biogenic carbon content, fast-growing cycles with low agricultural input requirements, and technical functionality which is comparable to traditional materials. This study has applied the life cycle assessment (LCA) guideline of ISO 14040:2006 to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) expressed in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq) emissions of hemp-based building materials in Western Australia. The functional unit is 1 m2 of hemp-based board, and the system boundary includes cradle-to-gate stages, i.e., pre-farm, on-farm, and post-farm activities. The production of 1 m2 of hemp-based board is estimated to be - 2.302 kgCO2eq. Electricity from the public grid for lignin extraction during the post-farm stage is the main contributor to total CO2eq emissions (26%), followed by urea production (14%) during the pre-farm stage. Overall, the use of electricity from the SWIS during the post-farm stage accounts for 45% of total emissions. Sensitivity analysis shows that the CF of hemp-based boards is highly sensitive to the source of energy, i.e., total replacement of the SWIS by solar power decreases the CF from - 2.30 to -6.07 kgCO2eq (164%). The results suggest that hemp-based boards exhibit lower embodied GHG emissions compared to traditional materials, such as gypsum plasterboards.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1556.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: patient’s preferences; quality of life; lifespan; gender
Online: 22 August 2023 (10:22:49 CEST)
In view of the increasing age of cardiac surgery patients, questions arise about the expected postoperative quality of life and the hoped-for prolonged life expectancy. Little is known so far about this weighting by the patients concerned. This study aims to obtain information on the patient’s preferences. Between 2015 and 2017, data from 1349 consecutive patients from seven heart centers in Germany undergoing cardiac surgery were analyzed. Baseline data regarding the patient’s situation as well as a questionnaire regrading quality of life versus lifespan were taken preoperatively. Patients were divided by age into 4 groups: below 60, 60-70, 70-80, and above 80 years. As a result, if one had to decide between quality of life and length of life, about 60% of the male patients decided for quality of life, independent of their age. On the other hand, female patient’s decision for quality of life increased significantly with age, from 51% in the group below sixty to 76% in the group above eighty years. This finding suggests that the female patients adapt their preferences with age whereas male patients do not. This should impact further treatment decisions of elderly patients in cardiac surgery within a shared decision-making process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0572.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: pesticides; photodegradation; half-life; leaching; vertical migration
Online: 8 August 2023 (03:50:11 CEST)
Abstract: The migration and transformation of pesticides in the environment will have an impact on the ecosystem. This study collected greenhouse soil from Shouguang, Shandong Province, and studied the photodegradation and leaching of 17 common pesticides in the soil. The results of photodegradation experiments showed that the degradation rate of certain pesticides was increased in the light environment, compared with that in the dark controls. The light half-lives of emamectin benzoate, pyraclostrobin, and metalaxyl were all shorter than their respective dark half-lives, indicating that their residues in soil were greatly affected by light. The leaching experiment showed that the leaching potential of the leachable pesticides was: nitenpyram ≫ metalaxyl > acetamiprid > carbendazim > diethofencarb ≈ chlorantraniliprole > isoprothiolane > oxadixyl > boscalid ≈ tebuconazole > hexaconazole. Pesticides that are easy to leach but not easy to degrade, such as chlorantraniliprole and metalaxyl, have a high potential risk of groundwater pollution, and more degradation technologies should be used to reduce their pollution risk. The study on photodegradation and vertical migration behavior of various pesticides in this study was conducive to providing references for the agricultural use and pollution control of pesticides.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1916.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: Frequency; Restoration; Interaction; Daily life; Human geography
Online: 27 July 2023 (13:27:14 CEST)
This study explores the relationship between mental and physical therapeutic through three dimensions: man-environment relationships; a sense of place and symbolic landscapes. The study used a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods. Local residents living in the coastal area of Xinglin Bay are the research objects. Quantitative data analysis revealed that the frequency of residents' visits was an important variable affecting their physical and treatment perceptions. In addition, the significance is higher for females than for males. The text analysis shows that the environment, especially the ecological restoration of water quality and migratory birds, is of great significance to the identity of local residents. Daily activities contribute to a sense of place and are what make the coast a place of therapeutic landscape function.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0266.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: LIFE; Origin; Exobiology; Evolution; Ecology; Astrobiology; Space
Online: 16 January 2023 (03:44:50 CET)
Viruses are the most numerically abundant biological entities on Earth. As ubiquitous replicators of information molecules and agents of community change, viruses have potent effects on life on Earth and may play a critical role in human spaceflight missions, life detection missions to other planetary bodies, and in planetary protection. However, major knowledge gaps constrain our understanding of the Earth’s virosphere: 1) the role viruses play in biogeochemical cycles, 2) the origin(s) of viruses, and 3) the involvement of viruses in the evolution, distribution, and persistence of life. As viruses are the only replicators that span all known types of nucleic acids, an expanded experimental and theoretical toolbox built for Earth’s viruses will be pivotal for detecting and understanding life on Earth and beyond. Only by filling in these knowledge and technical gaps will we obtain an inclusive assessment of how to distinguish and detect life on other planetary surfaces. Meanwhile, space exploration requires life-support systems for the needs of humans, plants, and their microbial inhabitants. Viral effects on microbes and plants are essential for Earth’s biosphere and human health, but virus-host interactions in spaceflight are poorly understood. Viral relationships with their hosts respond to environmental changes in complex ways which are difficult to predict by extrapolating from Earth-based proxies. These relationships must therefore be studied in space to fully understand how spaceflight will modulate viral impacts on human health and life-support systems, including microbiomes. This review addresses key questions that must be examined to incorporate viruses into Earth system models, life-support systems, and life detection. Further, the results of tackling these questions will help in our efforts to develop planetary protection protocols and further our understanding of viruses in astrobiology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0311.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: glucose; cortisol; corticosterone; stress; early life adversity
Online: 21 July 2022 (07:53:13 CEST)
