Preprint Short Note Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Hunger Games as the Key to Happily Ever After?

Version 1 : Received: 16 September 2020 / Approved: 17 September 2020 / Online: 17 September 2020 (11:22:37 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 25 July 2022 / Approved: 26 July 2022 / Online: 26 July 2022 (08:51:22 CEST)

How to cite: Deere, J.; Xu, C.; Adelmant, C.; Aboobaker, A.; Salguero-Gómez, R. The Hunger Games as the Key to Happily Ever After?. Preprints 2020, 2020090401 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202009.0401.v2). Deere, J.; Xu, C.; Adelmant, C.; Aboobaker, A.; Salguero-Gómez, R. The Hunger Games as the Key to Happily Ever After?. Preprints 2020, 2020090401 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202009.0401.v2).

Abstract

The world’s human population is reaching record longevities. Consequently, our societies are experiencing the impacts of prolonged longevity, such as increased retirement age. A major hypothesised influence on ageing patterns is resource limitation, formalised under calorie restriction theory. This theory predicts extended organismal longevity due to reduced calorie intake without malnutrition. However, several challenges face current calorie restriction (CR) research and, although several attempts have been made to overcome these challenges, there is still a lack of holistic understanding of how CR shapes organismal vitality. Here, we conduct a literature review of 222 CR peer-reviewed publications to summarise the state-of-the-art in the field. We use this summary to highlight challenges of CR research in our understanding of its impacts on longevity. Our review demonstrates that experimental research in this field is biased towards short-lived species (98.2% of studies examine species with <5 years of mean life expectancy) and lacks realism in key areas, such as stochastic environments or interactions with other environmental drivers such as temperature. We argue that only by considering a range of short- and long-lived species and by taking more realistic approaches can the impacts of CR on longevity be examined and validated in natural settings. We conclude by proposing experimental designs and study species that will allow the discipline to gain a much-needed understanding of how restricting caloric intake affects long-lived species in realistic settings. Through incorporating more experimental realism, we anticipate crucial insights that will ultimately shape the myriad of socio-bio-economic impacts of senescence in humans and other species across the Tree of Life.

Keywords

life history; longevity; senescence; stochastic environments

Subject

BIOLOGY, Ecology

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 26 July 2022
Commenter: Jacques Deere
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: An extended literature review was conducted and an additional figure was included in the manuscript to reflect a new finding
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