External stressors strongly increase cardiovascular activity and induce metabolic changes that ensure the availability of glucose and oxygen as part of a co-ordinated stress response. Exposure to stress during early life appears to have an exaggerated long-term effect on this response, leading to an increased risk or cardiometabolic disorders. Here we demonstrate that acute stress induced glucose release is impacted by the early life environment in rodent maternal deprivation and early-life infection models and this was validated in our EpiPath human early-life adversity cohort. In all three models differences in baseline blood glucose levels after ELA exposure were sex dependent. The human ELA model showed higher levels of basal glucose in females, similar to the mouse infection and rat maternal deprivation models. We anticipated that the stress induced glucose rise would be a GC dependent process. However, the kinetics of stress-induced glucose release, peaking 15-28 minutes before cortisol suggest that it is a GC-independent process. We confirmed this by administering an escalating dose of cortisol to a health human cohort, and the inability of an intravenous GC bolus induce a glucose rise in man confirms that it is a rapid, GC independent, process.In conclusion, we provide a novel perspective on the mechanisms behind stress related metabolic changes and highlights the importance of collecting early life data as a measure to understand an individual’s metabolic status in a better light.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0033.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: life histories; ageing; fecundity; nutrient balance; evolution
Online: 2 February 2022 (12:55:42 CET)
Reducing overall food intake or lowering the proportion of protein relative to other macronutrients, can extend lifespan in diverse organisms. A number of mechanistic theories have been developed to explain this phenomenon, mostly assuming that the molecules connecting diet to lifespan are evolutionarily conserved. A recent study using Drosophila melanogaster females has pinpointed a single essential micronutrient that can explain how lifespan is changed by dietary restriction. Here, we propose a likely mechanism for this observation, which involves a trade-off between lifespan and reproduction, but in a manner that is conditional on the dietary supply of an essential micronutrient – a sterol. Importantly, these observations argue against previous evolutionary theories that rely on constitutive resource reallocation or damage directly inflicted by reproduction. Instead, they are compatible with a model in which the inverse relationship between lifespan and food level is caused by the consumer suffering from varying degrees of malnutrition when maintained on lab food. The data also indicate that animals on different lab foods may suffer from different nutritional imbalances and that the mechanisms by which dietary restriction benefits the lifespan of different species may vary. This means that translating the mechanistic findings from lab animals to humans will not be simple and should be interpreted in light of the range of challenges that have shaped each organism’s lifespan in the wild and the composition of the natural diets they would feed on.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sustainability; concrete; assessment; performance; service life; environment.
Online: 10 December 2021 (14:40:53 CET)
The article presents an original method to assess the sustainability of concrete. The method uses three parameters, namely: performance, lifetime and environmental impact, to calculate a sustainability index. The originality and the simplicity of the proposed method presented in the article consists in the fact that by applying the relation to determine the sustainability index, the first two factors service life and performance are constant. This approach is possible in the context of the new proposals to specify the durability of structural concrete in EN 1992 and EN 206. That allows classification of concrete according to its performance, through Environmental action Resistance Classes (ERC). For this purpose, specific experimental methods were used in order to determine the performance of concrete exposed to carbonation. The concretes were prepared with two cement types with additions (CEM II / A-S and CEM II / A-M (S-LL)). Based on the carbonation resistance classes (the first constant - the performance) and exposure classes, the thickness of the concrete cover layer was determined to ensure a certain service lifetime (second constant - the service lifetime). Finally, the global warming potential was calculated for each composition, consequently allowing the users of the method, to select the compositions with the lowest impact on the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0232.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sustainability; concrete; assessment; performance; service life; environment.
Online: 12 November 2021 (15:12:23 CET)
This article presents a method to assess the sustainability of concrete based on three elements: service life, performance and environmental impact. The method proposes - to achieve similar performance and service life times, regardless of the component materials used, so that the sustainability assessment ultimately depends on the environmental impact criterion. To this end, specific experimental methods are used to determine the performance of concrete in terms of compressive strength and carbonation resistance for concrete cast with two blended cement types. The procedure needed to classify the concrete through carbonation resistance is detailed, in relationship with the performance obtained for compressive strength. The obtained results highlight the concrete formulations to be used to ensure similar performances regardless of the cement type used. In conclusion, the simplicity in the application of the method, which is closely related to the performance approach on concrete durability in the revision proposals of the European standards, is highlighted. The method is also a useful tool to encourage the widespread use in concrete formulation of blended cements with low environmental impact, without reducing the performance or service life time of the constructions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0591.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Adsorption; Desorption; Dissipation; Herbicide half-life; Leaching.
Online: 23 June 2021 (16:02:59 CEST)
Chemical weed control using herbicide glyphosate to manage emerged weeds is an important production practice in Florida citrus. Despite the extensive use of glyphosate in citrus orchards, very limited information is available on its environmental fate and behavior in Florida soils that are predominantly sandy in nature. Hence, the study's objective was to understand the adsorption-desorption, dissipation dynamics, and vertical movement or leaching of glyphosate in sandy soils in citrus orchards. Laboratory, field, and greenhouse experiments were conducted at Southwest Florida Research and Education Center in Immokalee, Florida. The adsorption-desorption behavior of glyphosate in the soils from three major citrus production areas in Florida was studied utilizing a batch equilibrium method. The dissipation of glyphosate was tracked in the field following its application at the rate of 4.20 kg ae ha-1. Soil leaching columns in greenhouse conditions were used to study the vertical movement of glyphosate. The results suggest that glyphosate has a relatively lower range of adsorption or binding (Kads = 14.28 to 30.88) in the tested soil types. The field dissipation half-life (DT50) of glyphosate from surface soil was found to be 26 days. Glyphosate moved vertically or leached into the soil profile, up to 40 cm in the soil column, when analyzed 40 days after herbicide application. The primary degradation product of glyphosate, i.e., aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA), was also detected up to the depth of 30 cm below the soil surface, indicating the presence of microbial metabolism of glyphosate in the soil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0567.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: multimedia; self-care; quality of life; enterostomy
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:08:14 CEST)
(1)Background: This report was an effective evaluation of using multimedia educational program for self-care and quality of life in patients with a stoma at postoperative and established a simple threshold for enterostomy self-care skills.(2)Methods:108 patients with enterostomy were randomly assigned to receive either the intervention multimedia education program (including information about preparation for enterostomy care, cleaning method, manual bag replacement steps and precautions). The primary outcome was self-care ability and quality of life (defined as overall enterostomy self-care ability and overall quality of life), which was assessed at 2 weeks after intervention via an interview.(3)Results: Compared with those who in the conventional stoma education program, patients received the multimedia education program significantly improved their overall self-care ability and quality of life in statistically. The threshold of the enterostomy self-care skill scale was 20 points, and its corresponding sensitivity was 77.8%, and the specificity was 75.7%.(4)Conclusions: According to our study, the multimedia education program could enhance self-care ability of home care and quality of life in patients with enterostomy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0188.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: disability; quality of life; cerebral palsy; surveillance
Online: 5 March 2021 (11:51:51 CET)
Secondary and tertiary prevention strategies targeting people with disabilities to improve their health and wellbeing is important. In Sweden, >95% of all children with cerebral palsy (CP) participate in a follow-up program, where one of the goals is the prevention of hip dislocations. We reviewed the incidence of hip dislocations from 2010 to 2019 and the number of children who underwent different types of hip surgeries. The number of hip dislocations was reduced from 8.8% before introduction of the program to 0.3-0.4% up to 2015, followed by a gradual increase to 0.8% in 2019. The proportion of children who underwent adductor-psoas lengthening as their primary preventive surgery decreased from 50% in 2017 to 37% in 2019 with a corresponding increase of children undergoing femoral osteotomy, indicating more children underwent surgery at a later stage. Reasons for the increased number of children with hip dislocation may be that more children have moved to Sweden in recent years without corresponding compensation in health care resources and increased waiting times for surgery due to, among other things, a shortage of nurses. The results highlight the importance of constantly monitoring follow-up programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0412.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Process; ontological category; life concept; essential feature
Online: 16 November 2020 (10:49:11 CET)
Although increasing knowledge about biological systems has advanced exponentially in recent decades, it is surprising to realize that the very definition of Life keeps presenting theoretical challenges. Even if several lines of reasoning seek to identify the essence of life phenomenon, most of these thoughts contain fundamental problem in their basic conceptual structure. Most concepts fail to identify necessary and sufficient features to define life. Here, we analyzed the main conceptual framework regarding theoretical aspects supporting life concepts, such as (i) the physical, (ii) the cellular and (iii) the molecular approaches. Based on ontological analysis, we propose that Life should not be positioned under the ontological category of Matter. Yet, life should be better understood under the top-level ontology of “Process”. Exercising an epistemological approach, we propose that the essential characteristic pervading each and every living being is the presence of organic codes. Therefore, we explore theories in biosemiotics in order to propose a clear concept of life as a macrocode composed by multiple inter-related coding layers. Therefore, we suggest a clear distinction between the concept of life and living beings, a distinction that is not evident in theoretical terms. From the proposed concept, we suggest that the evolutionary process is a fundamental characteristic for life’s maintenance but not to its definition. The current proposition opens a fertile field of debate in astrobiology, biosemiotics and robotics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0086.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: life support for space; plant molecular pharming
Online: 4 September 2020 (07:31:34 CEST)
Space missions have always assumed that the risk of spacecraft malfunction far outweighs the risk of human system failure. This assumption breaks down for longer duration exploration missions and exposes vulnerabilities in space medical system. Space agencies can no longer buy down the majority of human system risk through the crew member selection process and emergency re-supply or evacuation. No mature medical solutions exist to close the risk gap. With recent advances in biotechnology, there is promise in augmenting a space pharmacy with a biologically-based space foundry for on-demand manufacturing of high-value medical products. Here we review the challenges and opportunities of molecular pharming, the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, as the basis of a space medical foundry to close the risk gap in current space medical systems. Plants have long been considered an important life support object in space and can now also be viewed as programmable factories in space. Advances in molecular pharming-based space foundries will have widespread application in promoting simple and accessible pharmaceutical manufacturing on Earth.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0017.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: definition of life; evolution; entropy production; MEPP
Online: 2 May 2020 (15:54:19 CEST)
Maximum entropy production principle (MEPP) has been formulated in the mid-twentieth century, and today it has acquired the status of an important principle of science, which is extremely effective in considering various non-equilibrium problems. In this study, for the first time, definition of life is based on an easily measurable physical quantity that is entropy production. Life and evolution are discussed from the point of view of MEPP and the Universe, but not a human
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0201.v1
Online: 17 November 2019 (10:53:30 CET)
In order to synchronize foreign policies of governments, firm actions in the form of economic sanctions have long been employed by western countries. Those countries that tend to have independent views and policies are made to undergo economic adversity to fall in line. But the hardest hit by these coercive actions are the ordinary citizens who have to endure immense difficulty with social and economic issues not to mention the human rights violations. This paper provides a review regarding the effect of economic sanctions on mental health and quality of life of Iranian citizens based on data available from Iran post-sanctions. From 2012 stronger sanctions have been implemented on Iran as its nuclear program failed to draw faith in terms of its peaceful execution. Evidence have pointed out that economic sanctions imposed by western countries have a detrimental and destructive effect on the health of individual Iranians and they violated some basic human rights.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: quality of life; celiac disease; parents; caregivers
Online: 20 September 2019 (19:04:08 CEST)
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of gluten and affects approximately 1% of the global population. Currently, the only treatment available is lifelong strict adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD). Chronic diseases such as CD affect patients and their family members’ quality of life (QoL); particularly parents and caregivers who play an essential role in the child’s care and treatment. A higher level of psychological distress has been found in the parents of children with chronic ailments due to limited control over the child’s daily activities and the child’s illness. In this context, the validation of a specific questionnaire of QoL is a valuable tool to evaluate the difficulties faced by parents or caregivers of children with this chronic illness. A specific questionnaire for this population can elucidate the reasons for stress in their daily lives as well as the physical, mental, emotional, and social impact caused by CD. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a specific questionnaire to evaluate the QoL of parents and caregivers of children and adolescents with CD. The study was developed in six steps: (i) development of the CD parent/caregiver QoL questionnaire (CDPC-QoL); (ii) subjective evaluation; (iii) validation of the questionnaire by the Delphi method; (iv) evaluation of the internal consistency and reproducibility of the CDPC-QoL; (v) application of the questionnaire to Brazilian CD parents or caregivers; and (vi) statistical analysis. Overall results showed that a higher family income resulted in a higher score of the worries domain. In addition, having another illness besides CD decreased the QoL (except in the worries domain). The other variables studied did not present a statistically significant impact on the QoL, which was shown to be low in all aspects. Knowledge of the QoL is important to help implement effective strategies to improve celiac patients’ quality of life and reduce their physical, emotional, and social burden.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0564.v2
Online: 27 February 2019 (11:32:02 CET)
Current cellular facts allow us to follow the link from chemical to biochemical metabolites, from the ancient to the modern world. In this context, the "RNA world" hypothesis proposes that early in the evolution of life, the ribozyme was responsible for the storage and transfer of genetic information and for the catalysis of biochemical reactions. Accordingly, the hammerhead ribozyme (HHR) and the hairpin ribozyme, belong to a family of endonucleolytic RNAs performing self-cleavage that might occur during replication. Furthermore, regarding the ultraconserved occurrence of HHR in several genomes of modern organisms (from mammals to small parasites and elsewhere), these small ribozymes have been regarded as living fossils of a primitive RNA world. They fold into 3D structures that generally require long-range intramolecular interactions to adopt the catalytically active conformation under specific physicochemical conditions. By studying viroids as plausible remains of ancient RNA, we recently demonstrated that they replicate in non-specific hosts, emphasizing their adaptability to different environments, which enhanced their survival probability over the ages. All these results exemplify ubiquitously features of life. Those are the versatility and efficiency of small RNAs, viroids and ribozymes, as well as their diversity and adaptability to various extreme conditions. All these traits must have originated in early life to generate novel RNA populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0388.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: cyprinidae; life history; freshwater ecology; oocyte; ovary
Online: 28 May 2018 (08:48:11 CEST)
Understanding the reproductive patterns and strategies of a species is an important step in establishing the species’ life history. Campostoma oligolepis, the Largescale Stoneroller, is a species that has received little attention in the 90 years since it was first identified, and the work that has been done has been localized in the American Midwest. Collections of C. oligolepis were made monthly from the Flint River in Madison County in northern Alabama, USA, from March, 2014, to September, 2015. A total of 768 fish were collected over the collection period including 492 adults, 268 females and 224 males. We found strong evidence that the peak spawning time for C. oligolepis in the Flint River is March and April. Ovarian maturation, gonadosomatic index for both sexes, and monthly clutch size all support this conclusion. Two unexpected features were found. The first is how few females of mature size were found to carry either oocytes or a clutch except in the peak observed reproductive month of April, 2014. The second unusual feature is the prevalence of asymmetric ovaries, with the left the larger if a difference exists. Campostoma oligolepis may have unusually strong inter-annual responses to abiotic factors such as water temperature and river discharge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0100.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: Nietzsche; ethics; herd morality; mediocrity; public life
Online: 14 March 2018 (07:50:44 CET)
Nietzsche is almost always regarded as one of the thinkers who advocate extreme individualism, totally indifferent to or exclusively polemical towards the public human dimension. While this is very difficult to contradict, if we read his texts carefully we can see how his constant celebration of the individual runs parallel to an acute awareness of living in a new era, which he defined as ‘the century of the multitude and the masses’. The herd, conformism, mediocrity, public opinion: a civilisation in which community attempts suffocate all individual inspiration, and which therefore seems to row in the opposite direction. Although Nietzsche often uses collective life merely as a negative pole for more effectively emphasising the individual, his provocative words—pushed to the limits of the inexorable victory of the herd and of the paradoxical impossibility of all that is ‘public’—offer us a direct testimony of the tragic way of life of the man of his time. This provides us with an extremely clear and interesting phenomenological cross-section of the social sphere, as well as a very finely tuned and valuable seismograph for the continual monitoring of our everyday coexistence with and perception of the constantly incumbent dangers of its degeneration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: oral health; quality of life; postmenopausal women
Online: 13 August 2016 (03:14:09 CEST)
Interrelationships between traditional dental variables are becoming more evident in far reaching aspects of life such as psychosocial interaction, self-esteem, overall health and even occupational performance. This study compares quality of life (QoL) in postmenopausal women (PMW) with poor oral health (POH) with QoL in PMW with good oral health. 200 randomly recruited PMW received a dental evaluation and completed Utian Quality of Life Survey. The participants were divided into POH and healthy groups based on dental exam. Mean scores were calculated for each QoL item, domain and the overall summary score. For each of the four parameters for periodontitis diagnosis, periodontitis patients’ QoL outcomes were compared to those of healthy patients using T-test with threshold of significance at p<0.05. QoL in all fields measured were significantly poorer in the POH compared to the healthy patients, occupational (19.95±5.35vs. 27.56±6.13), health (18.02±8.23 vs. 26.59 ±6.45), emotional (15.68±10.22vs. 21.15±9.15), sexual (6.2±5.98vs. 10.02±5.35), and total score (60.21±25.85 vs. 84.26±22.35). This study finds that PMW with POH, report significantly poorer quality of life. Clinicians caring for PMW should be aware of that oral health impacts QoL and make appropriate referral decisions for patients’ dental care. Keywords: Quality of Life, Oral Health, Post-menopause, Women
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Bioregenerative life support; closed ecological life support; in-situ resource utilization; lunar industrial ecology; 3D bioprinting; gene editing
Online: 28 June 2021 (15:23:39 CEST)
In this review, we explore a broad-based view of technologies for supporting human activities on the Moon. Primarily, we assess the state of life support systems technology beginning with physicochemical processes, waste processing, bioregenerative methods, food production systems and the robotics and advanced biological technologies that support the latter. We observe that the Moon possesses in-situ resources but that these resources are of limited value in CELSS – indeed, CELSS technology is most mature in recycling water and oxygen, the two resources that are abundant on the Moon. This places a premium on developing CELSS that recycles other elements that are rarified on the Moon including C and N in particular but also other elements such as P, S and K which might be challenging to extract from local resources. Although we focus on closed loop ecological life support systems, we also consider related technologies that involve the application of biological organisms to bioregenerative medical technologies and bioregenerative approaches to industrial activity on the Moon as potential future developments.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: origin of life; origins of life; mechanical energy; work; entropic forces; mica; biotite; Muscovite; wet/dry cycles; clay
Online: 29 April 2019 (07:51:38 CEST)
Forces and mechanical energy are prevalent in living cells. This may be because forces and mechanical energy preceded chemical energy at life’s origins. Mechanical energy is more readily available in non-living systems than the various other forms of energy used by living systems. Two possible prebiotic environments that might have provided mechanical energy are hot pools that experience wet/dry cycles and mica sheets as they move, open and shut, as heat pumps or in response to water movements.
ESSAY | doi:10.3390/sci2020019
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: origin of life; origins of life; mechanical energy; mechanochemistry; work; entropic forces; mica; biotite; Muscovite; wet/dry cycles; clay
Online: 25 March 2020 (00:00:00 CET)
Mechanical forces and mechanical energy are prevalent in living cells. This may be because mechanical forces and mechanical energy preceded chemical energy at life’s origins. Mechanical energy is more readily available in non-living systems than the various forms of chemical energy used by living systems. Two possible prebiotic environments that might have provided mechanical energy are hot pools that experience wet/dry cycles and mica sheets as they move, open and shut, as heat pumps or in response to water movements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1375.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: HS-MS e-NOSE; packaging; prediction; shelf life
Online: 22 November 2023 (06:35:46 CET)
A rapid and efficient technique using an electronic nose based on a mass detector combined with headspace sampling (HS-SPME-MS e-nose) and chemometric tools was applied to classify beer samples between fresh and aged and between samples contained in aluminium cans or glass bottles, and to predict the shelf life of beer. The mass spectra obtained from the HS-SPME-MS e-nose contain information on the volatile compounds, recorded as the abundance of each ion at different mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios. The analysis was performed on 53 samples aged naturally for eleven months in the absence of light and with a controlled temperature of around 14° C +/- 0.5° C. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed on the data, showing a grouping of samples between fresh and aged. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) allowed discriminating fresh from aged beers but was not able to discriminate samples packaged in aluminium cans or in glass bottles. Finally, Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) was applied to build a prediction model and showed to be effective to predict beer shelf life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2089.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: avoided impact; digital; ICT services; life cycle assessment
Online: 1 November 2023 (03:50:13 CET)
Certain services can help avoid environmental impact in larger contexts. However, there is no commonly agreed bottom-up methodology for calculation of the total net reduction effect of specific digital services. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a common denominator for most methodologies. The most common method is the Attributional LCA (ALCA), and recently the emerging handprint ALCA estimating so-called positive environmental impacts. Moreover, Consequential LCA (CLCA) can be used to capture market effects. The third conceptual approach is Input-Output LCA. The purpose is to propose and test a new method based on some of the existing ones. The existing concepts are compared and a synthesis is made to create a practical but still useful method. The new method is applied to two illustrative cases in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) domain; the introduction of a 5G enabled drone for pipe inspection and the 5G enabled health consultation. Compared to simplified ALCA, the difference between the absolute score for the baseline system and the target system changes up to 15% when the proposed simplified CLCA (SCLCA) method is used. The results show that SCLCA, when combined with analytical methods for expressing digital ICT services’ own impact, is a fruitful approach which is both practical and feasible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1934.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: breast cancer; depression; fatigue; insomnia; quality of life
Online: 30 October 2023 (13:51:16 CET)
The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of quality of life (QOL) changes in breast cancer survivors (BCS) and to determine factors associated with subgroups of consistently low or deteriorated QOL. We enrolled 101 women recently diagnosed with breast cancer in South Korea and asked them to complete a questionnaire at baseline (within 1 month of diagnosis), 1 year later (Year 1), 2 years later (Year 2), and 3 years later (Year 3). We assessed QOL using the global QOL subscale from the EORTC QLQ-C30. We defined low QOL as a global QOL score 10 points below the mean score of the general population. Based on low QOL as defined in this study, we identified subgroups of QOL changes over 3 years. We identified four subgroups of QOL changes: improved (47.4%), stable (30%), continuously low (8.8%), and deteriorated (13.8%) and considered the last two categories (22.6%) as poor QOL. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that significant determinants of poor QOL were insomnia at Year 1, fatigue and anxiety at Year 2, and fatigue, depression, and comorbidity at Year 3. In conclusion, persistent symptoms of insomnia, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and comorbidity are potential risk factors for poor QOL in BCS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1420.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: PV system; End of life; Recycling; Re-use
Online: 21 September 2023 (08:55:33 CEST)
Abstract: Like other plants, every PV power plant will one day reach the end of its service life. Calculations show that 20,400 tons of PV waste will be generated worldwide by 2030 and 60.2 million tons by 2050, not including the mass of the support structure. Such large amounts of waste pose a potential threat to the environment and people if not properly managed. The paper analysed the options for dealing with PV waste, namely reuse, recycling and landfilling. For recycling as the best option in terms of environmental protection and circular economy, an overview of recycling technologies and the percentage of achievable recycling for the materials contained in each PV system component is given. In addition, the current situation of legislation and recycling of PV modules in Europe was examined with special reference to the Balkan countries. There are a small number of factories for recycling PV modules in Europe, but none in the Balkan countries. The main reason for this is the small amount of PV waste in these countries and consequently the economic unprofitability. For this reason, PV modules (after dismantling the aluminum frame and cables) are mostly disposed of as non-hazardous waste in landfills in these countries. Finally, the main barriers to faster implementation of PV module reuse and recycling are listed, along with guidelines for their removal. The cost of recycling Si modules is about ten times higher than the cost of disposal. To change this ratio in favor of recycling, cheaper recycling methods need to be developed and taxes on landfill disposal need to be increased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1081.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Reminisce; Older Adults; Qualitative; Narrative; Life review; Oman
Online: 15 August 2023 (09:03:19 CEST)
Background: Reminiscence studies and life reviews have a number of proven advantages. Future generations gain by learning from elders' life experiences, as do older adults themselves who share their memories. Despite Oman's sizable geriatric population, research on older individuals' life experiences is scarce. Therefore, this study aims to explore the life experiences of older Omani individuals across their many life stages, from childhood to the present. Methods: This was a qualitative study design. A total of 13 Omani older adults (9 females and 4 males) with an average age of 68 years were recruited for this study. Socio-demographic and life review information was gathered according to a set of semi-structured guiding questions. The responses were then captured on audio recordings, which underwent transcription and translation. Thematic analysis techniques were applied to the extracted data. Results: Three main themes were evident in the study’s findings: Childhood memories, Friendships, and Relationships, as well as the elders’ past. Additionally, older adults passed on a number of gems of wisdom to be shared with the younger generations. Conclusion: This study aided in revealing the resiliency, social connections, and life reflections of Omani older adults. Based on these findings, future studies might explore particular aspects of older experiences and pinpoint solutions to improve their quality of life and well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0786.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: burnout; security employees; private sector; quality of life
Online: 10 August 2023 (02:30:36 CEST)
Abstract Introduction. Burnout syndrome develops as a consequence of chronic stress among employees. The study objectives were to examine burnout syndrome and to evaluate the quality of life among security employees of the professional private security sector in Central Serbia. Methods. A multicenter cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was performed. The questionnaire for staff employed at institutions who are in direct contact with people (Human Services Survey, MBI-HSS) and Short Form 36 Health Survey-(SF-36). Results. A total of 353 respondents participated in the study. The response rate was 80%. Approximately one-third (32.6%) had symptoms of total burnout, and a much higher number of responders had a moderate or high level of burnout on individual subscales:- depersonalization (high 82.4%, moderate 16.2%) and emotional exhaustion (high 66.3%, moderate 19.8%) and, slightly more than one-third (34.5%) had low personal achievement, while about one-third (32.9%) had moderate personal achievement. Female sex and older age were associated with a higher risk of total burnout and the development of emotional exhaustion. Male sex, higher education, and managerial position were associated with higher personal achievement and lower risk of total burnout. Male sex, marital union, two or more children, and direct contact with clients were significantly associated with a lower quality of life of employees. Conclusion. Female sex and older age were associated with a higher risk of total burnout and the development of emotional exhaustion. Male sex, university education and managerial position were associated with greater personal achievement and were protective factors in relation to the development of burnout. Male sex, marital union, two or more children, and direct contact with clients were significantly associated with lower quality of life of employees. Keywords: burnout syndrome; security employees; professional private sector; quality of life
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1237.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: prostate cancer; Quality of Life; brachytherapy; sexual function
Online: 19 July 2023 (02:46:25 CEST)
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in Poland. A significant proportion of prostate cancers can be cured, providing longer survival. Patients have the opportunity to undergo minimally invasive treatment methods like brachytherapy, while maintaining their previous quality of life. The disease itself, as well as treatment complications, primarily affect the functioning of the urinary and digestive systems and impact the sexual sphere. Aim: This study aims to assess the quality of life of patients after prostate brachytherapy. Methods: The research was conducted at the Lower Silesian Oncology Centre in Wroclaw. The study included fifty men aged between 51 and 85 years. The following questionnaires were used: EORTC QLQ-C30, QLQ-PR25. Scales: Katz, Mini-MAC, PSS-10. Moreover, the study used a self-designed survey covering socio-demographical factors. Results: Prostate brachytherapy has a significant impact on the degree of sexual dysfunction. Compared to sexually inactive individuals, sexually active individuals exhibit fewer negative psychological symptoms. Choosing a destructive coping strategy intensifies the occurrence of symptoms, lowers patients' level of independence, and negatively affects their quality of life. Conclusions: Brachytherapy contributes to worsening sexual function and temporarily affects urinary system function, which may lower the overall quality of life in patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1121.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: children; cancer; oncology; music therapy; quality of life
Online: 17 July 2023 (15:12:48 CEST)
Background: Music therapy (MT) is a non-pharmacological treatment increasingly used to reduce stress and anxiety in hospitalized children affected by cancers. The aim of this study was to eval-uate the impact of MT on quality of life of children with cancer. Methods: We have conducted a quasi-experimental study between April 1 and August 31, 2021 at Bechir Hamza children's Hos-pital in Tunis, including children treated for cancer. The child or the parent completed PedsQL Module Cancer french version 3.0 questionnaires before and after four weekly music therapy ses-sions. Child's respiratory and heart rate were measured before and after each session. Results: We included 20 children whose mean age was 7 ± 4.5 years [2-14]. The median value of the total questionnaire score increased from 57 [46; 70] to 72 [67; 85] (p < 10-3) with a significant reduction in pain (p = 0.02), nausea (p = 0.009), anxiety related to medical procedures (p = 0.009) and worry about the future (p = 0.005). We highlighted a significant decrease in respiratory and heart rate after MT (p<0,05). Conclusions: MT has positive impact of on quality of life of children with cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0512.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: children's health; mobile apps; balanced life; digital world
Online: 10 July 2023 (03:38:47 CEST)
Concerns have been made about how children's health and psychology could be hurt by the growing number of mobile apps they use. This abstract looks at intervention methods and best practices for getting kids to use mobile apps in a healthy way, find a balance with technology, and build up their resilience. Key points include promoting digital literacy and critical thinking, setting clear boundaries and rules, encouraging digital balance, modeling healthy tech habits, building resilience and coping skills, encouraging face-to-face communication, setting up tech-free times and spaces, monitoring app usage and content, promoting mindfulness and self-reflection, and getting professional help when needed. By using these tactics, parents, teachers, and other caretakers can help kids build a healthy relationship with technology, live a balanced life, and build the resilience they need to handle the challenges of the digital world. The goal of these interventions is to make sure that kids' app use is good for their general health, helps them learn and get along with others, and sets them up for long-term success in the digital age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1980.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: cryophilic; ecophysiology; growth temperature, life history; local climate
Online: 28 June 2023 (09:37:19 CEST)
Typhulaceae Jülich is one of the cold-adapted fungal families in basidiomycetes. Typhula (Pers.) Fr. and Pistillaria Fr. representing the family are distinguished from the morphology of a stipe to a hymenium (Fries 1821). The hymenium of Typhula is distinguishable from the stipe, but indistinguishable and consecutive in the genus Pistillaria. This taxonomic criterion is ambiguous, and consequently the opinion of Karsten (1882) has been widely accepted; I the genus Typhula, basidiomata develop from sclerotia, while basidiomata develop directly from substrata in the genus Pistillaris. But, Corner (1970) observed basidiomata of Pistillaria petasitis S. Imai in Hokkaido, Japan, from sclerotia. We collected irregular sclerotia of Typhula hyperborea H. Ekstr. from Upernavik, West Greenland. This specimen had a stipe-like structure on a Poaceae plant, and sclerotia developed on its tip. In August, P. petasitis in Hokkaido, Japan, formed basidiomata directly from substrates on the ground. Similar phenomena were found from other Typhula spp. in Japan. All of these fungi had the potential to produce sclerotia in culture, and as well as the capacity of mycelial growth at ambient air temperatures in each locality when samples were collected. These findings suggest that Typhula spp. developed basidiomata not only from the sclerotia dispersed by the basidiospores but also mycelia generated by the spore germination formed basidiomata multiple times depending on their growth environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1220.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: endovenous cyanoacrylate ablation; venous insufficiency; quality of life
Online: 16 June 2023 (10:34:16 CEST)
Endovenous thermal methods are superseding surgical stripping for treating chronic superficial venous disease but require tumescent anesthesia and can cause heat-related nerve injuries. Endovenous cyanoacrylate ablation is a more recent technique that does not share these drawbacks. Retrospective observational study of consecutive adults managed with endovenous cyanoacrylate in 2018–2021 at a single university center. Follow-up was 18 months. We identified factors associated with target vein closure at 18 months and measured changes in quality of life using the generic 36-item Short-Form tool (SF-36) and the venous disease-specific VEINES-QOL/Sym questionnaire. Adverse events were collected. In the 55 study patients with 67 treated veins, the closure rate at 18 months was 94% (95%CI, 85%–98%). Target vein diameter ≥9.5 mm had 81% sensitivity and 75% specificity for predicting recanalization. Both quality-of-life scores improved significantly (P<0.001 for both). The only adverse event was a type IV allergic reaction to cyanoacrylate that resolved with corticosteroid and histamine-antagonist therapy. Endovenous cyanoacrylate ablation was highly effective and safe in experienced hands. Studies are warranted to determine whether changes in the protocol increase the closure rate in patients with target veins ≥9.5 mm in diameter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0929.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: chemotherapy; anthracyclines; cyclophosphamide; muscle strength; quality of life
Online: 13 June 2023 (10:56:52 CEST)
Background: Evidences on the effects of chemotherapy treatment cycles on measures of muscle, mental state, social and cognitive performance are scarce. Objective: To analyze the effects of chemotherapy cycles on muscle strength and activation, functional capacity, quality of life, fatigue and anxiety of women with breast cancer. Methods: Twenty-two women divided into a treatment group (n = 10; 46.6 ± 9.6 years) and control group (n = 12; 51.6 ± 7.0 years) participated in the study. Analysis of muscle performance, quality of life, fatigue and anxiety after the 2nd and 4th cycle of chemotherapy with anthracyclines and cyclophosphamide were performed in women with breast cancer (TRA) and compared to healthy women (CTR). Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the variance of the means and the significance level was set as p≤0.05. Results: Differences were found in the muscular activation of the vastus medialis between the groups at post time (p = 0.038), as well as in the sit and stand test in the baseline (p<0.001) and post moment (p<0.001). Functional capacity performance was different between baseline (p<0.001) and post-time (p<0.001) groups. Additionally, the TRA group worsened the quality of life in the domains of functional capacity (p<0.001) and limitation of physical aspects (p=0.002), besides presenting negative changes in fatigue. Conclusion: Anthracycline and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy cycles reduce muscular performance and affect biopsychosocial variables in women with breast cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0805.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Public Health; Quality of Life; Adolescents; Physical Activity
Online: 12 June 2023 (10:29:56 CEST)
Health related quality of life’s (HRQoL) different domains of functioning can serve as a good prognosticator of later life’s outcomes for children and adolescents. Understanding associated factors is crucial for promoting better health and life satisfaction. This study aimed to investigate the impact of socio-economic status (SES), physical activity (PA) and cardio-fitness on the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in 224 Italian early adolescents attending secondary school in the Emilia-Romagna region located in northern Italy. The present cross-sectional study included measures of SES, demographic factors, cardio-fitness measures and self-reported PA levels. In a multivariate model, younger students and females reported higher HRQoL (β=-0.139, P<.05, 95% CI: -0.254 – -0.023 and β=0.142, P<.05, 95% CI: 0.011 – 0.273 respectively). Having both parents employed and having higher familiar educational status resulted in higher HRQoL. Greater engagement in routine PA was positively associated with HRQoL (β=0.429, P<.001, 95% CI: 0.304 – 0.554). Endurance (speed) was positively associated with HRQoL (β=0.221, P<.01, 95% CI: 0.087 – 0.355) and students with longer times on the shuttle run reported less HRQoL (β=-0.207, P<.01, 95% CI: -0.337 – -0.077). Findings reinforced the importance of promoting regular PA among students and addressing SES disparities to improve HRQoL. The study suggests a focus on expanding research measures and evaluating targeted PA interventions for a more comprehensive understanding of children’s well-being. These findings highlight the crucial roles of demographic, PA and cardio-fitness measures in child’s HRQoL, thus providing relevant information for stakeholders who work in the education, public health, and health policy sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0048.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: covid 19; urban life; behaviour; change; impact; pandemic
Online: 1 June 2023 (07:26:39 CEST)
During the Covid 19 pandemic, we saw a huge impact on the lives of individuals in cities. The way people responded was controlled and limited. The lockdown restricted a lot of movements in the cities as well as contained the citizens in their houses. Through a semi-structured interview, the research aims to understand the change in behaviour and response of individuals across various cities. The paper aims to understand how people change their day-to-day life in cities during the pandemic and while the restrictions getting released post the first wave. The paper also understands how the pandemic impacted urban spaces and what value they hold for people. By interviewing individuals from different cities, the data were transcribed and analysed to understand this behavioural change and the attitude of people. The outcome of the research was derived as a concept map through the codes generated during the research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1214.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: aging, elderly, lifestyle-related diseases, quality of life
Online: 29 April 2023 (05:24:51 CEST)
As the world's population ages and the resulting health problems become more serious, medical and health policies in developed countries are focused on how to prevent and treat the diseases of the aging population and how to maintain their quality of life. Typical age-related diseases include deafness, cataracts, osteoarthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, and dementia. Although the mechanisms by which these diseases develop differ, they are all caused by the accumulation of molecular and cellular damage over time. In addition, age-related diseases can cause a decline in physical and mental functions and the ability to perform activities of daily living, as well as the loss of roles in society and a sense of fulfillment in life. Therefore, there is a need for treatment and measures to accurately grasp and maintain their quality of life.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0279.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: SDG; Dayalbagh Way of life; Agroecology; Sustainable Agriculture
Online: 15 December 2022 (09:04:03 CET)
The multiple crises that the world is facing – climate change, COVID-19 and war have halted or reversed the progress of the world towards the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals. Using a case study of Dayalbagh, a locality in metropolitan Agra, India, and headquarters of the Radhasoami faith, we examine the potential benefits of employing agroecology to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The active, disciplined and cooperative community-based lifestyle followed in Dayalbagh with a strong focus on agriculture and service demonstrates how most of the SDGs can be achieved. It offers lessons for policy makers in terms of focus areas for policy support and reaching the last, lowest, least and the lost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0024.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: multi scale; quality of life; wavelets; mathematical models
Online: 1 March 2022 (13:32:59 CET)
The present paper is concerned with the study of the quality of life index. Such an index has become an important index for measuring the well-being of individuals. However, the quality of life index is always a subjective, intangible, and often hard to quantify with precision due to the lack of quantitative models dealing with. The main goal of the present paper is thus to propose a mathematical, quantitative model for the measurement of a quality of life index. The main novelty is firstly the construction of a wavelet dynamic multiscale model to quantify and investigate the effect of time scale on the quality of life index measuring. The proposed procedure is acted empirically on a sample corresponding to Saudi Arabia as a case of study during the period from 2003 to 2020 as part of the 2030-vision plan. Saudi Arabia has implemented the so-called 2030-vision plan where the quality of life improvement is one of the main goals to be attempted. The findings show that wavelets are capable to localize the time-wise behavior of the index contrarily to classical studies which estimate a global view of the index. Moreover, the study shows the link between the quality of life behavior and many other indices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0205.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: taste; smell; quality of life; sensitivity; threshold; QUEST
Online: 17 February 2022 (10:00:37 CET)
Taste and smell function decline with age, with robust impairment in the very old. Much less is known about taste and smell function in young and middle old. We investigated taste and smell sensitivity via thresholds in a sub-sample of the NutriAct Family Study (NFS), the NFS Examinations cohort (NFSE; N=251, age M=62.5 years). We examined different aspects relating to taste and smell function: the degree to which taste and smell sensitivity relate to another and to taste and smell preferences, the role of gender and age, as well as effects on Quality of Life (QOL). Taste thresholds were highly correlated but no correlation was observed between taste and smell thresholds and between thresholds and preference. Women were more sensitive for both taste and smell than men. We found no effect of age on sensitivity and no effect of sensitivity on QoL. All null-findings were corroborated with Bayesian statistics providing evidence for the null hypotheses. Together our results indicate the independence of taste and smell despite their overlap during sensorial experiences. We found no evidence for age-related sensory decline, which could be due to our sample´s characteristics of non-clinical volunteers with good dental health and 93% non-smokers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0218.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: concrete; remote sensing; remaining life assessment; condition assessment
Online: 13 December 2021 (17:45:55 CET)
Concrete condition assessing penetrometers need to be able to distinguish between making contact with a hard (concrete) surface as opposed to a semi-solid (corroded concrete) surface. If a hard surface is mistaken for a soft surface, concrete corrosion may be over-estimated, with the potential for triggering unnecessary remediation works. Unfortunately, the variably-angled surface of a concrete pipe can cause the tip of a force-sensing tactile penetrometer to slip and thus to make this mistake. We investigated whether different shaped tips of a cylindrical penetrometer were better than others at maintaining contact with concrete and not slipping. We designed a range of simple symmetric tip shapes, controlled by a single superellipse parameter. We performed a finite element analysis of these parametric models in SolidWorks before machining in stainless steel. We tested our penetrometer tips on a concrete paver cut to four angles at 20∘ increments. The results indicate that penetrometers with a squircle-shaped steel tip (a=b=1,n=4) have the least slip, in the context of concrete condition assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0397.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Hypertension management; Complications of cardiovascular; Quality of Life
Online: 23 September 2021 (09:03:57 CEST)
The aim of this study as to determine the relationship between the factors of demography, comor-bidity, medication, lifestyle, and access to health services related to the QoL of people with hy-pertension and its complications in Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta. The study was conducted in a cross-sectional manner using data from Sleman HDSS (Health and Demographic Surveillance System) from 2015 to 2018 in cycles 3 and 2 with the inclusion criteria of hypertensive patients and their complications aged 25 years or older obtained by using a total sampling of 532 people. Measurement of QoL using Short Form 12v2 2a and 2b questionnaires presented in the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS). Data analysis using Mann-Whitney test and Kruskal Wallis test. The results showed factors related to the QoL in PCS were variables of gender, age, diagnosis of hypertension and its complications, the presence of comorbidities, fatty foods, drug consumption in the last two weeks, while factors related to the mental component (MCS) were education and occupation seen from the p-value <0.05. QoL with hypertension and its complications influence and decrease the physical than the patient's mental condition.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Pyrolysis; Life cycle assessment; Techno-economic assessment; sludge
Online: 26 July 2021 (10:06:50 CEST)
The increasing amount of municipal sludge in China requires safe and effective management to protect human health and ensure environmental sustainability. Pyrolysis is a thermochemical process that that decompose organic matter at elevated temperature and under anaerobic conditions, and it has attracted an increasing attention in sludge treatment in the recent years. However, comprehensive environmental and economic assessment of sludge pyrolysis in China's context is rare, due to the small quantities of full-scale sludge pyrolysis plant. In this paper, we applied our design and operation parameters of full-scale sludge pyrolysis plants to generate the material and energy consumptions of the pyrolysis system under various of conditions, including sludge organic content and moisture content, system size, system energy distribution, and whether or not heat substitution is applied. Life cycle assessment and techno-economic assessment were then applied to investigate the environmental and economic performance of the system Our results demonstrate the significant environmental and economic impacts associated with sludge properties and system size. Generally, sludge with higher organic content and lower moisture content requires less natural gas consumption, which leads to a simultaneous improvement of the system environmental and economic performance. The system economic performance is more sensitive to the system size, and centralized sludge handling using a larger pyrolysis is more economic favorable. In the most ideal case, the average global warming potential and minimum sludge handling price of sludge pyrolysis could be as low as -32.5 kg CO2-Eq/t DS and 188.8 $/t DS, respectively. Based on these results, we discussed the pathways that could be taken to further optimize the environmental and economic performances of the pyrolysis system.